..... . . .
PRESIDENT MCKINLEY AND HIS CABINET.
AUTHOR OF THE ZIG ZAG JOURNEYS; FOR THE BOYHOOD
OF LINCOLN, ETC.
1ReviseD ano Enlargeb
OVER ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY ENGRAVINGS
THE WERNER COMPANY
NEW YORK AKRON OHIO
TiHll WERNER COMPANY
Story of America
PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION
THE editor has sought the best materials in the prep-
aration of this History of America, and is indebted to
McKenzie's admirable History of the United States, a
work published abroad some ten years ago, for the larger
part of the text, and especially for the fine moral analyses
in the parts having reference to the Puritans, to Slavery,
and to the War for the Union.
The opening chapter and the .chapters prior to and
inclusive of the period terminating with the assassination
of President Garfield, are, for the most part, original;
the text from McKenzie has been enlarged, revised, and
edited; stories have been interpolated, and the illustrations
have been selected from the best sources by the most com-
petent editors. H. BUTTERWORTH.
The story of the nation, for the further period com-
mencing with the year 1881 up to the present time, has
been constructed upon data gleaned from recognized
authors and from the official records of contemporary
history. EDITOR. (188I.)
NEW PREFATORY NOTE
STHIS history, founded on McKenzie's text, is entrusted
to me for revision and additions, after passing through so
many editions as to have become a very popular work in
American homes and schools. The editor now adds a
review of recent events; of the success of Arbitration,
of the Colonial policy of Spain in Cuba, of the early
episodes of the Cuban war for liberation, and of the inter-
vention of the United States in Cuba, as a duty to hu-
manity. H. BUTTERWORTH. -(1898.)
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
President McKinley and Cabinet . . .
The Cradock Mansion . . . . . .
Phoenician Vessel . . . . . .
Dighton Rock . . . . . .
Skeleton in Armor . . . . . . .
Mounds at Marietta, Ohio . . . . .
Mounds near Newark, Ohio . . .. . .
Fragment of Ancient Pueblo Pottery . . .
Toltec Ruins, Yucatan .. . . .....
Siberian Elephant and Mastodon Restored . .
Indians in Council . . . . . .
Coil-made Jar from Southern Utah . . . .
Spanish Prior . . . . . .
Columbus Watching for Land . . . ..
" Dreary with Ice and Snow . . . .
Ponce de Leon in the St. John's River . . .
Bivouac in Florida . . . . . . .
Burial of De Soto . . . . . .
Home of the Alligator . . . .
Tropical Forest . . . . . . .
Henry VIII.. . . . . . .
Champlain . . . . . . .
Quebec in x608 . . . . . .
Chained Bible, Time of James I. . . . .
Planting the Cross on New Lands . . . .
Francis I. . . . . . . .
The Ruined Settlement . . . . . .
Sir W alter Raleigh . . . . . .
The Settlers at Jamestown . . . . .
Clearing the Forest . . . . . .
John Smith a Captive among the Indians . . .
Indian Attack on Settlers in Virginia . . .
Baptism of Virginia Dare . . . . .
Captain Smith and the Chief of Paspahegh . .
. . 38
* . 39
* . 47
S. . 52
. . 56
. . 6o
. . 65
. . 68
. . 69
. . 77
. . 79
List of Illustrations.
Marriage of John Rolfe and Pocahontas . ... .. 8
"Meadows Stretched to the Eastward" . . . .. .84
Dinner Amusements at Port Royal . . . ... 87
Baptism of Indians at Port Royal . . . . .. 91
James I.................... . 93
The Mayflower at Sea . . . . . . .. 95
William, Prince of Orange. . . . . . . 97
The Pilgrims Receiving Massasoit. . . . .. .101
Many Visitors . . . . . 105
Oliver Cromwell. .. . . . . . . . o6
Founding a New Settlement . . . . . .. .107
Charles I ................... o9
Dealing out the Five Kernels of Corn . . . ... .. i
French and Dutch Quarrel .... . . . . .115
Destruction of the Narragansetts . . . . .. .121
The Alarm . . . . . . .. 123
Death in the Field .............. 124
Death of King Philip. . . . . . .. 125
Weetamo on a Raft ............. . 128
Philip's Head Brought to Plymouth . . . ... . 29
Monument to John Eliot . . . . . . .. 135
Henry Hudson in the North River. . . . . 137
Charles II ... . . . . .... .140
Dutch Traders at Manhattan . . . . . .. .141
Penn's Arrival in America. . . . . . . 144
Ruins in Central America . . . . . ... .145
Dr.Johnson ......... ......... 148
Penn's Colonists on the Delaware . . . . ... 150
George II . . . . . . . . 151
Oglethorpe and the Indians . . . . . ... .153
W;tchcraft at Salem Village . . . . 161
Whipping Quakers at the Cart's Tail in Boston . . .. .167
Roger Williams in Peril for his Enemies . . ... 171
George Fox . . . . . . . 173
The Old and the New . . . . . . .. 175
James II........... ........... 178
George Washington. . . . . . . .. 181
Franklin . . ..... . . . 184
Burke . . . . . . . . . 185
Death of General Braddock . . ...... 191
French and English Naval Conflict . . . ... 95
List of Illustratzons.
Montcalm .............. . 198
Death of Wolfe .......... ...... 199
William Pitt, Earl of Chatham . . . . . .. 206
Samuel Adams . . . . . . . ... 209
Destruction of Tea . . . . . . . . 213
The Signal Lanterns . . . . . . 218
Paul Revere's Ride . . . . . . ... 219
Battle of Lexington. . . . . . . .223
British at Colonel Barrett's . . . . . . 225
Roads and Historic Localities at Concord, Mass. ... .226
Combat at the Bridge . . . . . . .. 227
Fight at Merriam's Corner . . . . . .. .230
Christ Church, the Old North Meeting-House . . .. .232
The Hancock House . . . . . . . 236
Faneuil Hall ...... ............ 37
Andros a Prisoner in Boston . . . . . . 239
Queen Mary ... . . . 241
The Battle of Bunker Hill . . . . . .. .243
The Old Powder-House at Somerville . . . .. 247
General Israel Putnam . . . . . . .. .251
English Ships of-War . . . . . . .. 255
Breed's and Bunker Hills . . . . . ... 259
Bunker Hill Monument . . . . . . .. 261
The Washington Elm .. . . . . . 262
George III. ........ ............ .271
Continental Currency . . . . . . . 273
Washington Crossing the Delaware . . . . .. 277
Lafayette .................... 281
English Attacked at Germantown . . . . .. 285
French Naval Victory . . . . . . ... 291
The Assault ................. 301
1775 . . . . . . . . .. 303
Mount Vernon................. .. 309
Fight between the Constellation and La Vengeance . . 311
The English Right of Search ............ 315
Sea-Fight, War of 1812 . . . . . . . 317
English Captive in French and Indian War ..... 321
Jesuit Missionary Addressing the Indians . . . .. 327
Marquette and Joliet Discover the Mississippi . . .. .333
La Salle Claims the Mississippi Valley for France . . 337
Murder of La Salle in Texas . . . . . . 341
List of Illustrations.
Emigrants on the St. Lawrence . . . . ... 347
Mule-jenny Spinning-frame . . . . . ... 351
Cotton Plant .................. 352
Scene in Texas . . . . . . .. 359
Daniel Webster . . . . . . . ... .361
General Taylor on the Rio Grande ...... . . .. .364
Spanish Monastery in Mexico. . . . . . . 365
General Pierce Landing in Mexico . . . .... 368
The Land of Promise . . . . . . .. 369
Gold Digging . . . . . . . 372
Crossing the Mountains . . . . . . . 3"3
Gold Washing in California . . . . . . 377
Pioneer Life in the West . . . . . ... 381
Border Settlers. . . . . . . . 385
Pioneer Travellers. ..... . . . . . 389
Home of a Western Pioneer . . . .. . 393
Going to Court through Western Woods . . . . 399
i86I .......... .... ... . . ... 405
Attack on Fort Sumter . . . . . . .. 409
Passing through Baltimore ..... . . . 415
Battle-Field ... . . . . . . 430
Slaves Escaping to Union Troops . . . . . 433
Battle of Antietam . . . . * * 437
Plan of Battle of Gettysburg . . . . . 447
The Wilderness ... . . . . . . 457
Camp Followers of Sherman's Army, Foraging . . . 461
Sheridan Turning the Tide of Battle ... . . . 465
Ruins in Richmond . . . . . . 471
Negro Troops in Richmond ... . . . . 475
President Lincoln in Richmond .... .. . . * 479
Assassination of Lincoln . . . . . 481
Capitol at Washington . . . ..... 487
Horticultural Hall . . . . . . 495
Bridge near Fairmount . . . . . * 499
Memorial Hall . . .. . ...... 503
The Main Building . . .... ....... 507
James A. Garfield . . . . ... 509
Young Garfield and the Salt-Boiler. . . .. . ... 511
Young Garfield and the Board of Trustees . . . . 513
Assassination of President Garfield , ...... .. 517
List of Illustrations.
Chester A. Arthur ................. .522
Rutherford B. Hayes .. .... . . . ... 522
Benjamin Harrison .... . .... . . . .574
Grover Cleveland ... . . . . 574
James G. Blaine . .. . .... . . . . 615
Admiral Dewey....... ... . . . 635
Admiral Sampson.. . . . . . 640
Richmond Pearson Hobson . . . . . . 641
View near Santiago . .. ... . . . 650
Flag Raising .. ....... .......... 652
Pestalozzi .......... ............. 656
ALL great events of history follow the spiritual vision
of the prophet, and men build nations after the pattern
seen by the seer on the Mount of God.
''God made me the messenger of the new heavens and
earth," said Columbus, "and told me where to find them.
Maps, charts, and mathematical knowledge had nothing
to do with the case."
When the Pilgrims of Leyden were preparing to embark,
John Robinson, the pastor of the church of the Pilgrim-
age, said: -
"Go ye forth into the wilderness, and new light will
break forth from the Word."
The History of America follows this new light. Obe-
dience to spiritual law led men to freedom, equality, and
brotherhood, and the dominion of justice is to become
that of peace. The old legend that Bradford of Auster-
field dealt out five kernels of corn to the Pilgrims in the
year of famine may be questioned, as it has been, but this
man of prevision did inspire the people gathered on the
rude shore of Plymouth Rock with the prophecy that
their future should be like the harvest of a handful of
Robinson, the pastor of the Pilgrims, never saw the
company of the Mayflower after he parted from the Pil-
grims in prayer and song. But the exiles began the great
nation of the West after the manner which he saw in his
It is an inspiring study to take this view of American
"He that is spiritual judgeth all things," and step by
step, the land of the Pilgrims, Patriots, and Emancipators
of men, has developed from within.
Our history is a story of liberty of conscience, of free-
dom, of noble effort, of justice, and of progress, tending
to the reign of Peace.
THE CRADOCK MANSION.
The oldest house in America ; built about 1634 by Matthew Cradock, the
first Governor of the Massachusetts Colony. I?
HISTORY OF AMERICA.
THE MYSTERIOUS RACES.
IT is highly probable that the American continent was
known to the ancients, though in a somewhat imperfect way.
Plato, four hundred years before our Saviour's time, gives a
particular account of the great island of Atlantis, "an island
that was larger than Libya (Africa) and Asia." Strabo and
Pliny both mention a like mysterious island. We are told
that this great territory was inhabited by a powerful people,
who became so wicked that they were drowned by the judg-
ment of heaven, and that the island itself, that was larger
than Africa and Asia, sunk in the sea. For many years it
was deemed dangerous for navigators to sail westward on
account of the ruins of this mysterious island which, it was
believed, strewed the waters and impeded the way.
Atlantis may have been a fabulous land, but the Phce-
nicians or Canaanites had a knowledge of a country beyond
the sea. Phoenicia, like England, once ruled the waves.
Take the map of Asia and glance over the narrow strip of
territory lying between the hills of Palestine and the sea.
Here are the sites of Tyre and Sidon, the ancient London
and Liverpool of the Mediterranean, into whose gay bazaars,
glittering temples, and spacious palaces once flowed the lux-
14 Young Folks' History of America.
uries of the world. The ships of Phoenicia gathered the
treasures of the Mediterranean, the Euxine, and the Adriatic,
the vine-clad hills of lonia and Italy, and the shores of
Southern Europe and Northern Africa. The Pillars of Her-
cules (Gibraltar) were for a long period believed to be the
end of the world.
The Phoenician sailors began to strike out beyond the
Pillars of Hercules. They visited the British Islands for tin,
and the shores of the Baltic for amber. We are told that
certain of these navigators were once driven on to a wonder-
fully fertile island in the Western Ocean, and that it was their
purpose to keep this discovery a secret.
THE WRITING ROCK AND SKELETON IN ARMOR.
Among the most marked evidences that the coast of New
England was visited by old-time mariners long before the
coming of the Spanish voyagers and the Pilgrims, are the
well-preserved relics known as the Writing Rock, at Dighton,
The Writing Rock.
Massachusetts, the Skeleton in Armor found at Fall River, and
that ancient landmark, the Old Stone Tower, at Newport.
The celebrated Writing Rock at Dighton is situated on the
Taunton River, a stream associated with many Indian tradi-
tions and events of colonial history. It is otten visited by
antiquaries, and its inscriptions are well preserved. It con-
sists of a solitary mass of fine-grained granite, lying on the
sands of the river, a few feet above low-water mark, but cov-
ered with water at each rising of the tide. On the water side
it presents an inclined plane, the face of which, eleven feet
by five feet, seems to have been originally covered with sculp-
tures and hieroglyphic inscriptions. The face of the rock is
extremely hard, and, however old the inscriptions may be,
those that rise above the low-water mark can have undergone
but little change from the action of the elements.
The rock was noticed by the Pilgrims, but received little
attention from historians and antiquaries until the years
1834-35, when a most extraordinary relic was found a few
miles distant, in the town of Fall River. In digging down a
hill near the town, a mass of earth slid off, uncovering a
human skull, which was found to belong to a skeleton buried
16 Young Folks' History of America.
in a sitting posture, enveloped in a covering of bark. This
envelope was removed, when the astonished workman saw
that the trunk of this skeleton was encased in a breastplate
of brass. The breastplate, which was similar to that which
Homer describes as having been worn by Hector, was thirteen
inches long, six inches broad at the upper end and about
five inches at the lower.
It was evidently cast in a
furnace, and was about
one-eighth of an inch in
S(- But what is most remark-
S able about this armor is,
S that it seems to have no
association with the armo-
rial customs of Northern or
Eastern Europe, nor with
THE SKELETON IN ARMOR. any recent historical date.
Below the breastplate, and
entirely encircling the body, was a belt composed of brass
tubes, each four and a half inches in length and three-six-
teenths of an inch in diameter. The tubes were cast upon
hollow reeds, and were so prepared as to protect the vulner-
able parts of the body below the breastplate.
Who were these mysterious and unknown mariners The
poet Longfellow, in his "Skeleton in Armor," associates this
nameless hero with the builders of the round arch tower at
Newport, which the Danes claim as the work of their ances-
tors. Out of the materials thus supplied the poet weaves a
fanciful story, which is familiar to many of my readers:-
Speak, speak, thou fearful guest,
Who with thy hollow breast,
Still in rude armor drest,
Comest to daunt met k
MOUNDS AT MARIETTA, OHIO.
The Mound-Builders. 19
To which the skeleton in armor is supposed to begin his
story thus: -
Far in the Northern land,
By the wild Baltic strand,
I, with my childish hand,
Tamed the ger-falcon."
The researches of travellers and antiquaries have, however,
thrown discredit upon the romantic narrative that follows
these lines. Both the skeleton and the inscription on the
Writing Rock seem to be of Asiatic origin. Several care-
ful writers on the subject believe the Writing Rock to contain
a representation of the Pillars of Hercules (Gibraltar), and
that the mail-clad hero was one of the crew of a Phoenician
vessel who passed the Pillars of Hercules and crossed the
Atlantic. The armor is the same as appears in drawings
taken from the sculptures found at Palenque,.Mexico, which
has led to the supposition that an Asiatic race transiently
settled in North America, and afterwards went to Mexico and
founded those rock-walled cities, in exploring the ruins of
which such astonishing evidences of Asiatic civilization have
been discovered. A portion of the North American Indians
and certain tribes of the Aztecs in Mexico had distinct tradi-
tions of the flood.
Of all the vanished races of antiquity the Mound-builders
are among the most mysterious and interesting. Their
mounds are to be found principally in the West, and are nu-
merous in the Mississippi Valley. A mound until recently
was to be seen on the plain of Cahokia, Illinois, nearly oppo-
site the city of St. Louis, Missouri, that was seven hundred
feet long, five hundred feet broad, ninety feet high, and that
covered more than eight acres of ground. Some of these
20 Young Folks' History of America.
mounds in Wisconsin and Iowa are in the shape of huge ani-
mals; and there is one near Brush Creek, Adams County,
MOUNDS NEAR NEWARK, OHIO.
Ohio. that is in the form of a serpent, and that is more thai
one thousand feet in length. The mouth of this strange
figure is open, as in the act of swallowing or ejecting ainoval
substance, which is also curiously made of earth-works. This
oval mound is thought to represent an egg.
At Marietta, Ohio, are ancient works that cover an area
about three-fourths of a mile long, and half a mile broad.
"There are two irregular squares, one containing fifty acres,
and the other twenty-seven acres, together with the crowning
work standing apart, which is a mound thirty feet high, ellip-
tical in form, and enclosed by a circular embankment."
But the most intricate, and perhaps the most extensive, of
the works of the Mound-builders are those in the Licking
Valley, near Newark, Ohio, extending over an area of two
square miles. Why they were built we may not even con-
jecture, but that they were constructed with almost infinite
toil by a superior race of people, under skilled direction and
for some definite purpose, no one can deny who examines
Many of these mounds -
have been found to con- -r"'
tain skeletons; and the
appearance of the bones
would seem to point to .
an antiquity of two thou-
sand or more years. Curi-
ous pottery, known as the
" coil-made," has been -
found in the mounds and
caves, and at the ruined
FRAGMENT OF ANCIENT PUEBLO POTTERY.
pueblos in Utah. Ves-
sels of various forms and sizes were made, without the pot-
ter's wheel, by coiling bands of clay upon themselves. On
the outside the projecting edges of these coils often formed
bands or ridges, which were cut into diamond-shaped figures,
marked with the thumb-nail, or otherwise ornamented, as
shown in the engraving of the coil-made jar.
22 Young Folks' .History of America.
The ancient Mexican pyramids, teocailis, or temples of the
sun, were still more remarkable. Two of the most ancient
of these, near the city of Mexico, were each nearly two hun-
dred feet high, and the larger of these two covers an area of
eleven acres, which is nearly equal to that of the Pyramid of
Cheops, in Egypt. The ancient city of Mexico contained
nearly two thousand temples and structures, and it is believed
that there were some forty thousand in the whole empire.
Who built these mounds in the Mississippi Valley, and these
pyramids in Mexico? Not the Indians who were found in
America when the country was discovered. They are the
productions of greater skill and culture than these tribes pos-
sessed. They are doubtless the monuments of a vanished
people, whose coming and going and splendid history must
ever remain to a great extent a mystery.
Antiquaries have furnished many theories to answer this
question which arises in the mind of every student of history.
Some have maintained that the Mound-builders and the mys-
terious people who preceded the Aztecs in Mexico were the
descendants of crews from Japan, whose ships had been ac-
cidentally driven across the Pacific.
A more reasonable solution is that these people migrated
Take your map: look at the Isthmus of Suez; cross Cen-
tral Asia to Siberia; carefully examine Behring Strait; run
your eye down the western coast and the Mississippi Valley,
thence to Mexico, thence across the Isthmus of Panama to
Peru. You have now passed over the supposed track of an
Asiatic race, possibly the Shepherd Kings.
Who were the Shepherd Kings?
They came down to Egypt from Central India, driving
their flocks before them, about the time of the building of the
Tower of Babel. They conquered Egypt, built the pyramids,
but were at last overcome by the ancient inhabitants, and
TOLTEC RUINS, YUCATAN. 23
driven away from the Nile. They wandered back into Cen-
tral Asia. In Siberia, it would seem, they erected mounds
like those in the Mississippi Valley. They are then supposed
to have journeyed north, crossed Behring Strait, which was
then very narrow, passed through Alaska to the temperate
zone, and pushed south to Mexico, Central America, and Peru.
THE SIBERIAN ELEPHANT AND MASTODON RESTORED.
We do not say that this theory is proven to be true : it has
many things to support it. It is so interesting and it makes
the ancient Egyptians seem so neighborly, we could wish it to
That access from Asia to America was easy centuries ago,
possibly by land connection, is evident from the discovery in
Siberia and on the Pacific coast, in Alaska, of the remains of
the Siberian elephant.
26 Young Folks' History of Americd.
The Indians do not seem to have sprung from the Mound-
builders or the founders of the ancient Mexican Empire.
They may have been the descendants of Mongolian emigrants
who crossed at different times the Strait of Behring.
Nearly all the Indian tribes that inhabited the continent at
the time of its discovery are gone. They have vanished,
like the forests they inhabited, and the beasts of prey they
hunted. New England was once the home of the Narragan-
setts, the Pequots, the Mohegans, but nothing but the names
of these tribes remain; the Iroquois dwelt by the great lakes
of Erie and Huron, and the Algonquin nations inhabited the
centre of the continent. Beyond the Algonquin territory
lived the Dacotahs, on the prairies of the west, while on
the south were the Tuscaroras, the Catawbas, the Creeks,
and the Seminoles. With the exception of the Seminoles
and the Dacotahs, hardly a remnant of these tribes remains;
the church-spires rise and the school-bells ring where their
wigwams clustered, and the locomotives roll through the fair
valleys where they once smoked the pipe of peace, and
under the pine-plumed hills against which their war-cry was
They were a race of tall, powerful men copper-colored,
with hazel eye, high cheek-bone, and coarse black hair. In
manner they were grave, and not without a measure of dig-
nity. They had courage, but it was of that kind which is
greater in suffering than in doing. They were true to their
friends, but to their enemies they were cunning, treacherous,
and cruel. Civilization could lay no hold upon them. They
quickly learned to use the white man's musket. They never
learned tc use the tools of the white man's indu-try. They
developed a love for intoxicating drink, passionate and irre-
sistible beyond all example. The first settlers of New Eng-
land intended to treat them as Christian men should. They
took no land from them. What land they required they
bought and paid for. Nearly all of New England's soil was
INDIANS IN COUNCIL.
come by with scrupulous honesty. The friendship of the
Indians was anxiously cultivated, sometimes from fear,
oftener from pity. But nothing could stay their progress
towards extinction. Inordinate drunkenness and the gradual
28 Young Folks' History of America.
limitation of their hunting-grounds told fatally on their num-
bers. And occasionally the English were forced to march
against some tribe which refused to be at peace, and to
inflict a defeat which left few survivors.
COIL-MADE JAR FROM SOUTHERN UTAH.
THE GREAT DISCOVERY, A.D. 1492.
IT was late in the history of the world before Europe and
America became known to each other. During the first fif
teen centuries of the Christian era Europe was unaware of the
vast continent which lay beyond the sea.
Men had been slow to establish completely their dominion
over the sea. They learned very early to build ships. They
availed themselves very early of the surprising power which
the helm exerts over the movements of a ship. But, during
many ages, they found no surer guidance upon the pathless
sea than that which the position of the sun and the stars af-
forded. When clouds intervened to deprive them of these
uncertain guides, they were helpless. They were thus obliged
to keep the land in view, and content themselves with creep-
ing timidly along the coast.
At length there was discovered a stone which the wise
Creator had endowed with strange properties. It was ob-
served that a needle brought once into contact with that stone
pointed ever afterwards steadfastly to the north. Men saw
that with a needle thus influenced they could guide them-
selves at sea as surely as on land. The mariners' compass
untied the bond which held sailors to the coast, and gave
them liberty to push out upon the sea.
Just when sailors were slowly learning to put confidence in
the mariners' compass, there arose in Europe a vehement
desire for the discovery of unknown countries. A sudden
interest sprang up in all that was distant and unexplored.
30 Young Folks' Zistory of America.
The strange fables told by travellers were greedily received.
The human mind was beginning to cast off the torpor of the
Middle Ages. As intelligence increased, men became in-
creasingly eager to ascertain the form and extent of the world
in which they dwelt, and to acquaint themselves with those
unknown races who were their fellow-inhabitants.
Portugal and Spain, looking out upon the boundless sea,
were powerfully stirred by the new impulse. The courts of
Lisbon and Madrid swarmed with adventurers who had made
discoveries, or who wished the means to make them. Con-
spicuous among these was an enthusiast, who during eighteen
years had not ceased to importune incredulous monarchs for
ships and men that he might open up the secrets of the sea.
He was a tall man, of grave and gentle manners, and noble
though saddened look. His eye was gray, apt to enkindle "
when he spoke of those discoveries in the making of which
he felt himself to be Heaven's chosen agent. He had known
hardship and sorrow in his youth, and at thirty his hair was
white. His name was Christopher Columbus. In him the
universal passion for discovery rose to the dignity of an in-
THE STORY OF COLUMBUS.
Christopher Columbus, or Columbo, was born at Genoa,
Italy, about the year 1436 (Irving). He was of a humble
family, and one of his early employment was feeding swine.
But he had a high spirit and a restless religious zeal, and he
engaged in the life of a mariner at the age of fourteen. He
thirsted for knowledge, and studied geometry, astronomy, ge-
ography, navigation, and the Latin language, at the University
of Pavia. From this time he stored his mind with knowledge,
and it was this studiousness that put it in his power to so in-
terest a good Spanish prior in his schemes for exploration as
to lead to his successful introduction to the court of Spain.
The Story of Columbus.
For, one day, hungry and weary and discouraged that no
one would favor his enterprises, he stopped to rest in the
shadow of an old Spanish convent. It was high noon, and
he asked the prior for a cup of water. The monk brought
him the draught, and stopped to talk with him while he rested.
He was astonished at the schemes, visions, and learning of
the weary Genoese, and he promised to use his influence in
his behalf with the
Spanish court; and
in that chance hour
the destiny of the
Western World, then
unknown, was in ef-
fect changed, and a
new continent was
added to the dia- i
dems of Aragon
and Castile. Had
his mind been less
stored with the ac-
quirements of his 8
well- spent youth, SPANISH PRIOR.
when he stopped to
rest in the shadow of the convent, the map of the world
might have been different to-day. The incident affords a
telling lesson to the young, and aptly illustrates the value of
a well-stored mind.
Columbus was convinced by his studies that the world
must be spherical in form, and that there was probably
land on the western side to counterbalance that on the
east. He thought this land would prove to be a continu-
ance of Asia. Lisbon was famous for the exploits of her
mariners. Columbus went to Lisbon, and there mar-
ried the daughter of a famous navigator, whose charts and
32 Young Folks' History of America.
journals filled his mind with an unquenchable desire for
He applied to the senate of his native city for ships, but
in vain. He next sought the patronage of the king of Portu-
gal, but was disappointed. In 1484 he turned to Spain, and
procured an interview with Ferdinand, king of Aragon. The
cautious monarch heard his story, and referred his theory to
the learned men of the University of Salamanca. Some of
these wise men concluded that if there were indeed land on
the other side of the globe the people there must be obliged
to walk about with heads downward, as their feet would be
pointed upward; and as this would not be an agreeable
country to explore, they dismissed the subject.
But, at last, Columbus obtained a hearing of a more sus-
ceptible auditor at the Spanish court. Queen Isabella heard
his story and favored his cause. She is said to have parted
with some of her jewels to procure ships for the enthusiastic
adventurer. To one woman, his wife, Columbus owed the
fostering of his inspiration, and to another, the Spanish queen,
the means of carrying forward his plans and fulfilling his
No sailor of our time would cross the Atlantic in such
ships as were given to Columbus. In size they resembled
the smaller of our river and coasting vessels. Only one of
them was decked. The others were open, save at the prow
and stern, where cabins were built for the crew. The sailors
went unwillingly and in much fear, compelled by an order
from the king.
And now the feeble squadron of three ships is on the sea,
and the prows are turned toward the waste of waters, in whose
mysterious distances the sun seemed to set. It is Friday,
Aug. 3, 1492. On Sunday, September 9, the timid crews
passed the farthest known island. Out on the unknown
sea, the mariners' compass no longer pointed directly north,
COLUMSBUS WATCHING FOR LAND. 33
The Story of Columbus.
and awe and terror seized the sailors, as the distance be-
tween them and the land grew wider and wider.
The ships moved on under serene skies. Trade winds
blew from east to west. The air at last grew balmy, and fields
of sea-weed began to appear. Land birds lit upon the spars.
One evening, just at sunset,-it was September 25,-
Martin Alonzo Pinzon mounted the stern of the Pinta, and
peered into the far distance. A reward had been offered to
the person who should first discover land. Pinzon described
a shadowy appearance far over the western sea, and cried out
in great excitement, -
"Land land! I claim the promised reward, Senor.
Columbus threw himself upon his knees and led the crews
in singing Gloria in excelsis.
In the morning after the supposed discovery nothing but
the wide waters appeared. The supposed island was but a
For a fortnight more the ships drifted on over the quiet
waters. The seamen lost heart again and again in this awful
unexplored space. They mutinied, but the lofty spirit of
their leader disarmed them. At last, birds came singing
again; a branch of thorn with berries floated by the ships. A
vesper hymn to the Virgin was sung in the evening that these
indications of land were discovered.
"We shall see land in the morning," said Columbus.
He stood upon the deck all that night peering into the dim
starlit spaces. At midnight he beheld a light. The morning
came. Beautifully wooded shores rose in view. Birds of
gorgeous plumage hovered around them. The crews set off
from the ships in small boats. Columbus first stepped upon
The crews knelt on the strand and kissed the earth. They
wept and chanted hymns-of praise.
36 Young.Folks' History of America.
Then Columbus unfurled the banner of Spain, and claimed
the land in the name of the Spanish sovereigns. The triumph
was a realization of all the navigator's visions and dreams.
Columbus knew not the magnitude of his discovery. He
died in the belief that he had merely discovered a shorter
route to India. He never enjoyed that which would have
been the best recompense for all his toil, -the knowledge
that he had added a vast continent to the possessions of civi-
The revelation by Columbus of the amazing fact that there
were lands beyond the great ocean, inhabited by strange races
of human beings, roused to a passionate eagerness the thirst
for fresh discoveries. The splendors of the newly found
world were indeed difficult to be resisted. Wealth beyond
the wildest dreams of avarice could be had, it was said, for the
gathering. The sands of every river sparkled with gold.
The very color of the ground showed that gold was profusely
abundant. The meanest of the Indians ornamented himself
with gold and jewels. The walls of the houses glittered with
pearls. There was a fountain, if one might but find it, whose
waters bestowed perpetual youth upon the bather. The wild-
est romances were greedily received, and the Old World, with
its familiar and painful realities, seemed mean and hateful
beside the fabled glories of the New.
The men of the nations of Europe whose trade was fighting
turned gladly to the world where boundless wealth was to be
wrung from the grasp of unwarlike barbarians. England and
France had missed the splendid prize which Columbus had
won for Spain. They hastened now to secure what they could.
A merchant of Bristol, John Cabot, obtained permission
from the king of England to make discoveries in the northern
parts of America. Cabot was to bear all expenses, and the
king was to receive one-fifth of the gains of the adventure.
Taking with him his son Sebastian, John Cabot sailed straight
Voyage of Yohn Cabot.
westward across the Atlantic. He reached the North Ameri-
can continent, of which he was the undoubted discoverer
(1497). The result to him was disappointing. He landed
on the coast of Labrador. Being in the same latitude as
England, he reasoned that he should find the same genial
climate. To his astonishment he came upon a region of
intolerable cold, dreary with ice and snow. John Cabot had
not heard of the Gulf
Stream and its marvellous
influences. He did not
know that the western
shores of Northern Europe
are rescued from perpetual
winter, and warmed up to l
the enjoyable temperature
which they possess, by an
enormous river of warm
water flowing between
banks of cold water east-
ward from the Gulf of
Mexico. The Cabots made
many voyages afterwards,
and explored the Ameri-
can coast from extreme
north to extreme south.
The French turned their
attention to the northern DREARY WITH ICE AND SNOW."
attention to the northern
parts of the New World. The rich fisheries of Newfoundland
attracted them. A Frenchman sailed up the great St. Law-
rence River. After some failures a French settlement was
established there, and for a century and a half the French
Spanish adventurers never rested from their eager search
after the treasures of the new continent. An aged warrior
38 Young Folks' History of America.
called Ponce de Leon fitted out an expedition at his own cost.
He had heard of the marvellous fountain whose waters would
restore to him the years of his wasted youth. He searched
in vain. The fountain would not reveal itself to the foolish
old man, and he had to bear without relief the burden of his
profitless years. But he found a country hitherto unseen by
PONCE DE LEON IN THE ST. JOHN'S RIVER.
Europeans, which was clothed with magnificent forests, and
seemed to bloom with perpetual flowers. He called it
Florida. He attempted to found a colony in the paradise
he had discovered. But the natives attacked him, slew many
of his men, and drove the rest to their ships, carrying with
them their chief, wounded by the poisoned arrow of an
BIVOUAC IN FLORIDA.
De Soto's Expedition.
Ferdinand de Soto had been with Pizarro, who had made
an expedition to Peru, and returned to Spain enriched with
plunder. He did not doubt that in the north were cities as
rich and barbarians as confiding. An expedition to discover
new regions, and plunder their inhabitants; was fitted out
under his command. No one doubted that success equal to
that of Cortes and Pizarro would attend this new adventure.
The youth of Spain were eager to be permitted to go, and
they sold their houses and lands to buy the needful equip-
ment. Six hundred men, in the prime of life, were chosen
from the crowd of applicants, and the expedition sailed, high
in courage, splendid in aspect, boundless in expectation.
They landed on the coast of Florida, and began their march
into the wilderness. They had fetters for the Indians whom
they meant to take captive. They had bloodhounds, lest
these captives should escape. The camp swarmed with
priests, and as they marched the festivals and processions
enjoined by the Church were devoutly observed.
From the outset it was a toilsome and perilous enterprise;
but to the Spaniard of that time danger was a joy. The
Indians were warlike, and generally hostile. De Soto had
pitched battles to fight and heavy losses to bear. Always he
was victorious, but he could ill afford the cost of many such
victories. The captive Indians amused him with tales of
regions where gold abounded. They had learned that igno-
rance on that subject was very hazardous. De Soto had
stimulated their knowledge by burning to death some who
denied the existence of gold in that country. The Spaniards
wandered slowly northwards. They looked eagerly for some
great city, the plunder of whose palaces and temples would
enrich them all. They found nothing better than occasion-
ally an Indian town, composed of a few miserable huts. It
was all they could do to get needful food. At length they
came to a magnificent river. European eyes had seen no
42 Young Folks' History of America.
such river till now. It was about a mile in breadth, and its
mass of water swept downward to the sea with a current of
amazing strength. It was the Mississippi. The Spaniards
built vessels and ferried themselves to the western bank.
There they resumed their wanderings. De Soto would not
yet admit that he had failed. He still hoped that the plun-
der of a rich city would reward his toils. For many months
the Spaniards strayed among the swamps and dense forests
of that dreary region. The natives showed at first some
disposition to be helpful. But the Spaniards, in their disap-
pointment, were pitiless and savage. They amused them-
selves by inflicting pain upon the prisoners. They cut off their
hands; they hunted them with bloodhounds; they burned
them at the stake. The Indians became dangerous. De
Soto hoped to awe them by claiming to be one of the gods,
but the imposture was too palpable.
How can a man be God when he cannot get bread to
eat? asked a sagacious savage.
It was now three years since De Soto had landed in
America. The utter failure of the expedition could no
longer be concealed, and the men wished to return home.
Broken in spirit and in frame, De Soto caught a fever and
died. His soldiers felled a tree and scooped room within
its trunk for the body of the ill-fated adventurer. They
could not bury their chief on land, lest the Indians should
dishonor his remains.
In the silence of midnight the rude coffin was sunk in the
Mississippi, and the discoverer of the great river slept beneath
The Spaniards promptly resolved now to make their way
to Cuba. They had tools, and wood was abundant. They
slew their horses for flesh; they plundered the Indians for
bread; they struck the fetters from their prisoners to rein-
force their scanty supply of iron. They built ships enough
BURIAL OF DE SOTO. 43
The Story of America's Name.
to float them down the Mississippi. Three hundred ragged
and disheartened men were all that remained of the brilliant
company whose hopes had been so high, whose good fortune.
had been so much envied.
The courage and endurance of the early voyagers excite
our wonder. Few of them sailed in ships so large as a hun-
dred tons' burden. The merchant ships of that time were
very small. The royal navies of Europe contained large ves-
sels, but commerce was too poor to employ any but the
smallest. The commerce of imperial Rome employed ships
which even now would be deemed large. St. Paul was
wrecked in a ship of over five hundred tons' burden. Jo-
sephus sailed in a ship of nearly one thousand tons. Europe
contented herself, as yet, with vessels of a very different class.
A ship of forty or fifty tons was deemed sufficient by the
daring adventurers who sought to reach the Land of Promise
beyond the great sea.
THE STORY OF AMERICA'S NAME.
The honor of discovering America is curiously divided.
Columbus, who-first found the West India Islands (and six
years later saw the mainland), is always called the discoverer,
and Americus Vespucius, who first saw the continent, was
lucky enough to leave the land his name.
This first voyage. Vespucius carefully described, noting
down a great many interesting and a great many whimsical
things. When he landed on the coast of Venezuela, in the
summer of 1497, the first thing he saw was a queer little
village built over the water, like Venice. "There were about
forty-four houses, shaped like bells, built upon very large
piles, having entrances by means of drawbridges."
The natives proved suspicious and hostile here, and as the
Spaniards stood looking at them, they drew up all their
bridges, and appeared to shut themselves into their houses.
46 Young Folks' History of America.
Immediately after twenty-two canoe-loads of savages came
ro:nd by sea and advanced on the boats of Vespucius. A
fight ensued, the natives displaying much art and treachery,
but fleeing finally in dismay at the roar and smoke of the
HOME OF THE ALLIGATOR.
At his next landing-place, farther south, the navigator
found a gentler tribe, though, like the first, all naked savages.
They retreated before him and his men, and left their wig-
wams, which he stopped to, inspect. Fires were burning,
and the Indians had just been cooking young alligators, num-
TROPICAL FOREST. 47
The Story of America's Name.
bers of which lay about, some dead, some alive, some roast-
ing on the coals. Vespucius did not know what they were,
and describes them as serpents about the size of a kid, with
hard, filthy skins, dog snouts, and long, coarse feet armed
with large nails."
At length the natives grew less timid, and finally welcomed
the discoverer, and treated him so hospitably that he re-
mained nearly a fortnight, visiting their inland villages and
picking up all the information he could. When he returned,
hundreds of the people followed him to the shore, and even
insisted upon going aboard his ship.
As they climbed over the gunwales and swarmed about the
decks, suddenly Vespucius gave the signal to have the cannon
fired. The artillery thundered forth its smoke, and in a sec-
ond every one of the red-skinned crowd dived into the water
like frogs off a log. Reassuring them, at length, by explana-
tions, the admiral completely won the confidence of this
peaceful tribe, and when parting-time came, they exchanged
presents with him. From this place he sailed north-west,
exploring the coast, and finally put into the bay of Cumana,
Venezuela, where he remained thirty-seven days, making in-
land journeys and getting acquainted with the natives.
These entertained prodigious notions of the white man's
power and prowess, and, when Vespucius began to talk of
going away, begged him as a favor to punish their enemies,
who lived, they said, on an island in the sea, and every year
came and killed and ate a great many of their tribe. The
navigator promised to avenge their wrongs, at which they
were much pleased, and offered to accompany him on the
expedition, but he refused to take more than seven of them.
When Vespucius arrived at the island, the warlike canni-
bals came down to the shore in battle array, carrying bows,
arrows, lances, and clubs, and were- painted and feathered in
true Indian style. A severe fight followed. At first the
50 Young Folks' History of America.
Spaniards got no advantage, for the savages pressed them s6
closely that they could not use their swords. At last the edge
of Castilian steel sent the naked foe scampering back to the
woods and mountains.
Vespucius tried to make friends with these cannibals, but
that was out of the question now. Their voice was still for
war, and the admiral finally determined to give them enough
of it. He fought them two days, took two hundred and
fifty of them prisoners, burned their town, and sailed away.
On the 15th of October, 1498, Vespucius was back in
Cadiz, whence he started. His two hundred and fifty
cannibal prisoners he sold for slaves, justifying the act, ac-
cording to the morality of his times, on the ground that they
were enemies taken in war.
This is the voyage in which the discovery of America was
made which gave it its name.
SEEKING HOMES IN THE NEW LAND.
IN comparison with the great empires of the East, Ameri-
ca's history begins at a very recent date. Yet if we note the
events of that history in connection with English history, we seem
to be carried far back into the past. It was during the reign
of Henry VII. of England that America was discovered, that
Acadia was first seen
by the Cabots, that
made the famous
voyage that gave to
the western world its
name. It was during
the reign of Henry .
VIII. that Florida
was visited by Ponce
de Leon ( 15 2), that
the Pacific Ocean was
discovered by Balboa
(1513), that Cortez ,"
beheld the shining
cities of the Aztecs
and captured Monte- HENRY VIII. .
zuma (1521), that Cartier gazed on the St. Lawrence, and De
Soto on the Mississippi. It was during the reign of Elizabeth
that Sir Walter Raleigh made his expeditions, that Gosnold
discovered Cape Cod (1602), that_ Quebec was founded by
52 Young Folks' History of America.
the French under Champlain (16o8), and that Hendrick
Hudson explored the Hudson River. All these things took
place before the reigns of the Jameses, the Charleses, and the
Georges. It seems a long time to look back to the reigns
of the Henries.
s5 f~J ~~-
:~/- ~ C
It was not a pleasant world which the men and women of
Europe had to live in during the sixteenth century. Fighting
was the constant occupation of the kings of that time. A
year of peace was a rare and somewhat wearisome exception.
QUEBEC IN 60o8.
yames I. and Parliament.
Kings habitually, at their own unquestioned pleasure, gath-
ered their subjects together, and marched them off to slay and
plunder their neighbors. Civil wars were frequent. In these
confused strifes men slew their acquaintances and friends as
the only method they knew of deciding who was to fill the
throne. Feeble Commerce was crushed under the iron heel
of War. No such thing as security for life or property was
expected. The fields of the husbandman were trodden down
by the march of armies. Disbanded or deserted soldiers
wandered as masterless men over the country, and robbed
and murdered at their will. Highwaymen abounded, al-
though highways could scarcely be said to exist. Epidemic
diseases of strange type, the result of insufficient feeding and
the poisonous air of undrained lands and filthy streets, deso-
lated all European countries. Under what hardships and
miseries the men of the sixteenth century passed their days,
it is scarcely possible for us now to conceive.
The English Parliament once reminded James I. of certain
"undoubted rights" which they possessed. The king told
them, in reply, that he did not like this style of talking, but
would rather hear them say that all their privileges were de-
rived by the grace and permission of the sovereign." Europe,
during the sixteenth century, had no better understanding of
the matter than James had. It was not supposed that the
king was made for the people. It seemed rather to be
thought that the people were made for the king. Here and
there some man wiser than ordinary perceived the truth, so
familiar to us, that a king is merely a great officer allowed
by the people to do certain work for them. There was a
Glasgow professor who taught in those dark days that the
authority of the king was derived from the people, and ought
to be used for their good. Two of his pupils were John Knox
the reformer, and George Buchanan the historian, by whom
this doctrine, so great and yet so simple, was clearly perceived
56 Young Folks' History of America.
and firmly maintained. But to the great mass of mankind
it seemed that the king had divine authority to dispose of his
subjects and their property according to his pleasure. Poor
patient humanity still bowed in lowly. reverence before its
kings, and bore, without wondering or murmuring, all that
it pleased them
to inflict. No
S stranger supersti-
tion has ever
I'possessed the hu-
man mind than
tion for the king,
which follies the
most abject, vices
I the most enor-
mous, were not
able to quench.
But as this un-
S happy century
draws towards its
close, the ele-
ments of a most
are plainly seen
at work. The
CHAINED BIBLE, TIME OF JAMES I.
Bible has been
largely read. The Bible is the book of all ages and of
all circumstances. But never, surely, since its first gift to
man, was it more needful to any age than to that which now
welcomed its restoration with wonder and delight. It took
deep hold on the minds of men. It exercised a silent influ-
PLANTING THE CROSS ON NEW LANDS. 57
Jacques Cartier and Canada.
ence which gradually changed the aspect of society. The
narrative portions of Scripture were especially acceptable to
the untutored intellect of that time ; and thus the Old Testa-
ment was preferred to the New. This preference led to some
mistakes. Rules which had been given to an ancient Asiatic
people were applied in circumstances for which they were
never intended or fitted. It is easy to smile at these mis-
takes. But it is impossible to overestimate the social and
political good which we now enjoy as a result of this incessant
reading of the Bible by the people of the sixteenth century.
In nearly all European countries the king claimed to regu-
late the religious belief of his subjects. Even in England
that power was still claimed. The people were beginning to
suspect that they were entitled to think for themselves, a
suspicion which grew into an indignant certainty, and widened
and deepened till it swept from the throne the unhappy
House of Stuart.
JACQUES CARTIER AND CANADA.
Jacques Cartier, who may be called the founder of Canada,
was born at Saint Malo, France, in 1494. He had a resolute
spirit, and the news of the wonderful lands that were being
discovered and explored beyond the sea filled him with a
desire for maritime adventure. He was intrusted by Francis I.
with the command of an expedition to explore the Western
Hemisphere. He sailed from the beautiful port of Saint Malo
in April, 1534, with two ships and one hundred and twenty
men, and in twenty days reached the coast of Newfoundland.
He next sailed north, entered the Strait of Belle Isle, and
planting the cross on Labrador took possession of the land
in the name of his king. He deceived the natives by telling
them with signs that the cross was only set up as a beacon.
He explored the Bay of Chaleur, which he thus describes :
60 Young Folks' Histoiy of America.
" The country is hotter than the country of Spain, and the
fairest that can possibly be found, altogether smooth and
level. There is no place, be it never so little, but it hath
some trees, yea, albeit it be sandy; or else is full of wild
corn, that hath an ear like unto rye. The corn is like oats,
and small peas, as thick as if they had been sown and
ploughed, white and red gooseberries, strawberries, black-
berries, white and red
roses, with many other
flowers of very sweet
and pleasant smell.
There be also many
goodly meadows full
of grass, and lakes
where plenty of sal-
mons be. We named
it the bay of heat
(Chaleur)." On the
shores of the Bay of
S Gaspl he again planted
the cross. He ap-
proached the Indians
P whom he met on these
FRANCIS I. explorations in a most
friendly manner. He
so won their confidence that one of the chiefs allowed him to
take his two sons back to Saint Malo on condition that he would
return with them in the following year. He doubled the east
point of Anticosti, and entered the St. Lawrence as far as Mount
Joly. In September he returned to France in triumph, and
his name and fame filled the nation and inspired the young
and chivalrous to seek like romantic exploits.
The French king fitted out a new expedition for this bold
and able commander, and the young nobility of France
THE RUINED SETTLEMENT.
Jacques Cartier and Canada.
favored it, and some of them joined it. This expedition
sailed in May, 1535. The mariners assembled in the cathe-
dral, on \hit-Sunday before the sailing, where solemn mass
was celebrated, and the bishop imparted his blessing.
In July these ships entered the St. Lawrence, and sailed on
its broad waters amid scenery which realized their glowing
expectations and dreams. On September i they came to
the mouth of the wonderful river Saguenay, and on the 14th
arrived at the entrance of a river at Quebec, now known as
the St. Charles.
Cartier was here visited by Donnacona, the so-called king
of Canada. The two Indians whom he had taken the year
before from Gasp6 acted as interpreters on this occasion.
Cartier continued to explore this wonderful and beautiful
region. In a small boat he sailed from the Lake St. Peter to
an Indian settlement called Hochelaga, where he arrived
October 2. This place he named Mount Royal. It is now
the magnificent city of Montreal.
The Canadian winter dampened the ardor of the adven-
turers and depleted their number. In the spring Cartier
again sailed for France, taking with him the king of Canada
and nine Indian chiefs.
Cartier was now appointed viceroy of the territories he
had discovered, and made a new expedition to them in 1541.
He made a fourth voyage in 1543. He died about the year
On his return in 1541 he was met by savages, who asked
for their king. "Donnacona is dead," Cartier replied; and
he told them that the other chiefs had married in France,
- a falsehood the Indians pretended to believe.
In the spring of 1542 Cartier broke up his colony and
returned to France; but Robermal arrived about the same
time, and established a settlement which had but a brief
64 Youne- Folks' History of A merica.
THE STORY OF VIRGINIA.
Sir Walter Ra-
leigh, who was
one of the most
lishmen of his
age, and was at
one time a fa-
vorite of Queen
ssa. Elizabeth, spent
a large fortune
,: t ia in attempting to
a colonize Vir-
7. "ginia. He suc-
ceeded in di-
'i t reacting the at-
tention of his
-. _1_ -the region which
SIR WALTER RALEIGH. had kindled his
But his colonies never prospered. Sometimes the colonists
returned home disgusted by the hardships of the wilderness.
Once they were massacred by the Indians. When help came
from England the infant settlement was in ruins. The bones
of unburied men lay about the fields; wild deer strayed
among the untenanted houses. One colony wholly disap-
peared. To this day its fate is unknown.
In 16o6 a charter from the king established a company
whose function was to colonize, whose privilege was to
trade. The company sent out an expedition to Virginia,
which sailed in three small vessels. It consisted of one
THE SETTLERS AT JAMESTOWN.
The Story of Virginia.
hundred and five men. Of these one-half were gentlemen
of broken fortune ; some were tradesmen; others were foot-
men. Only a very few were farmers, or mechanics, or
persons in any way fitted for the life they sought.
But, happily for Virginia, there sailed with these founders
of a new empire a man whom Providence had highly gifted
with fitness to govern his fellow-men. His name was John
Smith. No writer of romance would have given his hero
this name. But, in spite of his name, the man was truly
heroic. He was still under thirty, a strong-limbed, deep-
chested, massively built man.
From boyhood he had been a soldier, roaming over the
world in search of adventures, wherever hard blows were
being exchanged. He was mighty in single combat. Once,
while opposing armies looked on, he vanquished three Turks,
and like David, cut off their heads, and bore them to his
tent. Returning to England when the passion for colonizing
was at its height, he felt at once the prevailing impulse.
He joined the Virginian expedition. Ultimately he became
its chief. His fitness was so manifest that no reluctance on
his own part, no jealousies on that of his companions, could
bar him from the highest place. Men became kings of old
by the same process which now made Smith a chief.
The emigrants sailed up the James River. Landing there,
they proceeded to construct a little town, which they named
Jamestown, in honor of the king. This was the first colony
which struck its roots in American soil. The colonists were
charmed with the climate and with the luxuriant beauty of
the wilderness on whose confines they had settled. But as
yet it was only a wilderness. The forest had to be cleared
that food might be grown.
The exiled gentlemen labored manfully, but under griev-
ous discouragements. "The axes so oft blistered their ten-
der fingers, that many times every third blow had a loud oath
68 Youung Folks' History of America.
todrown the echo." Smith was a man upon whose soul
there lay a becoming reverence for sacred things. He de-
CLEARING THE FOREST.
vised how to have every man's oaths numbered; "and at
night, for every oath, to have a can of water poured down his
sleeve." Under this treatment the evil assuaged.
JOHN SMITH A CAPTIVE AMONG THE INDIANS. 69
Smith a Prisoner.
The emigrants had landed in early spring. Summer came
with its burning heat. Supplies of food ran low. Had we
been as free from all sins as from gluttony and drunkenness,"
Smith wrote, "we might have been canonized as saints."
The colonists sickened and died. Before autumn every sec-
ond man had died. But the hot Virginian sun, which proved
so deadly to the settlers, ripened the wheat they had sowed
in the spring, and freed the survivors from the pressure of
want. Winter brought them a healthier temperature and
abundant supplies of wild-fowl and game.
When the welfare of the colony was in some measure
secured, Smith set forth with a few companions to explore
the interior of the country. He and his followers were cap-
tured by the Indians. The followers were summarily butch-
ered. Smith's composure did not fail him in the worst
extremity. He produced his pocket-compass, and interested
the savages by explaining its properties. He wrote a letter
in their sight, to their infinite wonder. They spared him,
and made a slow of him in all the settlements. He was
to them an unfathomable mystery. He was plainly super-
human. Whether his power would bring to them good
or evil, they were not able to determine. After much hesita-
tion they chose the course which prudence seemed to counsel.
They resolved to extinguish powers so formidable, regarding
whose use they could obtain no guarantee. So they con-
demned him to death.
The chief, by whose order Smith was to be slain, was
named Powhatan. The manner of execution was to be one
of the most barbarous. Smith was bound and stretched upon
the earth, his head resting upon a great stone. The mighty
club was uplifted to dash out his brains. But Smith was a
man who won golden opinions of all. The Indian chief had
a daughter, Pocahontas, a child of ten or twelve years. She
could not bear to see the pleasing Englishman destroyed.
72 Young Folks' History of America.
As Smith lay waiting the fatal stroke, she caught him in her
arms and interposed herself between him and the club. Her
intercession prevailed, and Smith was set free.
Five years later, an honest and discreet young English-
man, called John Rolfe, loved this young Indian girl. He had
a sore mental struggle about uniting himself with one of
barbarous breeding and of a cursed race." But love tri-
umphed. He labored for her conversion, and had the happi-
ness of seeing her baptized in the little church of Jamestown.
Then he married her.
When Smith returned from captivity the colony was on the
verge of extinction. Only thirty-eight persons were left, and
they were preparing to depart. With Smith, hope returned
to the despairing settlers. They resumed their work, confident
in the resources of their chief. Fresh arrivals from England
cheered them. The character of these reinforcements had
not as yet improved. Vagabond gentlemen formed still a
large majority of the settlers, many of them, we are told,
"packed off to escape worse destinies at home." The colony,
thus composed, had already gained a very bad reputation;
so bad that some, rather than be sent there, chose to be
hanged, and were." Over these most undesirable subjects
Smith ruled with an authority which no man dared or desired
to question. But he was severely injured by an accidental
explosion of gunpowder. Surgical aid was not in the colony.
Smith required to go to England, and once more ruin settled
down upon Virginia. In six months the five hundred men
whom Smith had left dwindled to sixty. These were already
embarked and departing, when they were met by Loid Dela-
ware, the new governor. Once more the colony was saved.
Years of quiet growth succeeded. Emigrants -not largely
now of the dissolute sort flowed steadily in. Bad people
bore rule in England during most of the seventeenth century,
and they sold the good people to be slaves in Virginia. The
INDIAN ATTACK ON SETTLERS IN VIRGINIA.
The Story of Virginia.
victims of the brutal Judge Jeffreys the Scotch Covenant-
ers taken at Bothwell Bridge were shipped off to this profit-
able market. In 1688 the population of Virginia had increased
to fifty thousand. The little capital grew. Other little towns
established themselves. Deep in the unfathomed wilderness
rose the huts of adventurous settlers, in secluded nooks, by
the banks of nameless Virginian streams. A semblance of
roads connected the youthful communities. The Indians
were relentlessly suppressed. The Virginians bought no land.
They took what they required, slaying or expelling the for-
mer occupants. Perhaps there were faults on both sides.
Once the Indians planned a massacre so cunningly that over
three hundred Englishmen perished before the bloody hand of
the savages could be stayed.
The early explorers of Virginia found tobacco in extensive
use among the Indians. It was the chief medicine of the
savages. Its virtues otherwise unaccountable were sup-
posed to proceed from a spiritual presence whose home was
in the plant. Tobacco was quickly introduced into Eng-
land. It rose rapidly into favor. Men who had hereto-
fore smoked hemp eagerly sought tobacco. King James
wrote vehemently against it. He issued a proclamation
against trading in an article which was corrupting to mind
and body. He taxed it heavily when he could not exclude
it. The Pope excommunicated all who smoked in churches.
But, in defiance of law and reason, the demand for tobacco
continued to increase.
The Virginians found their most profitable occupation in
supplying this demand. So eager were they that tobacco was
grown in the squares and streets of Jamestown. In the
absence of money, tobacco became the Virginian currency.
Accounts were kept in tobacco. The salaries of members of
Assembly, the stipends of clergymen, were paid in tobacco.
Offences were punished by fines expressed in tobacco. Ab-
76 Young Folks' History of America.
sence from church cost the delinquent fifty pounds; refusing
to have his child baptized, two thousand pounds ; entertaining
a Quaker, five thousand pounds. When the stock of tobacco
was unduly large, the currency was debased, and much incon-
venience resulted. The Virginians corrected this evil in their
monetary system by compelling every planter to burn a cer-
tain proportion of his stock.
Within a few years of the settlement the Virginians had a
written Constitution, according to which they were ruled.
They had a parliament chosen by the burghs, and a gov-
ernor sent them from England. The Episcopal Church was
established among them, and the colony divided into parishes.
A college was erected for the use, not only of the English,
but also of the most promising young Indians. In this col-
ony the first white child was born. She was baptized under
the name of Virginia Dare.
THE STORY OF LADY POCAHONTAS.
Pocahontas was baptized under the name of Rebecca.
After her marriage with John Rolfe she went with her
husband to England, where, being a chief's daughter, she
was known as Lady Pocahontas. She was eighteen years old
at her baptism, was very graceful and beautiful, and had
learned much refinement from her intercourse with English
Her admiration for Captain John Smith seems to have been
her ruling passion as long as that brave man remained in the
colony. He treated her with the kindness of a father, he
delighted in making her little presents that were surprises, and
his courage made him appear to her as something more than
The Indians again and again sought the life of Smith. The
brother of Powhatan once surrounded him with a body of
BAPTISM OF VIRGINIA DARE. 77
The Story of Lady Pocahontas.
hostile Indians. Smith ignored the Indians, and dared Ope-
chancanough to a single combat. This so frightened and
disconcerted the Indian that he had not the courage to order
CAPTAIN SMITH AND THE CHIEF OF PASPAHEGH.
his arrest. The chief of Paspahegh, a tribe near Jamestown,
once attempted to surprise and shoot Smith. But the latter
seized him before he could use his weapons. The chief was
a very strong man, and he pushed his antagonist towards the
8o Young Folks' History of America.
river, and, suddenly forcing him over the bank, attempted to
drown him. But Smith was too nimble for him. He seized
him by the throat, and, quickly drawing his sword, would
have killed him had he not begun to beg and cry out for
mercy. He led him a prisoner to Jamestown, and made war
on the tribe and reduced them to submission.
Pocahontas twice saved the life of Smith at the risk of her
own, and she is said to have loved him. She never visited
Jamestown after he went away. They told her that he was
Smith heard of the arrival of Pocahontas in England; he
remembered her devotion with gratitude ; he called on her and
then sent an eloquent petition to the queen, asking that royal
favor be shown her.
He said: -
Being in Virginia and taken prisoner by Powhatan, I re-
ceived from this savage great courtesy, and from his son
Nantaquans, and his sister Pocahontas, the king's most dear
and well-beloved daughter, being but a child of twelve or thir-
teen years of age, whose compassionate, pitiful heart of my des-
perate estate gave me much cause to respect her. I being the
first Christian this proud king and his grim attendants ever saw,
and thus enthralled in their barbarous power, I cannot say I felt
the least occasion of want that was in the power of those my
mortal foes to prevent, notwithstanding all their threats. After
some six weeks' fatting amongst these savage countries, at the
minute of my execution she hazarded the beating out of her own
brains to save mine; and not only that, but so prevailed with
her father, that I was safely conducted to Jamestown. ..
Such was the weakness of this poor commonwealth, as, had
not the savages fed us, we directly had starved. And this relief,
most gracious Queen, was commonly brought us by this lady,
Pocahontas; notwithstanding all these passages when uncon-
stant fortune turned our peace to war, this tender virgin would
still not spare to dare to visit us, and by her our jars have been
MARRIAGE OF JOHN ROLFE AND POCAHONTAS. 8I
The Story of Lady Pocahontas.
oft appeased, and our wants supplied. Were it the policy of
her father thus to employ her, or the ordinance of God thus to
make her his instrument, or her extraordinary affection for our
nation, I know not; but of this I am sure, when her father, with
the utmost of his policy and power, sought to surprise me, hav-
ing but eighteen with me, the dark night could not affright her
from coming through the irksome woods, and, with watered
eyes, give me intelligence, with her best advice to escape his
fury, which had he known he had surely slain her.
"Jamestown, with her wild train she as freely frequented as
her father's habitation; and during the time of two or three years,
she, next under God, was still the instrument to preserve this
colony from death, famine, and utter confusion ..
"As yet I never begged any thing of the state, and it is my
want of ability and her exceeding desert; your birth, means, and
authority; her birth, virtue, want, and simplicity, doth make me
thus bold humbly to beseech your majesty to take this knowl-
edge of her, though it be from one so unworthy to be the re-
porter as myself, her husband's estate not being able to make
her fit to attend your majesty.'
The English court received Pocahontas with delight. She
was invited to the great receptions of the nobility, and enjoyed
the splendors of civilization as much as she had delighted in
the barbaric pomp of her father's lodges.
The first meeting of Pocahontas and Smith in England was
very touching. She started on seeing him, and gazed at him
in silence. Then she buried her face in her hands and wept.
She seemed to feel deeply injured. She said : -
I showed you great kindness in my own country. You
promised my father that what was yours should be his. You
called Powhatan your father when you were in a land of stran-
gers, and now that I am in a land of strangers you must allow
me to do the same."
Smith said that as she was a king's daughter, it would not
be allowable in court for her to call him father."
84 Young Folks' History of America.
I must call you father," she said, "and you must call me
child. I will be your countrywoman for ever. They told me
you were dead."
After remaining in England a year, Rolfe determined to
return to America. Pocahontas did not wish to leave Eng-
land. A child had been born to her, and in England the
world looked beautiful, and the future bright and fair. She
became very sad ; she seemed to feel some evil was approach-
ing. She died at Gravesend, March, 1617, just as she was
about to sail. Some of the noblest families of Virginia are
descended from the infant son which she left in her sorrow
and youth, when life seemed to lie so fair before her.
.-- ,m--' .,l
,- _-, .
"MEADOWS STRETCHED TO THE EASTWARD."
THE STORY OF ACADIA.
Every intelligent reader is familiar with Longfellow's beau-
tiful story of "Evangeline." Few poems so haunt the imagi-
nation. Amid the pressure of care, the disappointments of
The Story of Acadia.
ambition, and under a sense of the hollowness of society, the
fancy flits to Acadia; and whoever has gone into that land
with the poet is sure to return to it again in dreams.
" In the Acadian land, on the shores of the Basin of Minas,
Distant, secluded, still, the little village of Grand-Pre
Lay in the fruitful valley. Vast meadows stretched to the eastward,
Giving the village its name, and pasture to flocks without number.
Dikes, that the hands of the farmers had raised with labor incessant,
Shut out the turbulent tides; but at stated seasons the flood-gates
Opened, and welcomed the sea to wander at will o'er the meadows.
West and south there were fields of flax, and orchards and cornfields
Spreading afar and unfenced o'er the plain; and away to the north-
Blomidon rose, and the forests old, and aloft on the mountains
Sea-fogs pitched their tents, and mists from the mighty Atlantic
Looked on the happy valley, but ne'er from their station descended.
There, in the midst of its farms, reposed the Acadian village.
Strongly built were the houses, with frames of oak and of hemlock,
Such as the peasants of Normandy built in the reign of the Henries.
Thatched were the roofs, with dormer-windows; and gables projecting
Over the basement below protected and shaded the doorway.
There in the tranquil evenings of summer, when brightly the sunset
Lighted the village street, and gilded the vanes on the chimneys,
Matrons and maidens sat in snow-white caps and in kirtles
Scarlet and blue and green, with distaffs spinning the golden
Flax for the gossiping looms, whose noisy shuttles within doors
Mingled their sound with the whir of the wheels and the songs of the
Solemnly down the street came the parish priest, and the children
Paused in their play to kiss the hand he extended to bless them.
Reverend walked he among them; and up rose matrons and maidens,
.Hailing his slow approach with words of affectionate welcome.
Then came the laborers home from the field, and serenely the sun sank
Down to his rest, and twilight prevailed. Anon from the belfry
Softly the Angelus sounded, and over the roofs of the village
Columns of pale blue smoke, like clouds of incense ascending,
Rose from a hundred hearths, the homes of peace and contentment
Thus dwelt together in love these simple Acadian farmers, -
Dwelt in the love of God and of man. Alike were they free from
86 Young Folks' History of America.
Fear, that reigns with the tyrant, and envy, the vice of republics.
Neither locks had they to their doors, nor bars to their windows;
But their dwellings were open as day and the hearts of the owners;
There the richest was poor, and the poorest lived in abundance."
Acadia -now Nova Scotia--is itself a dream. Port Royal
is gone; the maps do not contain it. Grand Pr6 is still to
be seen, but it is no more the Norman town of the Golden
Take the map. On the Bay of Fundy you will find the
town of Annapolis, in Nova Scotia. It is situated near a
pleasant bay called Annapolis, or Annapolis Harbor. It is
nearly surrounded with picturesque hills. This harbor was
visited in 1604 by De Monts, a French explorer. One of the
noblemen who accompanied him was Baron de Poutrincourt
He saw the harbor and green hills in summer time, and he
desired to settle there. He obtained from De Monts a grant
of the region about the enchanting harbor, and he called the
place Port Royal. De Monts formed a settlement at the
mouth of St. Croix River, which was not successful.
Poutrincourt went to France and returned after a time to
Port Royal with an ideal colony. He caused an immense
banqueting hall to be erected, which was well supplied with
deer, moose, bear, and all kinds of wild fowl. He made
friends of the Indians and entertained the chiefs at sumptu-
The daily noonday meal was usually the scene of much
vivacity. Champlain, the explorer, who discovered Lake
Champlain and gave to it its name, was there; Lescarbot,
the chronicler and troubadour; soldiers, artisans, and servants.
With Poutrincourt, the feudal lord, often sat an Indian chief
who was more than one hundred years old. One of the diver-
sions at the table was to toss tidbits of French cookery to
Indian children, who crawled like dogs about the floor. It is
told that an aged Indian in dying once seriously inquired if
DINNER AMUSEMENTS AT PORT ROYAL. 87
The Story of Acadza.
the pies in Paradise would be as good as those at Port Royal.
At night, by the blazing pine logs, Champlain would relate the
stories of his wonderful adventures. What stories they must
have been !
Sad news came to the colony after these happy and never-
to-be-forgotten days. The monopoly granted to De Monts
was rescinded by the home powers, and the colony was
obliged to return to France.
The Indians loved this French colony, and were greatly
disappointed at its departure. They bade their benefactors
farewell with tears and lamentations, and stood on the shore
as if heart-broken, as the boats sailed away to the ship on the
lovely bay. Poutrincourt promised them that. le would re-
He kept the promise. He returned in 161o. The In-
dians had awaited his coming, and protected the houses of the
French while he was gone. He found his favorite Port Royal
as he had left it, and as faithful hearts to welcome him back
A new colony was founded, and its efforts were largely
directed to converting the Indians to Christianity. The aged
chief we have mentioned was one of the first _converts and
the first to be baptized. Indians came to Port Royal from
all the country around for baptism. There were bitter con-
tests of words and plots between the Jesuits and the liberal
Catholic priests, but with this exception, Acadia was like a
dream-land again. The ladies of the French court favored the
mission, and astonishing tidings of great numbers of converts
were yearly carried to them across the sea. Other colonists
followed, and the French settlement grew. Peace and content-
ment prevailed. The Jesuits left the settlement to loving
and benevolent cur6s, -
"And the children
Paused in their play to kiss the hand he.extended to bless them."
90 Young Folks' History of America.
By the fortunes of war this colony was transferred to Eng-
land; but its heart was still with France. The English dis-
trusted its loyalty and sent an armed force to surprise and.
attack it, and to carry away the once happy people, and scat-
ter them throughout their American domains. The Acadians
were crowded into transports, their families were separated,
their friendships and attachments blighted, and they were
exiled among strangers never to see each other again. The
name of Acadia was blotted out. The story of Evange-
line is almost the only memorial of this most romantic and
ideal settlement that remains.
Acadia has one lesson in history that we ought not to for-
get. Love wins love, even from a savage's heart. The French
from the first were kind and generous to the Indians ; not
only just, as the Puritans of New England tried to be, but
magnanimous and noble. Among the best citizens of the
American Acadia were these Indians, faithful and grateful to
those who were ever true to them.
A little more than two centuries ago New England was one
vast forest. Here and there a little space was cleared, a little
corn was raised, a few Indian families made their temporary
abode. The savage occupants of the land spent their profit-
less lives to no better purpose than in hunting and fighting.
The rivers which now give life to so much cheerful industry
flowed uselessly to the sea. Providence had prepared a home
which a great people might fitly inhabit. Let us see whence
and how the men were brought who were the destined pos-
sessors of its opulence.
The Reformation had taught that every man is entitled to
read his Bible for himself, and guide his life by the light he
obtains from it. But the lesson was too high to be soon
BAPTISM OF INDIANS AT PORT ROYAL.
learned. Protestant princes no more than Popish could per-
mit their subjects to think for themselves. James I. had just
ascended the English throne. His was the head of a fool
and the heart of a tyrant. He would allow no man to separ-
ate himself from the
Established Church. I
He would harry
out of the land all
who attempted such
a thing. And he
was as good as his
word. Men would
separate from the
church, and the king
stretched out his
pitiless hand to
On the northern :
borders of Notting-
hamshire stands the
little town of Scroo-
by. Here there were
some grave and well-reputed persons, to whom the ceremonies
of the Established Church were an offence. They met in
secret at the house of one of their number, a gentleman
named Brewster. They were ministered to in all scriptural
simplicity by the pastor of their choice, Mr. Robinson, a
wise and good man. But their secret meetings were betrayed
to the authorities, and their lives were made bitter by the
persecutions that fell upon them. They resolved to leave
their own land and seek among strangers that freedom which
was denied them at home.
They embarked with all their goods for Holland. But
when the ship was about to sail, soldiers came upon them,
94 Young Folks' History of America.
plundered them, and drove them on shore. They were
marched to the public square of Boston, and there the Fa-
thers of New England endured such indignities as an unbe-
lieving rabble could inflict. After some weeks in prison they
were suffered to return home.
Next spring they tried again to escape. This time a good
many were on board, and the others were waiting for the
return of the boat which would carry them to the ship. Sud-
denly dragoons were seen spurring across the sands. The
shipmaster pulled up his anchor and pushed out to sea with
those of his passengers whom he had. The rest were con-
ducted to prison. After a time they were set at liberty. In
little groups they made their way to Holland. Mr. Robinson
and his congregation were reunited, and the first stage of the
weary pilgrimage from the Old England to the New was at
Eleven quiet and not unprosperous years were spent in
Holland. The Pilgrims worked with patient industry at their
various handicrafts. They quickly gained the reputation of
doing honestly and effectively whatever they professed to do,
and thus they found abundant employment. Mr. Brewster
established a printing-press, and printed books about liberty,
which, as he had the satisfaction of knowing, greatly enraged
the foolish King James. The little colony received additions
from time to time, as oppression in England became more
The instinct of separation was strong within the Pilgrim
heart. They could not bear the thought that their little
colony was to mingle with the Dutchmen and lose its inde-
pendent existence. But already their sons and daughters
were forming alliances which threatened this result. The
fathers considered long and anxiously how the danger was to
be averted. They determined again to go on pilgrimage.
They would seek a home beyond the Atlantic, where they
THE MAYFLOWER AT SEA. 95
Pilgrims at Delftlaven.
could dwell apart, and found a State in which they should be
free to think.
On a sunny morning in July the Pilgrims kneel upon the
seashore at Delfthaven, while the pastor prays for the success
of their journey. Out upon the gleaming.sea a little ship lies
waiting. Money has not been found to transplant the whole
colony, and only a hundred have been sent. The remainder
will follow when they
can. These hundred "F
depart amid tears and
prayers and fond fare- .. "
wells. Mr. Robinson
dismissed them with
counsels which breathed
a pure and high-toned
Sixty-eight years later,
another famous depart-
ure. from the coast of
Holland took place. It
was that of William, WILLIAM, PRINCE OF ORANGE.
Prince of Orange, com-
ing to deliver England from tyranny, and give a new course
to English history. A powerful fleet and army sailed with
the Prince. The chief men of the country accompanied
him to his ships. Public prayers for his safety were offered
up in all the churches. Insignificant beside this seems at
first sight the unregarded departure of a hundred working
men and women. It was in truth, however, not less but even
more memorable. For these poor people went forth to
found a great empire, destined to leave as deep and as en-
during a mark upon the world's history as Rome or even as
England has done.
The Mayflower, in which the Pilgrims made their voyage,
98 Young Folks' History of America.
was a ship of one hundred and sixty tons. The weather
proved stormy and cold; the voyage unexpectedly long. It
was early in September when they sailed. It was not till the
iith November that the Mayflower dropped her anchor in
the waters of Cape Cod Bay.
It was a bleak-looking and discouraging coast which lay
before them. Nothing met the eye but low sand-hills, cov-
ered with ill-grown wood down to the margin of the sea.
The Pilgrims had now to choose a place for their settlement.
About this they hesitated so long that the captain threatened
to put them all on shore and leave them. Little expeditions
were sent to explore. At first no suitable locality could be
found. The men had great hardships to endure. The cold
was so excessive that the spray froze upon their clothes, and
they resembled men cased in armor. At length a spot was
fixed upon. The soil appeared to be good, and abounded
in "delicate springs" of water. On the 22d December the
Pilgrims landed, stepping ashore upon a huge bowlder of
granite, which is still reverently preserved by their descend-
ants. Here they resolved to found their settlement, which
they agreed to call New Plymouth.
The winter was severe, and the infant colony was brought
very near to extinction. They had been badly fed on board
the Mayflower, and for some time after going on shore there
was very imperfect shelter from the weather. Sickness fell
heavily on the worn-out Pilgrims. Every second day a grave
had to be dug in the frozen ground. By the time spring
came there were only fifty survivors, and these sadly enfee-
bled and dispirited.
But all through this dismal winter the Pilgrims labored at
their heavy task. The care of the sick, the burying of the
dead, sadly hindered their work. But the building of their
little town went on. They found that nineteen houses would
contain their diminished numbers. These they built. Then