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Group Title: Women in the Soviet Union;
Title: Women in the Soviet Union
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087327/00001
 Material Information
Title: Women in the Soviet Union statistical returns
Series Title: Women in the Soviet Union;
Physical Description: 54 p. : ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Progress Publishers
Place of Publication: Moscow
Publication Date: 1970
 Subjects
Subject: Women -- Statistics -- Soviet Union   ( lcsh )
Genre: statistics   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Russia
 Notes
General Note: Translated from the Russian.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087327
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 00151620
lccn - 74026180

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Full Text






WOMEN
IN THE
SOVIET UNION


STATISTICAL RETURNS
















PROGRESS PUBLISHERS
MOSCOW 1970






Translated from the Russian


)KEHIHHHbl B CCCP
CTATHCTIHECKHFI CBOPHHK
Ha anaLJluacKom R3blKe

























First printing 1970


Printed in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics



















CONTENTS
5
Introduction
1. Number of women in the U.S.S.R. 27
2. Number of women in the Union republics 28
3. Number of women with large families given the
honorary title of Mother-Heroine and decorated with
Order of the Glory of Motherhood and Medal of
Motherhood 29
4. State expenditure on grants to mothers, and educa-
tion of children and juveniles. 30
5. Number of mothers of large families receiving month-
ly allowances from the state 31
6. Women decorated with Orders and medals of the
U.S.S.R. for valiant labour 32
7. Number of women deputies in the Supreme Soviet
of the U.S.S.R., Supreme Soviets of Union and Auto-
nomous republics and in territorial, regional, area,
district, city, rural and settlement Soviets of Working
People's Deputies 33
8. Average annual number of women industrial and
office workers employed in the national economy 34
9. Percentage of women in the total number of in-
dustrial and office workers (by branches of the na-
tional economy) 33
10. Percentage of women in the separate branches of the
national economy as regards the total number of
women industrial and office workers 36
11. Number of women specialists with higher and se-
condary special education engaged in the national
economy 37








12. Number of women specialists with higher education
engaged in the national economy (by professions) 38
13. Number of women specialists with secondary special
education engaged in the national economy (by pro-
fessions) 39
14. Participation of women in collective-farm production
in the Union republics in 1967 40'
15. Number of women doctors of all specialities 41
16. Number of women doctors of all specialities in the
Union republics in 1966 42
17. Number of women teachers in primary, incomplete
secondary and secondary day schools. 43
18. Women scientific workers 44
19. Women students at higher and secondary special
educational establishments 45
20. Women students in all higher educational establish-
ments in different countries 46
21. Women students in higher technical educational estab-
lishments in different countries 47
22. Medicoprophylactic treatment for women and children 48
23. Number of beds for pregnant and parturient women
in the Union republics 50
24. Number of beds for children in medical institutions
in the Union republics 51
25. Number of children in permanent pre-school insti-
tutions in the Union republics 52
26. Number of women engaged in physical culture in
sport sections 53
27. Average life expectancy for people of certain age in
the country before and after the Revolution 54


















INTRODUCTION


After the victory of the Great October So-
cialist Revolution, which removed the power
of capitalists and landowners from the face of
Russia, the young Soviet state adopted legisla-
tion ensuring full equality of women with men
in all spheres of life. For the first time in histo-
ry women were accorded genuine rights: to
elect and be elected to organs of power, the
right to work, to equal pay and education,
property and parental rights on an equal foot-
ing with men.
The new legal status of women contributed
a great deal to establishing genuine equality
of men and women. The problem was to be
solved along lines advocated by Lenin, the found-
er of the Soviet state. Lenin believed that
women had to be drawn into socially produc-
tive work and state administration, that they
had to be released from "domestic slavery" and
that conditions had to be created for helping
mothers to bring up their children.
In pre-revolutionary Russia 80 per cent of
all employed women worked as domestic ser-


__







vants and farm-labourers, 13 per cent at en-
terprises and building-sites and only 4 per
cent in education and public health. 83.4 per
cent of women between the age of 9 and 49
were illiterate. Women were excluded from
receiving education in any way possible.
The status of women was particularly grim
and their rights particularly meagre in the
eastern regions of tsarist Russia where under
the influence of age-old traditions and the de-
mands of religious dogmata women were iso-
lated from society, lived the life of a recluse
and were entirely dependent upon their hus-
bands.
As soon as it came into being the Soviet
state under the leadership of the Communist
Party drew up a broad programme for the
emancipation of women. A gigantic scheme to
eliminate illiteracy was undertaken with
similar schemes to train qualified women spe-
cialists and to give women general and special-
ised education. The conditions were being creat-
ed for women to combine social life and work
with motherhood and family duties: the state
organised a mother-and-child welfare system
and built pre-school and out-of-school institu-
tions for children.
Backward and reactionary views on women
were gradually overcome.
In a comparatively short historical period,
as socialist society has been built, Soviet
woman has become a real member of society
who enjoys full rights. This is one of the most
remarkable achievements of socialism. Soviet
women deserve great credit for the success
achieved in building socialist and communist
society in the U.S.S.R.




I
I i .


First woman cosmonaut Valentina Nikolayeva-Tereshkova aid composer Alexandra
Pakhmutova (far right) with memhbrs of the International Women's Movement






Women in the U.S.S.R. make full use of
their right to work. About 50 per cent of the
population engaged in social production are
women. There are whole economic and cultural
fields, such as education, public health, trade
and public catering, where women predominate.
Mechanisation and automation of produc-
tion, which have taken the drudgery out of
work, ample opportunities for receiving gen-
eral and special education, professional train-
ing and improved qualifications have enabled
women to work in a wide variety of branches
of the national economy. For instance, under the
system of training organised by the State Com-
mittee of the U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers for
Vocational Training, girls can qualify for 975


Pakhobat Akhmadzhanova teaching at the Lenin Collec-
tive Farm school (Tajik S.S.R.)





















Engineer Lyudmila Kolyubayeva, head of a section of the
computing centre at the Scientific Research Project
Institute of the Oil and Gas Industry in Tyumen, Western
Siberia

trades, including such professions as automatic
equipment adjusters, adjusters of electro-me-
chanical and radio-engineering devices or la-
boratory assistants, and many others.
Women are taking a more and more active
part in production management accounting
for more than a third of all workers with senior
and specialised posts in industry. 58 per cent
of all specialists with higher or secondary
special education, engaged in the national econ-
omy, are women and every third engineer is
a woman.
The successful work of thousands of women
in industry is recognized by conferment of
government awards and honorary titles. The
title of Hero of Socialist Labour has.been award-
ed to such nationally well-known person- li-







ties as Varvara Orlova, director of the Kras-
noye Znamya Knitwear Factory in Leningrad,
Anna Grinenko, director of the Krasny Oktyabr
Confectionary in Moscow, Valentina Gaganova
and Rozia Kurbanova, weavers, Alisa Strazdin,
expert in butter-making, Serafima Kotova, shop
manageress in a worsted yarn factory, and Na-
dezhda Oyasar, a stamping-machine operator.


Weaving at the Volzhsky Synthetic Fibre Factory (Volgo-
grad Region)

Women's work in socialist agriculture is
changing qualitatively as a result of large-
scale mechanisation which is removing drudgery
and so that labour is becoming more and more
industrial in essence. The number of women
specialists employed on collective and state
farms is increasing. In 1966, 129,000 women
with higher education and 229,000 with second-




































Kyzgait Gasanova, chairman of the Thilmann Cotton
Collective Farm, Hero of Socialist Labour and deputy of
the Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijan S.S.R.


ary special education worked in the nation-
al economy as agronomists, livestock breed-
ers and veterinary surgeons. About 600 wom-
en are chairmen of collective farms showing
11






talent as organizers. Among them are Pras-
kovya Malinina, Hero of Socialist Labour and
chairman of the 12 Oktyabr Collective Farm
in the Kostroma Region, Shamama Gasanova,
twice Hero of Socialist Labour and chairman of
the Pervoye Maya Collective Farm in Azerbai-
jan, and Alexandra Monakhova, director of the
Kommunarka State Farm in the Moscow
Region.
Women work successfully in scientific and
cultural fields accounting for more than a third
of all research workers. Many women have won
world recognition by their work, like Pelageya
Kochina, academician and a leading authority
on hydromechanics and the theory of filtration;
Olga Bazilevskaya, a physicist at the Kurcha-
tov Institute of Atomic Energy and Lenin Prize
laureate; Maria Nadirova, senior scientific
worker at the Azerbaijan Institute of Petro-
chemical Processes and State Prize laureate;
Lidia Jakobson, professor of microbiology, and
Valentina Mamontova, selectionist, Hero of So-
cialist Labour and Lenin Prize laureate. Pro-
fessor Alla Masevich, doctor of physico-mathe-
matical sciences, is vice-president of the Astro-
nomical Counsil at the U.S.S.R. Academy of
Sciences and heads the Artificial Earth Satellite
Tracking Service.
Valentina Nikolayeva-Tereshkova, Hero of
the Soviet Union and first woman cosmonaut,
made a considerable contribution to the study
of outer space. In the space-craft "Vostok-6"
she orbited the earth 48 times while fulfilling a
complex research programme.
In the Soviet period a whole galaxy of out-
standing women writers, poets, artists, actresses
and composers have made their appearance
12

































Academician Pelageya Kochina, department head at the
Institute of Hydrodynamics, the Siberian section of the
U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences


\ -, "






on the cultural scene. People in the Soviet Uni-
on and abroad are well acquainted with the writ-
ers Marietta Shaginyan and Vera Panova, the
poetesses Margarita Aliger and Zulfia Israilova,
the sculptress Vera Mukhina, the artist Tatyana
Yablonskaya, the composer Alexandra Pakhmu-
tova, the conductor Veronika Dudarova, the
ballerinas Galina Ulanova and Maya Pliset-
skaya, the singers Galina Vishnevskaya and
Goar Gasparyan.
Women play a prominent part in the social
and political life of the country and in state
administration. In 1966, 425 women or 28 per
cent of all deputies were elected to the Supreme
Soviet of the U.S.S.R. Hundreds of thousands
of women have been elected deputies to Su-
preme Soviets of the Union and Autonomous
republics and local Soviets.
Yadgar Nasriddinova, chairman of the Pre-
sidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Uzbek
S.S.R.; Anna Kasatkina, chairman of the No-
vaya Zhizn Collective Farm in the Gorky Re-
gion, R.S.F.S.R.; Anna Nutetegryne, chairman
of the Executive Committee of the Chukotka
Area Soviet of Working People's Deputies, and
Zoya Pukhova, a worker at the Ivanovo textile
mill, are members of the Presidium of the Sup-
reme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.
Women head presidiums of Supreme Soviets
in a number of Autonomous republics: Efimia
Yaskina (Mordovian A.S.S.R.), Tamara Kheta-
gurova (North Ossetian A.S.S.R.), Alexandra
Ovchinnikova (Yakut A.S.S.R.), Baikara Dol-
chanmaa (Tuva A.S.S.R.), Alieva Sakina
Abbas Kyzy (Nakhichevan A.S.S.R.).
Women work as members of the Government
of the U.SS.,R. and governments of the Un-























Maya Plisetskaya, People's Artist of the U.S.S.R., in
Swan Lake


1.1









"K


1'
"Now


Yadgar Nasriddinova, deputy chairman of the Presidium
of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. and chairman of
the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Uzbek S.S.R.


ion republics. Twenty-seven women are mi-
nisters in the Union republics. Yekaterina Fur-
tseva has long held the post of Minister of
Culture of the U.S.S.R.
Women take an active part in the work of
public organizations. They account for almost
a half of all Soviet trade union members
and take a great deal of the work on their
shoulders. Two and a half million women
are members of the C.P.S.U.
*






In the U.S.S.R. there is no discrimination
whatever with regard to women. They are em-
ployed and accepted at places of learning on
an equal footing with men and the principle of
equal pay for equal work is strictly observed.
Considering the physiological peculiarities
of the female organism and in the interests of
safeguarding the health of mothers and chil-
dren, Soviet legislation forbids employment of
women in certain kinds of harmful and heavy
work (underground work and certain other
kinds in the chemical, printing, metallurgical
industries, etc.).
Like men, Soviet women have the right to
recreation: they are granted annual paid hol-
idays and have a wide network of sanatoria,
holiday homes, tourist centres, mountaineering
camps and stadiums at their disposal. In order
to create favourable conditions for the normal
development of children and to safeguard the
health of mothers, pregnant women are grant-
ed a special paid leave during pregnancy and
childbirth: 56 days before childbirth and 56
days after in excess of their annual holiday. In
the event of complications during delivery or
the birth of twins post-natal leave is raised to
70 days. So that a child can be fed at the proper
time, paid breaks after every three and a half
hours lasting not less than half an hour are
granted to working women supplementary to
normal lunch breaks. After the post-natal rest
period a mother may take extra unpaid leave of
up to three months, in which case her place of
work and former position are reserved for her.
If after childbirth a woman spends a year away
from work she is still entitled to continuity of
service.
2-88 17






An extensive network of maternity and in-
fant health centres cares for the health of ex-
pectant mothers and then their children. Every
Soviet woman, whether she lives in town or
country, has the opportunity to bear her child
in a maternity home. Obstetric assistance, care
and feeding in hospital are available free like
all medical services in the U.S.S.R.
The Soviet state accepts a considerable share
of the care for children's health and upbringing.
A comprehensive system of pre-school and out-
of-school institutions has been organised
throughout the Soviet Union. At the present ti-
me more than 8 million children attend kinder-
gartens and nurseries. By 1970 the number of
places in pre-school institutions will be able
to cater for 12.2 million children.
Young Pioneer palaces and houses and
other centres for young technicians and natu-
ralists, etc., under whose guidance millions of
children spend their leisure time, are of inval-
uable help to parents in bringing up their
children. Children are also able to stay in
special school groups long after lessons have
finished and do their homework, have their
meals and rest under the careful eye of a spe-
cial teacher while their parents are at work.
On a par with men, Soviet women have the
right to state social insurance and social
maintenance. It must be pointed out that workers
themselves do not make any contribution to the
funds, and this is the distinctive feature of the
system. The funds are used to pay pensions,
temporary unemployment benefit during illness,
allowances for newly-born babies and other
benefits. Women-both industrial and office
workers reach pensionable age at 55, five











i.'I


-~p
Pediatrician Alexandra Yakusheva checking up at the
Pobeda (Victory) Collective Farm, Krasnodar Territory


i
4.
;I
~i;~*4r
r






years earlier than men, and in some professions
this age level is even lower. Women who have
given birth to 5 or more children and who
have brought them up to the age of eight
are similarly eligible for age concessions.
From social insurance funds women receive
payment for maternity leave to the amount of
their full average wage and are granted spe-
cial paid leave for care of a sick child. Besides
monetary forms of maintenance, cultural and


I--


Aeromodelling in the Kiev Pioneer Palace

























A group of older children in a Moscow kindergarten

health facilities are available at the state's ex-
pense through social insurance whereby
workers and their children are granted passes
to sanatoria and holiday homes, and also to di-
ning-rooms providing special diets. Rest for
children during the summer holidays is organ-
ised and cultural arrangements for large num-
bers of people are devised.
The state is constantly taking steps to re-
move the drudgery from women's housework.
The number of catering establishments (cafes,
restaurants and canteens) shows an annual in-
crease. The system of ordering and door-to-door
delivery of goods is becoming more comprehen-
sive, and household equipment, such as refrige-
rators and washing-machines, are being pro-
21







duced in growing quantities. The ministries of
household maintenance in the Union republics
have contributed a great deal to this kind of
work.
According to the five-year economic devel-
opment plan of the U.S.S.R. (1966-1970),
the volume of domestic services for the whole
of the country is to increase 21/2 times includ-
ing a threefold increase for rural areas. Do-
mestic service is to be transformed into a large
mechanised branch of the national economy.
Modern, well-equipped housing is of tre-
mendous importance for the family. In the last
10 years about half the total population of the
U.S.S.R. have moved into new flats or have
improved their living conditions in modern
houses.
The remnants of women's inequality in ev-
eryday life are finally being eradicated while
the necessary social and living conditions are
being created for women to combine a happy
motherhood with more active and creative par-
ticipation in the work of society. This is one
of the problems which the Soviet people are
now tackling. But the problem will not be fully
solved until the essential distinctions between
town and country, between physical and men-
tal labour have been ironed out on the basis
of nation-wide electrification, full mechanisation
and automation of production and housework,
further development of services and a general
rise in cultural standards.


The statistical material collected in this
booklet gives an insight into the role of So-
viet women in the political, economic, social







and cultural life of the country and into the
Soviet state's constant concern for the well-
being of women. The figures give an indication
of the extent of women's participation in the
various branches of the national economy, par-
ticularly in industry, agriculture, science, health,
culture and state administration. Tables on the
education of women and mother-and-child pro-
tection are also included.
Separate tables are supplied with short
explanatory notes.
The collected material was prepared by a
group of workers from the Central Statistical
Board of the U.S.S.R.









" 'omten in the U.S.S.R. are accorded
equal rights on an equal footing with
men in all spheres of economic,
government, cultural, political and
other social activity."
Constitution of the Union of So-
viet Socialist Republics, Article 122
























1. Number of women in the U.S.S.R.


Number of Percentage
women of total
(million) population


1913, within the present bounda-
ries of the U.S.S.R. . . 80.1 50.3

1940, estimate as of January 1 . 101.1 52.1

1959, January 15 census . . 114.8 55.0

1964, estimate as of January I . 123.1 54.4

1966, estimate as of January 1 . 125.7 54.2

1967, estimate as of January 1 126.9 54.1

1968, estimate as of January 1 128.0 54.1


Of the total number of women in the beginning
of 1968. 96 million, or three-quarters, were born after the
Great October Socialist Revolution.


_i






2. Number of women in the Union republics


N.:inber of wominn as on
January 1 1967 (thousand)

Town IopI .- R l"ra
Total nation 1 ill-
tion


Pcrccnra~zc of 10 II


Percentage of to'.al
population

Town Rural


U.S.S.R . . .
R.S.F.S.R. . .
Ukrainian S.S.R. .
Byelorussian S.S.R.
Uzbek S.S.R. .
Kazakh S.S.R. .
Georgian S.S.R.
Azerbaijan S.S.R..
Lithuanian S.S.R..
Moldavian S.S.R..
Latvian S.S.R. .
Kirghiz S.S.R.
Tajik S.S.R.
Armenian S.S.R.
Turkmen S.S.R..
Estonian S.S.R..


126,934
69,762
25,157
4,804
5,565
6,388
2,459
2,476
1,614
1,813
1,259
1,419
1 336
1,151
1,011
716


68,374
41,393
12,960
1,888
1,982
3,076
1,166
1,248
736
523
792
544
491

490
452


58,560
28,369
12,197
2,916
3,584
3,312
1,293
1,228
878
1,290
467
875
845
521
521
264








3. Number of women with large families given
the honorary title of Mother-Heroine
and decorated with Order of the Glory
of Motherhood and Medal of Motherhood
(thousand)



1944-49 1950-67 Total


Mother-Heroine . . . .. 31 73 104

Order of the Glory of Mother-
hood:

I Degree .......... 67 193 260

II Degree . . 193 476 669

III Degree . . . . . 468 1,060 1,528

Medal of Motherhood:

I Degree . . . . .. 754 2,023 2,771

II Degree . . . .... 1434 3,575 5,009



Mothers hold a position of national honour and res-
pect in the U.S.S.R.
Government awards are conferred on mothers with
large families in recognition of their highly esteemed
role in bringing up the new generation of Soviet citizens.
Between 1944 (July 8th) when the Decree of the Pre-
sidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. was adopted
and 1967, 104,000 women who had given birth to and
brought up ten children were given the honorary title
of Mother-Heroine. The Order of the Glory of Mother-
hood has been instituted for mothers of seven, eight
or nine children, and the Medal of Motherhood for
mothers of five or six children.








4. State expenditure on grants to mothers,
and education of children
and juveniles*

(million rubles)


Grants to mothers of large
families and to unmarried
mothers. . ... . 123

Pregnancy and childbirth
grants and allowances for
the purchase of layettes and
for nursing babies . .. 56

Expenditure on the mainte-
nance of children in chil-
dren's homes, kindergartens,
nurseries, Young Pioneer
summer camps and out-of-
school institutions .. . 423

Expenditure on the mainte-
nance of primary, seven-
year, eight-year and second-
ary schools and boarding-
schools (without evening
secondary schools) ... 886


1940 1946 1960 1E67


797 1,7871 3,545


1,185 3,5061 5,761


Expenses on services to children in excess of the
sum allocated by the state budget are covered by funds
from state, co-operative, trade union and other social or-
ganisations including collective farms.
30








5. Number of mothers of large families
receiving monthly allowances
from the state
(thousand)

1945 1960 1967


Total number of mothers of large
families receiving allowances 844 3,455 3,529
including mothers with:
four children ........ 287 1,660 1,447
five children ........ 181 899 877
six children . . . ... 100 484 572
seven and more children . . 276 412 633

From the very first days of its existence the Soviet
state undertook broad measures to safeguard mothers
and children. Soviet society has created all the condi-
tions ensuring a sound basis for a child's all-round health
in body and mind. Protecting the interests of mother and
child the Soviet state renders material assistance to preg-
nant women and mothers for maintenance and upbring-
ing of children. Mothers of two children receive a one-
time maternity grant on the birth of the third and every
subsequent child, and mothers of three children receive
a monthly state allowance on the birth of the fourth and
every subsequent child.
In 1967, 3,529,000 mothers of four and more children
received monthly state allowance and 524,000 mothers
of two children received an extraordinary state allowance
on the birth of the third.

The outstanding services which Soviet women have
rendered for their country are valued highly by the So-
viet Government. For achievements and success in all
branches of the national economy and culture and for
heroism and courage shown during the Great Patriotic
War, Soviet women have been decorated with over a mil-
lion Orders and medals.
The following table gives details of the number of
awards for labour services in the various branches of the
national economy.







6. Women decorated with Orders and medals
of the U.S.S.R. for valiant labour

Number of
women award- Percent-
ed, from 1918 age of
to January 1, total
1968


Total . . . . . . .

including:

Heroes of Socialist Labour ...

Heroes of Socialist Labour decorat-
ed with the second Hammer and
Sickle Gold Medal . . . .

Total decorated with Orders .

including:

Order of Lenin .

Order of the Red Banner of Labour

Order of the Badge of Honour .

Total decorated with medals

including:

Medal for Valour in Labour . .

Medal for Labour Distinction .


1,094,408



3,834


24

314,681



60,279

110,515

141,898

775,869



313,938

459,689


* *


Lenin's principle of drawing women into state ad-
ministration is being steadily implemented in the
U.S.S.R.
32











7. Number of women deputies
in the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.,
Supreme Soviets of Union and Autonomous
republics, and in territorial, regional,
area, district, city, rural and settlement
Soviets of Working People's Deputies


Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.
(1966 elections) .. .

Soviet of the Union ..

Soviet of Nationalities .

Supreme Soviets of Union repub-
lics (1967 elections) . .

Supreme Soviets of Autonomous
republics (1967 elections) ..

Territorial, regional, area, dis-
trict, city, rural and settle-
ment Soviets of Working Peo-
ple's Deputies (1967 elec-
tions . . . . . .


Total
Total number of Percen-
number of women tage
deputies deputies




1,5171 425 28.0

767 222 28.9

750 203 27.1


5,829 1,962 33.7


2,925 1,021 34.9





2,045,277 875,360 42.8


3-88














8. Average annual number of women industrial
and office workers employed
in the national economy



Number of women industrial
Percentage
Years and office workers
of total
(thousand)




1958 25,950 46


1960 29,250 47


1966 39,500 50


41,060








9. Percentage of women in the total number
of industrial and office workers
(by branches of the national economy)


1958 1E69


167


Total .... ......... 46 47 50

including those employed in:

industry .. . . . ... .. 45 45 47

construction . . . . . 31 29 28

state farms and subsidiary agricul-
tural enterprises ....... 41 43 44

transport . . . . .. 26 24 24

communications . . . .. 63 64 66

trade, public catering, procurements
and supplies ........ 64 66 74

public health . . . . 85 85 85

education . . . . ... 69 69 72

science and scientific services . 42 42 45

credit and insurance establishments 66 68 75

state and economic administration,
co-operative and public organisa-
tions . . . . . . 49 51 58



In 1967 there were 41.06 million women industrial
and office workers in the national economy or 50 per
cent of the total number of industrial and office workers.
3* 35








10. Percentage of women in the separate
branches of the national economy as regards
the total number of women industrial
and office workers


1958 160 1967



Total number of women industrial and
office workers . . . .. 100 100 100

including those employed in:

industry and construction .... . 41 40 37

state farms and subsidiary agricul-
tural enterprises, machine-and-trac-
tor, maintenance and repair sta-
tions . . . . . 8 9 10

transport and communications . 7 7 6

trade, public catering, procurements
and supplies . . . . . 10 11 12

education and public health, science
and scientific services ..... 24 24 25

state and economic administration,
administrative bodies of co-opera-
tive and public organizations, cred-
it and insurance establishments 3 3 3

other branches . . . ... 7 6 7



The Soviet state has created all the conditions for
the active participation of women in all branches of the
national economy. In 1967 out of the total number of
women industrial and office workers 37 per cent worked
in industry and construction and 25 per sent in education,
public health, science and scientific services.







11. Number of women specialists with higher
and secondary special education engaged in
the national economy

Total number including
of women
specialists with
higher and those with
secondary spe- those with secondary
cial education higher edu- special
engaged in the cation education
national
economy


(thousand)


1928
1941 (January 1)
1960 (December 1)
1966 (November 15)


151
864
5,189
7,540


65
312
1,865
2,717


86
552
3,324
4,823


As a percentage of the total number of specialists


1928
1941 (January 1)
1960 (December 1)
1966 (November 15)


In pre-revolutionary Russia a very small number of
women, mostly from the privileged strata of society,
were educated in higher and secondary educational es-
tablishments.
In the U.S.S.R. women receive higher and secondary
special education on an equal footing with men. The
number of women specialists with higher and secondary
special education is constantly rising. By the end of
1966 the number of women specialists with higher and
secondary special education engaged in the national
economy was 50 times greater than in 1928 and reached
over 7.5 million or 58 per cent of the total number of
specialists.





12. Number of women specialists with higher education engaged
in the national economy (by professions)

thousand As a percentage of the total number
of specialists in the given profession

1941 1960 1966 1941 1960 1966
(Jan. 1) (Dec. 1) (Nov. 15) (Jan. 1) (Dec. 1) (Nov. 15)

Total number of women specialists
with higher education engaged in
the national economy .. . 312 1,865 2,717 34 53 52
including the following specialists
trained at educational establish-
ments:
engineers . . . . . . 44 324 544 15 29 30
agronomists, livestock specialists,
and veterinary surgeons . . 17 91 129 25 41 40
economists and economic statisti-
cians . . . . . .. . 18 113 209 31 57 63
doctors (without dentists) ... 85 302 375 60 75 72
teachers and university graduates,*
librarians and cultural and educa-
tional workers ........ 144 901 1,332 49 65 68
Geologists, classified under engineers, and lawyers,doctors and economists, classified under
corresponding groups of professions, are not included among university graduates.






13. Number of women specialists with secondary
special education engaged
in the national economy (by professions)
As a percentage of the total
thousand number of specialists in the
given profession

1956 1960 1966 1956 1960 1E66
(Dec. 1) (Dec. 1) (Nov. 15) (Dec. 1) (Dec. 1) (Nov. 15)


Total number of women specialists
with secondary special education
engaged in the national economy 2,382 3,324 4,823 66 63 68
including the following specialists
trained at educational establish-
ments:
technicians ............ 414 706 1,197 39 36 38
agronomists, livestock specialists,
veterinary assistants ...... 117 150 229 40 42 46
planners and statisticians ..... 194 239 478 77 71 75
medical workers (including dentists) 818 1,088 1,423 91 92 93
teachers, librarians and cultural and
educational workers ..... . 738 861 1,114 79 81 84







14. Participation of women
in collective-farm production
in the Union republics in 1967


Percentage of
women in the total
number of people
working at collec-
tive farms



U.S.S.R ................ 53
R.S.F.S.R .............. 54
Ukrainian S.S.R. . . . .. ..56
Byelorussian S.S.R .. . . ... 56
Uzbek S.S.R. . . . . . .. 53
Kazakh S.S.R. ........... 48
Georgian S.S.R. . . . ... 52
Azerbaijan S.S.R . . . .. 53
Lithuanian S.S.R .. . . .... ..52
Moldavian S.S.R.. . . . .. 53
Latvian S.S.R. . . . ... ..52
Kirghiz S.S.R. . . . . .. 51
Tajik S.S.R . . . . .48
Armenian S.S.R. . . . . ... 51
Turkmen S.S.R . . . . .. .52
Estonian S.S.R. . . . . 50




Women have an important part to play in agricultur-
al production. It is quite usual now for the woman col-
lective-farm worker to be a team-leader, farm manageress,
chairman or member of a collective-farm management
board.
40







15. Number of women doctors of all specialities
(excluding military personnel; at the end
of the year)

including women doctors
Total number
of doctors of percentage of
Years all specialities women in the
(thousand) thousand total number of
doctors


1913*

1928

1937

1940

1950

1955

1958

1960

1966


28.1

70.0

115.2

155.3

265.0

333.7

388.4

431.7

577.7


2.8

31.5

59.1

96.3

204.9

254.8

294.6

327.1

422.7


In pre-revolutionary Russia there were 2.8 thousand
women doctors or 10 per cent of the total number of
doctors. In 1966 this figure was 423 thousand or 73 per
cent. The number of women doctors in 1966 increased
4.4 times, as compared with 1940 and 151 times as com-
pared with 1913.
In the U.S.A. women doctors account for only 7 per
cent of the total number of doctors.**

Within present-day boundaries of the U.S.S.R.
** Higher Education, September 1963, Vol. XX,
No. 1, p. 11.







16. Number of women doctors of all specialities
in the Union republics in 1966

(excluding military personnel;
at the end of the year)


including women
doctors
Total
number of
doctors of
all speciali- percentage
ties thou- of women
(thousand) sand in the total
number ot
doctors


U.S.S.R. ......... 577.7 422.7 73
R.S.F.S.R. . . .. 328.3 250.5 76
Ukrainian S.S.R. . .. 114.0 80.2 70
Byelorussian S.S.R. . 19.8 13.4 68
Uzbek S.S.R . . . 19.5 12.0 61
Kazakh S.S.R. ... 23.4 17.1 73
Georgian S.S.R. ... . 16.4 10.9 66
Azerbaijan S.S.R .... 11.6 7.6 66
Lithuanian S.S.R ..... 7.0 5.1 73
Moldavian S.S.R ..... 6.3 4.0 64
Latvian S.S.R. ... 7.5 5.9 79
Kirghiz S.S.R. ... 5.3 3.5 67
Tajik S.S.R. ... 4.1 2.5 60
Armenian S.S.R .. 6.3 4.5 71
Turkmen S.S.R .. .. 4.2 2.5 60
Estonian S.S.R.. .. 4.0 3.0 75




The overwhelming majority of doctors in all Union
republics are women.
Even in the national areas of tsarist Russia that
were most backward in the past, the number of women
doctors today is considerable. In the Kazakh S.S.R. in
1966 73 per cent of all doctors were women, in the Ar-
menian S.S.R. 71 per cent, in the Kirghiz S.S.R. 67 per
cent, in the Uzbek S.S.R. 61 per cent, and in the Tajik
S.S.R. 60 per cent.
42







17. Number of women teachers in primary, incomplete
secondary and secondary day schools
(according to the Ministry of Education of the
U.S.S.R. and the Ministry of Transport of the U.S.S.R.;
at the beginning of the school year)


Number of Percentage
teachers of women
(excluding including in the total
part-time women number of
workers), teachers teachers
thousand and head-
masters


Total number of teachers (in-
cluding headmasters)*
1960/61 ... ..... 1,884 1,312 70
1966/67 . . . .. 2,284 1,589 70
including:
headmasters of primary
schools . . . .. 84 63 75
headmasters of eight-year
schools .. . 58 15 25
headmasters of secondary
schools ...... 37 8 21
deputy headmasters of
eight-year schools 43 25 58
deputy headmasters of sec-
ondary schools . . 70 34 49
teachers (except teacher-
headmasters):
of classes 1-4 .. 689 599 87
of classes 5-10 (11) . 1,041 773 74
teachers of music, singing,
drawing, mechanical
drawing, physical and vo-
cational training. . 262 72 27



As a rule, school headmasters give lessons. Be-
sides, there are 97,000 women teachers and headmasters
of schools for young industrial and farm workers.







18. Women scientific workers

(at the end of the year)


1960 1967



Number of women scientific workers
(thousand) . . ..... . 128.7 294.9

including those with the academic
degree of:

Doctor of Sciences . . .. 1.1 2.2

Candidate of Sciences . . .. 28.8 45.4

From the total number of women
scientific workers those with the
academic titles of:

academician, corresponding member,
professor . . . . . 0.7 1.3

reader . . . . . . 6.2 11.6

senior scientific worker . .. 5.8 9.0

junior scientific worker and assist-
ant .. . . . . . 13.6 22.9




In 1967 more than 38 per cent of the total number
of scientific workers were women.

44







19. Women students at higher and secondary special
educational establishments
(at the beginning of the academic year)


1927/28 1960/61 1967 68


Percentage of women students at
higher educational establishments 28 43 46
including those at educational
establishments specialising in:
industry and construction, trans-
port and communications . 13 30 34

agriculture . . . . 17 27 27
economics and law . . .. 21 49 58
public health, physical culture
and sport .......... 52 56 54
education, art and cinematography 49 63 65

Percentage of women students at
secondary special educational es-
tablishments ....... 38 47 52

including those at educational
establishments specialising in:
industry and construction, trans-
port and communications . 9 33 39

agriculture . . . .. 15 38 35

economics and law . . .. 36 75 81

public health, physical culture
and sport . . . ... 89 84 88

education, art and cinematography 53 76 81







20. Women students in all higher educational
establishments in different countries



Academic Percent-
year age of
women



U.S.S.R. . . . . . ... 1965/66 44.4
1966/67 45.2
Bulgaria ... ... .. ... .. 1965/66 34.0
Hungary* . .......... 1964/65 41.7
German Democratic Republic .. .. 1965/66 26.0
Poland . . . . .. . . 1965/66 37.5
Czechoslovakia . . . . .. 1965/66 38.2
Albania . . . . . . .. 1964/65 20.4
China . . . ..... .. 1958/59 23.3
Democratic Republic of Vietnam . 1963/64 11.9
Yugoslavia . . . . 1965/66 33.5
Finland . . . . . 1963/64 48.5
France** .. . . . . . 1962/63 43.4
U.S.A . . . . .. . 1965/66 39.4
Denmark . . . . .... 1963/64 36.8
Sweden . . . . . ... 1962/63 35.2
German Federal Republic ..... .1964/65 30.9
Belgium ............ 11963/64 31.2
Italy . .. ... .... 1964/65 34.3
England . . .. .. ... .. 1964/65 28.5
Austria . . . ...... 1963/64 24.7
Turkey . . . . . .964/65 21.1
Netherlands . . . 1953/64 17.9
United Arab Republic .......... 1964/65 19.4
Syrian Arab Republic ........ .1964/65 16.6
India . . . . . . 1960/61 16.7
Japan ............. 1964165 15.8
Pakistan ...... 1962/63 12.0
Afghanistan . . . . . 1963/64 17.4




Only students in day departments.
** Only in universities.








21. Women students in higher technical educational
establishments in different countries



Academic Percent-
year age of
women



U.S.S.R . . . . . .. 1965/66 30.8
1966/67 32.2

German Democratic Republic . .. 1964/65 8.6*

Poland. . . . . . . . 1965/66 15.9

Czechoslovakia . . . . .. 1965/66 17.2

U.S.A .. .. . .. ... 1965/66 0.8

England . . . . ..... .. .1964/65 0.9

Italy . . . . . 1964/65 6.2

German Federal Republic . . .. 1964/65 2.8

Japan . . . . . 1964/65 0.6

Finland . . . . . . . 1963/64 7.6

Austria . . . . . . .. 1963/64 4.6

Sweden . . . . . .. 1962/63 4.9

Denmark . . . . . . 1963/64 3.9





Only students in day departments.






22. Medicoprophylactic treatment for women and children
(at the end of the year; thousand)


Obstetricians and gynaecologists . . . .
Pediatricians . ......... .. . . . .
Assistant midwives . . .
Midwives ...... .....................
Hospital beds for pregnant and parturient women . .
Hospital beds for gynaecological cases .. ......
Beds for children in hospitals of all types .......
Beds In children's sanatoria .. ..........
including those for children
suffering from tuberculosis ...... ............
Maternity and infant health centres (independent or affi-
liated to other institutions) . ...........
Children in permanent kindergartens, nurseries and
creche-kindergartens . . . . . .
including:
children in permanent kindergartens and creche-klnder-
gartens .....................
children in permanent nurseries. ... . . ..

1939 within the present-day boundaries.


1940


10.6
19.4
12.8
68.1
147.1
33.6
89.7
94.9*

39.1

8.6

1,953


1,172
781


1950

16.6
32.1
42.0
66.5
143.0
42.2
133.1
94.6

71.9

11.3

1,788


1,169
619


1960 1967

28.7 37.4
58.9 74.9
76.2 82.1
139.3 184.8
213.4 224.5
91.3 139.8
260.1 393.9
120.0 144.2

84.7 91.8

16.4 20.2

4,428 8,534


3,115 7,192
1,313 1,342






In 1967 there were 1,094 thousand children of nur-
sery age in creche-kindergartens which are accounted
together with kindergartens.
Besides permanent nurseries and kindergartens, sea-
sonal nurseries and playgrounds are organised during
the summer period which had an attendance of more than
4 million children in 1967.
The protection of mother and child in the U.S.S.R.
is ensured by a state system of special medical institu-
tions.
In tsarist Russia the hired assistance of a midwife
was the usual practice at childbirth but in rural areas
medical assistance at childbirth was practically una-
vailable.
An extensive system of maternity homes, children's
hospitals, maternity and infant health centres, polyclinics
and obstetric and assistant-obstetric centres covers the
whole country. In 1967 they employed more than 37 thou-
sand obstetricians and gynaecologists, 74.9 thousand pedi-
atricians, more than 82 thousand assistant midwives, more
than 184 thousand midwives and hundreds of thousands
of other medical workers in the sphere of mother and
child protection.
At the end of 1967 the U.S.S.R. had 225 thousand beds
for pregnant and parturient women, over 20 thousand
maternity and infant health centres whose numbers are
always increasing. 8.5 million children attended perma-
nent kindergartens, nurseries and creche-kindergartens.
Assistance to children in sanatoria has been substan-
tially developed. In 1967 there were over 144 thousand
beds in all types of children sanatoria.


4-88







23. Number of beds for pregnant and parturient
women in the Union republics

(at the end of the year; thousand)


1913* 1940 1950 1960 1967


U.S.S.R. . . . 7.5 147.1 143.0 213.4 224.5
R.S.F.S.R ..... .5.5 90.7 82.7 112.9 114.3.
Ukrainian S.S.R. .1.2 35.0 33.7 48.9 46.1
Byelorussian S.S.R. 0.3 5.4 4.4 6.7 7.1
Uzbek S.S.R. ... 0.06 2.8 3.5 8.7 12.0,
Kazakh S.S.R. 0.03 4.3 4.9 11.9 15.4
Georgian S.S.R. 0.1 1.9 2.5 3.9 4.3
Azerbaijan S.S.R. 0.04 2.0 2.1 3.3 4.9
Lithuanian S.S.R. .0.03 0.4 1.7 2.4 2.5
Moldavian S.S.R. 0.03 0.6 1.7 4.2 4.5
Latvian S.S.R. 0.15 0.8 1.1 1.7 1.3
Kirghz S.S.R. 0.01 0.8 1.0 2.6 3.7
Tajik S.S.R. . 0.6 0.8 1.4 2.5
Armenian S.S.R. 0.7 1.2 2.2 2.8
Turkmen S.S.R.. 0.01 0.8 0.9 1.7 2.3
Estonian S.S.R.. 0.06 0.3 0.8 0.9 0.8


Within the present-day boundaries.



The number of beds for pregnant and parturient
women has risen almost 30 times during the Soviet pe-
riod. This increase has been particularly steep in Kazakh-
stan and the Central Asian republics. In the Kazakh
S.S.R. the number of beds for pregnant and parturient
women has risen 530 times, in the Kirghiz S.S.R. 306
times, in the Uzbek S.S.R. 194 times and in the Turk-
men S.S.R. 177 times. In the Tajik S.S.R. the number of
beds for pregnant and parturient women in 1967 reached
2.5 thousand, whereas prior to the Soviet period there
were no beds at all.
50







24. Number of beds for children in medical
institutions in the Union republics
(at the end of the year; thousand)

1940 1950 1958 1960 1967



U.S.S.R. . . . 89.7 133.1 226.7 260.1 393.9
R.S.F.S.R. . ... 57.4 88.8 141.2 157.0 222.4
UkrainianS.S.R. 15.1 20.2 38.8 45.9 65.6
Byelorussian S.S.R. 2.0 2.5 5.5 6.2 11.1
Uzbek S.S.R ... 2.7 4.5 6.9 10.4 20.1
Kazakh S.S.R. 5.6 4.7 10.4 12.2 26.1
Georgian S.S.R. 1.0 1.8 3.3 3.6 5.5
Azerbaijan S.S.R.. 1.7 2.6 3.4 4.0 6.7
Lithuanian S.S.R. 0.5 1.0 2.4 2.8 4.7
Moldavian S.S.R. 0.3 0.9 3.2 4.2 8.1
Latvian S.S.R. 0.9 1.6 2.6 2.8 3.2
Kirghiz S.S.R. 0.4 0.7 2.1 2.9 6.0
Tajik S.S.R. .. 0.7 1.0 1.6 2.0 5.2
Armenian S.S.R.. 0.5 0.9 1.8 2.2 3.2
Turkmen S.S.R. 0.7 1.0 1.8 2.0 3.6
Estonian S.S.R. 0.2 0.9 1.7 1.9 2.4



The protection of children's health in the Soviet Un-
ion is ensured by an extensive network of institutions
affording children medicoprophylactic treatment.
The number of beds for children in medical insti-
tutions shows an annual increase. In 1967 there were
393.9 thousand or almost 4.4 times as many as in 1940.
In tsarist Russia medical help for children was organ-
ised very unsatisfactorily. Only large towns had the facil-
ities of children's medical institutions but their number
was negligible.






g 25. Number of children in permanent pre-school
institutions in the Union republics

(at the end of the year; thousand)


1940 1950 1958 1960 1967


U.S.S.R. . . . . . . . 1,953 1,788 3,459 4,428 8,534
R.S.F.S.R. . . . . . . .... 1,266 1,239 2,388 3,038 5,378
Ukrainian S.S.R. . . . . .... 319 251 452 589 1,369
Byelorusslan S.S.R. . . . . . . 64 29 69 98 235
Uzbek S.S.R. . . . . . . ... 74 67 143 176 304
Kazakh S.S.R. . . . . . .... 37 45 119 167 489
Georgian S.S.R. ............. 48 33 48 58 112
Azerbaijan S.S.R. . . .... . 57 31 45 53 106
Lithuanian S.S.R. ............... 14 8 16 21 62
Moldavian S.S.R . . . . . .. .5 7 20 28 77
Latvian S.S.R. . . . . . . 6 10 21 26 62
Kirghiz S.S.R. .......... . 7 10 26 36 80
Tajik S.S.R. ............. 8 10 25 32 60
Armenian S.S.R .. . . ...... 18 13 24 33 77
Turkmen S.S.R. . . . . . . . 25 27 46 52 75
Estonian S.S.R. . . . . . .. . 5 8 17 21 48














26. Number of women engaged in physical culture in
sport sections

(at the end of the year; million)


Total number of athletes

including women


In 1967 37.3 thousand women instructressess
and trainers) were engaged in physical edu-
cation. Eleven thousand women held the title
of Master of Sport of the U.S.S.R.







27. Average life expectancy for people of certain age
in the country before and after the Revolution*

(number of years)

1896-97 1926-27 1966-67
Whole Whole Whole
popula- women popula- women popula- women
tion tion tion

Newborn babies 32 33 44 47 70 74
At the age of:
5 50 50 57 59 68 71
10 49 49 54 56 63 66
20 41 41 45 47 54 57
30 34 34 38 40 44 47
40 27 27 30 32 36 38
50 20 20 23 24 27 29
60 14 14 16 17 19 21
70 10 10 10 11 13 13
80 7 7 6 7 8 8



Average life expectancy implies the number
of years which a given generation is expected
to live, provided that the prevailing death-rate
for the various age-groups remains unchanged
as the generation passes from one age-group to
another.
This method of calculating average life expec-
tancy is adopted in international statistics and
in life insurance practice.


The Soviet state is concerned about protecting and
constantly improving the health of the entire population.
A wide programme designed to prevent and reduce di-
seases considerably and to extend life expectancy is now
in operation.
As a result of the considerable decrease of the death-
rate, the average life expectancy during 1966-67 was more
than double the level in pre-revolutionary Russia. The
average life expectancy for women during 1966-67 was
74 years as against 33 years before the revolution.




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