• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Columbus and his voyages
 Early explorers
 Landing of the pilgrims
 Settlements by the Dutch
 The old dominion
 The Massachusetts Bay colony
 The Virginia colony
 The end of the Dutch rule
 Peril and hardship
 The settlement of Pennsylvania
 A Jesuit missionary
 The French and Indian War
 The English victorious
 Liberty or death
 The Boston Tea Party
 First blood
 Hard times
 Crossing the Delaware
 Valley Forge
 Treason
 Victory at last
 From Washington to Lincoln
 The Civil War
 Unconditional surrender
 The Monitor and the Merrimac
 Sinking the Alabama
 The march to the sea
 From Lincoln to McKinley
 The destruction of the Maine
 The Hawaiian Islands
 The American-Spanish War
 Constitution of the United...
 Presidents of the United State...
 Back Cover






Group Title: Child's history of the United States for little men and women : a thrilling account of the progress of our country told in the simple language of childhood
Title: Child's history of the United States for little men and women
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087362/00001
 Material Information
Title: Child's history of the United States for little men and women a thrilling account of the progress of our country told in a simple language of childhood ; the most interesting events in American history described in words of one syllable
Physical Description: 290 p. : ill. (some col.), plates, ports. ; 26 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hanson, John Wesley
W.B. Conkey Company
Publisher: W.B. Conkey Company
Place of Publication: Chicago
Publication Date: c1898
 Subjects
Subject: Discoveries in geography -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Indians of North America -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Voyages and travels -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Adventure and adventurers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
War -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Admirals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Battles -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Soldiers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Battleships -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Presidents -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Courage -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Leadership -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- United States -- Civil War, 1861-1865   ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature -- 1898   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1898
Genre: Juvenile literature   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Illinois -- Chicago
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by John Wesley Hanson, Jr. ; profusely illustrated.
General Note: Pictorial cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087362
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002223633
notis - ALG3884
oclc - 262615904

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Page 1
    Frontispiece
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
    List of Illustrations
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Columbus and his voyages
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Early explorers
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Landing of the pilgrims
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Settlements by the Dutch
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
    The old dominion
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    The Massachusetts Bay colony
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    The Virginia colony
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    The end of the Dutch rule
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 66a
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Peril and hardship
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    The settlement of Pennsylvania
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    A Jesuit missionary
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    The French and Indian War
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
    The English victorious
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
    Liberty or death
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
    The Boston Tea Party
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
    First blood
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
    Hard times
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
    Crossing the Delaware
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
    Valley Forge
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 146a
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
    Treason
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
    Victory at last
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
    From Washington to Lincoln
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
    The Civil War
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
    Unconditional surrender
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
    The Monitor and the Merrimac
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 210a
        Page 211
        Page 212
    Sinking the Alabama
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
    The march to the sea
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
    From Lincoln to McKinley
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
    The destruction of the Maine
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
    The Hawaiian Islands
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
    The American-Spanish War
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
    Constitution of the United States
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
    Presidents of the United States
        Page 290
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text























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WASHINGTON CROSSING THE DELAWARE.








G1ild's tlst0orul 01 te United States
FOR


Little Men and Women


A Thrilling Account of the Progress of Our Country
told in the Simple Language of Childhood



THE MOST INTERESTING EVENTS IN AMERICAN HISTORY
DESCRIBED IN WORDS OF ONE SYLLABLE


By JOHN WESLEY HANSON, Jr.


PROFUSELY ILLUSTRATED

CHICAGO
W. B. CONKEY COMPANY.
PUBLISHERS.








































Copyright 1896, by W. B. Conkey Company
















CONTENTS.


Chapter I,
Chapter II.
Chapter III.
Chapter IV.
Chapter V.
Chapter VI.
Chapter VII.
Chapter VIII.
Chapter IX.
Chapter X.
Chapter XI.
Chapter XII.
Chapter XIII.
Chapter XIV.
Chapter XV.
Chapter XVI.
Chapter XVII.
Chapter XVIII.
Chapter XIX.
Chapter XX.
Chapter XXI.
Chapter XXII.
Chapter XXIII.
Chapter XXIV.
Chapter XXV.
Chapter XXVI.


Columbus and His Voyages
Early Explorers.
Landing of the Pilgrims.
Settlements by the Dutch.
The Old Dominion.
The Massachusetts Bay Colony
The Virginia Colony.
The End of the Dutch Rule.
Peril and Hardship.
The Settlement of Pennsylvania
Discoveries in the Northwest.
The French and Indian War.
The English Victorious.
Liberty or Death.
The Boston Tea Party.
First Blood.
Hard Times.
Crossing the Delaware.
Valley Forge.
Treason.
Victory at last.
From Washington to Lincoln.
The Civil War.
Unconditional Surrender.
The Monitor and the Merrimac.
Sinking the Alabama.








CONTENTS-Continued.


Chapter XXVII.
Chapter XXVIII.
Chapter XXIX.
Chapter XXX.
Chapter XXXI.


The March to the Sea.
From Lincoln to McKinley.
The Destruction of the Maine.
The Hawaiian Islands.
The American-Spanish War.


APPENDIX.

Constitution of the United States.
Presidents of the United States.










ILLUSTRATIONS.

Page.
Washington Crossing the Delaware............... (Colored Frontispiece.)
President McKinley ...................................... .... ..... 1o
Columbus and his Son Begging .................................... 12
Teaching a Young Indian How to Shoot.............................13
Isabella and Columbus .......................... ..................14
The Three Caravels............................................. 15
Columbus Frightening the Indians into Lending him Assistance ....... 16
De Soto on the March ............................... ............. ... 18
Sebastian Cabot at Labrador....................................... 20
Burial of De Soto ...................................................21
Old Stone Mill at Newport ..........................................23
An Indian Camp .................................................. 25
Meeting Between De Soto and the Indian Chieftainess.................26
A Puritan Soldier................................................. 28
Trading with Indians ...................................................30
Dutchmen at an Inn .................................... ...... ..... 32
Going to Church ................................................... 33
Peter Stuyvesant Defiant ........................................... 34
Queen Elizabeth .................................................... 36
First "Wash Day" of Pilgrim Mothers ..............................38
Arrival of Sir W alter Raleigh ....................................... 40
Charles II. of England ............................................ 42
Captain John Smith .............................................. 44
Are the Indians Coming? ..........................................46
Forefathers' Rock ................................................ 47
Mary Dyer Going to Execution ................ ... ............ ....48
"The Children Soon Learned to Love Squanto" .......................50
A Puritan Girl ................................................... 51
A Friendly Indian ........... .......................................52
The Pipe of Peace ............................................... 54
Little Puritans ..................................................... 56
The Charter Oak .................................................. 58
Attacking the Block House......................................... 60
A Patroon's Manor House......................................... 62
Puritans Building Homes ........................ ................ 63
Stuyvesant at the Gun ............................................. 64
King Philip ................................................ ........ 66
Philip's Monument ............................................. 67
On the Hudson ............................................. ...... 68
Death of Montgomery ........ ........................... ..........70
A Farmer's Hut in Winter .......................................... 72
Unexplored Regions ............................................... 74
Scouts ......... ....... .......... .. ..... ......... ................76
George Washington in his Youth................................... 78
On the W ar Path .................... .. .............................80
Penn and Walker Lost ................................... .......82
Pontiac ...................................... ....................84
William Penn's House at Rickmansworth, England................... 85
A Jesuit Missionary.............................................. 86










ILLUSTRATIONS--Continued.
Page.
An Old Trapper ................................................ 88
French Traders .................................................... 89
An Indian Attack. ............... .............................. 90
Incident of the French and Indian War ............................. 92
Into the Wilderness ...................... ............. .............94
Quebec ........................................................... 95
A British Sentry. .......................... ...... .................. 96
Indian Troops ................. .................................... 98
Braddock's Defeat ................................................99
Ruins of Fort Ticonderoga................ ... .................... oo
Scene of the Tea Plot ............................................. o2
Bunker Hill Monument ............................ .. ..... ...... .. 104
Addressing the People .............................. ............... o6
Colonial Days ................... ..... ........ ...................... o8
Young Patriots ................................. ................11. o
House in Which the Declaration of Independence Was Signed ......... 12
Marquis De Lafayette .................................. .........114
General Putnam ............................................ ... .. 116
A Hand to Hand Fight ................................... .....8.. 8
Indians Playing Ball on the Ice .....................................120
Crying the Stamps.................. ................... ........122
The Call to Arms ............... ... .... .... ............ .... ...124
Burning the Stamps ............................................1 i26
The Young Minute Man ....... ...... ............ ..... .. .... ....... 28
Independence Hall ...................... .. ... .................... 130
Battle of Harlem Heights. .............. ........................... 132
Signing the Declaration of Independence ............................. 134
George Washington............................................. 136
Recruiting ........ ........ ................................... 138
King George III ............................................... 140
Escape of Benedi4 t Arnold ............................... ....... .. .142
Sir Robert Peel .................................................144
The Retreat...................................................... 146
The Washington. Elm .........................................1. 48
Inauguration of Washington........................................... 5
Old Beacon Hill, Boston...........................................152
W inter Sports .......... ... .. ... .............................. 154
A District School ............................................... 156
Peaceful Days ................................. ................. 158
The Surrender .................. .... ......................... 16o
Capture of Andre ............ ................................. 62
The Patriot Army .......... ................................. 64
Burning of the Gaspee ................... .................... 66
''he Spirit of '76 ................................. .............. 68
Listening for the Guns ........................................17...
Benjamin Franklin................................................ 72
The White House............................. .. ............ 173
John Adams ....... .................... ................ ... ........ 74
Thomas Jefferson .............................. ................ 76
On the Canal ................ ................................. 178
A New England Jumper ....................................... .. 179









ILLUSTRATIONS-Continued.
Page.
Abraham Lincoln..................... ...... ........................ 80
James Madison ............................................ ... 182
James Monroe..................................... ..............84
The Gun at Work.................................................... 186
John Quincy Adams ............... .............................. 88
Federal Iron Clad River Gun Boat .................................190
Andrew Jackson .................... .. .. ... .. ......... .. ..... .... 192
Bombardment of Fort Sumter by the Union Fleet................... 194
The "Merrimac" Sinking the "Cumberland ........................ 196
Martin Van Buren ...................... ....... ............. ... .. 198
Monitor and Merrimac ..................... .... ............ ..... 200
W illiam H. Harrison........................ .... ........... ....... 202
Lieutenant Cushing's Attack on the Albemarle........................ 204
John Tyler ......................................................... 206
James Knox Polk ................................................208
Zachary Taylor ................................................. 210
Early Home of Abraham Lincoln ...................................212
Millard Fillmore......................................... .......... 214
Franklin Pierce ................ ..................... .............216
Admiral Farragut............ ................................... ... 218
James Buchanan ..................................................220
General W. T. Sherman.............................. .,...........222
A Railroad Battery .... ...........................................225
Andrew Johnson .... ........................................... .226
U. S. Grant ....................................... ... ........ ...... 228
Rutherford B. Hayes................................. ............. 230
James A. Garfield........... .. ............................ .. 232
Chester A. Arthur .............................................. 234
Grover Cleveland ................................... ... ......... 236
Benjamin Harrison ............................................238
President McKinley and Cabinet...................................240
Navy Officers.....................................................242
Army Officers ...................................................244
Rear Admiral Dewey ................. ............................ 246
Rear Admiral William T. Sampson..................... ............248
Rear Admiral Winfield Scott Schley ................................250
Battleship Maine................ ..................... ............ 252
Protected Cruiser Olympia.......................................... 252
Battleship Oregon .................................. ............ 254
Armored Cruiser New York ...................................... 254
Battleship Iowa......... ............................................. 256
Protected Cruiser Boston ................................ .........256
Battleship Indiana .................................... ............. 258
Armored Cruiser Brooklyn ........................................258
General Maximo Gomez ......................................... 260
Admiral Dewey's Victory at Manila .................................... 262
The Fighting Line at Santiago .................................... 264
The Destruction of Admiral Cervera's Fleet ......................... 266
Cuban Soldiers going to the Front ..................................268
A Wounded Volunteer .............................................268

























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HON. WILLIAM McKINLEY.














CHILD'S HISTORY OF THE

UNITED STATES.

FOR LITTLE MEN AND WOMEN




CHAPTER I.

COLUMBUS AND HIS VOYAGES.

In the year 1435 a son-was born to an Italian wool-carder by the name of
Co-lum-bus. The boy was called Chris-to-pher and grew to be a fine, handsome
lad. He was kind and obedient to his father, but like many boys he longed
to become a sailor. But he loved books almost as well as he loved the sea, and
so he spent his leisure moments in study. It was probably from reading the
works of old scholars that he conceived the idea that the world was round.
So it seemed natural that if it was a sphere it would be possible by sailing
westward to reach the rich countries of In-di-a, Tar-ta-ry and Cath-ay.
Co-lum-bus became so interested that he could think of nothing else but
the wonderful discoveries that would result if his plan could only be carried out.
But who could he get to help him? He went from one city to another seeking
aid from the great nobles. He even went to the King of Por-tu-gal and pic-
tured to him the wealth he would gain by furnishing ships for the dis-
covery of these far-away lands. But the King and every one else only laughed
at him.
In the midst of these disappointments the wife of Co-lum-bus died. For a
year he and his boy, Di-e-go, wandered about the country hungry, destitute
and almost starving, but he endured his troubles with patience, believing the
time would come when he would realize the one dream of his life. It so hap































































COLUMBUS AND HIS SON BEGGING.











COLUMBUS AND HIS VOYAGES


opened that one day he sought shelter in the Fran-cis-can Con-vent of San-ta
Ma-ri-a de la Ra-bi-da. He told the prior of hisplan and through the influence
of the worthy priest he was enabled to obtain an audience with the King of
Spain. But it was five years before King Fer-di-nand would listen and then he
refused to place any confidence in his scheme. Unable to endure any longer the
ridicule of the courtiers who made fun of his visionary ideas, he left the court



y =" ( '


TEACH-ING A YOUNG IN-DIAN HOW TO SHOOT.


in rage and resolved to go to France. Queen Is-a-bel-la however sent a
messenger after Co-lum-bus and he was induced to return.
The Queen offered to fit out an expedition at her own expense, and in a
short time Co-lum-bus was ready to start out on his voyage into the unknown.
Before departing he secured from Fer-di-nand and Is-a-bel-la an agreement























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COLUMBUS AND HIS VOYAGES,


by which he was to receive one-eighth of the profits of the voyage and also
by which he was made High-Ad-mi-ral and Vice-roy of the lands he might
discover. On the third day of August, 1492, he set sail with three ships,
the San-ta Ma-ri-a, the Pin-ta, and the Ni-na. The voyage was long and
tedious and the sailors grew discontented, and at length plotted to throw
Co-lum-bus overboard. He quieted them by saying that he would turn back
if they did not discover land within three days. Fortunately on the morning
of the third day land was seen and they sailed toward it. It was night when
they finally came to anchor, but early on the following morning Co-lum-bus
AL


THE THREE CARAVELS.
landed, magnificently dressed and attended by his officers and sailors all in
gay attire. This was the fourteenth day of October, 1492. The land that
Co-lum-bus discovered was probably the island of San Sal-va-dor. On the
following day he sailed farther on and visited Cu-ba, Hay-ti, and other islands
of the West In-dies.
When Co-lum-bus returned to Spain he was received with much honor
by the King and Queen. When he made his second voyage he had seventeen
vessels and fifteen hundred men. On this journey he discovered Ja-mai-ca













































:, COLUMBUIS FRIGHTENS THE INDIANS INTO LENDING HIM ASSISTANCE BY FORETELLING AN
ECLIPSE OF THE MOON-O-NE OF THEIR DEITIES








'COLUMBUS AND HIS VOYAGES. 17
and Por-to Ri-co and founded the colony of Hay-ti. In 1497 A-mer-i-go
Ves-puc-ci obtained ships and discovered the mainland of the new continent.
The same year, John Ca-bot, an English merchant, sailed to A-mer-i-ca and
landed upon the coast of Lab-ra-dor. In the following year, Se-bas-ti-an
Ca-bot sailed with two ships and three hundred men, and on a later voyage
discovered Hud-son's Bay.
In the meantime Co-lum-bus had reached the mainland of South
A-mer-i-ca, which he explored and then returned to the colony of Hay-ti.
Here he was arrested by Bob-a-dil-la, a Spanish commissioner, and carried on
board the ship in chains, which he insisted on wearing until he reached Spain.
The King and Queen were ashamed when they saw their faithful servant so
humiliated and ordered him to be released. Co-lum-bus asked to be permitted
to return to A-rer-i-ca and the request was granted. He landed at Hon-
du-ras and attempted to form a colony. Finally, two of his ships were lost,
his crew rebelled, and, broken in spirit, he returned to Spain, where he died
May 20th, 1506. History gives Co-lum-bus the credit of having discovered
A-mer-i-ca, although the first white man to, set foot on this continent was
probably Leif E-rik-son, a viking, who landed at Mar-tha's Vine-yard.











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DE SOTO ON THE MARCH.
















CHAPTER II.


EARLY EXPLORERS.

When Co-lum-bus made his second voyage there sailed with him a bra,.
and gallant gentleman, named Ponce de Le-on, who determined, when the op-
portunity came, to organize an expedition himself. Accordingly, in 1513, he
set sail with three ships. Now, strange to say, the ambition of De Le-on was
not to discover lands or gold. Like a great many persons he did not like the.
idea of growing old, and in some fable of the day he had read of the wonderful
fountain of youth, from which all who drank would remain forever young. He
became convinced that this fountain was in the New World. It was on Easter
Sunday when he first came in sight of land and in honor of the day, which the
Span-iards call "The Day of Flowers," he named the new land Flor-i-da. He
had many adventures and in an encounter with the Indians was wounded by
a poisoned arrow. He returned to Spain, where he died soon afterward.
About this time, Vas-co Nu-nez de Bal-bo-a crossed the isthmus which
divides North and South A-mer-i-ca and beheld the Pa-cif-ic O-cean, which he
named the South Sea and which he took possession of in the name of the King
of Spain. In the meantime, Cor-tez had discovered Mex-i-co and Yuc-a-tan.
In 1519 the King of Por-tu-gal fitted out some ships and placed Ma-gel-lan,
a noted sailor, in command. Ma-gel-lan passed the In-dies, and sailing south-
ward explored the coast of South A-mer-i-ca and named the great body of
water, which Bal-bo-a had called the South Sea ,the Pa-cif-ic O-cean.
Her-nan-do de So-to had been given the province of Flor-i-da by the
King of Spain, and on May 30th, 1537, he landed in Tam-pa Bay. De So-to
was very ambitious and cruel. His sole desire in coming to A-mer-i-ca was
to found a great empire. His followers were dressed in magnificent costumes
and glittering armor. This gorgeous procession traversed the lakes and ever-
glades of Flor-i-da, but the men were obliged to live on water cresses, shoots
of In-di-an corn and palmetto leaves. The Span-iards seemed to be actuated
by a desire to exterminate the In-di-ans. They killed the defenseless natives








EARLY EXPLORERS.


and destroyed their wigwams. On one occasion they were met by an In-di-an
princess who came to them bearing gifts, and who seemed anxious to be friends
with the whites. Moving gracefully forward to meet the stern Span-ish com-
mander, she placed around his neck a string of pearls. But her friendliness was
not appreciated, for she was taken prisoner and her people used as slaves


SEBASTIAN CABOT AT LABRADOR.
De So-to continued his search for gold and robbing the In-di-ans of what
treasures they possessed. He explored the Mis-sis-sip-pi River and then travel-
ed westward almost to the Rock-y Mount-ains. Upon his return he was taken
sick, while in the swamps of the Mis-sis-sip-pi, and there died. His body was
placed in a hollow log and buried at night in the great river. Long afterwards











22 EARLY EXPLORERS.

the remainder of his brilliant band of followers reached the Span-ish settlement
on the Gulf of Mex-i-co.
In the meantime wonderful stories had come to Mex-i-co of stately cities,
withsilverand gold in rich profusion, on the coast of Cal-i-for-ni-a. An expedi-
tion was sent out, and although they found well-built cities, they discovered
but little silver or gold. A short time afterwards, Sir Fran-cis Drake, a famous
Eng-lish voyager, landed upon this coast, but the wonderful wealth of Cal-i-
for-ni a remained practically unknown until two centuries later
The discoveries of the Eng-lish and Span-ish voyagers naturally attracted
the attention of the French. Early in the sixteenth century this nation sent
out Ver-az-za-no, who reached the shore of North Car-o-li-na where he
landed and treated with the In-di-ans and then returned home. Ver-az-za-no
was the first one to give an accurate description of the new continent. Some
years later France sent out Jac-ques Car-ti-er, who landed in New Found-land
but in 1535 he returned and sailed up the St. Law-rence River. The In-di-ans
received them kindly, but the French gave a poor return for their hospitality.
When he was about to return he seized a friendly chief and nine other In-di-ans
and carried them to France. It is said that these unfortunate natives died of
brokenhearts. TheFrenchbuilt two forts in 1540 when they returned to found
their colony, one at the mouth of the St. Law-rence, the other at the mouth
of the St. Croix.
At the time of the persecution of the Prot-es-tants in France many of
them fled to Hol-land, but later made up their mind to find shelter in the
New World. These people were called Hu-gue-nots and they founded a
colony at Port Roy-al, Ma-ry-land, which was commanded by Lau-don-ri-ere,
but John Ri-bault sailed with supplies and provisions. When the King of
Spain heard that the French had started a colony he sent one of his famous
generals, Me-nen-dez, against them, who landed in Flor-i-da and founded the
city of St. Au-gus-tine.
While Ri-bault was at sea his fleet became disabled by a storm and he
was wrecked on the coast. In the meantime, Me-nen-dez made up his mind
that Ri-bault had not arrived at Port Roy-al, so marching overland he
surprised the French at the fort and massacred nearly every one of the
inhabitants. A few endeavored to make their escape, but were captured and
hanged. Over these Me-nen-dez put an inscription, which read: "I do not
this to Frenchmen, but to heretics," Ri-bault and many of his companions
































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EARLY EXPLORERS.


surrendered afterwards to Me-nen-dez and they were inhumanly killed. A few
preferred to take their chances with In-di-ans and wild beasts rather than with
the Span-iards, and so went south. About three years afterwards the French
sent over an expedition under the command of De Gour-gues, who attacked
the Span-iards and massacred nearly every one of them. The fugitives were
captured and hung, and, following the example of Me-nen-dez, he put over
them the following inscription: "I do not this as unto Span-iards, but as unto
traitors, robbers, and murderers."
The Hu-gue-nots, who escaped these terrible massacres, fled to Eng-land
and the stories they told of the wonderful country from which they had come
induced Eng-lish navigators to make an attempt to secure the land. They
had frequently attempted to discover the northwest passage, which Cab-ot had
failed to find, and in 1578 Sir Fran-cis Drake sailed up the Pa-ci-fic coast as far
as Wash-ing-ton territory.
It was in 1576 that Mar-tin Fro-bish-er left Eng-land bent on making im-
portant discoveries. His first voyage did not amount to much, for about the
only things he brought back were a few black stones, which he gave to his
wvife as keepsakes. She threw them in the fire, but they turned out to be gold.
Of course Fro-bish-er at once made up his mind that he only had to return in
order to find great wealth. He set sail with fifteen ships, which returned
filled with ore, but, unfortunately, there was no gold in the ore, so their jour-
ney was a failure.
In 1583 Sir Humph-rey Gil-bert, a brave and gallant gentleman, with a
fleet of five ships and a company of two hundred and sixty men, left Eng-land.
He settled near the mouth of the St. John's River, in New Found-land, and
attempted to form a colony. But discouraged at the failure to find wealth many
of Sir Humph-rey's men deserted, and some of them conspired to seize the ves-
sels. Finally, Sir Humph-rey was obliged to return to Eng-land, but on his
way the vessel foundered and all on board were drowned.





























































AN IN-DIAN CAMP.




































































MEETING BETWEEN DF SOTO AND THE INDIAN CHIEFTAINESS.


~ -- 111















CHAPTER III.


LANDING OF THE PILGRIMS.

When James the First was King, there lived in various parts of Eng-land
a religious sect called the Pu-ri-tans. For years they had been persecuted be-
cause they refused to submit to the tyranny of the Established Church of Eng-
1-nd. Theypreferredasimplegospel and desired only to worship God according
to their own belief. The Pu-ri-tans were plain, sturdy people and unaccus-
tomed to luxuries. But they' had strong wills, and when they were unable any
longer to endure persecution, they fled to Hol-land.
Hearing of the New World, and believing that there they could find an
asylum, they sent two of their men to Eng-land to see if the King would give
them a grant of land. After some delay this was obtained, and on August 5th,
1620, two ships, the Speed-well and the May-flow-er set sail. The Speed-
well turned back, but the May-flow-er continued on her course. After a
stormy voyage they arrived at Cape Cod on the ninth day of November. Near-
ly a month was spent in looking for a spot where they might settle.
In the meantime they had drawn up articles of agreement in which they
bound themselves into a political body to enact laws for the good of the colony.
All the profits in trading, fishing and farming were to go, for a period of seven
years, into common stock. At the end of that time it was to be divided equally
among those who had contributed money to the enterprise.
The Captain of the May-flow-er was impatient to land his passengers and
return to Eng-land, so on the fifteenth day of December the May-flow-er
left her harbor at Cape Cod and anchored near Ply-mouth. But it was not until
the twenty-first of March that the entire company landed. The sufferings
of these people were terrible; there was little shelter and few provisions. When
spring came nearly one-half of the brave little band had perished. Miles
Stand-ish, the Captain, had lost his wife, as had many of the principal men
of the company. And, to add to their unfortunate condition, they lived in
constant fear of the In-di-ans. Truly, it was a perilous time.
S- 27 '









LANDING OP THE PILGRIMS.


You can imagine their surprise when one day in the spring an In-di-an
came walking into the settlement. But he made offers of friendship to the
white people and established good feeling between them and the In-di-an tribes
in that vicinity. This In-di-an's name was Sam-o-set, and he introduced them to
Mas-sas-o-it, the chief of that region. As the fear of an attack from the savages
wore away and the spring came on the settlers made trips of exploration,
even going as far as Boston harbor. In November a ship arrived from Eng-


A PURITAN SOLDIa
A PURITAN SOLDIER.


land, bringing a patent issued by the Ply-mouth Company and which legally
established the Pu-ri-tans.
The people were very religious, and Governor Brad-ford refused to allow
them to have any amusement except a little quiet enjoyment. The Nar-ra-gan-
sett In-di-ans once sent a bundle of arrows tied together with the skin of a rat-
tlesnake, which was really a declaration of war. Captain Miles Stand-ish filled
the skin full of bullets and sent it back, so the In-di-ans left them undisturbed.










LANDING OF THE PILGRIMS.


In 1622 several ruffians, who had in some way been sent to the colony, were
guilty of several cruel acts against the In-di-ans, who decided to attack the
colonists. But Mas-sas-o-it happened to be sick at this time, and two delegates
from the Ply-mouth Company were sent to nurse him and give him medicine.
The chief recovered and in return for this kindness told the settlers of the plot
to attack them. Stand-ish went with only eight men and succeeded in per-
suading the In-di-ans to give up their plans.
Meanwhile the colony prospered and the days were spent in work, every
one going to bed soon after sundown. These people were very strict in re-
gard to church duties, and every one was obliged to attend service on Sunday
unless they were sick. The sermon was usually three or four hours long, but
no one, not even a little child,, was allowed to go to sleep, but was prevented
from doing so by officers with long sticks, who sharply tapped any one who
nodded. The men were well drilled and carried heavy matchlock muskets,
which were fired by a slow match. No one was allowed to wear finery unless
they could well afford it. They were simple, industrious people.



























































































TRADING WITH INDIANS.


_ I

















CHAPTER IV.


SETTLEMENTS BY THE DUTCH.

On the fourth day of August, 1609, a Dutch ship under the command of
Hen-ry Hud-son, an Englishman, came to anchor in the bay of New York
Hud-son had been sent out by the East In-di-a Com-pa-ny to discover a north
west passage to Chi-na. But storms forced him to change his course and or
July I8th he anchored in Pe-nob-scot Bay. Then turning southward he con-
tinued on his way until he reached Ches-a-peake Bay. Turning northward
again he sailed along the coast until he reached a beautiful harbor. Before him
lay the wooded shores of New York and like a broad silver band the noble
river that was to bear his-name threaded its way among the High-lands.
Realizing that rich and fertile lands lay beyond, he resolved to explore
this beautiful stream.
The In-di-ans came in great crowds, bringing corn and tobacco as gifts.
Hud-son realized that the best policy was to make friends with the natives, who
were willing to trade rich furs in exchange for glass beads and glittering trink-
ets. At length it was impossible to go farther up the river and Hud-son decided
to send a part of his crew in small boats. These went as far as the present site
of Albany. Before Hud-son left he gave a grand banquet to the In-di-an chiefs
who had befriended him and with whom he had traded. So when it came
time for him to go the In-di-ans were sorry to lose their white friend.
Unfortunately, however, they were unable to leave a good impression be-
hind them, for the cruel murder of two In-dioans brought on a fight and Hud-
son set sail for Hol-land. He stopped at Dart-mouth Harbor in Eng-land and
afterwards entered the service of the Eng-lish government. In 16io he made
his last voyage to the northwest when he reached Hud-son's Bay. Here his
crew mutinied and he and several of his companions were deserted and left to
perish.







SETTLEMENTS BY THE DUTCH,


The discoveries of Hud-son did not attract much attention in Hol-land,
but its merchants saw an opportunity to make money by trading with the In-
di-ans. A few buildings were erected on Man-hat-tan Island as a station for
their wares. It was not long, however, before others followed their example
and the merchants who had opened the trade, in order to protect their inter-
ests, obtained a Charter and the name of New Neth-er-lands was given to -the
territory. In 1621 the West In-dia Company secured a charter which gave it


DUTCHjIEN AT AN 1NN.

the power to appoint all the officers in the Dutch territory in A-mer-i-ca and to
make the laws. In 1623, the first ship with settlers sailed from Hol-land. They
settled onthepresentsite of Al-ba-ny, and at once began the erection of houses!
a few settled at Fort Or-ange, some went north of the Con-nee-4-cut River,
while others went to the western end of Long Island. A brisk trade sprang
up and the settlers began to prosper. The Eng-lish objected to the Dutch set-








SETTLEMENTS BY THE DUTCH.


dements and claimed that they gave nothing in return for the products they
took to Hol-land. Pe-ter Min-u-et, the Governor, attempted to make friends
with the Eng-lish, buJ without avail.
New Jer-sey was settled by the Swedes in 1637 by a company called the
Swe-den West In-dia Company. Pe-ter Min-u-et, who had been discharged
from his post as Governor, was put in charge of the expedition. As soon as he
arrived he bought of the In-di-ans all the land on the west side of South River
from Cape Hen-lo-pen to where Trent-on now stands. The Dutch did not


GOING TO CHURCH.


like this and told Min-u-et that he was an intruder. But the Swedes made up
their minds to remain and began to build houses and till the soil. In the
meantime, more settlers came from Swe-den, and, as they were all industrious
people, the settlement prospered rapidly. Governor Min-u-et died and a
Swede named Hol-le-an-dare became Governor. Finally a number of New
Eng-land colonists came into this territory. Wil-liam the Testy, Governor



















































PETER STUYVIESANT DUPI ANT.









SETTLEMENTS BY THE DUTCH.


of the Dutch, objected to this intrusion, and the Swedes joined with them and
together they forced the Englishmen to return to their homes.
When Pe-ter Stuy-ve-sant became Governor he resolved to put an end
to Swe-dish rule and accordingly made preparations for attacking them. With
a fleet of seven vessels and over six hundred men he attacked them. But as
there were only about three hundred Swedes in the whole country they sur-
rendered at once. Stuy-ve-sant appointed Jo-hans Paul Ja-quet Governor of
the territory.
Pe-ter Stuy-ve-sant, the Governor of New Neth-er-lands, was a very
peculiar man. He had been a very brave soldier and in one of his numerous
battles he had lost a leg, but in its place wore a wooden one bound with silver.
Hewasavery tyrannical man, but ruled the country with firmness and wisdom.
He imposed heavy taxes upon the people and would not be dictated to by any-
one. Although he was assisted in the affairs of the colony by a board of nine
men, they could make no laws and give no orders without his approval. Gov-
ernor Stuy-ve-sant believed it was policy to keep on good terms with the
Eng-lish and objected to his people selling the In-di-ans arms and ammuni-
tion. This was the cause of frequent quarrels between him and the lords of
the different provinces, who were called patrons. One of the wealthiest
patrons of New Neth-er-lands was Van Rens-se-laer, who owned a vast ex-
tent of territory and who proposed to control his own lands. When Gover-
nor Stuy-ve-sant attempted to take stone and timber from the patroon's land,
for the purpose of building a fort, the latter objected and drove the Gover-
nor's men off by force. Some of the quarrels of those early Dutch settlers are
very amusing. 'But they prospered and were happy.






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CHAPTER V.


THE OLD DOMINION.

The reign of Queen E-liz-a-beth was one of the most illustrious in Eng-
lish history. Among the many distinguished gentlemen that formed her court
no one was more graceful and gallant than Sir Wal-ter Ra-leigh, the half-
brother of Sir Humph-rey Gil-bert. His introduction to the notice of Queen
E-liz-a-beth was brought about in a very strange manner. Attended by a
magnificent retinue, she was walking through the gardens of her palace when
she came upon a muddy place in the path. She stopped and hesitated when
Sir Wal-ler Ra-leigh, taking off his cloak spread it upon the ground and the
great Queen passed over without soiling her dainty shoes. This act of gal-
lantry attracted her' attention and with a gracious nod to Sir Walter she
passed on.
But Ra-leigh was ambitious, as well as polite, and he resolved that the
Queen should not forget him if he could help it. A short time after this
encounter, Sir Wal-ter happened one day to observe the Queen coming toward
him, as he stood at one of the windows of the palace. Taking the diamond ring
from his finger he wrote upon the glass:
"Fain would I, climb, but that I fear to fall."
He then left the palace. On the following day he returned to the same
place and found that the Queen had written underneath:
"If thy heart fail thee, do not climb at all."
Encouraged by this gentle hint, Sir Wal-ter sought the Queen's favor
and in time became one of her most trusted counsellors.
He was eager that Eng-land should obtain a foot-hold in the New
World and he sent a great many ships to A-mer-i-ca at his own expense.
Finally he attempted to form a colony which he had named Vir-gin-ia in honor
of Queen E-liz-a-beth. This project was a failure. It is supposed the un-
fortunate people were all killed by the In-di-ans. Sir Wal-ter Ra-leigh, himself
was finally accused of treason by his enemies at the court and beheaded.









THE OLD DOMINION.


When James I. came to the throne he made up his mind to establish a
colony. He formed two companies, the Lon-don Com-pa-ny and the Ply-
mouth Com-pa-ny, but it remained for the former to make the first permanent
settlement. In this company there were one hundred and five men but no
women. On the seventh day of April, 1607, they sailed into Ches-a-peake Bay.
They selected a place for the colony which they named James-town in honor


FIRST "WASH DAY" OF PILGRIM MOTHERS.


of the king. One of the principal men in the colony was John Smith, who
endeavored to make friends with the In-di-ans and work for the good of the
settlement. Upon one of his journeys he was taken prisoner and conducted
to the chief of the tribe. He knew that his life depended upon his coolness and
skill. Finally he was taken before the great king, Pow-ha-tan, who received
him with great ceremony, but to Smith's surprise he was dragged to a great
stone and where stood several In-di-an braves ready to beat out his brains
with their enormous war-clubs. Suddenly Po-ca-hon-tas rushed to his rescue
and threw herself upon his body. Pow-ha-tan was so touched by his daugh-
ter's act that he at once pardoned Smith.









THE OLD DOMINION.


Po-ca-hon-tas afterwards became a very fine lady. She was baptized
and christened La-dy Re-bec-ca and married John Rolfe, an Eng-lish gentle-
man, who took her to his own country and presented her to the Queen.
When about to return to A-mer-i-ca she was taken sick and died.
The colonists endured a great deal of suffering and in a short time had
been reduced to about forty persons, but men and provisions were sent from
Eng-land and finally two women came, Mrs. For-rest and her maid, Ann Bur-
ras. But the people were too lazy to work and would neither hunt, fish, nor till
the soil, and gradually the colony began to fail. In 1609 a fleet of nine ships,
carrying five hundred people, left Eng-land. Seven of the ships reached the
settlement, one of them foundered at sea, and another was wrecked off the
Ber-mu-das, and the passengers and crew spent the winter on the island. The
following year they rejoined their friends in Vir-gin-ia.
They found the people in an almost starving condition. Sir Thom-as
Gates made up his mind to return to England, but they heard that Lord de la
Ware was coming with men and provisions. Upon his arrival he traded
with the In-di-ans, built two forts, but in a year, owing to sickness, he was
obliged to return to Eng-land. Shortly afterwards Sir Thorn-as Gates, who
in the meantime had gone to Eng-land, arrived with men and provisions.
Sir Thom-as decided that the success of the colony depended upon making
each man look out for himself. So he refused to allow them to live upon
the provisions that had been brought, and declared they must make their
own living or starve. In the meantime, laws were made and enforced,
which had a good effect. The colonists raised corn and tobacco, more men
came over from Eng-land and the colony prosperetl.
In 1619 a Dutch ship brought a cargo of negroes and introduced
slavery into A-mer-i-ca. Cap-tain Ar-gall, who was Gov-ern-or for a short
time, destroyed a colony of the French at Port Roy-al in the Bay of Fun-dy,
which was the beginning of the difficulties between the French and Eng-lish.
Lord de la Ware was appointed Gov-ern-or of the colony in place of
Ar-gall, but he died on his way to A-mer-i-ca. Then Sir George Yeard-ley
was put in charge, and by giving the colonists self-government, the settle-
ment began to improve. On July 3oth, the first legislative assembly met in
this country. It had twenty-two representatives, a governor, and a council.
Finally one hundred Eng-lish maidens offered to come to the colony as
wives for the young men. Within a year over one thousand persons had
arrived.































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ARRIVAL OF SIR WALTER RALEIGH.


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THE OLD DOMINION. 41

On the twenty-second of March, 1692, James-town was attacked by the
In-di-ans and a large number of people were killed. But the settlers soon
recovered from this calamity and revenged themselves upon the In-di-ans
with great severity. Finally the king decided to send a royal governor, Sir
John Har-vey, who should administer such laws as were enacted by the Eng-
lish Gov-ern-ment.
In the meantime, Lord Bal-ti-more had visited the Vir-gin-ia colony
and afterwards Ches-a-peake Bay. Upon his return to Eng-land he asked
the king for a grant of land in this locality, but before the patent was
signed, Lord Bal-ti-more died. His son, however, carried out his plans and
named the country Ma-ry-land.
At the time this colony was formed the Cath-o-lics were greatly perse-
cuted in Eng-land and, as Lord Bal-ti-more was a member of that faith, he
resolved that Ma-ry-land should be a refuge for them. In dealing with the
In-di-ans they endeavored to treat them kindly, and in return the natives
taught them how to plant and hunt and a great many other things which were
of great benefit to the colonists. The Vir-gin-ians had lost their royal char-
ter, and knowing that Ma-ry-land had been founded with the authority of the
king, they became jealous of their Cath-o-lic neighbors. So they sent a
protest to Eng-land against the settlement of Ma-ry-land, but all the answer
they received was that they must be friendly to the Ma-ry-land colonists.
Meanwhile the colony had grown, brick houses were built, large grants
of land were made, and flour mills and other industries were started.' In
fact, Ma-ry-land put the other colonists to shame. When the revolution
against the king came in England, it created some disturbance in this colony.
The Prot-es-tants who had settled there were in favor of the Par-lia-ment,
while the Cath-o-lics were for the king. Wil-liam Clay-borne, Sec-re-tary of
the Vir-gin-ia Council, endeavored to stir up discord between the Prot-es-
tants and the Cath-o-lics, and for a time there was trouble, but finally the
people saw that they were more prosperous under the government of Leon-
ard Cal-vert, Lord Bal-ti-more's brother, so they drove out Clay-borne
and Ma-ry-land returned to its former condition of peace and prosperity.































































CHARLES II. OF ENGLAND.

















CHAPTER VI.


THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY.

In the month of June, 1629, six vessels containing four hundred and
six men, women, and children, one hundred and forty head of cattle, forty
goats and a large quantity of provisions, arms and various kinds of implements,
left Eng-land and arrived at Sa-lem, Mas-sa-chu-setts. They were Pur-i-tans
who had protested against the Church of Eng-land and who desired to worship.
God after their own custom. They had left Eng-land under the royal patent
of the Mas-sa-chu-setts Bay Com-pa-ny. The Gov-ern-or of the colony was
John Endicott, a very strict man, and he started out to form an independent
colony. He did not think it right the settlers should be governed by an Eng-
lish council or by a corrupt court, so the colonists asked for a change of gov-
ernment and were given permission to make their own laws. John Win-throp
was made gov-ern-or with sy men as council. At the time of his election he
was in Eng-land but he sailed at once and arrived at the colony where he
found the people in a very unfortunate condition. But in a short time over one
thousand pcirons arrived and villages began to spring up along the coast.
On Bos-ton Com-mon they found a spring of water and a settlement was made
which was the beginning of that great city.
The people were not accustomed to the New Eng-land climate and there
was consequently a great deal of sickness. So many died that a day was set
apart for fasting and prayer. As if in answer to their appeal a ship appeared
with provisions and drugs which the people sadly needed. On this vessel came
a young man by the name of Ro-ger Wil-liams. He was a very well educated
person but very frank in expressing his opinion. He believed that the church
and state should be kept separate and openly declared that no magistrate had
any right to punish anyone for breaking the Sab-bath. He was chosen min-
ister of the Bos-ton church but En-di-cott would not allow him to preach, so
he was obliged to go to Ply-mouth. Although he had many followers, En-di-
48











































C'IA VC


CAPTAIN JOHN SMITH.


3
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THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY.


cott and others accused him of being a heretic and finally he fled to the woods
and lived with the In-di-ais.
Ca-non-i-cus, Chief of the Nar-ra-gan-setts, gave him a tract of land
but Wil-liams gave away the land in order that those who were persecuted like
himself, might find a refuge. So he called the land Prov-i-dence because he
believed that God had delivered him from his enemies. Finally others joined
Wil-liams in his colony and among these was Ann Hutch-in-son, a very re-
markable woman and one who did not believe in the strict religious laws of
En-di-cott. Finally the new colony obtained a charter under the name of
Rhode Is-land and Prov-i-dence Plan-ta-tion.
The Pur-i-tans and the In-di-ans did not agree very well, however, and
a tribe who inhabited Block Is-land murdered a prominent man by the name
of Old-ham. En-di-cott with about one hundred men sailed from Bos-ton to
Block Is-land and killed nearly all of their number. This made the other tribes
very angry and had it not been for Ro-ger Wil-liams the In-di-ans would have
joined together to fight the Pur-i-tans. Then the Pe-quot In-di-ans murdered
one of the settlers and ninety men under the command of Captain John Ma-son
with a body of Mo-he-gan In-di-ans attacked the Pe-quot villages and killed
over one thousand savages. Then the Nar-ra-gan-setts and Mo-he-gans united
and in five months this great tribe was destroyed.
It was the people dwelling in the Con-nec-ti-cut valley who suffered the
most from these In-di-an wars so it was important that they should band
themselves together. They adopted a constitution which recognized no power
save their own, in which all were free and equal and entitled to the same
rights. The laws were strict, almost too strict, but Con-nec-ti-cut became a
powerful and independent colony. In 1643 the.people of Mas-sa-chu-setts,
Ply-mouth, Con-nec-ti-cut and New Haven joined themselves together so that
in case of war they could defend themselves against their enemies. The name
of this Un-ion was the U-nit-ed Col-o-nies of New Eng-land. Strange as it
may seem although the Mas-sa-chu-setts Bay colonists had come to A-mer-i-ca
in order that they might be allowed to worship God after their own manner,
they insisted that every one else should obey their own religious laws. Those
who did not believe as they did, or showed any disposition to be independent
were persecuted and driven from among them. Among others, Sam-u-el Gor-
ton had dared to defend a servant who had accidentally smiled in church and
who on that account was declared a heretic. Besides, Gor-ton himself had re-












































'b



--~




ARE THE INDIANS COMING?


1

II








THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY.


ligious theories of his own and this in the eyes of the good people of the colony
was rank rebellion, so the poor man was expelled to finally found his way to
the settlement of Ro-ger Wil-liams. Here he bought land and made prepara-
tions to remain.


FORE-FATH-ERS' ROCK.


After a time trouble broke out between the followers of Gor-ton and his
neighbors which ended in a victory of the latter and Gor-ton and his friends
moved away in search of a new place. They settled about twelve miles south of
Prov-i-dence. Before leaving Gor-ton sent a letter to the magistrates at Bos-
ton which contained his religious belief. The magistrates declared the letter to















































MARY DYER GOING TO: EXECUTION.








THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY.


be blasphemous and Gor-ton and his followers were ordered to appear before
the court at Bos-ton, but they refused.
A band of soldiers and In-di-ans charged upon their village, their
houses were destroyed, their cattle were driven off, their wives and children
were forced to seek shelter in the woods. Gor-ton and his men were finally
forced to yield and were taken captives to Bos-ton. For a long time they
were kept in prison but many who had already heard their doctrine, openly
expressed themselves in their favor and Governor Win-throp finally set them
free. Finally they succeeded in getting an order from King Charles which
secured them the land oh which they had settled, and in 1644 a royal charter
was obtained by Ro-ger Wil-liams which covered the whole of the Prov-i-
dence Plan-ta-tion.
John Clark was, the pastor of the Baptist Church at New-port, Rhode
Is-land. The Baptists had also been exiled from Mas-sa-chu-setts but were
under the protection of Ro-ger Wil-liams. It so happened that Clark with two
other Baptist ministers named Holmes and Cran-dall went to visit one of
their faith who was old, sick and blind. They were arrested for daring to
preach their religion in Mas-sa-chu-setts. They were sentenced to be whipped
or pay a fine. Clark and Cran-dall were released on payment of a fine but
Holmes was given thirty strokes with a three corded whip. When the sheriff
had finished his task Holmes turned to him and said: "You have struck me as
with roses."
Inthe meantime another sect had incurred the displeasure of the Bos-
ton church-the Qua-kers. They were the followers of George Fox, a man
whose life was above reproach. The doctrine of the Qua-kers or Friends, as
they were sometimes called, was to be at peace with all the world, to put aside
earthly vanity, and to dress in plain garb of gray. They insisted upon in-
terrupting the preacher whenever they heard a remark that did not meet their
approval. They were opposed to war and bloodshed.
The first Qua-kers to arrive in BEi-stLin were Mary Fish-er and Ann
Aus-tin, who were imprisoned immediately upon their arrival. They were
searched and all of their books and tracts were taken from them. They were
examined for signs of witchcraft, but as no moles or freckles were found upon
them they were cleared of that charge, and sent back to the Bar-ba-does. An
old gentleman living in Bos-ton had given the jailer money to feed them while
they were confined and to punish him the judges ordered him arrested and










































































"THE CHILD-REN SOON LEARNED TOLOVE SQUAN-TO."


.:A ~n~' ~i
r2










THE MASSAC-HU{SETTS BAY COLONY. 61

thrown into jail. Upon his release he was exiled and the poor old man was
obliged to live with the In-di-ans. In the meantime eight other Qua-kers had
arrived from Lon-don and these were arrested but afterward were forced to
return. A law was afterwards passed which prohibited the master of any
ship from bringing Qua-kers to New England.


. A PURITAN GIRL.


It hardly seems possible that people who had left their own country
and braved the perils of a life in the new world and who were themselves of
strict and religious habits, should treat those who differed from them in re-
ligious belief with more cruelty than they had endured in the old world,












SR-~

L .': ,: 5e!
~:. -


N ,,"I l~ t1''l!


A FRIENDLY INDIAN.


P-11 .


~"1;B








THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY.


Law-rence and Cas-san-dra South-wick were banished from the colony and
their two children were left behind almost starving. Finally they were ordered
to be sold as slaves but no sea captain would take them away from Bos-ton,
sd they were allowed to remain.
A young girl named Ma-ry Dy-er was arrested and thrown into prison
for visiting some Qua-kers who were in jail. She was banished but returned
to Bos-ton again to visit the persecuted Friends and was 'sentenced to be
hung. Just as the executioner had put the noose around her neck her son
arrived with a reprieve. She was again banished and in a few months re-
turned to Bos-ton. In spite of the appeal of her husband and her friends
she was led to the Com-mon and hung there, as the judges said, for others
to take example by. Finally the king of Eng-land put a stop to these cruelties
and the persecutions ceased for awhile but they were revived later and men
and women were frequently tied to the end of a cart and whipped from town
to town. The king finally issued an order that all persons living in Mas-sa-
chu-setts and Con-nec-ti-cut should be allowed to worship God as they
pleased. :;.: :;,

























































THE PIPE OF PEACE.


















CHAPTER VII.


THE VIRGINIA COLONY.

Southern hospitality is famed the country over and Vir-gin-i-ans have a
law, which had been handed down to them from the early days, that a stranger
coming to a house is to be treated as a.guest. After King Charles I. had been
beheaded and Crom-well was ruler in his stead the followers of the king were
obliged to leave Eng-land, so they came to the new world and although their
clothes were ragged and their pockets were empty they still retained their
polite manners and lordly ways.
After Gov-er-nor Har-vey had been sent by the king to govern Vir-
gin-i-a the colonists of Mary-land and Vir-gin-i-a continued to quarrel with
each other. Gov-er-nor Har-vey was succeeded by Sir Fran-cis Wy-at and he
in time by Sir Wil-liam Berk-e-ley, who came to James-town in 1642. Under
his wise and kindly rule the colony prospered but the In-di-ans were ignored
and treated as savages. It was even declared that it was right to shoot an
In-di-an whenever he was seen. The In-di-ans failed to see the justice of
this law, and surprising the villages killed nearly five hundred colonists. The
Vir-gin-i-ans revenged the murder of their countrymen and the In-di-ans
were driven into the interior, many were killed or taken prisoners and their
chief was shot.
In the mean-time the colonists had seen that their prosperity depended
upon industry and in time they learned to raise tobacco, which was their chief
export, and hemp, flax and cotton. They learned how to make indigo and
bricks and every ship that left port took large cargoes of native products and
brought back Eng-lish goods in return.
Vir-gin-i-a had denounced the execution of Charles I. so Crom-well
sent a regiment of soldiers to demand the surrender of the Vir-gin-i-a colonies.
A government- was established and Wil-liam Clay-bourne and Rich-ard Ben-
nett were put in command. They were both very kind and their rule was

















'I.


7IT
'ma
I '.' *


Ac'~~


LITTLE PURITANS.









THE VIRGINIA COLONY.


gentle. Clay-bourne, however, did not forget his old troubles with Mary-land
and finally an order was issued which declared that Mary-land belonged to
Crom-well, so removing the Cath-o-lic officers a board of Pur-i-tan commis-
'sioners was put in control. There were frequent encounters between the
Mary-land-ers and the Vir-gin-i-ans and at length Cromwell sent a letter for-
bidding the Vir-gin-ians to interfere with the affairs of the Cath-o-lic settle-
ment. Lord Bal-ti-more was given permission to send a deputy governor
and finally the laws of Mary-land were ratified by the Eng-lish government.
But there still remained two political parties in Vir-gin-i-a.
After the death of Crom-well the power of the Pur-i-tans began to
reign and when "the king came to his own again" and Charles II. ascended
his throne again the royalist party of Vir-gin-i-a became the ruling power and
Sir Wil-liam Berk-e-ley was made governor. Gov-ern-or Berk-e-ley allowed
the Pur-i-tans to retain their offices and the colony of Vir-gin-i-a continued to
prosper.
Slaves were imported from Af-ri-ca and a law was made condemning
all children of mixed blood to remain slaves for life. 'The Church of Eng-land
became the established church of the colony and although the Pur-i-tans were
not persecuted they were not allowed to preach.
In 1670 there were 40,000 people living in Vir-gin-i-a; of these 40,000,
2,ooo were slaves and 6,000 were white servants apprenticed for a number
of years. The colony did not increase rapidly in population because many
unused to the climate died soon after their arrival, although every year about
2,000 white servants were brought over from Eng-land. The planters made
very little money owing to the fact that the price of tobacco had been re-
duced in Eng-land and the goods sent in exchange had been placed at ex-
orbitant prices. In 1673 the colony was given as a present by the king, to two
of his favorites, Lord Cul-pep-per and the Earl of Ar-ling-ton. In the mean-
time trouble with the In-di-ans broke out and a number of tribes united to
defend themselves against the whites. In Ma-ry-land and Vir-gin-i-a the plant-
ers lived in constant dead and finally formed an expedition to attack the In-
di-ans. The old story of the inhumanity of the whites towards the natives
was repeated and the In-di-ans resolved upon revenge. Many of the colonists
were killed upon their plantations and there was never a moment when any one
felt safe. Finally a young man named Na-than-i-el Ba-con, who owned a
plantation near Rich-mond and whose overseer had been slain by the In-di-ans,































































THE CHARTER OAK.








THE VIRGINIA COLONY.


resolved to put an end to these massacres. Governor Berk-e-ley, who did not
wish any war with the natives because he was afraid of injuring the trade,
ordered Ba-con, who had already set out on his expedition, to return. Ba-con
refused and in a short time he and his followers had exterminated one of the
principal tribes. Pleased with his success Ba-con marched to James-town at
the head of five hundred men, and demanded a commission to organize a
campaign against the In-di-ans. For a long time the governor was obstinate
but finally he consented.


After Ba-con had gone Berk-e-ley declared him to be a rebel and pro-
claimed him an outlaw. When Ba-con heard of this he promptly returned
only to find that the governor had fled. Ba-con at once organized a new
government, calling a convention for the revision of the laws. In the mean-
time Berk-e-ley had obtained possession of an armed fleet and as soon as the
royalists saw that he might be successful they joined his forces and James-
town was retaken. Ba-con assembled his army again and throwing up some














rI


* r


ATTACKING THE BLOCK HOUSE


. .

iL:ii


a__ .._zf __-..`f-









THE VIRGINIA COLONY.


breastworks near the city he awaited the attack of the governor. But the
attack never came and on the following morning when Ba-con entered James-
town he found it deserted. He made up his mind that the indolent and proud
followers of Berk-e-ley should have no excuse for returning so he ordered the
city to be burnt.
Ba-con admitted his warfare against the In-di-ans but soon afterward
died. When Berk-e-ley heard of this and no longer had anything to fear he
sent out an armed force which captured or killed most of Ba-con's friends.
But the seeds sown by Ba-con had already borne good fruit for he had taught
the people to resist oppression and stand up for their own rights. Berk-e-ley
was ordered to return to Eng-land, where he shortly afterward died.
When Charles II. was restored to his throne he gave to certain gentle-
men of his court that tract of land which included the present states of
North and South Car-o-li-na. These dashing cavaliers at once made prepa-
rations to found a model settlement. The constitution was prepared by John
Locke, the famous philosopher and statesman, Eight proprietors were to be
made Lords of the province; the eldest to be called the -Pal-a-tie. There
were to be seven other officers, namely: Admiral, chamberlain, chancellor,
constable, chief-justice, high steward and treasurer. All the rights of property
were hereditary in the male line. There were orders of hereditary called land-
iories and every seigniory barony and colony contained 12,ooo acres,
graves and cassiques. The domains of the proprietors were to be called seign-
while each colony contained four hundred and eighty thousand acres of which
three-fifths were to be owned by the people and two-fifths by the nobility. The
common people were prohibited from entering into the titled class, and the
highest dignity to which a man of the people might aspire was to become lord
of the manor. There were eight'supreme courts and a parliament which was
regulated by very elaborate laws. The amusements, the fashions, even the
marriages and funerals were systematically arranged.
It took Locke three years to prepare this system of government, and
in the mean-time two colonies had been established in Car-o-li-na. In 1664
Sir John Yea-mans brought over the first expedition, and as the territory be-
came settled the people set to work to make more simple and practical laws
-than those of the "Grand Model," which were finally rejected in 1698.
Sir Wil-liam Berk-e-ley of Vir-gin-i-a formed a colony of Al--be-marle
and Wil-liam Sayle was commissioned governor of that part of Car-o-li-na














































A PATROON'S MANOR HOUSE.








THE VIRGINIA COLONY.


lying south and west of cape Ro-maine, which was called Charles-ton. The
rule of Yea-mans was very unpopular and he was finally succeeded by Jo-seph
West, under whose management the colony began to prosper. Al-be-marle
was unfortunate in its governors, who could not manage the people. These
difficulties were finally overcome by the appointment of one governor for
































PURITANS BUILDING HOMES.
p North and South Car-o-li-na. Phil-lip Lud-well was the first general governor
but he was unequal to the task and so Thom-as Smith, a Car-o-Iin-i-an,
succeeded him. But it was not until John Arch-dale, a Qua-ker, was put at the
head of the government, that the colony became fully established. Geor-gi-a
was settled in 1732 and in 1752 became a royal province.
























ti


r/x.W


"STUY-VE-SANT AT THE GUN."













CHAPTER VIII.


THE END OF THE DUTCH RULE.

Under the stern but kindly rule of Peter Stuy-ve-sant, New Am-ster-
dam prospered. But while the old one-legged governor was fighting with the
Swedes the In-di-ans fell upon the settlements of Pa-vo-ni-a and Ho-bo-ken,
killed the men and carried off the women and children as prisoners. These
In-di-an attacks occurred at frequent intervals till finally the easy-going
Dutchmen resolved to teach the savages a lesson, which they did and for a
time there was comparative quiet.
For a time the Qua-kers were persecuted as in the New Eng-land
settlements and Governor Stuy-ve-sant was anxious that they should be ex-
pelled from the Dutch settlements. For this the directors in Hol-land re-
buked him and the Friends were no longer annoyed. In the mean-time slaves
were brought in large numbers to New Neth-er-land.
There was one fact which the Dutch observed with alarm and that
was that Eng-lish settlers were gradually encroaching on the land claimed by
the Dutch. Lord Bal-ti-more declared that a supposed south river region was
included in his patent and sent a delegation to Ma-ry-land demanding its sur-
render. John Win-throp obtained a grant of land from Charles II. which
covered not only Long Is-land but the northern part of New Neth-er-land.
The Eng-lish bought land from the In-di-ans which the Dutch had already
purchased from them and the king gave grants of land which included the
territory occupied by the Dutch. In 1664 Colonel Rich-ard Nich-olls sailed
from Eng-land with a force of four hundred men, to enforce the claims of the
Duke of York, to whom the king had granted Long Is-land. He brought
his four ships up the bay before New Am-ster-dam, seized the block house on
Sta-ten Is-land and blockaded the harbor. He issued a proclamation stating
that no one would be harmed who declared allegiance to the King of Eng-land.
Stuy-ve-sant endeavored to persuade his people to resist but they could see
nothing except defeat and stubbornly refused to fight. On September 8, 1664,























































,t I


p jr AY


KING PHILIP.


I I_ _





















































SCENE ON THE MISSISSIPPI.


't .. : : r ~ .-








THE END OF THE DUTCH RULE.


New Neth-er-land surrendered and was re-named New York, while Port
Orange was given its present name of Al-ba-ny.
The Duke of York gave many grants of land to Eng-lishmen. New
Neth-er-land was divided into two provinces, one of which was given to Lord
Berk-e-ley, the elder brother of Sir Wil-liam Berk-e-ley of Vir-gin-i-a, and the


PHIL-IP'S MON-U-MENT.


other to Sir George Car-te-rett. Car-te-rett's province was named New
Jer-sey.
Nich-olis ruled as governor for about three years and was then suc-
ceeded by Colonel Fran-cis Love-lace. In 1672 Pe-ter Stuy-ve-sant died.
5





























































ON THE ,RUDSON.








THE END OF THE DUTCH RULE,


On August 7, 1673, twenty-three Dutch ships carrying sixteen hundred
men arrived in the harbor of New York. The Dutch commander demanded
instant surrender and when the Eng-lish requested that they be allowed to
treat with him, he turned an hour-glass over and quietly told them that if they
did not surrender within half an hour, he would open fire. He did as he
promised and receiving no answer he fired on the fort, killing and wounding
many people. The fort then surrendered and the Dutch took possession.
Dutch names were restored to cities, rivers, forts and bays and An-tho-ny
Clove was chosen governor. Two ships were left him for protection and then
the fleet sailed away. Peace was made between Eng-land and Hol-land, who
had been at war for some time and the Dutch gave up their possessions in the
new world to the Eng-lish. Eng-lish names were restored and Ed-murid
An-dros was appointed governor.
Under Eng-lish rule New York took on a more rapid growth. Wheat
and tobacco were largely cultivated; while fish, peltry and lumber were ex-
ported abroad.
The affairs in the colonies were greatly influenced by the situation in
the mother country. The Duke of York had become King of Eng-land, but
had been obliged to leave the kingdom and Wil-liam and Ma-ry, the Pro-tea-
tants had been proclaimed King and Queen. King James had been a Cath-o-
lic and the Eng-lish of New York were members of that faith. The Dutch in-
habitants of New York were in sympathy with Wil-liam and Ma-ry. Nich-
ol-son, the lieutenant governor, who ruled in place of Sir Ed-mund An-dros,
who had been deposed, did not like the situation so he resigned his position
and sailed for Eng-land. Every one seemed to be afraid to assume command
at this time; but a man named Ja-cob Leis-ler, who was captain of the militia,
called his soldiers together and made them sign a declaration stating that they
held the fort for Wil-liam and Ma-ry and would protect the Prot-es-tant re-
ligion. The council were very much frightened and fled from New York
leaving Lais-ler in complete control.
Now when King James fled from Eng-land he went to France, where
he was the guest of Louis XIV. King Louis sent word to Fron-te-nac,
governor of Can-a-da, ordering him to search among the inhabitants of New
York and send all French Prot-es-tants to France and all Eng-lish Prot-es-
tants of New Eng-land or other places. The French Cath-o-lics were to be
allowed to remain. In Feb-ru-a-ry, 1669, Fron-te-nac assembled a large body






























































DEATH OF MONTGOMERY.
Painting bv Benjamin Weat,









THE END OF THE DUTCH RULE.


of men and divided them into three parties. His plan was to attack Al-ba-ny,
New Hamp-shire and Maine at the same time. A part of the force was com-
posed of Ir-o-quois and these were afraid to attack Al-ba-ny and induced the
French to march -upon Sche-nec-ta-dy. It was a total surprise, for there
had been a merry making in the village and the entrance to the fort was un-
guarded save by two snow men which had been erected by the boys and girls
during the day. Nearly every one was slain and the village was burned.
The people in the other towns became alarmed at this and banded
themselves together to resist the French. On May i, 1690, a colonial con-
verse met, when it was agreed that New York should provide four hundred
men; Mas-sa-chu-setts one hundred and sixty; Con-nec-ti-cut one hundred
and thirty-five; Ply-mouth sixty, and Ma-ry-land one hundred. Leis-ler
showed himself to be the right man in the right place. He rebuilt the fortifi-
cations of New York, he captured some French cruisers and succeeded in put-
ting the colonies in a state of security.
Then King Wil-liam sent'over Colonel Hen-ry Slaught-er as governor.
Slought-er's first act was to issue a warrant for the arrest of Leis-ler and
his council. The political enemies of this brave man saw in this a chance to
ruin him so one day when Slought-er was under the influence of wine, he
was induced to sign the death warrant of Leis-ler. Slought-er's rule lasted
only four months, when he was succeeded by Ben-ja-min Fletch-er, who at-
tempted to assume control over the New Eng-land colonies, as well as his
own. Holding a charter from the home government they naturally protested
against this and even sent representatives to Eng-land to complain against
this tyranny. At one time Fletch-er went. to Hart-ford and ordered the militia
to assemble. Governor Treat refused to allow Fletch-er to take command of
the soldiers, but allowed them to muster at Hart-ford. Fletch-er gave orders
that his instructions from the King be read aloud to the troops. Captain
Wads-worth, who was in command, at once gave orders for the drums to be
beaten. They made such a noise that not a word could be heard. Fletch-er
grew very angry and insisted that the drums should cease, but Wads-worth
was master of the situation and finally Fletch-er had to retire, and return to
New York.
The rule of Fletch-er was dishonest and tyrannical, and he was finally
dismissed from office and the Earl of Bell-o-mont succeeded him. The new
governor succeeded in reforming the government, and during his administra-






















































i
l~i ?'
..:i.
i i"
:'
---r;


_i


A FARMER'S HUT IN .WINTER.c










THE END OF THE DUTCH RULE.


tion New York enjoyed a season of prosperity. He died in 1701, and Lord
Corn-bu-ry was appointed governor. Corn-bu-ry was a very worthless man.
He used the public funds for his own enjoyment and his administration was a
long series of debaucheries. He persecuted the Pres-by-te-ri-ans and insulted
the Qua-kers and abused every one. Finally he was recalled by Queen Anne,
who was then on the throne. Lord Love-lace was next appointed Governor,
but he lived only a short time, and was succeeded by Rob-ert Hunt-er. He in
turn was succeeded by Bur-net, who ruled until 1727, when he was removed.
The next governor died soon after his arrival, and finally in 1732 Colonel
Cos-by was sent over to take charge of the Colony.
It was during the rule of the Earl of Bell-o-mont that the famous
pirate, Captain Kidd, was the terror of the seas. During the administration of
Fletch-er commerce had become almost an impossibility, owing to these sea
rovers, who preyed upon defenseless ships. Bell-o-mont determined to get rid
of these men, and his plan was to form a stock company for the purpose of
capturing pirate vessels. Several noblemen, and even the king himself, were to
share in the profits, and Captain Kidd'was put in command. But Kidd was
unable to take any of these ships, so after many adventures he finally con-
cluded to become a pirate on his own account, which he did for many years.
To the surprise of everyone he sailed into New York harbor one day, but
Bell-o-mont did not arrest him because Captain Kidd told him that he was
innocent of all the crimes of which he had been accused. When he went to
Bos-ton, however, he was seized and thrown into jail, but he was afterwards
sent to Eng-land, where he was imprisoned for a year. Soon after this he was
hanged for the murder of a'gunner, whom he had accidentally killed. His life
had been full of adventure, but-he was probably not as bad a man as he has
been represented.































































UNEXPLORED REGIONS.

















CHAPTER IX.


PERIL AND HARDSHIP.

Charles, the First, tried to keep the Pur-i-tans from leaving Eng-land.
He even forced them to return to land, after-they had taken passage in a ship,
which was to sail for Mas-sa-chu-setts. This turned out very unfortunately for
him, for one of the men who had taken passage for the New World and who
was forced to return was Ol-i-ver Crom-well. Not long after this the king was
beheaded, and Crom-well became ruler.
Crom-well did everything in his power to help the people of Mas-sa-
chu-setts. When Charles II was restored to the throne, two men who had
been convicted of taking part in the death of his father made their escape to
A-mer-i-ca. The king demanded their immediate return, but the people
refused. The king then demanded that the charter be returned, but the people
told him that they were loyal to the home government and all they wished was
that the king should confirm the charter. This was granted but some hard
conditions were imposed upon them.
A few years later the king sent over commissioners to secure the con-
quest of New Netli-er-land and to force the obedience of the Mas-sa-chu-setts
Colony. The people of Mas-sa-chu-setts refused to swear allegiance to the
king except under the protection of the charter. In the meantime New
Hamp-shire and Maine were included in the government of Mas-sa-chu-setts.
The colony was loyal to the home government and did everything in
its power to show this. But there were may people who complained to the
king that the people of Mas-sa-chu-setts were tired of Eng-lish rule. In 1681
he issued an order that deputies should be sent to him to tender the submission
of the colony. In answer Mas-sa-chu-setts sent two men to Eng-land bearing
letters of such a character that the king issued a writ against the colony
practically claiming that ithad no legal charter.
When Charles II. died his brother James became King of Eng-land and
by his command Sir Ed-mund An-dros was made governor of all New Eng-
75




















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4.


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SCOUTS.


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PERIL AND HARDSHIP.


land. An-dros was a very proud man who believed that obedience to the king
was the first duty of the people. They naturally were angry at the loss
of their charter but when the general court was abolished and Pur-i-tan
principles were ignored their rage knew no bounds. The new governor levied
heavy taxes. Forced the land owners to give up their title to him for
examination and even told them that deeds from the In-di-ans were not worth
a penny. In the same manner he tyrannized over the people of New Hamp-
shire and Maine and then turned his attention to Con-nec-ti-cut.
He demanded the charter but the people protested. Then a council was
held with the royal governor and while it was in progress the chatter disap-
peared: It had been hidden in an oak tree on the grounds of one of the
magistrates. But like New York and New Jer-sey Con-nec-ti-cut became a
part of New Eng-land under the government of An-dros. When King James
fled from Eng-land and Wil-liam of Or-ange ascended the throne there was
great rejoicing. The power of the Stuarts was at an end and the people were
freed from royal rule. Sir Wil-liam Phips was made governor of New Eng-
land and although he was a good man he did not make a wise governor. He
was recalled to Eng-land, where he died in 1694.
The year 1692 was a memorable one in the history of New Eng-land,
for it was then that the people were carried away by the delusion of witch-
craft. The craze originated with some children who had been listening to
stories from an old slave. The madness spread until finally many prominent
people were accused of being bewitched. All that it was necessary was some
peculiarity about a person's appearance to arouse suspicions. People that had
moles upon them or any other mark would be accused and thrown into
prison. Finally one of the children confessed that they had been deceiving the
people, but her companions accused her of being a witch. The time came
at last when the people began to see that they had been imposed upon and the
craze came to a sudden end. But in the meantime several hundred people had
been imprisoned and about twenty had suffered death.
In reading the history of a colony one can hardly blame the In-di-ans
for being enemies of the white men. They were treated unjustly, even cruelly.
Their friendship was repaid with treachery and the simple savage was made
the victim of his own ignorance. When Mas-sas-o-it died he left two
sons, Al-ex-an-der and Phil-ip. A year later Al-ex-an-der was carried prisoner
to Ply-mouth because he was suspected of having conspired with the Nar-ra-































































GEORGE WASHINGTON IN HIS YOUTH.
After the painting by C. W. Peale, and the engraving of J. W. Paradise.








PERIL AND HARDSHIP.


gan-setts to attack the Eng-lish, but he died before reaching his destination,
His wife who was a queen among the In-di-ans always believed that her hus-
band had been poisoned, and when fourteen years later she heard that Phil-ip
was planning to attack the settlements she attempted to join him with three
hundred warriors. In less than a year nearly all of her braves had been
killed and the queen in attempting to swim a river was drowned.
Phil-ip was a man of noble character and had always treated the white
man with justice, but when he was forced to undergo humiliation his natural
love of justice asserted itself and he made preparations for war.
One beautiful June day in 1675 as the people of Swan-sea were return-
ing home from church a man was killed by an In-di-an in ambush. This was
the beginning of what is known in history as King Phil-ip's war. It was a
season of terror, desolation and death. Houses were burned, cattle were
driven away, men, women and children were murdered by the In-di-ans, and
yet in spite of the dangers that threatened the people it seemed as though God
kept them from being.destroyed. At Brook-field men, women and children had
just time enough to rush into the strong house of the settlement when three
hundred savages rushed into the village and burned every house except the one
where the people had fled. Then followed a terrible battle. The In-di-ans
surrounded the house, firing from all sides. At night they built fires-against
the walls of the building and thrust torches through the cracks in the logs and
shot burning arrows on to the roof. But the desperate people put out the
fires and kept the savages at bay. On the morning of the third day the In-
di-ans piled a cart with hay and set it on fire, then pushed it up against the
building. The brave people inside prepared to die but deliverance was at hand.
Just as they had given up all hope there came a terrible storm and the rain
poured down in torrents extinguishing the blazing cart. In the afternoon re-
inforcements arrived from Bos-ton and the people were saved.
In the meantime the war continued with increasing severity and hun-
dreds of people were killed. Then the Eng-lish resolved to organize trained
band soldiers, and instead of waiting to be ambushed and shot down by waiting
savages to use the In-di-an's method of warfare and adopt all his cunning and
stealthy methods of attack. Phil-ip was chased from point to point and twice
he barely escaped capture. Then an In-di-an betrayed his hiding place and a
band of Eng-lish-men surprised the great chief in the middle of the night and
killed him.


























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CHAPTER X.


THE SETTLEMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA.

While these terrible In-di-an massacres were taking place, a man in
Eng-land was planning to found a colony in the New World. He was the son
of a famous admiral, and his name was Wil-li-am Penn. He is said to have
been a good-natured, happy boy when at school, fond of athletic sports, but at
the same time a diligent student. When at Ox-ford, he heard a Qua-ker
preacher deliver a sermon and at once became a convert to the faith. Soon
after this, the students were ordered to wear a surplice, and Penn refused.
For this he was expelled from school and his father banished him from home.
He relented, however, and sent him to Par-is, hoping that the boy would forget
his nonsense as he called it. But when Penn returned to Lon-don, he attended
the meetings of the Friends, and ever afterward was a consistent member. He
was confined for several months in the Tower of Lon-don, for writing a book
on the Qua-ker religion. Soon after this his father died, leaving his son
a large property, and Penn at once set about to start his colony.
In 168o he obtained a grant of land from Charles II., including
forty thousand square miles of territory between Ma-ry-land and New York,
which the King called Penn-syl-va-ni-a. He determined that in his colony
there should be perfectliberty of conscience and political freedom for all. Only
murder and treason were punishable by death, and it was against the law to
tell a lie. Every one, even an In-di-an, was to be treated with kindness and
justice. In 1682, he set sail and on the 27th of October of that year, he arrived
at the colony. He was pleased with everything he saw, and the beauty of'the
woods and hills and the broad river on which he sailed were sources of con-
tinual wonder and delight.
He laid out a.city which was the beginning of Phil-a-del-phi-a. During
the first year after Penn's arrival twenty-three ships filled with colonists
came to the province. He treated the In-di-ans with kindness and the red men
were struck with his simple and honest manner. He made a treaty with them
81



























































"PENN AND WALK-ER LOST."








THE SETTLEMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA 88

and won their hearts at once. Penn remained in A-mer-i-ca for two years,
during which time the colony prospered, school houses were built, a printing
press was set up, emigrants came from Eng-land and Penn-syl-va-ni-a began
to be looked upon as a model settlement. But Penn was obliged to return
to Eng-land where he remained for fifteen years. During his absence frequent
quarrels took place and false reports were sent to Eng-land and finally the'
government was taken away from Penn and given to a royal commissioner.
In 1694 Wil-liam and Ma-ry gave the colony back into Penn's hands and five
year's afterward he returned to A-mer-i-ca. You can judge his surprise that
instead of a little straggling village which he left he found a city of nearly two
thousand houses. Penn resided in a house which remained standing until the
year 1868. He was very kind and hospitable and although he lived in great
style, he showed as much courtesy to an In-di-an chief as he did to an Eng-lish
Duke. He was always a gentleman and did not drop-his courtly manners
when he sat in a savage wigwam and ate hominy and acorns. He never be-
lieved in slavery and although he owned a large number of slaves he gave them
all freedom when he died. In 1701 he left the colony and returned to Eng-land
where he became involved in much trouble. His son whom he had sent to
A-mer-i-ca, turned out to be a drunkard and was sent to Eng-land in disgrace.
The charter of the province was threatened and Penn was arrested and sent to
prison. The governor that Penn left in his place was deposed and Charles
Cook-in was put in charge. After him came Sir Wil-liam Keith.
Wil-li-am Penn died in 1718 and in 1732 Thom-as Penn, his second son
by his second marriage, moved to Phil-a-del-phia. He was never popular, but
his elder brother seemed to inherit some of his father's ability and at once was
recognized as possessing the noble qualities of his father. Although Penn-
syl-va-ni-a was the youngest colony on the continent it had more inhabitants
than Vir-gin-i-a, Ma-ry-land and the Car-o-li-nas.
Phil-a-del-phi-a was the largest and finest city in A-mer-i-ca and second
in size. Pat-rick Gor-don was governor after Keith and was succeeded in 1736
by George Thom-as.
About five years after the death of Wil-liam Penn there wandered into
the city of Phil-a-del-phi-a a ragged, hungry, barefoot boy. For days he
roamed about the streets of the city looking for work. In some way he man-
aged to get into the good graces of Governor Keith, who sent him to Lon-don;
but after a time Ben-ja-min returned to Pennsylvania. .He afterward be-
6

























































PONTIAC.








THE SETTLEMENT OF PENNSYLVANIA.


came a very famous man and in 1728 he started a newspaper, called the Penn-
syl-va-ni-a Gazette. It was published for 120 years. For twenty-five years he
published "Poor Richard's Almanac," a collection of curious stories and wise
sayings, and he soon became known as the greatest scholar in A-mer-i-ca. To
him is due the credit of having discovered the fact that lightning and elec-
tricity are cl-le same. Ben-ja-min Frank-lin rendered the colonies great service
luring their struggle for independence and next to Wash-ing-ton his name is
zhe most renowned one in the history of those times.




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A JESUIT MISSIONARY,


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CHAPTER XI.


DISCOVERIES IN THE NORTHWEST.

To Jes-u-it missionaries is due the credit of leading the march of
civilization in the West. About thirty years after the settlement of Que-bec
in 1608, the Fathers Shau-mo-not and Bre-boeuf traversed the great lakes,
sailing along the northern shore of O-hi-o by way of Lake Erie and skirt-
ing the western shores of Lake Hur-on as far as the straits of Mack-i-nac. In
the summer of 1660, Father Mes-nard founded a mission on a point on the
southern shore of Lake Su-pe-ri-or called Shag-wam-e-gan. He lost his life in
some strange way and in 1665 Father All-ou-ez took up the mission, and
preached in the In-di-an language to the various tribes. In 1669 Father
A-Ion-ey and another priest went as far as the Fox river.
In 1671. Jean Ta-lon, who had been appointed the over-seer of Can-a-da,
by the French Government, called a council of In-di-ans at the foot of lake
Su-pe-ri-or. The chiefs of the different tribes promised to be true and friendly
to the French king and two years later Lou-is Jo-li-et and Father Mar-quette
started on an expedition, when they discovered the source of the Mis-sis-sip-pi,
going as far south as the mouth of the Ar-kan-sas. They floated down the
Mis-sis-sip-pi river in their canoes, meeting with many In-di-ans who treated
them finely. They saw the passage from the Fox to the Wis-con-sin river and
from the St. Law-rence to the Mis-sis-sip-pi river. They floated past the point
where the Mis-sou-ri entered into the great river on which they sailed. When
they reached the Il-li-nois river they followed its course and made a portage
into lake Mich-i-gan. Mar-quette lived for two years among the Mi-am-i In-
di-ans, dying in 1674, while on his way to Mack-i-nac. Jo-li-et told wonderful
stories of the expedition when he arrived at Mon-tre-al, and La Salle, a Nor-
man gentleman, who had established a trading post near that city, fitted out an
expedition. With thirty men he marched to Lake On-ta-ri-o, made the portage
by Ni-ag-a-ra Falls to lake Er-ie, where he built a ship in which he sailed as far
as Green Bay. La Salle and his men walked to St. Jo-seph, where they waited
87















































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V
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Its-i s


AN OLD TRAPPER.









DISCOVERIES IN THE NORTHWEST.


for the ship to come up with them. It did not appear, so he went westward,
reaching the present La Salle county in Il-li-nois, where he established a fort.
La Salle finally returned to Mon-tre-al, but in 1681 he set out upon another
expedition. He crossed lake Mich-i-gan and penetrated inland by way of the
Chi-ca-go river, which strange as it may seem, they named the "Divine River."
La Salle made friends with the In-di-ans, and finally arrived at the Mis-sis-
sip-pi. He followed the river until after many adventures he arrived at the sea.
Soon after his return La Salle went to France, where he was given power to


FRENCH TRADERS.


colonize the territory he had explored and which he had named Lou-is-i-an-a,
but which included the present state of Lou-is-i-an-a and all the territory north
of the line of Tex-as and west of the Mis-sis-sip-pi to the Rocky Moun-tains.
La Salle left France in 1684 with four vessels, but it was almost a year
before he arrived at the mouth of the Mis-sis-sip-pi. He passed beyond the
mouth of the river, landing farther west; thus it happened that Tex-as was,the
first state to be settled after Flor-i-da. The captain deserted La Salle and re-.


































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AN INDIAN ATTACK.


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DISCOVERIES IN THE NORTHWEST.


turned to France where he told unjust stories of the great discoverer. Al-
though they were kind to him, La Salle was very unfortunate in his explora-
tions and after many months spent in searching for the Mis-sis-sip-pi river he
finally met his death at the hands of one of his companions. About ten years
after La Salle's death France made another effort to colonize the Mis-sis-sip-pi
valley. Le-moine Di-ber-ville was given the command of an expedition and
in 1699 he sailed from France co explore the territory which La Salle had dis-
covered and in which he had lost his life.
He entered the Gulf of Mex-i-co and sailed up the Mis-sis-sip-pi river.
He made a second voyage in 1700 and established a settlement about thirty
miles below the present city of New Or-leans. Communication was estab-
lished between Louis-i-an-a and Can-a-da by way of the Mis-sis-sip-pi and
Lake Er-ie. An Eng-lish-man by the name of Coxe was sent out by Charles
II of Eng-land to explore and take possession of the territory west of Flor-i-da.
Then John Law, an Eng-lish-man, formed his famous scheme for the coloni-
zation of Louis-i-an-a. Although this was the means of inducing many people
to come to A-mer-i-ca, it failed, and thousands of people- in Eng-land and
France who had invested money in the plan were ruined. Then Bi-en-ville was
made governor general in 1736. He led an expedition against the In-di-ans
but was defeated. In 1741 he returned to France. The French colony of
Louis-i-an-a was in many respects a failure. In the first place it was threat-
ened with invasions of the Eng-lish by sea and the In-di-ans by land. This
great territory was not conquered by force of arms but by the farmers who
developed its wonderful resources.


























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............


INCIDENT OF THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.


BiA

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CHAPTER XII.

THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.

In the year 1749, a grant of six hundred thousand acres of land west of
the Al-le-gha-nies, on and near the O-hi-o River, was made to some Lon-don-
ers and Vir-gin-i-ans, under the name of the O-hi-o Company. As the French
considered this to be a part of their territory, they treated the Company's sur-
veyors as intruders, made them prisoners, and broke up the trading posts.
They acted with still greater vigor in 1753. In that year twelve hundred men
were sent to Mon-tre-al, who built a fort at Presque Isle, on the southern shore
of Lake Er-ie, now the present town of Er-ie. The same year they advanced
south from this, and built two forts, one, Fort le Boeuf, at the present town of
Wat-er-ford, and Fort Ve-nan-go, on French Creek, which flows into the
Al-le-ghany River.
Din-wid-die, Lieu-ten-ant Gov-ern-or of Vir-gin-i-a, alarmed at the
movements of the French, sent a messenger to the French commander of these
posts, asking their removal. The person he chose to carry this message was
George Wash-ing-ton, a native of Vir-gin-i-a, then a young man of two-and-
twenty. On the 3oth of Oc-to-ber, 1753, the very day on which he received
his credentials, he left Wil-Iiams-burg, and, pushing through the wilderness,
arrived at Fort Ve-nan-go De-cem-ber 4. At Le Boeuf he at last found St.
Pierre, the commandant, who received his letter, and treated lim with marked
kindness, In the course of Wash-ing-ton's stay the French officers talked with
great frankness, said that they were there by order of the king, and should
remain there so long as he commanded them to do so.
St. Pierre's reply to Din-wid-die was given to Wash-ing-ton, who at
once commenced his long and fearful journey of four hundred miles to
Wil-liams-burg. Snow had fallen; the rivers had risen, and were filled with
ice; the horses broke down at the very commencement, and the journey had to
be made on foot. The In-di-ans were far from friendly, and once Wash-ing-ton
was shot at from a distance of not more than fifteen feet. Through all these























































INTO THE WILDERNESS.








THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.


dangers he made his way home unharmed, Jan-u-a-ry, 1754, and delivered St.
Pierre's letter, which contained a polite but firm refusal to give up the posts.
Early in 1754, the O-hi-o Company sent out a small party to erect a fort
at the junction of the Al-le-gha-ny and Mo-non-ga-he-la Rivers, and Din-wid-
die dispatched a captain's command to protect them. In addition to this, in
March, a regiment of six hundred men was raised in Vir-gin-i-a, of which Frye
was colonel, and Wash-ing-ton second in command. They quickly com-
menced their march to the new fort, intending to occupy it. While on their
way, they learned that the French had surprised and driven off the Company's


QUELBEC.


men, and had then completed the work, naming it Fort du Quesne. Wash-ing-
ton was sent'in advance to reconnoitre, and fell in with a small body of French
under Ju-mon-ville, at Great Mead-ows, about forty-five miles from Fort du
Quesne. Wash-ing-ton surprised this party on the night of May 28, and in the
attack Ju-mon-ville was slain, and nine of his men. This was the first blood
shed in the war. Frye died about this time, and Wash-ing-ton assumed the
command. The rest of the troops soon joined him at Great Mead-ows, where
he built a stockade, which he called Fort Ne-ces-si-ty.































































A 3RRIISHI SENTRY,









THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR.


Here he was attacked in July by De Vil-liers with 1,5oo French and
In-di-ans. At the end of ten hours hard fighting, Wash-ing-ton surrendered
the fort on condition that his troops should be allowed the honors of war.
This expedition under Wash-ing-ton was the commencement of the great
struggle between the French and Eng-h'sh for the possession of the North
A-mer-i-can continent. All the previous-intercolonial wars sprang from dis-
putes in Eu-rope, which.involved the Frefich, Eng-lish, and Span-ish colonies.
This began in A-mer-i-ca itself about territory. There was, as yet, no formal
declaration of war between tie two nations, nor was any made until nearly two
years later.
The Eng-lish government was anxious that their colonies should take.
the most active part in the contest, and urged them to unite on some plan of
defense. While Wash-ing-ton was fighting in the wilds of Vir-gin-i-a, a con-
vention of delegates from seven of the colonies assembled at AI-ba-ny to see
what could be done. The first object they had in view was to secure the friend-
ship of the powerful Ir-o-quois on the northern borders. This they suc-
ceeded in doing. They then debated and adopted a plan of union for mutual
defense, subject to the approval of the colonies and the Eng-lish government.
The author of the plan was Bet-ja-min Frank-lin, a delegate from Penn-
syl-va-ni-a. It never went in force, because it pleased neither the king nor the
colonies. The king thought it gave the people too much power, the colonies
thought it gave the king too much. The probability is, therefore, that Frank-
lin's plan was nearly correct.
The plan of union not having been adopted, the Eng-lish government
determined to carry on the war with such help as the colonies might feel in-
clined to furnish. In Feb-ru-a-ry, 1755, Gen-er-al Brad-dock was sent out
from England to the Ches-a-peake, as commander-in-chief, with two regiments
of Brit-ish troops. At Al-ex-an-dra, Brad-dock met a convention of Colonial
governors, and, with their advice, decided on the campaign for the year.
Brad-dock, in person, was to march against Fort du Quesne; Gov-ern-or Shir-
ley, of Mas-sa-chu-setts, to lead an expedition against Fort Ni-ag-a-ra; and
Wil-liam Johnson, an influential man with the Ir-o-quois, was to attempt, with
their assistance, the capture of Crown Point.
Besides these three expeditions planned by Brad-dock; still another,
against the French settlements at the head of the Bay of Fun-dy, had been
previously arranged in Mas-sa-chu-setts. They were defended by two French
7




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