• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Latin America and the Farmington...
 Acquisitions requirements
 Meeting the requirements
 The seminars on the acquisition...
 The cooperative mission to Latin...
 Possible Farmington plan assignments:...
 Conclusions and recommendation...
 Appendix A. Working papers and...
 Appendix B. Substantive recommendations...






Title: Latin America and the Farmington Plan
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Title: Latin America and the Farmington Plan
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Language: English
Creator: Cline, Howard F.
Cline, Howard Francis.
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Publication Date: 1958
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Latin America and the Farmington plan: Responsibilities and omissions
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Acquisitions requirements
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Meeting the requirements
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 23a
    The seminars on the acquisition of Latin American library materials, 1956-
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    The cooperative mission to Latin America, September-December, 1958
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Possible Farmington plan assignments: Subject or area?
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Conclusions and recommendations
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Appendix A. Working papers and published appendices to proceedings, seminars on the acquisition of Latin American library materials
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Appendix B. Substantive recommendations of seminars on the acquisition of Latin American library materials, I-III, 1956-1958
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
Full Text


















JATIN AMERICA AND THE FARMINGTON PLAN:
-K WORKING DRAFT, WITH RECOMMENDATIONS

by
Howard F. Cline, Director, Hispanic Foundation
LC-b


October 1958


Washington














,Lq




&ATIN
AMERICA








Issued as an operational document for limited distribution

for the official use of the Library of Congress.









TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

1. Introductory ........................................... 1

2. Latin America and the Farmington Plan:
Responsibilities and Omissions .................. 2

3. Acquisitions Requirements............................... 5

4. Meeting the Requirements............................... 15

5. The Seminars on the Acquisition of Latin
American Library Materials, 1956- ................. 24

6. The Cooperative Mission to Latin America,
September-December, 1958................... ....... 31

7. Possible Farmington Plan Assignments:
Subject or Area?................................... 34

8. Conclusions and Recommendations ..................... 38

Appendix A. Working Papers and Published Appendices
to Proceedings, Seminars on the
Acquisition of Latin American Library
Materials............ .... ...... ........... 41

Appendix B. Substantive Recommendations of the
Seminars on the Acquisition of Latin
American Library Materials, I-III,
1956-1958 ............................... 46








1. INTRODUCTORY


"Latin American publications have undeniably been neglected

by those responsible for development of the Farmington Plan," wrote

Edwin E. Williams for the I Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin

American Library Materials (1956).1

The reasons he states were the relative difficulty of making

satisfactory arrangements. for coverage and that the need was less

pressing-U.S. libraries seemed to be acquiring a higher proportion

of Latin American publications than say Belgian, Italian, Spanish,

or Swedish, based on a sample of imprint date 1937.

At the close of his brief review, Williams noted, "Latin

America is not yet effectively covered. Should additional countries

be assigned to a single library...or should they be handled as

countries of Western Europe are, with a dealer assigning publications

by subject to the participating libraries? Can dealers be found who

will do this work satisfactorily?"2 It is easier to pose these crucial

questions than it is to provide satisfactory answers to them.

If pressed for broad and categorical replies, the writers would

inject numerous qualifications, but could generally declare that:



1Edwin E. Williams, "Experience of Farmington Plan in the Latin
American Field," Working Paper No. II F. (mimeo.), p. 5.

Ibid., p. 6.








-2-


1. Chances are better now than when the Farmington Plan

was first formulated to cover much of the area more

effectively.

2. Pooling of information and cooperative efforts in

recent times, especially through the recurring

Seminars on the Acquisition of Latin American Library

Materials, indicate that some extension of the Plan

further into Latin America is probably feasible and

desirable.

3. Generally speaking, because of the way research and

teaching of Latin American topics is organized, and

for other reasons, assignment of responsibilities by

countries rather than by subjects would work more

efficiently.

4. In selected countries, not now included in the Plan,

dealers are available and able to provide adequate

and satisfactory services.

Here we propose to discuss some of the many elements that

underlie these broad statements, to qualify them, and then to make

tentative recommendations based on them.

2. LATIN AMERICA AND THE FARMINGTON PLANg RESPONSIBILITIES AND OMISSIONS

Two major, interrelated problems emerge from examination of

Farmington Plan arrangements concerning Latin America. One is the

effectiveness of agreements already made and the need to improve








-3-


existing mechanisms; the other is the question of extending the Plan

to countries or subjects now falling outside the scope of any Plan

agreements or arrangements.

The second matter, factually, is simple to state. At present,

no direct Plan arrangements cover Central America (Guatemala, Honduras,

El Salvador, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama). On a country basis, Peru

comes within the Plan, leaving uncovered or only partially covered most

of South America: Colombia, Ecuador, Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina,

Uruguay, Brazil, and Venezuela.

Conversely, on an area or limited subject basis, responsibilities

have been assigned under the Plan as follows:

a. Areas: Caribbean (Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti,

the Guianas, British Honduras), University of Florida,

1952. Mexico, 1949 (selected subjects).

b. Subjects:

i. Literature
California (Berkeley) Spanish-American(all)
UCLA Brazilian Literature
Univ. of Illinois Haitian

ii. History
California(Berkeley) Central America;Chile
Duke Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru
New York Public Argentina, Falkland
Islands, Guianas,
Uruguay, Venezuela,
West Indies
Texas Brazil, Colombia, Mexico,
Paraguay.

There are other nominal assignments, but the net results have

been summed up in the quoted Williams paper: "Except for Mexico and the

Caribbean, Latin America is not yet effectively covered."









-4-


How effectively even these very limited arrangements are

working is still problematical9 but are under review from various

quarters and for diverse reasons. In broad terms the specific

question of Latin American suppliers and their responses to Plan

needs is merely a special aspect of the more general problem of their

furnishing materials requested or needed from the area by numerous

U.S. libraries, a matter to be discussed separately below.

There is one small measure to illustrate the problem of

effectiveness. It is generally, and correctly, felt that Mexico is

one of the better suppliers. Not only Farmington Plan, but also other

major U.S. Latin American libraries have whole or partial blanket orders

with dealers there. Among these is the Library of Congress, which has

two such orders, one for Law, the other for general materials along much

the same lines as the Plan (as to included and excluded items). In a

period for which comparable figures are now available, receipts of des-

patched material from Mexico to the Plan libraries and to the Library of

Congress were as follows:

Table 1. Purchase Receipts, Current Books &.Pamphlets, FP vs LC. 1953-55

Farmington Plan Library of Congress
Pieces C2st Pieces* Cost*
1953 338 $604 404 $842
1954 241 350 300 805
1955 229 368 276 444

*Excludes Law materials (separate Blanket Order, not tabulated).
[Hispanic Foundation Files.]

At a minimum this seems to indicate that Plan libraries receive

less publications from the same dealer in Mexico than does the Library

of Congress, which does not have major Mexican responsibilities under











the Plan. That is, visibly more volumes of a permanent research

nature can and are furnished outside the Plan than in it, so far as

this one country is concerned.

For the moment we can leave numerous questions dangling,

having isolated and identified two aspects of the Farmington Plan in

Latin America: countries in which it does not operate at all, and the

fact that we have no current objective measures of how effectively the

partial extension has been. Further, we have intimated that Farmington

Plan operations in the area are but one aspect of generalized acquisitions

problems; light on the latter may illuminate the former.

3. ACQUISITIONS REQUIREMENTS

One major element in reconsideration of the Farmington Plan

and its extension in Latin America is again the ancient problem of what

materials U.S. libraries should select and acquire for present and future

research needs. What countries, what subjects are of prime interest?

Assuming that everything possibly needed cannot be obtained, what

priorities can and should be set?

Like much else connected with Latin America, the information on

these points is fragmentary. Recently the Hispanic Foundation in the

Library of Congress initiated a "Survey of Teaching and Research Resources

and Activities in the United States on Latin America" to collect and

analyze data along these lines, but at this point definitive answers to











many critical queries, including the above, still lie in the future.1

Certain other partial studies and investigations give some clues. Let

us look briefly at them.

Broadly considered, there are two main classes of research

studies, paralleling the two ways of organizing Farmington Plan oper-

ations: by areas, and by subjects. The data we have on recent and

current research indicate that each is important, but that for most

purposes the area frame rather than topic is the dominant one.

Research is not an automatic mechanism, but is carried on by

a wide variety of individuals, generally left quite free to choose their

topics and areas; for the Latin American field there is no widely

accepted "master plan" of investigation that has isolated and identified

major problems in various disciplines and directs the successive steps

for their solution in an evolutionary and cumulative research design.

Exercising free will and free enterprise, investigators have tended to

concentrate their efforts on a few places and on a few topics. Presum-

ably these trends will continue.

In 1952-53, the American Council of Learned Societies undertook

a massive personnel survey in order to compile a national register of

skilled specialists in the humanities and social sciences. From about

50,000 initial names, questionnaire responses were received from around



1Howard F. Cline, "Survey of Latin American Teaching and Research
Resources and Activities in the United States: Objectives and
Procedures," Survey Reports, 1 (Hispanic Foundation, Library of
Congress, Washington, 1958).








-7-


25,000 researchers. Of these, 1,694 had Latin American area

interests as their first and prime scholarly concern. This compares,

for instance, with 3,218 who reported equal concern with Asia, Africa,

and Eastern Europe. Hence an early generalization is that only 6%-7r

of the research community are professional Latin Americanists, a figure

not far off when we view teaching input and other allocation to that

area, which runs between 54-10%.

In order of subject interest, the following sequence emerged

from the statistics: highest, economics (15.21) followed by slightly

less but a substantial number of historians (13.7) and researchers in

literature (12.5%), linguists (i.e., in Spanish-Portuguese), political

scientists, geographers, anthropologists, and sociologists were numeri-

cally weighty; workers in statistics, archeology, philosophy, biblical

literature, art, musicology, aesthetics, and education all were repre-

sented, but in small numbers, each field less than 2% of the Latin

American total. (See Table 2)

The locality or area focus indicated a clear pattern: Mexico

first, outstripping all others by a substantial margin, followed by

South America (General) as a poor second. Then there is cluster well

below this which includes, in descending order, the West Indies, Central

America, and Brazil. Next in sequence, and about half as well repre-

sented as the previous group come sub-regions: Colombia-Venezuela, and

Chile-Ecuador. Trailing the list are specialists in Argentina, the

Caribbean,and-lParaguay-Uruguay. (See Table 3)








-8-


When each of the separate disciplines is examined, the same

general distribution of area interest within them applied, with the one

exception of political science, where the West Indies slightly outdrew

Mexico; the smaller disciplines do not cover all areas. An interesting

and important sidelight, confirmed in other studies touched on below,

is that place of residence or location of institution in the United

States has no high correlation with area interests of researchers: i.e.,

a man in New England is just as likely to be working on Mexico as is one

at Texas or California.

A less widely based survey provides some further clues to the

research efforts in the United States on Latin America. In 1955 one of

the co-authors here undertook for a Spanish publication to list every

article and book that would have research value and which had appeared

under a 1955 imprint date; this is the proof of the pudding, from a

scholarly point of view, unpublished materials, while possibly inter-

esting to the Dean for promotion purposes, serve one's colleagues not at

all. The bibliography, as complete as possible under the circumstances,

numbered 236 items, A subsequent article analyzed these entries.1

"Tools and ResourcesW--descriptions of collections, catalogs of

materials, textbooks of exceptional merit and the like accounted for about

15% of the total. Social matters-pre-Columbian societies, recent social

changes, native languages, folkore and the like, comprised about 197,



1Howard F. Cline, "Informacion bibliografica de Estados Unidos de
Norteamerica, 1955," Anuario de Estudios Americanos (Sevilla, 1955),
XI, 793-841. H.F. Cline, "Some major interests of Latin Americanists
in the United States during 1955?" Recuerdo de Rafael Helidoro Valle
(Mexico, 1957), 67-71.








-9-


overshadowing books and articles on arts, belles lettres, languages

of Latin America (as distinct from Spain), which amounted to around

6%, History of the post-contact (1492) periods, excluding writings about

inter-American affairs, was 14/; inter-American affairs, including U.S.

relations with Latin America, as well as Asian and European activities,

totalled around 19i. Economics and economic history, including the

special problems of Latin American regions and countries, manifested a

little over 10C of the titles. A somewhat scattered category of

*Geography, Travel, and Description" added up to around 5%; Education

was less than 3, with the residual total of quite general topics repre-

senting around 6%. (See Table 2)

The areal biases are much like those described. Mexico and Meso-

America (Mexico plus Central America) rank high. In 1955 the economists

split their attention with it, giving nearly equal consideration to

Brazil, but they devoted even more time to Venezuela, the unique instance

where this country outranked all others. (See Table 3)

There is a third body of data that casts indirect light on the

problem. Although the time, choices, and effort devoted to research are

not precisely the same proportions devoted to teaching, there is some

relationship. Further, from the librarian's point of view, materials for

student term-papers and other exercises connected with teaching are as

essential to foresee as anticipating the needs of a full professor's

pioneering studies. The Hispanic Foundation Survey has listed and analyzed

every course listed in college and university catalogs for 1957-58, omitting

only those places giving less than a bachelor's degree. For some purposes,











courses of the leading 90 institutions, so far as teaching Latin America

is concerned, were scrutinized in more detail than all courses, 731

places giving less than 300 manhours per year. The Survey tabulated,

for all institutions, a total of 3,854 courses; they have been subdivided

by 27 disciplines on topics (which in turn are subdivided).

In terms of subject or disciplines the results can be quickly

summarized: History (29.8%) and Literature (28.4%) account for better

than half the courses; Geography (9.3o) and Civilization (6.2%) outrank

Anthropology (4.8%), Commercial Spanish (4.4%), Government and Political

Science (3.7%), International Relations (2.6%) and Economics (2.1%). Less

than 2/ of the courses ded with Latin American Art, Spanish, research

methods, or Brazilian Literature. Not individually amounting to 1% are

a combined total of 69 courses nationally on Sociology, Area Studies,

Folklore, Natural Sciences, Music, Religion, Law, Education, Philosophy,

Architecture, and Journalism.1 (See Table 2)

So far as area or locality emphasis is concerned, tabulation of

1,574 courses at the "major" institutions yields the following results.

The Survey found that the scattered courses at smaller places followed the

same patterns as these selected ones, mostly dealing with "Latin America"

without much specialization. Even at major places, relatively few coun-

tries have a single course devoted entirely and exclusively to them. The

"General" area categories at them amount to 39.5%; Spanish-America, 27.5%;


1Howard F. Cline and Jean L. Luft, *Latin American Fields and Disciplines
at Major and Lesser Institutions of Higher Learning: A Statistical
Panorama," Survey Reports, 5 (Hispanic Foundation, Library of
Congress, Washington, 1958), Table 2 (p. 24).








-11-


Luso-Brazilian, 2.8%; South America, 9.4%; Middle America and Mexico,

10.8%; the Caribbean and surrounding entities, 3.9%, and unspecified

or overlapping, 6.13. The only individual countries treated in course

work are Mexico (74 courses, 4.6% of total), Brazil (32 courses, 2%),

and Argentina (11 courses, 0.7$). (See Table 3)

For purposes here, we can attempt to bring these various bits of

data into a single general view, with the caveat that it is little more

than illustrative. But even that is better than intuition. In the two

following Tables, 2 and 3, we have taken the fields and disciplines

(subjects) utilized by the Hispanic Foundation Survey, and have equated

as nearly as possible the data from the ACLS Registry inquiry (1952-53),

the published research materials bibliography (1955), and the courses on

Latin America at the 831 U.S. institutions. Results are in percentages,

as the items themselves cannot be compared. In like fashion we have

taken the Survey area categories, and have similarly placed the information

from the three studies in juxtaposition, in relatively broad subdivisions.

It seems clear from even this sketchy sample that, with the

exception of economics, and to a much lesser extent, literature, U.S. Latin

American research is generally organized along area rather than functional

or subject lines. For teaching, the areas and countries must necessarily

be grouped into larger than country units, but the main organizing principle

even of such presentation is area-topic rather than topic-area.








-12-


Table 2. Percentage Interests in Latin America, by Discipline & Subjects

Percent of Percent of Percent of 236
3,854 courses 1,694 specialists Publications
1957-1958 1952-1953 1955

History 29.8% 13.7% 16.5%
Literature 28.4 12.5 3.8
Geography 9.3 9.8 4.6
Civilization 6.2 -
Comm. Spanish 4.4 -

Anthropology 4.8 11.4 11.0
Govt.-Pol.Sci. 3.7 10.5
Intl. Rel. 2.6 21.6
Economics 2.1 15.2 10.6
Art 1.8 2.5 *

L.A.Spanish 1.5 10.8 *
Res, Meth, Biblio. 1.3 13.1
Braz. Lit. 1.2 -
Sociology 6.3 5.5

Statistics 2.5 -
Area Studies -
Folklore 1.7
Interdepart. Stud. --
Braz. Port. *

Nat. Sci. -
Trans. Technique *
Music 1.2
Religion *
Law -

Education 3.3
Philosophy 1.0 -
Architecture -
Journalism -
Comm. Portuguese -
Not otherwise specified 5.5

*Less than I3
-Not tabulated or observed








-13-


Table 3. Area and Locality Emphasis, Latin American Teaching
and Research


Percent of
1574 courses
1957-58


Percent of
1694 Special-
ists. 1952-53


Percent of
236 publ.
1955


GENERAL
Western Hemisphere
The Americas
L.A. & U.S.
Old/New Worlds
Latin America
Sub-Total

SPANISH AMERICA
Spain/L.A.
Spanish America
Sub-Total

LUSO-BRAZILIAN
Portugal-Brazil
Brazil
Sub-Total

SOUTH AMERICA
S.A., except Brazil
S.A., inc. Brazil
Various regions
Arg.,Brazil,Chile
Rio de la Plata
Argentina
Chile-Bolivia
Colombia-Venezuela
Peru-Ecuador
Sub-T6tal

MIDDLE AMERICA
Middle America
Meso-America
Central America
Maya areas
Mex.-U.S.Borderlands
Mexico
Guatemala
Sub-Total


*
4.0
1.9
*
32.2



9.3
_18.2



*
2.2



5.8
*
1.2
1.2
*
*
*
*
....*.


39.5


9.4


3.0
*
*

2.7
4.7


21.0




3.0
3.5
3.4
1.0


-
-
9.5


34.2

10.8%


5.3
16.7
1.0
172.6



2.6
-.RA


27.5%


2.2


2.83


39.0




5.5%




2.2%


*
*



2.2


35.37


*


1.3
2.6
14.2
2.2


43.~


23.5%


6.C0











Table 3 (cont)


Percent of
1574 courses
1957-58


Percent of
1694 Special-
ists. 1952-53


Percent of
236 publ.
1955


*
*
1.3
*
*
*
*


*
*
*
1.2


CARIBBEAN-CIRCUM CARIB.
Middle America & Carib.
Central Am. & Carib.
Caribbean
Gulf Caribbean
Carib. & Mexico
Circum-Carib.
Puerto Rico
Sub-Total

MISCELLANEOUS
Middle & South Amer.
South & Central Amer.
N. South Amer. & C.A.
High Culture areas
No area observable
Sub-Total


Not observed or reported
Less than 1$


RECAPITULATION

GENERAL

SPANISH AMERICA

LUSO-BRAZILIAN

SOUTH AMERICA

MIDDLE AMERICA

CARIBBEAN-CIRCUM CARIBBEAN


MISCELLANEOUS


TOTALS


-- 7.1


100l,


100.0


100.0


(a) Includes less than 1i
Panama, Curaqao, West
(Total 10 articles)


each for 1-2 articles on Cuba, Haiti,
Indies, French W.I., British W.I.


15.0
15.0
-
-


15.0o


-

2.9



6.L


-

-
-5


6.J3


8.4% (a)







7.3$


39.5%

27.5


39.04


2.8

9.4


6.0


5.5

2.2


10.8

3.9


35.3

43.7

15.0


14.3

23.5

8.4








-15-


4. MEETING THE REQUIREMENTS

One of the main reasons that Latin America was originally given

a relatively low priority in Farmington Plan thinking is that when early

targets were picked, it was felt that U.S. libraries were getting better

than average coverage. This assumption rested primarily on a study made

by Edwin E. Williams in 1945 of research acquisitions from eight coun-

tries, two of which were Mexico and Peru. Taking research items pub-

lished in 1937 as a common base, he found that U.S. libraries had obtained

79 percent of the Mexican items, and 72 percent of the Peruvian, as com-

pared with Canada, 81; Belgium 18.5; France, 53; Italy, 18.5; Spain, 41;

and Sweden, 34 percent.1

Unfortunately for the assumption, a publishing revolution has

occurred in Latin America since 1937, when among other things, Spain

ceased to be a major supplier due to its Civil War, and at the same time

refugees in Argentina, Mexico, and other countries sparked a major pub-

lishing effort that has multiplied annual production. Brazil followed

much the same course. Latin America of 1937 bears small resemblance to the

same area twenty years later in most aspects, and this one in particular.

Although addressed directly to problems of distribution of U.S. books in

Latin America, discussion of this burst of publishing and its organization

in Latin America has been summarized elsewhere.2



1Edwin E. Williams, "Research library acquisitions from eight countries,"
Library Quarterly, XV (1945), 313-23.

2Howard F. Cline, "American books in Latin America," Library Trends, V
(July 1956), 151-88.











There is no reason to doubt these facts, but in the face of

them have U.S. libraries maintained the high percentage of acquisitions

recorded for 1937-1945? As the Mexicans say, "Who knows?" For all but

a very small handful of places in Latin America, bibliographical controls

of annual output, especially classified by categories necessary for re-

search librarians' scrutiny are lacking; hence it is difficult to check

and monitor the flow of acquisitions. In like fashion, very few U.S.

libraries have published concerningtheir experience or studies of the

matter. Annual figures for book production in Latin American countries

are unreliable and hard to come by; when obtained they may not mean

much, as re-issues, translations, textbooks, and the like may bulk large;

to isolate and identify the core of potential or actual research materials

in such lists is indeed a chore. There is the further consideration that

much research material publication is sponsored by governments, usually

the single largest publisher. Often these are not reported in bibli-

ographies, and bring us into the thorny realm of official publications.

There are other problems, too, which will emerge in due course.

Here we can say that the general subjective impression among

acquisitions people responsible for Latin America is that the U.S. as

a whole is getting a reasonably adequate flow, but many important items

escape. With few exceptions, university researchers complain about the

situation.


-16-




-17-


There are two sets of data that may cast some light on this

matter. One is a brief study published on "the extent to which

present acquisitions programs are bringing important current books

in Spanish American literature to Midwestern research libraries."l

The other is information, published and unpublished, on Library of

Congress experiences.

William Jackson, formerly an interne in the Hispanic Foundation,

scrutinized the holdings and policies of 10 major research libraries,

both as to their retrospective or non-current holdings and their

acquisitions of materials, chiefly in Latin American literature.2

For purposes here, his. findings on comparison with entries in the

Handbook of Latin Amarican StndiAq, 1949, and the receipts of these

libraries are relevant. The Handhbnk is an annual, selected bibli-

ography prepared in the Hispanic Foundation; like other sections,

those on literature are compiled and annotated under the professional

responsibility of a Contributing Editor. It is a fair measure of

"worthwhile" publications, as those unsuited for permanent reference

or acquisition are deleted either by the Contributing Editor or the

Handbook editorial staff.

Jackson found (his Table III) that holdings ranged from 6.5% to

31.4/ for the seven libraries he thus personally checked, with the

average at 19.1% (median: 17.2).3 All 7 had only 1.2% of the titles,


William Vernon Jackson, "Resources of Midwestern research libraries in
the Hispanic literatures," Hispania, XXXVIII (Dec. 1955), 476-80.

He included University of Chicago, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan,
Minnesota, Wisconsin, Ohio State, Northwestern University, and the
Newberry Library.

libraries of Chicago University, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, North-
western, Ohio State, Wisconsin.







-18-


24.1% were only in one library, and 74 titles (43.8%) were in none of

them. (His Table IV) He concluded, "It seems obvious that the

acquisition of these Spanish American publications leaves a good deal

to be desired and that as a region the Midwest falls by a considerable

margin to match that of a single institution, the Library of Congress,

which adds virtually all publications cited in the Handbook to its

collections."l

In order to keep the flow which nourishes the Handbook, and at

the same time be prepared to cope with needs of Federal agencies (where

much meaningful but unpublished research on Latin America takes place),

the Library of Congress makes every effort to acquire research materials

from all Latin American countries, as well as writings about Latin America

throughout the world. The various mechanisms--blanket orders, consul-

tants, and the like-to support this effort have been described, as well

as an outline of problems facing the staff in recommending and pro-

curing such materials.2 Those summaries reveal that LC seemingly acquires

up to ten times as many current Latin American items as does any single

major research library or international agency like the Pan American

Union. Although with some 1,500 exchange arrangements bringing somewhere

from 80-85 of these, with purchases accounting for around 10 of the in-

take, even the 1C( is a ponderable figure. Since 1952 systematic analyses



1Jackson, "Midwestern research libraries," loc.cit., p. 480.

2Howard F. Cline, "Hispanica," LC Quarterly Journal of Current
Acquisitions, XI (Nov. 1953), 46-59; ibid., XIV (Nov. 1956),
40-49.








-19-


have been prepared, with the result that now we have a five year

comparable series on purchases and receipts from Latin America, as

part of the broader Hispanic areas for which the Hispanic Foundation

undertakes responsibility for recommending acquisitions.

Table 4, compiled for this paper, selects certain features that

may be of interest for Farmington Plan discussions. It summarizes, in

descending order, receipts from Latin American and adjacent areas over

the five year span, the average per year, both in cost and number of

items, and the average cost per item for such receipts. For the area as

a whole, we would guess that these receipts probably would not fall far

below 70C of the items possible and desirable to obtain, and might well

rise as high as 90C. This would not be true of serials, since the data

here refer only to books and pamphlets currently produced, excluding

retrospective or non-current purchases to close earlier collection gaps.

As Jackson's article indicated, the Handbook of Latin American

Studies annually is a relatively sensitive reflection of the intake of

L.C. acquisitions from the area. The Handbook includes both books and

articles, but a breakdown of its contents in recent times provides some

clues to the spread and weight of disciplinary or subject interests,

better than 904 of which are items based on materials produced outside

the United States and acquired by the Library of Congress. Table 5 pro-

vides such a percentage analysis; it can be compared with the somewhat

similar information arrayed on Table 2.







-2D-


Table 4. Library of Congress Purchase Receipts of Current Materials
from Latin America and Related Areas. 1953-1957

VALUE PIECES Average
5 years Avg.Annual 5 years AvR.Annual Unit Cost

Argentina $ 4,003 $ 800.6 1,973 394.6 $2.02
Mexico 2,993 598.6 1,622 324.5 1.84
Brazil 2,196 439.2 867 173.4 2.53
Venezuela 1,674 334.8 473 94.6 3.54
Cuba 1,107 2 1.4 557 111.4 1.98

Chile 962 192.4 421 84.2 2.28
Peru 670 134.0 299 59.8 2.24
Haiti 488 97.6 142 28.4 3.34
Uruguay 297 59.4 233 46.6 1.28
Bolivia 277 55.4 139 27.8 1.98

Ecuador 95 19.0 71 14.2 1.33*
Costa Rica 78 15.6 44 8.8 1.77*
Paraguay 63 12.6 15 3.0 4.26*
Colombia 34 6.8 9 1.8 3.74*
Guatemala 27 5.4 11 2.2 2.46

Dom. Rep. 7 1.4 6 1.2 1.16*
El Salvador 5 1.0 2 .40 2.50*
Honduras 3 .60 3 .60 1.00*
Nicaragua -
Panama -

Totals
American Republics $14,979 2995.8 6,887 137.4 2.17

Jamaica 74 14.8 39 7.8 1.64*
Puerto Rico 39 7.8 5 1.0 7.80*
Curaqao 9 1.8 8 1.6 1.13*

Dependencies $122 24.4 52 10.4 2.34*

Western Hemisphere $15,101 3020.2 6,939 1387.8 2.18

*Based on purchase of less than 100 pieces

Soure: H.F.Cline, "Hispanic Acquisitions Studies:18", Hispanic
Foundation. (mimeo., July 1958), Tables 5, 6 (selected
data).








-21-


Table 5. PERCENTAGE OF MATERIALS INCLUDED IN HANDBOOK OF LATIN
AMERICAN STUDIES, NOS. 19 AND 20, BY DISCIPLINES AND
SUBJECTS


History

Literature

Geography

Anthropology

Govt. & Pol. Science

International Relations

Economics

Art

Brazilian Literature

Sociology

Statistics

Music

Law

Education

Philosophy

Not Otherwise Specified

TOTALS


% No. 19

23.0

12.0

5.0

17.0

3.0

2.0

7.0

2.0

3.0

3.0

1.0

2.0

5.0

5.0

3.0

7.0

100.0


SNo. 20

20,0

12.0

7.0

19.0

3.0

3.0

6.0

6.0

3.0

3.0



1.0

3.0

3.0

4.0

7.0

100.0


Average
19 & 20

22.0

12.0

6.0

18.0

3.0

3.0

7.0

4.0

3.0

3.0

1.0

2.0

4.0

4.0

4.0

7.0








-22-


Table 4, while important in itself, must be supplemented to

avoid creating false impressions. Table 6 adds this corrective. It

summarizes forfiscal 1957-58 total Library of Congress purchases in

Latin America and related areas. For information purposes purchased

items from Spain and Portugal are included, as they are often supporting

or background materials for Latin American research. The figures in-

clude all acquisitions--books, pamphlets, serials, microfilms, maps,

prints, music scores, and the like--but the focus here on books is

maintained by isolating them, so far as current flow is concerned.

The inclusion of this Table is to illustrate the point that at present

it is possible to purchase 2059 current books at a cost of $5,166.00

from Latin America, and that acquisitions machinery at one institution

can procure a total of 17,335 pieces, by an annual expenditure of

$17,947.32 in Latin America.

If it is possible to summarize the scattered data presented here,

we can say that the assumption that U. S. libraries are adequately

receiving Latin American publications (to the same degree that was

true at the outset of the Farmington Plan) should be re-examined.

Such re-appraisal requires several types of data. Some exist and

need synthesizing; other must be created. Until such action is

taken, it is difficult to generalize about how effectively the

research libraries are meeting the research needs and requirements

outlined in the previous section of this paper.








.-23


Table 6. PURCHASED RECEIPTS

A. PIECES


FROM LATIN AMERICA, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS
1957-1958


1 Mexico
2 Cuba
3 Argentina
4 Brazil
5 Haiti

6 Venezuela
7 Puerto Rico
8 Jamaica
9 Bahamas
10 B.W.I.

11 Paraguay
12 Chile
13 Colombia
14 Uruguay
15 Neth. W.I.

16 Peru
17 Dom. Rep.
18 Guatemala
19 Nicaragua
20 Costa Rica

21 Panama
22 Honduras
23 French W.I.
24 Ecuador
25 Bolivia

26 El Salvador


TOTAL


4108
4095
2658
870
853

839
472
405
367
369

335
316
280
279
217


NON-CURR.


131
90
192
109
712

14
3


1

13
112
86
15
33


191
179
173
97
55


3977
4005
2466
761
141

825
469
405
367
368

322
204
194
264
184

161
170
156
9
47


CURR. BOOKS &
PAMS.


403
158
708
390


113
1
--



107
8
95


41
1

1
15


TOTALS 17,335


1,754 15,581


NON-AMERICAN (FOR COMPARATIVE PURPOSES)


Spain
Portugal
Philippines


7412
4209
1557


TOTALS 13,178


1084
127
81

1,292


6328
4082
1476

11,886


2,059


727
427
84

1,238


_ ~








-23A-


Table 6. PURCHASED RECEIPTS


Argenti
Mexico
Brazil
Cuba
Venezue


B. AMOUNTS
TOTAL
ina $3801.97
2708.10
2508.80
1381.00
Ila 1125.13


Colombia
Peru
Panama
Chile


1007.66
952.98
793.94
743.63


FROM LATIN AMERICA, LIBRARY
1957-1958


NON-CURR.
$1518.84
251.87
357.01
259.67
275.40

927.16
795.58
721.02
229.48


CURR
$2283.13
2456.23
2151.79
1121.33
849.73

80.50
157.40
72.92
514.15


OF CONGRESS


CURR.BOOKSLPAMS.
$1156.48
1072.17
1462.27
422.66
418.58

33.30
91.93
5.00
180.99


10 Uruguay
11 Nicaragua
12 Ecuador
13 Bolivia
14 Haiti
15 Dom. Rep.

16 Honduras
17 Jamaica
18 Costa Rica
19 Guatemala
20 Paraguay

21 Neth. W.I.
22 Puerto Rico


TOTALS


559.74
546.82
392.91
306.21
229.45
161.68

141.30
132.82
121.77
121.05
90.56

70.20
49.60

17,947.32


41.83
448.78
279.61
1.60
170.09
60.90

136.20

24.31
90.75
38.60

57.33
7.50


517.91
58.04
113.30
304.61
59.36
100.78

5.10
132.82
97.46
30.30
51.96

12.87
42.10


6,733.53 11,213.79


NON-AMERICAN (COMPARATIVE PURPOSES)


Spain
Portugal
Philippines


TOTALS


8305.90
2890.80
1506.68

12,703.38


266.68
5.00

25.83

4.20



19.23
m--



2.18

5,166.40


4992.58
1775.60
211.86

6,980.04


3313.32
1115.20
1294.82

5,723.34


1878.79
631.63
711.43

3,221.85


llllm









-24-

5. THE SEMINARS ON THE ACQUISITION OF LATIN AMERICAN
LIBRARY MATERIALS, 1956--

From the preceding pages it is more than evident that many of the

data needed to plan acquisitions policies either do not exist, or are

hard to come by. Partially to fill these needs, a series of informal

annual meetings under the general name of "Seminars on Latin American

Acquisitions" have been held, since 1956. One commentator has likened

them to the famous Indian rope-trick; they apparently support themselves

in mid-air, without any elaborate administrative apparatus or foundation

grants to serve as underpinning. In this lies their chief virtue.

A real need was felt. This need brought into being the Seminars.

Their participants pay their own way to the meetings; most libraries

and other institutions connected with Latin American acquisitions can-

not affoidto lack representation.

There is a long and even tragic history in attempts to obtain

inter-American library cooperation. Pan American and other meetings

since 1889 regularly have produced resolutions, studies, treaties, and

a variety of suggested mechanism to increase the flow of library ma-

terials within the Hemisphere.'" The Seminars differ from these various

official meetings in that they are a completely private, non-governmental,

informal meeting of persons to discuss and act on common problems found

in United States institutions seeking to improve their Latin American

holdings, reference services, and other activities related to the area.








-25-

The stated general purposes of these Seminars are (1) "to

provide an opportunity for those persons chiefly concerned with the

selection, acquisition and processing of library materials in the

Latin American nations and dependent territories of the Caribbean to

meet together and to discuss these activities as they especially

pertain to major Latin American collections in the United States";

and (2) "to assemble and disseminate information on the acquisition

of materials from this area that could be of value to libraries

throughout the United States."

As the Seminar activities have developed, their scope of

interest has become broader than "acquisitions" are usually con-

sidered. The creation of needed working tools for selection and

acquisition, microfilming, indexing of serials, and similar matters

have occupied the attention of the group. We shall touch on these

matters below.

Perhaps a quick historical survey of the Seminars will provide

some clearer view of their function and operation. The First Seminar

was held at Chinsegut Hill Library Brooksville, Florida, June 14-15,

1956 co-sponsored by the University of Florida and the Columbus

Memorial Library of Pan American Union, to which about 30 persons

were invited. Working papers on a wide variety of topics were so-

licited. The main theme of the Seminar was to isolate and identify

certain problems common to the institutions represented in the group

and others. This exchange of views was so successful, that it was

decided a II Seminar should follow.








-26-


This took place in Austin, Texas, under the co-sponsorship of the

Pan American Union, the Library of Congress and the University of Texas,

June 19-20, 1957.

About 60 persons participated. A Third Seminar grew out of it,

held in Berkeley California, with the University of California as host,

July 10-11, 1958. The IV Seminar is scheduled to be held in Washington,

1959, with the Library of Congress as host institution. The Seminars

are held near the place and date of A. L. A. Midsummer Meetings to

facilitate attendance.

Until the very end of II Seminar, there was no formal organization

to the group. At that time a Permanent Secretary was named to re-

ceive correspondence. However, a number of working committees and

sub-committees were named at Seminars, and they continue their ac-

tivities, reporting progress or recommending action at each Seminar.
k... /.,
Representation hasoincluded persons from government agencies, uni-

versities, special, and public libraries, Latin American bibliogra-

phers and scholars, United States bibliographers and scholars, import-

export book trade, international organizations, the United States

Book Exchange, and representatives of Latin American booksellers

councils and individual publishers. Despite the somewhat heter-

ogeneous professional background of the group and their apparent di-

versity of day to day interest, it has been found that the mixture

of these several points of view aid rather than detract from the ef-

fectiveness of the Seminars.








-27-


After the First Seminar, it was generally decided that subsequent

ones would hear reports of progress by committees and other groups en-

charged with specific tasks. Further, as a general pattern it was

thought wise to discuss in some detail a major book producing area of

Latin America, and to pool information on it; thus the II Seminar

picked Mexico, and the III Seminar discussed Argentina-Chile. In

addition, a special topic, cutting across area lines has been the rule.

The II Seminar discussed periodicals, and the III emphasized micro-

filming.

Although the structure of each Seminar varies slightly, limited

time imposes a semi-standard agenda. Each session devoted to a topic

and its subdivisions occupies a morning, an. afternoon or occasionally

an evening -- usually for the summary. At Chinsegut Hill the main

topic sessions were as follows: I. Selection of Materials and Bibli-

ographic Sources; II. Book Materials: Purchase and Exchange; III.

Non-Book Materials; IV. Latin American Periodicals; V. Government

Publications and Documents of Inter-American organizations. In Austin,

(1957) in addition to sessions reporting on previous Recommendations,

and a plenary one, working sessions were subdivided into Acquisition

of Latin American Periodicals; Acquisition of Book Materials from

Mexico; and Acquisition of Mexican Non-Commercial and Periodical Publi-

cations. Again at Berkeley (1958) topical sessions were held on Micro-

filming of Latin American Materials; Acquisition of Materials from

Argentina; and Acquisition of Materials from Chile, with the regular

meetings on earlier Recommendations and to provide Summary, Conclusions,

and Recommendations.








-28-


A limited number of Working Papers are solicited and circulated

in advance, as iell as background or other relevant papers providing

data or background. The latter often appear as Appendices in the

Proceedings.

The Working Papers prepared for these Seminars and the Appendices

to their Proceedings in themselves are a major contribution. A list

of them is appended here as Appendix A. They provide important lists

of all sorts-reliable dealers, potential exchange partners, serials

indexed or to be indexed, and similar invaluable data. The Proceedings

of Seminars I-II (the only ones published to date), quite apart from

the important conclusions, thus contain a mine of information in the

form of such Working Paper and Appendices. Even the List of Partici-

pants is quite helpful.

The Proceedings normally summarize the discussions of various

sessions, ending up with the Recommendations of the group. In

general these Recommendations have followed ground-rules laid down

at the I Seminar. Apart from the normal expressions of appreciation

for hospitality and local aid, operational Seminar recommendations

must be specific, directed to a person, agency, or group which could

reasonably be expected to become responsible for carrying them out,

and directed to report on them to the subsequent Seminar. At mid-

point between Seminars a progress report on Recommendations is issued.

Appendix B to this paper reproduces the substantive Recommendations

of the three Seminars held to date.








-29-


Quite apart from t h e normal impetus given to a dwtnon entre-

prise by such informal meetings, there have been a number of concrete

results from these Seminars. Minor ones include having the Farmington

Plan dealer in Mexico indicate in his monthly Bulletin those titles

which he has furnished under the Plan, as well as to the Library of

Congress under its blanket order. A group in Mexico is undertaking

the compilation of privately issued editions as a result of Seminars

discussions in Austin. These are but examples.

Perhaps one of the major results of discussions at the Seminars

was the formulation of plans for cooperative mission to Latin

America to ascertain the problems hindering the free flow of materials

to United States institutions. This mission warrants and receives

separate treatment in the succeeding Section.

In summary, it can be said that the Seminarson the Acquisition

of Latin American Library Materials range far beyond discussions of

purchases of current books and phamph3bts, entering into retrospective

materials, processing, handling of all sorts of materials from Latin

America, creation of bibliographical and other corit-ls. In short,

anything that strikes the fancy of the growing number of participants,







-30-


so long as it has an area interest and is primarily related to the

problem of United States institutions acquiring materials from

Latin American can be properly on the agenda of the Seminars.1











Apart from the Proceedings of Seminars I (1956) and II (1957),
cited in full, Appendix A, further description and evaluations
of the Seminars may be found in Howard F. Cline, "Hispanica,"
LC Quarterly Journal of Current Acquisitions, 14 (Nov. 1956):
48-49; Marietta Daniels, "Seminar on the acquisition of Latin
American Materials," Library Journal. 81 (Nov. 15, 1956):
2648-50; Caroline A,de Fournier, "Segundo Seminario para la
adquisci6n de material bibliografico Latino-Americano,"
Midrador (Mexico), 3, No. 5(jul.-ag. 1957): 7-10; William
H. Kurth, "Acquisitions from Mexico," Library Resources and
Technical Service, 2, No. 2(1958): 96-114; Irene Zimmerman,
"Second Seminar on Latin American Materials," Library Journal
82 (Aug. 1957): 1831-32.







-31-

6. THE COOPERATIVE MISSION TO LATIN AMERICA,
September-December, 1958

Discussions at the various Seminars on Acquisitions of Latin

American Library MAterials established the fact that although a

great deal of important information is available in the United States

on acquisitions sources and problems, at the same time there are

groups of data which cannot be obtained except through personal

contacts and visits to the area itself. With this in mnd,the

Library of Congress, acting on Recommendations from these Seminars,

took the initiative in exploring the problem.

Discussions in Washington with other government agencies

indicated that in 1956-1957 there was little possibility of U. S.

government financial support for special procurement activities.

Cultural or Public Affairs Officers of the Department of State

generally are too over-loaded with other tasks to dig out the kind

of specifics which are needed by U. S. institutions to improve

exchanges, purchases, bibliographical knowledge and the like.

Hence it became a matter of cooperative enterprise, if such a

rea~maissance mission was to go forward.

The aims of the project,which did materialize, are to collect

current and reliable information on the nature and extent of current

production of research materials--books, periodicals, maps, musical

scores,
Ecuador. Purposely the mission was designed as a short one, aiming

at certain key countries where acquisitions problems seem most

difficult or the information most scanty.









-32-


The cooperative mission has thus been viewed as a pilot one. Its

results will determine the need for acquisition representives for

the United States to be stationed in the area visited, or in other

parts of Latin America, on a continuing baisf,, or some alternative

arrangement.

In addition to the Library of Congress, which formulated the

original plans for such a mission, the following institutions

pidged cooperation and have helped support the mission by financial

aids National Library of Medicine; University of California (Los

Angeles); University of North Carolina; Cornell University; New

York Public Library; the University of Kansas4 University of

Florida; University of Miami; University of Indiana; University of

Pennsylvania; Los Angeles County Law Library.

The mission is at present under way. Mr. William Kurth,

Assistant Chief of the Order division at the Library of Congress,

left on August 1 to visit Mexico before initiating the more formal

cooperative undertaking in Peru. In addition to the places

specified as being the focus of interest during the three months

trip, Kurth will also visit very briefly Brazil, Argentina, and

possibly Venezuela. Preliminary reports indicate that he has

had success.

Before undertaking his journey, Kurth circulated an elaborate

questionnaire to the cooperating libraries to ascertain their

present practices and needs, both for information and for materials

itself. It is expected that not long after his return, he will








-33-


issue a series of reports to the cooperating libraries and a summary

general report of interest to other institutions involved one way

or another with the acquisition of Latin American materials from

the countries which he visited. He will report on his findings

to the IV Seminar, scheduled for Washington in the summer of 1959.








-34-


7. POSSIBLE FARMINGTON PLAN ASSIGNME~IS: SUBJECT OR AREA?


Statistical and other data, even without the important

auxiliary information on operational matters being provided by Mr.

Kurth, indicate that it is now possible and desirable to include

certain additional Latin American countries within the Farmington

Plan. Recommendations on that point appear in the following and

final Section.

Before presenting them, however, it is worth touching briefly

on the important question of whether such assignments should be made

along the subject basis of the original Farmington Plan, or along

the country basis, which the modified Plan has also employed in

Latin America.

From the point of view of this paper, there is little to

recommend the subject approach. There seems to be an overwhelming

weight on the side of area assignments.

For fully developed countries and disciplines, such as those

related to Europe, undoubtedly the subject approach would be

appropriate. However, the Latin American area is less developed than

the European, not only socially and economically, but also so far as

scholarship needs in this country are concerned, and supplying sources

in the area itself. Therefore, area assignments seem proper. Let us

look at the matter a little further. At nearly every point in process,

the area element even in subject fields is a dominant feature.








-35-


Latin American authors are not as specialized as European.

A man like Romulo Gallegos not only is a novelist, essayist, even

historian, but has also been President and writes on a variety of

other topics. Under the subject approach rather than having all

Gallegos material at hand in one institution, the normal way to

approach him as a research subject, his various publications are

likely to be scattered over numerous research libraries in the

country, rather than in a single one which has undertaken responsi-

bility for all Venezuelan materials.

The next step in the process after creation of work is

publication and distribution. Again Latin America is peculiar in

that the specialization of the United States and Europe does not

prevail. The author may well be his own publisher; but if not, the

publisher is also likely to be the retail bookdealer and wholesale

distributor. With the few number of dealers of any size in Latin

America, specialization by subject for them is a luxury not yet en-

joyed. Exceptions may be in the fields of medicine or in law. Gener-

ally all subjects are handled, often from the printing to the final

distribution, by one organization under one roof. They are prepared

to furnish everything, if they are prepared to furnish anything.

Returning to this country, when the finished product arrives,

one notes that scholarship, with the few exceptions noted, falls into

areal patterns. United States research and scholarship on Latin America

need more than just books and pamphlets. In many of the countries, be-

cause of their present level of economic and scholarly development, the








-36-


important research source materials appear in periodicals or in

short-lived serials. Hence libraries catering to needs of U.S.

scholars for given areas generally should and do go beyond the

acquisition of books and pamphlets into microfilms, periodicals,

and other research materials equally necessary for a coherent investi-

gation of that place. At present, non-book materials from Latin

America are most conveniently handled on a country rather than a

subject basis.

The scholarly U.S. fields themselves are more tied to area than

to discipline as we understand them. Latin America produces much

material on geography, history, sociology, philosophy, and the like

which their dealers class as "Law" in Latin American bibliographies and

sales lists. Latin American Humanities faculties go beyond what we

would normally expect to find under that rubric, entering into anthro-

pology, political theory, and a wide variety of other subjects which we

would normally expect to find distinguished as Social Sciences. Lack of

equivalence between categories and classes of subjects as seen from

Latin American eyes, and from U.S. ones, tends to disappear under area

assignments, but compounds confusion under the subject approach.







-37-

Fortunately, the Hispanic Foundation Survey has already

begun to pick up and identify the area interests of the major

universities in this country concerned with Latin America.1 There

are, as might be expected, overlaps and competitive interest for

specific areas, especially for Mexico. In many cases, area inter-

est of an institution is likely to be unique, such as that of Tulane

and its ties to the Guatemala-Central American regions. Friendly

negotiation should make it possible for the area interest of these

major institutions to be woven into an extended Farmington Plan, based

on country or regional assignments.




1 Howard F. Cline, "Survey of Latin American Teaching and Research
Resources and Activities in the United States: Objectives and
Procedures," Hispanic Foundation in the Library of Congress,
Survey Reportsil (Washington, 1958). To date 5 Reports have
appeared, for limited circulation, analyzing all Latin American
course work in colleges and universities in the United States,
1957-1958, for a total of 821 institutions, of which 90 are
considered for Survey purposes as Major (more than 1,200 man-
hours of instruction). Appendix I of Report 4 ranks them by
manhours.







-38-


8. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The conclusions from this study can be rather simply stated,

in broad terms. Since the Farmington Plan was first inaugurated,

important changes in Latin American publishing and output, as

well as needs and requirements in the United States, have made

necessary and feasible a reexamination of the original assumptions

of the Plan. They left Latin America in a marginal and low priority

position.

The feeling here is that the Farmington Plan can be extended

to Latin America on an area basis. Previous data in this paper can

be summarized in Table 7.

The recommendations implicit in Table 7 can be made explicit.

It is recommended that:

1. The present area assignments covering Mexico and the

Caribbean remain in effect;

2. The present subject assignments be reviewed. Assignment

of history is an especially important critical matter,

as it is the most investigated topic. Scarce and

ephemeral research materials on it should be readily

available through interlibrary loans, since its prac-

titioners are distributed on a national basis; much

the same can be said for literature, although specialists

in that field incline more toward teaching than writing,

if our figures can be trusted;








-39-


3. The research interests in the United States, rela-

tively good bibliographical controls, and adequate

suppliers make it desirable to extend the Farmington

Plan to cover Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Peru, and

Uruguay;

4. Sketchy or inadequate elements make it dubious, but

possible to consider Bolivia, Colombia, and perhaps

Ecuador for such coverage;

5. Almost complete lack of comparable elements make it wise

to defer action to extend Farmington Plan coverage to

Central America and Paraguay, unless strong institutional

areal interest makes such assignment feasible.








-40-


TABLE 7. SUMMARY: LATIN AMERICAN COUNTRIES & THE FARMINGTON PLANi


Research Biblio-
Interest in graphical
U.S. Controls


Adequate
Suppliers


Approx.
Current
Books


Approx.
Cost
(max.)


1. COVERED BY
Mexico
Caribbean


PLAN--COUNTRY OR AREA ASSIGNMENT*
High Yes Yes
Med.-Low Varied In part


300-400 $1,000
200-300 750


2. NOT COVERED-CAPABLE OF
Argentina Med.-Low
Brazil Med.-High
Venezuela Med.-Low
Chile Low
Peru Low
Uruguay Med.-Low


COUNTRY ASSIGNMENT
Yes Yes
Yes Yes
No Yes
Yes Yes
No Yes
No Yes


3. NOT COVERED-DUBIOUS FOR PRESENT ASSIGNMENT
Bolivia Low No Yes?
Colombia Med. No No?

4. NOT COVERED--DEFER FOR LATER ASSIGNMENT
Paraguay Low No No
Guatemala Med. No No
El Salvador Low No No
Costa Rica Low No Yes
Honduras Low No No
Nicaragua Low No No
Ecuador Low No No


*Estimates and Recommendations by H.F. Cline


400-500
200-400
100-125
100-125
50-75
50-100


15-25
10-15


5-10
0-5
0-5
10-15
0-5
0-5
15-25


1,000
1,500
500
200
150
300


35
35


15
10
10
25
10
10
35








-41-


APPENDIX A.


WORKING PAPERS AND PUBLISHED APPENDICES TO PROCEEDINGS,
SEMINARS ON THE ACQUISITION OF LATIN AMERICAN LIBRARY
MATERIALS.


Abbreviations:


CHIN


-- Imogene Hixson, comp., Final Report and Papers of the
Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library
Materials, Chinsegut Hill Library. Brooksville,
Florida, June 14-15. 1956. sponsored by the University
of Florida Libraries and the Columbus Memorial Library
of the Pan American Union. Mimeo. Gainesville, Fla.
1956.

Entries carry Working Paper Section and number, plus
(WP). Appendices carry page numbers.


AUSTIN -


BERK


Robert Vosper, comp., Final Report of the Second
Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library
Materials. June 19-20, 1957. sponsored by the Uni-
versity of Texas, the Pan American Union, and the
Library of Congress. University of Texas, The
Institute of Latin American Studies, Latin American
Studies, XVI. Austin. 1958.

The Report does not reproduce the Working papers,
listed therein as Appendix B, p. 52; they are listed
below.


- S.Preliminary materials and draft reports of the Third
Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library
Materials, Berkeley, California, July 10-11, 1958,
sponsored by the University of California, the Pan
American Union, and the Library of Congress.


Working paper authors and titles taken from announce-
ment of III Seminar.


App. Appendix
WP Working Paper








-42-


APPENDIX A (cont'd)


Ball, Alice Dulany. "USBE Activities in Latin America and
their Relationship to Latin American Collections in the
United States." CHIN, I,c (WP).

Benson, Nettie Lee. "Microfilm Programs with Emphasis on
Latin American Periodicals and Newspapers." CHIN, IV,1 (WP).

Berry, Paul L. "Problems of Acquisition of Government Publi-
cations." CHIN, V,n (WP).

Burrus, Father E.J. "Research Opportunities in Italy for
Students of Hispanic American History." BERK, WP-II.

Carter, Lilly. "Practical Experience of U.S. Libraries in
Exchange of Publications with Latin America." CHIN,
II,h (WP).

Cash Molina, J. "Book Industry in Chile, Status of Exchange
in Chile." BERK, WP-IV.

Cline, Howard F. "Library of Congress Purchases from
Hispanic Areas, Fiscal 1955," Hispanic Acquisitions
Studies: 15. CHIN, App. III, sep. pag.

"Major Learned Societies and Institutions in Latin
America with Extensive Publishing Programs." CHIN, II,g (WP).

Coppola, Dominick. "An International Bookseller's Relationship
with Publishers and Dealers.in Latin America.' CHIN, II,e (WP).

Cortazar, A.R. "Book Industry of Argentina." BERK, WP-III.

Fabilli, Josephine C. "Major Latin American Collections in
Libraries of the United States." CHIN, I,b (WP).

Gerlach, Arch C. "Mapping Services in Latin America." CHIN,
III,i (WP).

Grossmann, Jorge. "Indexes and Indexing Services to Latin
American Periodicals and Newspapers." CHIN, IV,m (WP).

Hale, Richard. "American Historical Association's Guide to
Photographed Historical Materials in U.S. and Canada."
BERK, WP-II.

Harkness, Albert Jr. "Microfilming in Chile." BERK, WP-II.








-43-


APPENDIX A (Cont'd)


Heilprin, Laurence C. "Research and Development in the
Application of Microforms to Library Work." BERK, WP-II.

Henrfquez Urena, Pedro. "Important Periodical Publications
of Recent Years (1947)." CHIN, App. I, p. 27.

Hixson, Imogene. "Problems of the Treatment of Latin American
Materials in U.S. Libraries." CHIN, I,d (WP).

Kingery, Robert E. "Sources of Bibliographic Information and
the Problems of Selection of Latin American Materials."
CHIN, I,a-l (WP).

Kurth, William. See Penalosa, Fernando.

The Acquisition of Mexican Materials." AUSTIN, WP-2.
Revised version published in Library Resources and
Technical Services, Vol. 2, No. 2 (1958).

"Latin American Newspapers on Microfilm as Recorded in the
Microfilm Clearing House Union Catalog Division, Library of
Congress (rev. as of August 1, 1957)". AUSTIN, App. D,
pp. 65-72.

Leavitt, Sturgis. "List of Spanish American Literary Periodicals
Indexed by Sturgis E. Leavitt." CHIN, App. I, pp. 28-30.

Linares, Emma. "Microfilming Activities in Argentina."
BERK, WP-II.

"List of Participants." AUSTIN, App. A, pp. 45-51.

"Lista Provisional que Servird de Base para la Preparaci6n de
un Indice General de Publicaciones Peri6dicas Latinoamericanas."
AUSTIN, App. E, pp. 73-87.

"Major Latin American Collections in Libraries of the United
States.. A List Prepared by the Columbus Memorial Library."
AUSTIN, App. C, pp. 53-64.

MartInez, J. M. "Status of Exchanges in Argentina." BERK, WP-III.








-44-


APPENDIX A (Cont'd)


Mead, Robert G., Jr. "A List of 25 Humanistic Latin American
Periodicals." CHIN, App. I, p. 26 (revised in Hispania,
38:427-29 (Dec. 1955).

Myers, Garrett L. "The Microfilming Program of the Genealogical
Society of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints."
AUSTIN, App. F, pp. 88-97.

Penalosa, Fernando. "The Mexican Book Industry." Ph.D. diss,
(1956), abstract by William Kurth. AUSTIN, WP 1.
The Peialosa volume has been published (1957) in full by
Scarecrow Press.

Penna, Carlos Victor. "Selection and Acquisition of Latin
American Bibliographical Material." CHIN, I,a-2 (WP).

UNESCO's Microfilming Experience." BERK, WP-II.

Peraza, Fermin. "Which are the Latin American Books United
States Libraries Need." CHIN, II,e-3 (WP).

Sandoval, Armando. "Status of Exchanges in Mexico."
AUSTIN, WP 3.
Translation by Howard Cline of paper presented at I
Jornadas Mexicanas de Biblioteconomia etc. Mexico,
Dec. 1956; original Spanish in Proceedings of the
Jornadas.

Simonson, Emma Crosland. "Purchase of Latin American Materials
through Bookstores, Publishers and Dealers." CHIN, II,
e-2 (WP).

Smisor, George. "Microfilming Newspapers in Panama." BERK,
WP-II.

"Subject Headings (Preliminary List) used for United Nations
Index to Laws in Force." CHIN, App. II, pp. 31-33.

Wilgus, A. Curtis. "Florida Project in the Caribbean."
BERK, WP-II.

Williams, Edwin E. 'Acquisition of Materials from Argentina by
U.S. Libraries.' BERK, WP-III.








-45-


APPENDIX A (cont'd)


Williams, Edwin E. "Acquisition of Materials from Chile by U.S.
Libraries." BERK, WP-IV.

*Experience of Farmington Plan in the Latin American
Field." CHIN, II,f (WP).

"Working Papers," AUSTIN, App. B, p. 52.
These are entered separately in this list.

Zimmerman, Irene. "Problems of Acquisition of Latin American
Periodicals." CHIN, IV,k (WP).








-46-


APPENDIX B. SUBSTANTIVE RECOMMENDATIONS OF SEMINARS ON THE
ACQUISITION OF LATIN AMERICAN LIBRARY MATERIALS,
I-III, 1956-1958



Resolutions and Recommendations of the I Seminar
(Brooksville, Fla,, 1956)


I. Selection of Materials and Bibliographic Sources

The Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library
Materials recommends:

1. That the Inter-American Bibliographical and Library
Association, in cooperation with interested institutions,
consider the compilation and publication of data on the
location, scope, development, and current acquisition
policies and practice, of major Latin American collections
in the United States as a supplement to the information
published in Ronald Hilton's Handbook of Hispanic Source
Materials and Research Organizations in the United States.

a. It is further recommended that, if possible, the
interest of the Commission on History of the Pan
American Institute of Geography and History in
this project be enlisted;

b. It is further recommended that the attention of the
several Regional Councils on Inter-American Studies
be drawn to this project and their aid and support
be solicited;

c. It is recommended that as soon as possible an annotated
bibliography concerning Latin American collections in
the United States be prepared and published.

2. That the general and particular acquisitions needs of Latin
American collections in United States libraries be brought
specifically to the attention of U.S. Book Exchange and that
USBE be urged to continue and increase specialized activities
in terms of working with the group of United States libraries
engaged in the collection of Latin American materials.









APPENDIX B (cont'd)


II. Book Materials--Purchase and Exchange

The Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library
Materials recommends:

3. That interested libraries explore the possibilities and
feasibility of maintaining on a cooperative basis one or
more full-time acquisitions agents in Latin America.

4. That the Library of Congress, in cooperation with interested
institutions, develop a Handbook of Latin American Learned
Societies with Exchange Programs, to list universities
and societies, their affiliates, publishing programs,
response or exchange partners and other relevant data.

III. Non-Book Materials

The Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library
Materials recommends:

5. That efforts be made by the Latin American Specialist,
National Archives, in cooperation with interested persons
and institutions, to develop clearing house activities
to report on location of manuscripts and special Latin
American materials on microfilm and the publication of
annual check lists of such acquisitions.

6. That efforts be made by the National Archives, in co-
operation with interested institutions, to develop more
microfilming and documentation centers in Latin America
where inadequate photocopying facilities now exist.

7. That the Hispanic Foundation remind all institutions
holding microfilm and engaging in microfilming of Latin
American materials to report their activities to the
National Microfilming Clearing House (Union Catalog
Division, Library of Congress), and that the Library
of Congress compile and publish such information.

IV. Latin American Periodicals and Their Acquisition

The Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Librvry
Materials recommends:

8. That the Hispanic Foundation, in cooperation with
interested institutions, prepare and publish a cumulative
index to the Handbook of Latin American S-tudies.

9. That the Inter-American Bibliographical and Library
Association, in cooperation with Pan American Union,
revise and extend the older Pan American Union
bibliographic publications most in demand,









APPENDIX B (cont'd)


-48-


10. That the Pan American Union, in cooperation with interested
institutions, call a conference of those institutions and
groups interested in or now engaged in cooperative indexing
of Latin American periodicals.

11. That as the first step in the microfilming of rare and
significant Latin American periodicals

a. Libraries in the United States be circularized as to
their holdings of the fifty magazines which appear in
the Leavitt Index, and

b. These libraries be asked if they are disposed to
participate in the microfilming of some or all of
these materials.

V. Government Publications and Documents of Inter-American Organizations

12. The members of the Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin
American Library Materials, meeting at Chinsegut Hill
Library of the University of Florida on June 15, 1956,
under the sponsorship of the Pan American Union and the
University of Florida, discussed the problem of availa-
bility of current issues and the problem of deterioration
of retrospective files of the official gazettes of Latin
American countries. As a result of the discussion, the
Seminar unanimously recommends

That the Association of Research Libraries be, and
it hereby is, requestedto investigate the feasibility
of sponsoring the cooperative microfilming of retro-
spective files of the official gazettes of Latin Ameri-
can countries and to continue said files by microfilvw-
ing currently on a cooperative basis.

13. Representatives of the various libraries attending the
Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library
Materials expressed serious concern with present distri-
bution practices and bibliographical control of the
documents of the OAS and the publications of the PAU.
They find it impossible to ascertain what is being or
what has been published by the Pan American Union, what
they should receive as "depository libraries" and how
to determine which documents and publications may be
lacking. For greater availability and usefulness of
the documents of the OAS and the publications of the
PAU, the Seminar respectfully requests that the OAS
study as soon as possible the creation of the following
services:









APPENDIX B (cont'd)


-49-


a. Compilation of documentation symbol system for numerical
identification of both documents and general publications,
possibly controlled through a Documents or Editorial Office.

b. Systematic study of the distribution of documents and
publications to assure complete coverage by depository
subscribers.

c. Indexing service to current documents and publications
similar in scope and form to the UN Documents Index.

d. Compilation of a retrospective list of the publications
of the Pan American Union and the documents of the OAS.

e. Revision of the current catalog of PAU publications to
make it more usable, through such devices as series
listings, index, and fuller annotations.

f. Coordination of these activities with the Inter-American
Bibliographical Committee of the OAS as recommended by
the second meeting of the Inter-American Cultural Council.

The Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials agrees:

14. To call to the attention of the Latin American Regional
Conference on Exchanges in Havana the need for appropriate
domestic legislation to support the exchange of official
publications with both governmental and non-governmental
institution.










APPENDIX B. (Cont'd)


Resolutions and Recommendations
of the II Seminar
(Austin, Tex., 1957)


I. Acquisition of Latin American Library Materials

The Second Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library
Materials recommends:


Austin 1.






Austin 2.







Austin 3,


That the Inter-American Bibliographical and Library As-
sociation continue its work in thd field of surveying the
current acquisition policy of libraries with appreciable
Latin American collections, that it consult with other in-
terested agencies, and that a report be presented to the
Third Seminar. (See also Chinsegut 1)

That the Seminar take cognizance of the utility of the
USBE in the acquisition of needed Latin American ma-
terials, especially in the completion of collections of
periodicals, as demonstrated by the number of items
available on the University of North Carolina desiderata
list, and that the USBE continue to report on its
activities at future Seminars. (See also Chinsegut 2)

That a handbook which includes information about learned
societies with exchange programs be published, and that
the need for such a handbook again be called to the
attention of the Library of Congress, the Pan American
Union, and other institutions. (See also Chinsegut 4)


II. ridal Indexin and Bibliograheal Problems

The Second Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library
Materials recommends:

Austin 4. That the present Committee on Cooperative Periodicals
Indexing continue its exploration of the possibilities
of cooperative indexing of periodicals based on the
following criteria

a. An exchange of index cards among cooperating insti-
tutions at least until the publication of a printed
index would be possible,

i. The acceptance of a selected list of the
periodicals to be reviewed for both selective
and comprehensive indexing;








-51-


APPENDIX B. (Cont'd)

ii. The limitation of the indexing procedure to peri-
odicals in the fields of the humanities and social
sciences primarily;

iii. Flexibility of the list to assure adequate representa-
tion of all countries and the addition of desirable
titles;

iv. The anticipated cooperation of magazine publish-
ers to assure immediate receipt in the indexing
agency of new issues;

v. The general utility of the index for both North
American and Latin American users;

b. The publication of a quarterly index to current Latin
American periodicals with appropriate cumulations
taking into consideration following points:

i. Subject heading preferably in Spanish with Eng-
lish references as required;

ii. Annotations provided only when needed for clarity;

iii. Exploration of the possibility of foundation sup-
port for the initial development of a current in-
dex, looking forward to its production and dis-
tribution on a self-sustaining basis;

c. The possibilities of separate indexes to current
legal periodicals and officials gazettes;

d. The agreement to assure the completion of the current
indexing project before undertaking a retrospective in-
dex, but to explore existing retrospective indexes of
Latin American materials. (See Chinsegut 10)

Austin 5. That the New York Public Library be requested to issue
specific information on a proposed -subscription price
for positive copies of microfilm of current official
gazettes of Latin America, with assurance to the sub-
scriber that all numbers have been filmed. (See Chinsegut
summary reports)









-52-


APPENDIX B (cont'd)


Austin 6.










Austin 7.


That Dr. Sturgis Leavitt be assured of the continued in-
terested of the Seminar in the canvassing of libraries in
the United States to determine their interest in partici-
pating in the cooperative microfilming of some or all of
the fifty significant periodicals indexed in the Leavitt
Index, and that such a circular be sent by Dr. Leavitt,
with the assistance of other participants if he so
desires, upon the reasonable assurance of immediate
publication of the Index or upon actual publication.
(See also Chinsegut 11)

That the Caribbean Commission be commended on its
publication, Current Caribbean Bibliography, and that
it be encouraged to continue and expand the publication
as a primary source of information for scholars and
libraries throughout the world in respect to authorship
and publishing in the Caribbean Countries of France, the
United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and United States of
America, especially along the following lines:
a. More frequent publication to assure up-to-date and
accurate recording of publishing activities in the
area;


b. Additional bibliographical and directory information;

c. Annotations for important titles;

d. Improved format to facilitate use of the publication
and to simplify the problems of preserving it.

III. Acquisition of Library Materials from Mexico

The Second Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library
Materials recommends:


Austin 8.


That for the further dissemination of Mexican publica-
tions in the United States, appropriate institutions con-
sider the publication of annual and monthly indexes and
bulletins to current Mexican book and periodical publi-
cations, lists of publishers and book dealers, list of
national and state government agencies and institutions
and their publications, together with other information
covering the possible exchange of publications among the
libraries of the two countries.









APPENDIX B (cont'd)


Austin 9.






Austin 10.


That a Committee on Mexican Acquisitions study and
promote possible cooperative exchanges of publications
between Mexican and United States university presses
as well as an agreement whereby such presses would
serve as distribution agents for university presses
of the other country.

That the National Library of Mexico be encouraged to
publish in its BoDetin a list, by states, of those
institutions, official and private, that have publishing
programs, with indication of the subject fields of
interest to the exchanging institutions; and that,
if it is not feasible to issue such a list in the
BolatinL such information be supplied to the evYiem
of Inter-American Bibliography for inclusion in a
regular section that will be created for all the
American nations.


IV. Organization and Administration Matters Pertaining to
Future Seminars and Their Programs

The Second Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American Library
Materials recommends.


Austin 11.


That Miss Marietta Daniels be selected to
Permanent Secretary of the Seminar on the
of Latin American Library Materials,


serve as
Acquisition


Austin 12.






Austin 13.



Austin 14.



Austin 15.


That a Committee on Microfilming be formed under the
chairmanship of Dr. George P. Hammond and that he be
authorized to select other members of the committee
and to prepare working papers for subsequent Seminars
dealing with microfilming. (See also Chinsegut 5, 6,
7, 11, 12)

That a Committee on Mexican Acquisitions be formed
under the co-chairmanship of Dr. Manuel Alcala and
Dr. Nettie Lee Benson.

That the specific topic of microfilming Latin American
materials as well as materials about Latin America in
the United States be taken up at a future Seminar.

That the invitation of the University of California
Library to hold the Third Seminar at Berkeley on
July 10-11, 1958, be gratefully accepted, and that
the Organizing Committee of the Second Seminar,
plus the University of California serve for its organ-
ization.


-53-









-54-
APPENDIX B (cont'd)

Austin 16. That the recommendations of the Second Seminar be
widely disseminated, especially to library schools
in Latin America.








-55-
APPENDIX B (cont'd)



Resolutions and Recommendations of the III Seminar
(Berkeley, Calif., 1958)
(Based on draft of William Kurth)


I. Acquisition Problems

The Third Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American
Library Materials recommends:


Berkeley 1.







Berkeley 2.



Berkeley 3.





Berkeley 4.



Berkeley 5.


That Stanley West convey to the Association of
Research Libraries the concern of the Seminar
regarding the Farmington Plan coverage of Latin
America as a whole, and to express the hope that
the Association of Research Libraries would report
to the Fourth Seminar on the Survey of the Plan and
formulate a statement of policy.

That a committee be formed to consider the problem of
acquiring publications through a program of exchanges.
(For Committee membership, see Roster.)

That the documents of inter-American conferences and
meetings sponsored by the Organization of American
States be regularly microfilmed by the Pan American
Union in order that positive copies may be made avail-
able to interested libraries at their expense.


That the
continue
Seminar.


Committee on Mexican Acquisitions (Austin 9)
its operation and report at the Fourth
(For membership, see Roster.)


That for the further dissemination of Chilean and
Argentine publications in the United States, appropriate
institutions in Chile and Argentina consider the publi-
cation of annual and monthly indexes and bulletins to
current Chilean and Argentinean books and periodical
publications, lists of publishers and dealers, lists of
national and state government agencies and institutions
and their publications, together with information
covering the possible exchange of publications between
the libraries of Chile and Argentina, and those of the
United States. The Seminar further recommends that a
Committee on Chilean Acquisitions and a Committee on
Argentine Acquisitions be formed to implement this
program.








-56-


APPENDIX B (cont'd)


II. Bibliographic Problems

The Third Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American
Library Materials recommends


Berkeley 6.





Berkeley 7.





Berkeley 8.


Berkeley 9.


That the Committee on Cooperative Periodical
,Indexing be commended for its work and that the
Committee take whatever steps necessary to bring
the project to a successful conclusion. (See also
Austin 4.)

That Stanley West be commended for his offer to
include in the University of Florida Library's
"List of Current Acquisitions," whenever feasible,
items published in the area of the Caribbean Com-
mission, and that he proceed accordingly.

That the Permanent Secretary convey to Dr. Sturgis E.
Leavitt the pleasure expressed by the Seminar at the
news of the imminent appearance of the Leavitt Index
and express to Dr. Leavitt its gratitude for the
important contribution he has made to the work of the
Seminar.

III. Photoduplication

That the Committee on Photoduplication (formerly
called Microfilm Committee) be instructed to ex-
plore possible projects for microfilming and to
solicit support for those projects that merit
attention, referring pertinent findings to the
Association of Research Libraries or other
appropriate agencies.


IV. Organization and Administration of the Seminar.

The.Third Seminar on the Acquisition of Latin American
Library Materials recommends


Berkeley 10.


That the Permanent Secretary be instructed to convey
the appreciation of the Seminar to the Secretary
General of the Pan American Institute of Geography and
History for its offer to collaborate with the Seminar
in whatever way possible, and to state that the Seminar
would call upon the services of the Pan American Institute
of Geography and History as the need arises.








-57-


APPENDIX B (cont'd)


Berkeley 11.





Berkeley 12.


That the aid of a Foundation be enlisted to
support the program of the Seminars or to pro-
vide for one librarian and one additional
appropriate representative from each Latin American
country under study to attend the Seminar.

That the invitation of Mr. L. Quincy Mumford to
hbld the Fourth Session of the Seminar at the
Library of Congress June 1959, prior to the
American Library Association meeting in
Washington, D.C., be gratefully accepted.




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