Group Title: NFE exchange
Title: Women and production
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 Material Information
Title: Women and production
Series Title: NFE exchange
Physical Description: 28 p. : ;
Language: English
Publisher: Michigan State University, Non-Formal Education Information Center
Place of Publication: East Lansing MI
Publication Date: 1981
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087241
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 68101565

Full Text

Issue No. 22 -1981

NFEilnformation Center

A Timely
Exchange Service
on Non-Formal Education


WOMEN HAVE ALWAYS WORKED. Yet it is only recently
that women's work has become a topic of discussion among
scholars and national development planners. Recent re-
search has yielded a rich and varied assortment of data on
the extent of women's contributions to economic activities.
These studies help dispel the myth that women are "eco-
nomically inactive." In addition, they call into question
traditional definitions and assumptions about what consti-
tutes women's work and productivity. The growing body of
literature on women and work abounds with recom-
menqations for change. In this article, we first sketch
women's historical role in economic production and then
consider the problem of "measuring" women's work. The
article concludes by assessing some of the recom-
men nations often made regarding a greater role for women
in production and in national development.
In a limited space it is impossible to do justice to the
great diversity of information on women worldwide. Our
atte pt, therefore, is to highlight general trends and impli-
cations and to stimulate refinement of concepts used in the
study of women and production. Elsewhere in this issue, the
"Project Highlights" and the "Select Bibliography on
Women and Production" identify specific projects and pub-
lications dealing with women's work in Africa, Asia, and
Latin America. These sections reflect a growing number of
studies that examine, in depth, the actual life situations
facing women in all parts of the world, and reveal the broad
spectrum of activities encompassed by the phrase "wo-
men's work." The "Reference Review" features resources
on women's groups, considers the impact of development
on the environment, and contains a summary of research
carried out by the Non-Formal Education Information
Center early in 1981 on WID-related inquiries. "Network
News" contains a variety of notes of general or specific
in"trst to readers.

Participation in Production
Women have always contributed significantly to
the economic life of their communities. These con-
tributions have been shaped not only by particular
environmental conditions and the economic organiza-
tion in various cultures, but also by widely varying
conceptions of femininity, sex roles, and female
status vis-a-vis male status. The work that women do
has a pervasive influence on the general quality of life
that they are able to maintain, their capacity for
personal fulfillment, and the survival and well-being of
their families and communities.
in order to consider women's roles in production
adequately, it is first necessary to establish what we
mean by the term production. Here work and produc-
tion are broadly defined as all activities that result in
goods and services with the potential to satisfy human
needs and wants. Thus we are considering the many
ways in which women have historically participated in
a total ongoing process that enables societies to
function. Terms like household and subsistence prod-
uction, child care, labor-force participation, employ-
ment, and income-generation refer to specific aspects
of this process.
In the sections that follow, we first provide an
overview of the variegated pattern of women's prod-
uctive activities in the context of socio-cultural, legal,
and economic changes in societies. We then look at
some of the issues related to measuring and placing a
value on women's work. This provides a background
for reflecting on a number of recommendations

Colg fEuainMchgnSaeUiest

C1~ r~c r



College of Education

Michigan State University

page 2

frequently offered in the literature on women and

In preindustrial societies, men and women were
jointly responsible for subsistence production for their
households. A division of labor in which men and
women had different but complementary tasks was
essential for the survival of the family. In more recent
times, the introduction of cash-cropping, urbanization,
and migration have disrupted the complementary pat-
terns characteristic of this traditional division of labor.
As men tend to move into cash-crop production, or
migrate to cities and towns in search of jobs, the
burden of subsistence production shifts more to wo-
men. In parts of Africa, for example, it is estimated that
today 70 percent of subsistence food crops are pro-
duced by women. Women have also moved into cash-
crop production, often as unpaid family laborers or
underpaid seasonal workers. Although wide variations
exist, it is estimated that women produce more than 40
percent of the world's food. The traditional tasks as-
sociated with providing food for the family, such as
storage, preservation and preparation, fetching water
and fuel combined with childbearing and child-
rearing, and other household duties have by and
large remained women's responsibility. And especially
in developing countries, these tasks have remained
largely untouched by technological innovation and
"modernization," particularly in rural areas.

Thus, changes in the division of labor and the
organization of the economy have increased women's
workload. Furthermore, women increasingly need
money. In a world that is becoming more and more
reliant on money as a medium of exchange, women
need an access to income for personal sustenance and
in order to fulfill their family obligations. For example, in
many societies, women remain responsible for the
education and socialization of children, and this can
require money. Where husbands and wives used to
have clearly demarcated economic responsibilities, it
cannot be assumed that income now earned by a
husband is at the disposal of the wife. It is, in fact, often
not accessible to her. Furthermore, as a result of
migration and rapid social change, rural and urban
women are often the sole providers for their families.
The growing number of female heads of households,
estimated at 30 percent worldwide, belies the myth that
women can always rely on the economic support of
men. i
Whether out of necessity, in an effort to maintain
economic independence, or to improve the quality of
life of their families, large numbers of women are
entering the paid labor force.
For many women, their first, and perhaps only,
opportunity to earn money is in the informal labor
market, through performing activities such as petty
trading, domestic work, sewing, and other services. In
many Third World countries, where industrialization
has failed to keep up with rural-urban migration, the

informal market is essential for the provision of many
basic goods and services. It also offers a much
needed source of employment for poor men and
women. Unhampered by legislative control, the infor-
mal market may be highly profitable for some people.
Yet, as more frequently experienced, it is highly
competitive and unpredictable, and may yield little
profit to most of its participants. Women, particularly,
can be trapped in unstable and low-income jobs in the
informal labor market.

Where women have entered the formal labor mar-
ket, they have fared little better. Except for the few
highly educated, elite women who hold professional
positions, women are generally concentrated in occu-
pations with low status, low pay, and little chance for
promotion. And even the better educated women
typically earn less than their male counterparts.

As women enter the paid labor force, their overall
workload increases. Research findings show that of
all groups, poor married women spend the most time
in productive activities and have the least leisure time.
Rather than trading their household responsibilities
for a job outside the home, women are often expected
to fulfill responsibilities in both settings. And, in most
countries, it is still assumed that child-rearing is
primarily women's work. The phrases "double bur-
den" and "women's second shift in the home"
eloquently describe the dilemma confronting women
in the paid labor force.

There is another dimension to this dilemma. While
women participate in production in rural and urban
economies, both in the labor force and in the house-
hold, their access to and control over the resources
and benefits of the production process remain limited.
Examples of this situation are common in the agricul-
tural sector of many developing countries. Agricultural
land reform movements have often benefited men
who farm for commercial purposes only, rather than
those women who farm both for commercial markets
and family food consumption. Thus, while the men are
often given title to the land, it is the women who carry
the heaviest responsibilities for its cultivation. Be-
cause men own the land, they usually receive the
market income from the harvest rather than the
women who have, in reality, made the harvest possi-
ble. Likewise, as several writers point out, more often
it is the men who become the targeted audience for
agricultural extension services, technological labor-
saving improvements, and training in farm resource

No single reason can account for women's difficult
situation in the world of work. Nevertheless, several
factors can be identified that contribute to creating
and maintaining the situation. These need to be
addressed if women's productive roles are to be
valued fairly, and their participation in the benefits of
production ensured. Given the evidence that women
provide the bulk of the food that the poor of the world

page 3

eat, this is not merely a matter of justice and fairness.
It is a matter of survival. In the long run, not only the
women, but everyone stands to benefit. The sections
which follow focus on how tradition, legislation, and
measurement strategies operate as influential factors
in defining and shaping women's work.

Tradition, influencing all aspects of thought and
action in society, is a powerful factor in shaping
women's roles in production. Having evolved over
long periods of time, traditional notions of appropriate
roles for men and women often are sources of stability
and cohesion in a society. As such, they do not
change quickly or without struggle. Inevitably, tension
arises when traditions seem to hinder adjustment to
new conditions brought about by rapid social change.
Some argue that traditional notions of women's prod-
uctive roles are by-and-large retrogressive and must
be abolished, because they deter women's full par-
ticipation in social life. Furthermore, they argue that
policy makers and planners, wittingly or unwittingly,
use popular sentiment and custom to legitimize dis-
crimination. For example, motherhood and accom-
panying notions of "a woman's proper place" are
often used to justify discriminatory hiring practices
and low pay, or to reinforce the stereotyping of some
occupations as "men's work" or "women's work."
Others argue that traditions play constructive roles
in society. Outsiders must be attentive to the ways in
which traditions function, respecting the beliefs and
attitudes held by the people on the basis of these
traditions. The altering of traditions is, in fact, a
controversial issue. Who decides which traditions
need to be discarded? What replaces the discarded
traditions as a source of motivation and legitimation in
people's lives?
Struggles for equality through legislative and edu-
cational reform must be waged with full recognition of
the pervasive nature of traditional beliefs and prac-
tices. In the following section we consider the rela-
tionship between legislation and women's work.

Legislation is a powerful force both in defining
women's roles and in bringing about reform. Histori-
cally, legal systems such as Roman Law, Islamic Law,
and English Common Law sanctioned women's sub-
ordination to male authority. Today, however, most
nations have initiated legal reforms which enshrine,
constitutionally, the principle of equality. Thus,
women are legally acknowledged to be the political,
social, and economic equals of men. In many coun-
tries, civil laws have been altered to give women more

control with regard to marriage, divorce, and property
rights. And special labor laws have been instituted, on
the one hand, to control discrimination faced by
female employees, and on the other hand, to cater to
the particular health needs of women.
While legal reform is an essential basis for improv-
ing the conditions under which women work, and
increasing their control over the benefits of produc-
tion, laws alone are not enough. Legislation may be
no more than official rhetoric, formulated to create a
progressive impression. The fact is that laws are often
flagrantly violated or ignored. Anti-discriminatory
legislation must be accompanied by an active com-
mitment on the part of national and local officials to
put laws into practice. Furthermore, the implementa-
tion of legislation may only be possible where it is
acknowledged that basic social and economic condi-
tions are also in need of change. This requires,
among other things, a more realistic appraisal of
women's contribution to the economic well-being of
their families and communities than has occurred in
the past when conventional indicators of social and
economic progress and productivity were used.

Measuring and Valuing Women's Work
Perceptions of producers and the value of their
work are shaped by the procedures used to measure
development and productivity. Too often women's
work has been devalued or overlooked, and policy
making to enhance women's productivity hampered,
because inadequate measures of production were
Conventional measures of productivity, such as the
Gross National Product (GNP), census and labor force
data, do not adequately account for women's total
economic contribution to their societies. Women's
production in the domestic sphere is largely uncounted,
and their participation in the market economy is often
In most societies household production is
excluded from the GNP. Defining and measuring
those non-market activities that do not produce cash
present complex problems, and as yet, there is no
consensus about which activities should or should not
be included as household production. Definitions
range from those covering all work done in the house-
hold, including mothering, to those that count only
restricted economic services resembling or contribut-
ing to market work.
Time-budget analysis is the most commonly used
technique to study patterns of time use by family
members as an indicator of household productivity.
Although most of these techniques were designed for
households in developed countries, they are often
adapted to measure domestic activities in Third World


Several methods have been developed to assign
economic value to household activities, based on
time-budget studies. Among these are the market-
cost approach, which uses the cost of hiring replace-
ments for each individual activity to estimate value,
and the opportunity cost approach which considers
the wages the individual could have earned in the
market place as an estimate of the value of household
production. Both methods are rough estimates at
best, and more applicable in societies where the
option of entering the formal market is a reality.

Methodological difficulties, although considerable,
are not insurmountable, and several authors recom-
mend that more research be done to refine measures
of non-market productivity. This would allow for more
precise documentation of the contribution made by
women to the economic development of their coun-
GNP and labor-force statistics are the measures
most frequently used to assess a nation's economic
growth. These are based on the assumption that most
workers have stable wage employment, and that most
production takes place in industrialized, urban cen-
ters. Where this is not the case, as in most developing
countries, a large portion of economic activity remains
hidden from policy-makers who use these statistical
measures to plan national development strategies.
Women's work, in particular, is undercounted by
these measures. Generally, they exclude all produc-
tion that does not produce income (such as food
processing, water carrying, tending home gardens,
sewing, and unpaid domestic work). Unpaid family
workers (mostly women and children) on family farms
or in small businesses are generally classified as
economically inactive. In some cases women may be
classified as non-workers if a census is taken in
off-season periods when their labor is not required on
farms, and they are not questioned about their activi-
ties during other seasons.
In addition to unpaid work, many activities in the
informal markets in towns and cities are also excluded
in conventional measures of economic activity.
Women represent a large part of this market as petty
traders, domestic workers, seamstresses, or laborers
in other service professions. Measuring work in the
informal market is difficult for a number of reasons: (1)
Generalizations cannot be easily made about the
skills involved in a particular job; (2) people may hold
multiple jobs; and (3) laborers who move in and out of
the market have no consistent source of income.
Nevertheless, planners and policy-makers will need
to account for these activities to arrive at a more
adequate estimate of economic production.
Women's productive roles, shaped by various so-
cial, cultural, and economic forces, are undergoing
change and redefinition. The growing body of literature
on women and production offers many recom-
mendations to give direction and momentum to these

changes. In the following paragraphs we take a closer
look at several of these recommendations reflecting
themes related to women's productive roles. Before
doing so, however, it seems crucial to place the
discussion in a larger context.

Questioning Popular Assumptions
Issues concerning women and work form part of
the complex set of concerns and considerations sur-
rounding the process of change. Through the years,
women's participation in the development process
has been conceptualized in different ways. The tra-
ditional notion that gains from development efforts
aimed at men would trickle down to benefit women
has by now been discredited, even though many
projects are still aimed exclusively at male partici-
pants. More recently there has been an upsurge of
interest in "integrating women into development."
This has given rise to a large number of projects
geared towards enhancing women's productivity by
providing greater access to education, skills training,
and employment. However, it would be folly to accept
every effort at "enhancing women's productivity" and
"integrating women into development" as unques-
tionably good. In reality, these processes are highly
complex and must be assessed in their socio-
historical context. For example, merely training
women so that they are better equipped to perform
routine assembly-line tasks, with few benefits and
many risks, may not ultimately be in the best interest
of women, their families, or society in general. Thus it
is necessary, at the outset, to question the basic
premises of the development process. Every recom-
mendation to enhance women's role in production
must be considered in the context of the total socio-
economic system. Are women being incorporated into
an entrenched system based on the unequal distribu-
tion of resources and benefits? Or is their integration
a natural and logical expression of a development
process which seeks to provide greater power and
access to resources for the poor because its ultimate
aim is to improve their standard of living?
In the following section, we examine the underly-
ing assumptions, conditions for implementation, and
implications of a number of recommendations to en-
hance women's productive roles.

Promoting Wage Equality
Of the many recommendations receiving attention
in the literature, the idea of "equal pay for equal work"
is one of the most popular and universally accepted -
at least on paper. Many countries have made wage
equality a legislative issue by passing laws or estab-
lishing legal guidelines against sex discrimination in


this area. That there is still a wide gap between wages
earned by men and women is a commonly accepted
fact. That further measures need to be enacted, and
that laws and guidelines in existence need to be
enforced to rectify this imbalance, is a widely held
goal in both developed and developing countries.
Yet, by itself, the notion of equal pay for equal
work is mere rhetoric. It hides the reality that, particu-
larly in developing countries, women are often denied
access to or are unqualified for equal work; it hides
the reality that if women are not allowed equal footing
with men, they cannot even begin to compete with
men for equal pay. Thus, the issue seems to be, first,
one of equal access and opportunity; and, only sec-
ondly, of equal pay.

The demand for equal pay for equal work is more
than simply another abstract issue it is an essential
condition which has to be met if women are to be
considered men's equals as economic producers.
This vital principle of economic justice is violated
regularly in many situations, especially when it comes
to jobs involving physical labor. Women who engage
in manual labor on plantations, construction sites, or
factories are frequently paid less than their male
counterparts on the grounds that they are physically
weaker. However, the widely accepted assumption
that women are weaker than men merits closer exam-
ination. Social, economic, and cultural practices
suggest that physical strength cannot be traced solely
to sex differences but rather to circumstances
surrounding the living situations of both men and
women. Very often, for example, poor women suffer
from severe malnutrition. Apart from the negative
effects of poverty, these women are often disadvan-
taged by dietary customs which dictate that men
should eat first and eat the best food available, as well
as by physical deterioration resulting from constant

Furthermore, it is increasingly being realized that
strength and stamina are not the only conditions
governing employment in jobs that depend on physi-
cal labor. Even if some women are physically less
able than some men, studies indicate that women, on
the whole, are reputed to be more consistent in
energy expenditure over time and more conscientious
and reliable as workers. Women's socially ingrained
attitudes toward sustained labor may compensate for
the gap in physical strength, if such a gap, in fact,

Undoubtedly, the issues and problems associated
with wage inequality are highly complex. They are
inextricably intertwined with the differing structural
variables economic, social, cultural, political, and
religious that dictate and assign weights and val-
ues to what is considered "men's work" and "wo-
men's work" in various societies. Despite noble ef-
forts on the part of some governments to legislate
equality for women, discrimination based on gender is

still a major factor to contend with in explaining the
different levels of wages received by men and wo-
The roots of discrimination can in part be found in
the persistent stereotypes of what really constitutes
women's work and men's work. Men are the "bread-
winners," responsible for providing the family income.
Women are housekeepers and child-rearers. This
notion often leads employers to assume that women
don't need to be paid as much as men, because
unlike men, they do not have to support a family. And,
furthermore, women can be paid less because they
are not as committed to their jobs as men. While the
logic of these views can be questioned, it is important
to realize that this is the type of argument that often
creeps into justifications for wage inequity in the labor
The literature repeatedly details women's double
burden household-related work plus paid employ-
ment and occupational segregation as being most
important in keeping them from achieving equal status
with men in the wage labor market. Other constraints
noted include lack of training in marketable skills; lack
of necessary experience to gain seniority; the need of
many women to work only part-time, because they are
often solely responsible for child-rearing; and lack of
organization in those occupations that are almost
exclusively filled by women, such as domestic ser-
vice, nursing, and secretarial positions.

In summary, though equal pay for equal work is
held as a desirable goal by many, the disadvantages
women face as producers go deeper and are em-
bedded in the wider framework of unequal social,
economic, and political opportunity. Thus, inequality
begins with unequal job valuation and extends to
unequal access to resources. This includes limits on
education and persistence of the notion that the
double burden of work in the home and work in the
marketplace is a dilemma that women must resolve
by themselves with little sharing of the responsibility
by men.

Women's Education and Training
A greater commitment to women's education and
training on the part of national governments is gener-
ally regarded as vital for enhancing women's prod-
uctivity. Women's education has in the past tended to
receive scant attention from planners and policy-
makers, who regarded it as a poor investment. How-
ever, it is increasingly recognized that educating
women will be to the benefit of families and societies
generally. Education can enhance women's share in
the benefits of production by increasing their
income-earning capacity, and enabling them to par-
ticipate on an equal footing with men in the labor

page 6

market. Additionally, education and training can en-
hance women's productivity in other areas as well.
Research shows that a mother's educational level
influences her child-rearing practices as well as
health behavior. Consequently, there now is a greater
commitment to upgrading women's education and

However, merely providing greater access to exist-
ing educational and training opportunities is not suffi-
cient to enhance women's productivity. Attention
needs to be given to the problem of "wastage," i.e.,
the high drop-out and failure rates of girls in elemen-
tary and high schools. Efforts are needed to help them
stay in school until they can complete a course of
studies, and to reduce their having to repeat classes
or grade levels. Otherwise, these women remain
disadvantaged and cannot compete favorably in train-
ing programs or in the job market, and national
governments could regard investment in female edu-
cation as an extravagance they can ill afford, given
the low return. Societal attitudes, and especially the
attitudes of parents towards the education of girls,
may be decisive in combating wastage. However, the
problem is often related to the mothers' need to earn
income. Absence of adequate alternative child-care
facilities, or the lack of technological innovations that
can help reduce household workloads, may mean that
daughters must stay home to take care of siblings or
do housework.

A number of recommendations are proposed to
combat the problems. Among these are: (1) limiting
child labor; (2) making school hours and periods of
attendance flexible; (3) providing day-care facilities
and appropriate technology to lessen demands on
girls at home; and (4) waiving school fees for girls, or
providing tax incentives for their education beyond a
certain level.

The content of education available to women must
also be examined. Does the quality compare favora-
bly with that available to boys? Is it relevant to the
reality of their present and future lives and em-
ployability? In the past, traditional notions of appro-
priate roles for women, combined with ideas held by
western development workers about women's roles,
too often produced curricula that stressed women's
roles only as mothers and wives, to the exclusion of
their equally important responsibilities as economic

While formal education represents a powerful way
for women to gain status in society and increase their
productivity, non-formal educational opportunities for
women must not be overlooked. But the content of
such programs needs to be assessed. Most often
women are trained in skills seen as compatible with
"women's work." What is singularly unfortunate is that
women's work like embroidery, tea-plucking, and
rubber-tapping brings much lower wages than men's

work, such as tractor driving, repairing, masonry, and

Several recommendations regarding training pro-
grams are put forward in the literature. Governments
are urged to mount vigorous programs to involve
women in new and existing training programs, espe-
cially in skills that are not traditional for them. In the
past, women have too often been excluded or dis-
couraged, unintentionally or intentionally, from attend-
ing training programs in technical skills.

Agencies and organizations must first make sure
that training programs have realistic entrance re-
quirements. For example, they should consider
whether literacy is really necessary for effective par-
ticipation, or whether it is being used, perhaps inad-
vertently, as a screening device. Some authors argue
that women should be given remedial training, if
needed, to incorporate them successfully into existing
training programs. Another strategy that has been
used is to combine personal development and group
interaction training with occupational training for poor

Training programs should also take the multiplicity
of women's roles into consideration. Sessions should
be offered at times and places that are convenient for
women; be relevant to women's life experiences; and,
ideally, be flexible, so that the skills learned can be
applied in more than one setting.

While it is evident from the foregoing discussion
that there is much room for improving the quality of
both formal and non-formal educational options for
women, there continues to be extensive debate
among development workers as to the relationship
between the two.

It is frequently argued by advocates of formal
education that focusing on skills training programs for
women, to the exclusion of encouraging their partici-
pation in formal schooling opportunities, may serve to
keep women in marginal roles in the economy and in
the power structures of a society. Such emphasis can
end up institutionalizing their low-status, low-income,
gender-stereotyped jobs. However, proponents of
non-formal strategies point out that skills training is
not offered as an alternative for formal education.
Rather, it is a necessity for poor women who have
little opportunity for formal education and thus are
already marginalized. As such, skills training pro-
grams can be effective in providing women and girls
with marketable skills. The limits of the strategy must
be kept clearly in mind, however. It can be used as a
justification for tracking young girls into narrowly de-
fined vocational areas, rather than professional pur-
suits, or to pacify those who demand better education
for women. Ultimately, structural changes seem
necessary to incorporate women into the labor force
on an equal footing with men.


Easing Women's Burden
The introduction of labor-saving devices and new
household technologies is seen as one effective way
to ease women's workload. This could enable them to
participate more fully in the labor market and take
better advantage of opportunities for formal education
or vocational training that could enhance their
income-earning capacity.
Technological innovations can, however, create
new problems of their own. Granted, they may reduce
the time and physical energy needed to fulfill basic
household tasks, such as carrying water or process-
ing grains. Yet if new technologies require capital
outlay, men, rather than women, usually have the
resources to adopt them. Ironically, the innovations
designed to enhance women's economic control may,
in fact, create a situation in which they lose what little
control they previously had. This has occurred, for
example, in those regions where automatic rice-
processing equipment was introduced.
Technology may also reduce women's economic
independence by integrating the household more fully
into the money economy with the result that women
must buy things formerly made at home, thus increas-
ing their need for cash. Household technology may
also erode the functioning of traditional, informal,
mutual aid groups through which women worked
together to get household tasks done.
Despite such drawbacks, technological change
can help women if managed prudently. Planning
technological change with the cooperation of women
is one way to ensure that such innovations do, in fact,
benefit them. The development of intermediate
technology, which builds on existing indigenous mate-
rials and methods and thus reduces the need to
depend on expensive imported foreign devices, is
seen by many as a principal way in which the disrup-
tive effects of technological change can be held to a
Nevertheless, the limitations of technological
change must always be kept in mind. Advocating
technological innovations to ease women's domestic
burdens addresses only the symptoms of the problem.
It masks the reality that the division of labor between
men and women is primarily changing in one direction.
Women are entering the paid labor force, but are still
held responsible for housework and child-care. Unless
technological change is accompanied by a commit-
ment to more equitable sharing of work and the re-
sources of production, the easing of women's burdens
can be regarded as no more than a superficial solution
to a deeply rooted problem.

Access to Resources
Unequal access to the critical resources of produc-
tion particularly land, labor, and capital is viewed
by many writers as one of the most basic limitations

on women's progress in achieving equity in the prod-
uction process and its benefits.
Underlying this unequal access of women are
traditional patterns of resource allocation. National
development programs have, regrettably, served to
reinforce inequality by directing training programs,
food production programs, and credit schemes, for
example, mainly at men. Women's needs for de-
velopment services have often been overlooked, be-
cause it is assumed that the men will distribute the
benefits of improved production to their families, in-
cluding their wives. But often this doesn't happen.
And, many households are actually headed by wo-
men. By default, due to their lack of control over the
resources of production, women may become victims
rather than equal beneficiaries of development pro-
grams aimed at enhancing production.
Several strategies are proposed to enhance wo-
men's access to resources. Development projects for
women need to be made an integral part of develop-
ment planning. Too often women's projects are lo-
cated in social welfare and education agencies, and
women's needs are considered by planners as wel-
fare issues, peripheral to the main development task.
Consequently, fewer resources are allocated to these
projects. In order to gain access to capital, special
efforts need to be made to provide credit to women.
Pre-cooperatives, cooperatives, and women's banks
are a few of the available means to enable women to
initiate and sustain small income-generating enter-
Larger, structural changes may also be necessary
to ensure greater access to resources. To give
women access to land, legislative reform may be
necessary, and social customs may have to be chal-
lenged. Efforts in these directions are already under-
way in many developing countries. Increasing access
to resources is basically a political issue. Because
women form the majority of the world's poor, enhanc-
ing their access to resources will ultimately require
redistribution of resources on a national and global

Women's Groups
Women's groups are increasingly seen as an
effective means for women to gain access to re-
sources and become active participants in social and
economic development. Women's groups, whether
formal or informal, local, regional or national, can
provide the organizational basis for women's eco-
nomic ventures. Women whose individual resources
may be too limited to start a project may collectively
have the needed capital as well as a sufficient base to
obtain credit and technical support. Women's groups
have, in fact, already proved what can be done to that
end. All over the world, they have successfully estab-
lished cooperatives and carried on a wide range of
income-generating activities.

page 8

In many countries, the creation of special govern-
ment bureaus and departments for women's affairs
has been effective in articulating women's needs, and
in protecting women's interests.
Nevertheless, some writers caution that the forma-
tion of exclusive women's groups and government
agencies for women may hinder rather than help, by
identifying women as a separate part of society,
marginal to the development process. Proponents of
women's groups need to ensure that women's con-
cerns receive due attention by policy-makers and
Participation in women's groups is one way for
women to enter the public arena. Participation in other
organizations, such as political parties, service
leagues, labor unions, and pressure groups is equally
important to ensure them a place in the mainstream of
national economic activity. Very often, women are
discouraged from such participation since the
dynamics of many groups are considered to be rough
and unsuitable for females. Yet, it seems imperative
for women to take part, because political action re-
mains the best way of obtaining scarce resources and
benefits, such as employment, credit, scholarships,
permits to start industries, and access to land.

Women and Leadership
Mere involvement in group activities is insufficient,
however. Women need to take leadership roles at all
levels from international agencies and national
governments to middle-level management positions,
and as field workers, extension officers, and teachers.
Research has provided some evidence to suggest
that women's involvement in the upper levels of
organizations and governments contributes to a
greater sensitivity to women's concerns in program
planning and resource allocation. However, participa-

tion alone does not guarantee that programs and
policies will be in the best interest of the majority of
women. Sometimes, women who become leaders
have had to accommodate their work to traditional
assumptions about women's roles in order to be
accepted in organizations.
One of the key factors contributing to the absence
of women from leadership positions, and the lack of
attention to women's concerns even when women are
present, is women's lack of training in leadership.
Training for leadership is therefore seen as a key
issue in strengthening women's participation in na-
tional development.
There is another side to this concern, however.
Although women may lack skills in leadership and
decision-making that are considered appropriate for
the public sphere, they have other skills learned as
part of their particular life experiences. Too often, the
skills in decision-making, and cooperation, that
women have developed in the course of performing
their other duties go unrecognized when they enter
public life. This raises the question of whether training
women for traditional hierarchical leadership isn't in
itself a subtle form of discrimination, since it denies
the value of the skills they already possess. What
seems to be indicated is the development of new
models of leadership that will allow for and will incor-
porate women's particular skills.
In the end, our review of existing conditions and
facts brings us back to a political issue. Women's
participation in production and their sharing in the
benefits of development is at heart a political problem,
a problem of power and the distribution of resources.
To work for the full participation of women in develop-
ment goes hand-in-hand with the efforts being made to
bring about a more equitable distribution of resources
and the benefits of development to all members of a
-M.M. with N.A. and L.G.V.

Resources for WID Projects

The Secretariat for Women in Development, New
TransCentury Foundation, has several publications of value
in planning and implementing projects to benefit women. In
looseleaf format, About Women in Development: A Re-
source Book (1978) contains a directory of such projects,
organized by sections, and a 99-page funding bulletin that
is intended to stimulate ideas for other projects. The seven
sections in the directory are: Community Service; Com-
munications; Agriculture/Rural Development; Formal and
Non-Formal Education; Income Generation; Health, Nutri-
tion, Fertility, Family Planning; and Research/Survey. The
funding bulletin describes US private foundations, govern-

ment agencies, private volunteer organizations, church
groups, and UN agencies based in the USA. It also looks
briefly at multinational corporations as potential funding
sources. Other publications include Directory of Projects
Involving Women, Volume III (1980), organized by the
sections mentioned above, Women in Development: A
Resource List (1979, 86 pp.), and a Spanish edition of the
funding bulletin, Recoursos de Financiamento para
Proyectos de la Mujer en Desarrollo (1979, 110 pp.).
Available from Secretariat for Women in Development, New
TransCentury Foundation, 1789 Columbia Road, N.W.,
Washington, D.C. 20009, USA.

page 9

Funding Issues for Women's Projects (16 + pp.)
reports on the "Dialogue Between Women from Developing
Countries and Donor Agency Representatives," held in
Copenhagen during the July 1980 World Conference for the
UN Decade for Women. This overview of funding prob-
lems from the standpoint of both funding organizations and
the women concludes with suggestions for follow-up activi-
ties. Available from International Women's Tribune Centre
(IWTC), Inc., 305 East 46th Street, New York, New York
10017, USA; or Secretariat for Women in Development,
New TransCentury Foundation, 1789 Columbia Road,
N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009, USA.

Criteria for Evaluation of Development Projects In-
volving Women (1975, 40 + pp.), a booklet prepared by
the Subcommittee on Women in Development of the Ameri-
can Council of Voluntary Agencies for Foreign Service
(ACVAFS), is available in English, French, and Spanish
from the Technical Assistance Information Clearing House
(TAICH), ACVAFS, Inc., 200 Park Avenue South, New
York, New York 10003, USA.

A useful Information Kit for Women in Africa (1981,
192 pp.) has been produced by the African Training and
Research Centre for Women (ATRCW) in collaboration with

the International Women's Tribune Centre (IWTC). It con-
tains an overview of funding and technical assistance
available from international, national, and private sources
for development programs involving women in Africa. There
are also descriptions of a variety of women's projects
concerning agriculture, development planning, education,
income-generation, legal aid, research on women,
management and credit, small-scale industries, and training
of trainers. Final sections of the kit offer an annotated list of
ATRCW publications that cover research surveys, work-
shop reports, periodicals, and the organization and activi-
ties of ATRCW. Available from IWTC, Inc., 305 East 46th
Street, New York, New York 10017, USA.
The International Women's Tribune Centre (IWTC) has
also published Movilizando La Mujer: El Como, Con Que,
Por Que, y Para Que de un Proyecto (n.d., 287 pp.), a
training manual and fieldworker's guide, in Spanish, on
planning and conducting development projects involving
women. The three sections of the manual cover needs
assessment, project design, and resources. Practical in-
formation, combined with exercises, worksheets, descrip-
tions of funding sources, and a bibliography, make this a
most informative and useful guide. Available from IWTC,
Inc., 305 East 46th Street, New York, New York 10017,

Project Highlights

This section of The NFE Exchange singles out a few of the many NFE projects on women and production that are described
in materials contributed to the NFE Information Center library. The projects show a variety of approaches to the subject and
some of the contexts in which training takes place. Sources for the highlights are listed in the "Select Bibliography on
Women and Production." Addresses are included in this section, when available, so that readers wishing more information
can write directly to the project.

Since 1972, the Nicaraguan Foundation for Development
(FUNDE) has been sponsoring the formation of savings and
loan cooperatives for market women in Nicaragua. This
scheme seeks to provide loans at a reasonable interest
rate, relieving dependency on traditional money lenders
who often charge rates as exorbitant as 240% a year.
The first step in project implementation is to contact the
community leaders of the selected market town. If they
accept the idea, a group of 5-30 prospective members are
invited to meetings staged jointly by FUNDE personnel and
interested community leaders. These meetings may con-
tinue for 10 days, usually near the marketplace, while the
meaning, functions, and benefits of a credit cooperative are
explained to the gathering. The cooperative itself becomes
established gradually, usually within 2-3 months. This en-
tails 30 or more women sponsoring the idea; the signing of
necessary legal documents; election of 11 members as
directors, who are then assigned to one of the three
committees which are separately responsible for adminis-
tration, credit, and overall monitoring; and each member
buying a share and paying her dues for administrative

FUNDE helps cooperatives become self-sufficient over
a 3-year period by assisting with the legal formalities; by
making a grant of furniture and equipment, and a loan of
$10,000 at 12% annual rate of interest, as well as a loan to
cover 18 months rent and salary for the manager; and by
providing personnel to guide cooperative proceedings dur-
ing the first few months. Training is provided for co-op
managers at Managua, while co-op members are trained
locally. Several training techniques are used. Through
group discussions of case studies members encounter
potential problems and learn to solve them. Documents
describing different cooperatives are also distributed for
individual and group study. A third method involves visits to
"model cooperatives." While it is compulsory for the
managers to be literate, members who are illiterate are
taught by use of pictures, charts, and familiar concepts.
Once a cooperative is fully operational, committee meetings
are held weekly, with monthly meetings for the general
Since 1952 FUNDE has initiated more than 58 coopera-
tives, 15 of them being for market women. FUNDE expects
in the long range to enable all market women in Nicaragua
to join such credit cooperatives. The availability of cheap

page 10

credit has contributed towards the expansion of business,
improving the financial prospects of the market women as
well as their influence in the community. Cooperatives have
also provided the organizational capacity necessary for
implementing other community programs. For example,
different cooperatives now operate day-care centers and
health clinics.
Among other things, the FUNDE experience in organiz-

ing cooperatives makes clear that the capital required for
membership should be low enough to permit very low
income earners to participate. It also teaches that credit
worthiness should be reviewed by peers who, by virtue of
similar experience, are in a position to evaluate the reliabil-
ity of loan applicants. (Source: Bruce, 1980. For further
information, contact: Lic. William Baez, FUNDE, Apartado
2598, Managua, Nicaragua.)

tealegre in Honduras, women became involved in a refores-
tation project entitled "Integrated Watershed Manage-
ment." This was being conducted by the Honduran Corpo-
ration of Forestry Development, with technical assistance
from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations (FAO), and financed by the United Nations De-
velopment Programme (UNDP). Although the project was
not initially or exclusively geared toward women, reports
make clear that their participation was crucial to its success.

With some outside assistance, a group of Montealegre
women decided to initiate income-generating projects. They
chose to start an apiary, plant fruit trees, and grow vegeta-
bles and grains for family consumption and marketing.
Some of them also wanted to maintain a small forest so that
firewood would be easier to obtain. The women became
involved in the watershed management project when an
agro-forestry technician was consulted about their agricul-
ture projects. On his advice and under his direction, the

women constructed terraces on the steep slopes the only
land available to them for cultivation. The terracing helped
to conserve the soil, ensuring its continued use for crop
cultivation. Seeing the results of the women's efforts, men
have also joined the project, and are taking part in planting
quick-growing trees that will yield firewood in the near
Observers have noted that the project's success can be
attributed, at least in part, to its participatory nature. It has
fostered self-reliance, greater independence in food prod-
uction, more control over land and local resources, and the
use of appropriate technology in the village.
The peasants were not the only beneficiaries of this
project, however. One observer reports that the terracing and
reforestation done by the people helped to halt the erosion
and destruction of forests, and in this way also benefited the
owners of banana plantations in the valley by protecting their
lands from flood damage. (Source: Ideas and Action, No.

Swanirvar (self-reliance) Movement of Bangladesh promotes
overall village development through the use of local re-
sources by village-based organizations. Considering the in-
itiative and involvement of rural women as vital to the
success of mass mobilization, in 1978 the Movement
launched a leadership-training program (underwritten by
UNICEF) especially aimed at rural women who are very poor
and landless.
The initial step was to prepare the trainers, a core team
of 42 male and 30 female Swanirvar workers. Sub-
sequently, members of this team conducted 57 leadership
training workshops for women in different locations over a
period of two-and-a-half years. These were organized at
different levels, mostly at the than or lowest administrative
unit level and at the division level. Content of these courses
was built on field experience and geared towards the needs
of the respondents. Workshops covered a period of 3 days,
with working sessions consisting of both formal and non-
formal training. The trainees were introduced to the Swanir-
var concept of self-reliance and provided with information
on adult literacy, family planning, nutrition, and child care.
They were also given instruction on how to plan projects
and organize income-generating activities.

Since the program was based on the rationale that
village women could and should take the initiative in mobiliz-
ing others to help solve community problems, there were
discussions on the status of females and their role in
development. Afternoon visits to villages heightened the
practical significance of this training. Workshop sessions
also encouraged singing and the narration of success
stories. These activities were greatly appreciated by the
women, who had little other opportunity for entertainment.
The program was intended to have a multiplier effect, and
the trainees returned to organize various projects in their

To date, more than 1700 village groups have been
formed around income-generating activities such as poultry
raising, vegetable cultivation, cottage handicrafts, animal
husbandry, and Dhaki (rice-husking). Another outcome was
the formation of 854 women's cooperatives. With the assist-
ance of UNICEF, the Swanirvar Movement intends to or-
ganize 42 more such workshops to provide leadership train-
ing skills for 4800 rural women. (Source: Abed and Rahman,
1980. Project Address: Women's Development Unit, UN-
ICEF, House No. 150/B, Rd No. 13/1, Dhanmondi R.A. P.O.
Box 58, Dacca-5, Bangladesh.)

page 11

GRAMS. Save the Children Federation (SCF) has been
actively working with women in the Dori region of Upper
Volta for several years. Since the Federation considers
women's programs to be an integral part of its activities,
those are directly included in all sectoral plans. Programs
are initiated by first organizing women into committees and
subcommittees, with the help of community leaders. These
committees articulate the needs of village women and
decide on specific projects. Technical and financial assist-
ance is then provided by the Social Economic Sector of
SCF, often in collaboration with the Health and Agriculture
The income-generation projects sponsored so far have
grown mainly out of traditional practices like sorrel and
tobacco processing and cotton spinning. In one village,
women used the proceeds from the cotton-spinning project
to start a second activity, namely the baking of fermented
seed cakes a traditional food for sale. Field agents have
also helped women to form communal funds to obtain seed
varieties on loan. Reimbursement was to be made in kind
and placed in a grain storage fund to be used the following
In response to the women's request for sewing lessons,
a teacher was hired to give sewing instruction in six villages.
Plans are underway to make hand-operated sewing
machines available on a credit basis.

Notwithstanding success achieved in strengthening
women's work groups and in collecting dues to form com-
munal cash funds, certain problems have arisen. Setbacks
have occurred because of misunderstandings regarding the
reimbursement of loans. Some women, used to receiving
aid in the form of outright gifts, were unaccustomed to the
practice of repayment. Consequently, agency personnel
were sometimes looked upon somewhat as police agents
rather than facilitators. Difficulties in marketing products,
and crop failure, created further repayment problems.

Heeding such mistakes, the Federation now does more
research on marketing possibilities and cost-benefit factors.
Village meetings are held to discuss the projects and to
increase knowledge of credit repayment. SCF likewise
plans to sponsor an artisan center, which it is hoped will
help to ensure the continuance of projects by integrating
income-generating activities of the men and women. In
order to increase business management skills, the women
(or a representative) will participate in the purchase of
materials, and supervise communal fund distribution, and
reimbursement. Plans have also been made to research
water sources, gardening methods, and animal husbandry
in the area to help increase agricultural and livestock
productivity. (Source: Levy, 1981. For further information,
contact: Save the Children Federation, Inc., 54 Wilton
Road, Westport, Connecticut 06880, USA.)

RICA. The Human Development Training Project, conducted
by the Costa Rican Federation of Voluntary Organizations
(FOV) in the slums of San Jose, sought to enable poor
women to take part in socio-economic development. Con-
ducted from 1977 through 1979, with technical assistance
from the Overseas Education Fund (OEF) and financial
support from the US Agency for International Development
(USAID), the project sought to provide training that would
enhance the women's understanding of their life situations
and teach them problem-solving skills.
Based on needs assessments in the slums, a training
program of ten learning units was developed, covering both
personal and group development. It included such topics as
"Setting a Life Goal," "Planning a Course of Action,"
"Determining a Group Goal," and "Individual Rights as
Resources." Participatory learning activities and audio-
visual aids were developed for use in the project. More than
1,000 women participated in Human Development Training
programs conducted by teams of trained volunteers in
low-cost housing communities, skills training programs, and
For example, five training groups were formed in Leon
XIII, a low-cost housing community. The women identified
the need to contribute income to their households as their
most pressing concern. After they decided on industrial
sewing as an income-generating activity, the National Train-
ing Institute trained 45 women at FOV headquarters. With
money then received by making pillow cases for a local

hospital, the women decided to start a sewing cooperative
in the community. They felt that this would not only help
them to increase their income, but would also overcome
problems with child care and transportation, and the opposi-
tion of their husbands to their working away from home. The
women were trained by a specialist on cooperatives and
learned how to organize and use community resources to
reach their goal.
Evaluators conclude that the combination of personal
development and marketable skills training enhanced wo-
men's participation in the labor force. Training seemed to be
most effective in community settings, where women formed
support groups when they recognized that they shared
problems. Nevertheless, activities in work settings and
training programs also produced gratifying results as
shown, for example, in lower drop-out rates. Several gov-
ernment agencies have indicated an interest in including
human development training as part of their women's
Observers attribute the success of the program to
well-trained staff, excellent learning guides, and the
whole-hearted support of FOV. There were some problems,
however. Among these were an unwillingness by some
employers to give women time off from work to receive
training, a shortage of volunteer trainers, and the need to
provide temporary child care. (Source: Overseas Education
Fund, 1980. For more information contact: Overseas Edu-
cation Fund, 2101 L Street, N.W., Suite 916, Washington,
D.C. 20037, USA.)

page 12

Other Projects of Interest...

Below are short descriptions of some additional projects involving women that have come to the attention of the NFE
Information Center.

INDIAN WOMEN MANAGE THEIR OWN CRAFT PROJECT. In Calcutta, a sewing project started by the Mennonite Central
Committee (MCC) with four women more than 20 years ago, has grown into a profitable business with more than 80 full-time and
part-time employees producing batiks, children's clothes, and furnishings for the export market. To prepare the women to take
over the management of the business, MCC provided training to help them develop a better self-image as workers, engage in
group discussion and decision-making, and select leaders who would act first as an advisory management committee and later
as a management committee. Finally the ownership of the business was transferred to the employees. Observers report that the
business, now named Self-Help Handicraft Society, is operating effectively. For information, contact: Mrs. Margaret Davidison,
Mennonite Central Committee Office Manager, 22 Girish Chandra Bose Road, Calcutta 14, India.
NON-FORMAL EDUCATION FOR MOROCCAN WOMEN. New TransCentury Foundation, in collaboration with World
Education, Inc. and the Government of Morocco, recently set in motion a program which seeks to enhance women's participation
in the economy, by providing appropriate skills training and creating income-generating activities. The project involves training of
teachers at the 336 "Foyers Feminins" centers of the women's division of the Ministry of Youth and Sports. In their turn, the
teachers will train other women. A Job Development Unit is planned to coordinate both the development of new jobs and the
technical assistance and training programs appropriate for these new job opportunities. The project aims to involve Moroccan
women in administrative capacities and to establish an information and documentation center to ensure that the project will
continue when the team of outsiders leaves. Emphasis in training is on involving learners in problem identification, planning, and
decision making. For information, contact: May Rihani, New TransCentury Foundation, 1789 Columbia Road, N.W., Washington,
D.C. 20009, USA.
KOREAN CLUBWOMEN START COOPERATIVE STORE. In the remote village of Bangchuk in Korea, a Women's Club started a
cooperative store after agreeing that their most pressing problems were the inaccessibility of markets and the lack of cooperation
among villagers. The project was part of the participatory research of the Rural Development Laboratory Project of Seoul National
University College of Agriculture. Initially the store was run by members on a rotating basis, but later one member took over this
responsibility, receiving a part of the proceeds as income. Club funds are also used for village development and to provide credit for
members. The model of the Bangchuk cooperative store has been adopted in other villages. Source: Cheong, Ji Woong. "A
Women's Cooperative Store: Rural Development in Korea." In Helen Callaway (ed.), Participation in Research: Case-Studies
of Participatory Research in Adult Education. n.d. Netherlands Centre for Research and Development in Adult Education
(Studiecentrum ncvo), Postbus 351,3800 AJ Amersfoort 3821000, Netherlands. pp. 9-14.
JAMAICAN WOMEN TRAINED IN WELDING AND CARPENTRY. The Hanover Street Experiment, started by the Jamaica
Women's Bureau in collaboration with other Government agencies in 1976, demonstrates that low-income women can learn
non-traditional skills and become economically self-sufficient. After a period of training and apprenticeship in welding and
carpentry interspersed with classes in family-life education, cooperative development, consciousness raising, and decision-
making the United Women's Woodworking and Welding Project started operating as a pre-cooperative. Becoming
independent has proved to be a slow and difficult process, however. Members did not initially have adequate understanding of
and experience with managing a cooperative, and faced problems with marketing their products. Nevertheless, the women have
started a savings club, a buying club, and plan to start a day-care center. They are also requesting further training in design,
marketing, and management. Source: Antrobus, Peggy. Hanover Street: An Experiment to Train Women in Welding and
Carpentry. 1980. Seeds, P.O. Box 3923, Grand Central Station, New York, New York 10163, USA.
NON-FORMAL EDUCATION IN WOMEN'S GROUP IN GABON. Seeking to guide women to control their own programs, a
Peace Corps Volunteer working in Libreville, Gabon, uses participatory activities to facilitate group formation, aid in problem
identification, and introduce structured learning experiences. Group members identify what they want to do, refine their goals and
activities to manageable proportions, and are responsible for implementing the project, including contacting outsiders for
financial and technical help. The volunteer acts as a catalyst for group discussions, helps the group to use local resources, and
keeps records. As their first project, the women made and sold embroidered place mats. With the money earned they planned to
buy materials to continue their sewing. For more information, contact: Dana J. Alexander, Peace Corps, B.P. 2098, Libreville,
make weekly trips to cities to sell their produce have limited access to educational programs, the Caribbean Church Women
Programme started a non-formal education project to meet the problem in six market areas in Kingston, Jamaica, in 1976. Out of
this pilot program grew the Country Women's Club. Activities of the club now include monthly meetings where members discuss
such topics as family life, health, nutrition, business management, and the Jamaican economy; educational tours to factories and
national places of interest; and craft and recycling projects. A new dimension is a volunteer program started in 1980. On one day
per month, several women offer help at hospitals in Kingston. Afterwards they meet to discuss their experiences. Observers note
that increased self-confidence, a greater awareness of local and national issues, and a clearer understanding of their roles as
citizens are among the benefits enjoyed by Club members. For more information, contact: Dorritt Bent, Caribbean Church
Women Programme, 14 South Avenue, Kingston 10, Jamaica, West Indies.

page 13

--- Select Bibliography on Women and Production

Listed below are select documents from the NFE Information Center library. The NFE Exchange encourages readers to
share their materials and ideas through direct contact with one another, and to continue to keep us apprised of new and
interesting efforts to enhance the role of women in international development programs.

Abed, Taslima and Jowshan A. Rahman. "Leadership Training for Village Women in Bangladesh." Assignment
Children. No. 51/52, Autumn 1980. UNICEF, Villa Le Bocage, Palais des Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland. Gives a
comprehensive account of training programs for rural women organized by the Swanirvar movement. This Bangladeshi
movement recognizes the leadership potential of illiterate, landless women and attempts to enhance these qualities in order to
improve conditions in poor village communities. The authors describe current political factors which facilitate women's programs,
the organization of courses to prepare trainers, and the content of the workshops and results. The training programs have
stimulated the growth of many income generating projects and cooperatives, pp. 127-136.
Acharya, Meena. The Status of Women in Nepal, Vol. 1: Background Report. Part 1. Statistical Profile of Nepalese
Women: A Critical Review. 1979. Centre for Economic Development and Administration, Tribhuvan University,
Kathmandu, Nepal. Uses the limited statistical material available to provide information on the demographic characteristics,
literacy rate, and employment status of Nepalese women. Critically evaluates conventional techniques used to estimate
economic activity, employment, and leadership. The author argues that a result of the current formulation and application of
these indices is to project a distorted image of Nepalese women that often ignores or underestimates the actual influence and
scope of their activity. The report raises questions which could pave the way for a greater refinement of such indices and
formulation of techniques to more accurately assess women's economic activity. 101 pp.
Adnan, Shapan and Rushidan Islam. Social Change and Rural Women: Possibilities of Participation. LTC Reprint No.
137. 1979. Land Tenure Center (LTC), University of Wisconsin, 310 King Hall, 1475 Observatory Drive, Madison,
Wisconsin 53706, USA. Views the majority of rural women in Bangladesh as oppressed that is, facing constraints of being
female, rural and poor, as opposed to being male, urban and rich. The authors describe some of the major problems encountered
by women, such as seclusion due to purdah, polygamy, low education, economic dependency, and childhood deprivation. The
paper discusses the actual and potential contribution of women to production, and examines the beneficial and detrimental
effects of development programs on women. The authors conclude that the full emancipation of women requires substantial
social transformation in Bangladesh. 20 pp.
Barrios de Chungara, Domitila, with Molmo Viezzer. Let Me Speak! Testimony of Domitila, a Woman of the Bolivian
Mines. English translation by Victoria Ortiz. 1978. Monthly Review Press, 62 West 14th Street, New York, New York
10011, USA; or 47 Red Lion Street, London WC1R 4PF, England, UK. Presents a unique firsthand account of what life is like
for the wives of miners in the government-controlled tin mines in the Bolivian Andes. The book is based on extensive personal
interviews with Domitila Barrios de Chungara, the only working class woman actively participating in the International Women's
Year Tribunal held in Mexico in 1975, as a representative of Bolivia. The first section describes the life and working conditions of
men and women in the tin mines and the conditions that prompted the workers to organize themselves. In the second section,
Domitila describes her life in relation to the difficulties experienced by the miners in their efforts to obtain more equitable
treatment from the government. Of special note is Domitila's account of the events that led her to become politically active as a
leader of the "Housewives' Committee of Siglo XX," the women's support group for the workers' union. The final section deals
specifically with the miners' strike in 1976, and the reprisals experienced by the workers and their families. 235 pp.
Beck-Gernsheim, Elizabeth. "The Hidden Curriculum." Development Forum. Vol. 8, No. 2, March 1980. Division of
Economic and Social Information (DESI)/DPI and United Nations University, C-527, United Nations, 1211 Geneva,
Switzerland. Argues that girls and women are socialized for different roles than boys and men. The division of labor that assigns
housework to women and paid employment to men creates different qualities in men and women. When women who are
socialized to be caring, supportive, and giving enter the competitive market, they are at a disadvantage. The author argues that
current attempts to change women so that they fit into the existing employment system is simply another form of discrimination.
In contrast, she argues for such changes in employment structures as a closer relationship between workers and clients, doing
away with extreme forms of the division of labor, reorganizing work on a more human scale, and institutionalizing "dual roles" for
men and women, p. 7. (Development Forum is published 10 times a year.)
Bettles, F.M. Women's Access to Agricultural Extension Services in Botswana. 1980. Women's Extension Unit,
Department of Agricultural Field Services, Ministry of Agriculture, Private Bag 003, Gaborone, Botswana. Analyzes
women's extension work in Botswana as it relates to the general role of women in African agriculture. An overview of agriculture
in Botswana, historical development of the women's extension program, and the future of women in Botswana's agriculture are
discussed. The author concludes that the subsistence agricultural sector, largely a female province, has been too long ignored
by economists and planners who have neither recognized nor quantified the crucial contributions of women in agriculture. 25 pp.
Bharadwaj, Geeta R. and Suman Srivastava. The Special Needs of Women: A Plea for an Integrated Approach and
Some Programme Proposals. 1980. Asian and Pacific Centre for Women and Development, P.O. Box 2444, Kuala
Lampur, Malaysia. Insists that women be fully involved from the start in programs intended to benefit them, since they have
specific problems requiring specific solutions. The authors advocate a comprehensive approach to development based on
interrelated and mutually strengthening programs. They outline four model programs that illustrate the approach, each aimed at

page 14

the special needs of a particular age group of females. The provision of a package of educational, nutritional, and family planning
services for women is expected to lead to greater control of population growth, reduction of negative effects of rural to urban
migration, and more balanced economic growth in rural areas. The study concludes with an evaluation of family-planning
programs. 35 pp.

Bruce, Judith. Market Women's Cooperatives: Giving Women Credit. 1980. Seeds, P.O. Box 3923, Grand Central
Station, New York, New York 10163, USA. Describes how the Nicaraguan Foundation for Development (FUNDE) developed
savings and loan cooperatives to meet market women's credit needs. The success of the project is attributed to the fact that the
cooperatives built on existing culture and interpersonal relationships and encouraged women to make the best use of the
resources they already had. 16 pp.

Bunch, Charlotte and Shirley Castley. Developing Strategies for the Future: Feminist Perspectives. n.d. International
Women's Tribune Centre (IWTC), Inc., 305 East 46th Street, New York, New York 10017, USA. (US $4.00.) Presents
reports of two feminist workshops one held in 1979 in Bangkok and the other in 1980 in New York. The reports incorporate
goals of women's movements which include new self-concepts based on achieving dignity, equity, and freedom to control one's
own life. The authors warn against integrating women into development projects within a culture of dependency, a condition
which is seen to increase exploitation. They offer strategies to overcome problems associated with social and economic
marginality. Suggestions stress the importance of mobilizing women, influencing national policy and sensitizing mass media,
forming non-patriarchal models of women's organizations, and promoting unity between these organizations and other
progressive forces. 44 pp.

Caughman, Susan L. New Skills for Rural Women. n.d. American Friends Service Committee, 1501 Cherry Street,
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19102, USA. Reports the results of a training program held in Banjul, The Gambia (June 7-15,
1977) in which Malian women learned tie-dyeing and batik-making skills from members of the Gambian Artisans Marketing
Cooperative (GAMCO). The author concludes that the program was beneficial to participants from both countries. Gambian
women recognized the effectiveness of group action, and gained publicity and support for their activities. The Malian women
shared their newly acquired skills with members of eight community development centers. Those centers subsequently produced
and marketed cloth with Gambian designs and colors. 19 pp.

Chitranukroh-Vattangchit, Suvannee. Female Labor Force Participation Rate in Thailand. 1977. Council for Asian
Manpower Studies, School of Economics Building, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines.
Statistics indicate that female labor-force participation rates in Thailand have consistently been the highest in Asia and among
the highest in the world. This study suggests reasons for the phenomenon: the highly labor-intensive methods of cultivation in
Thailand, sex-differentiated division of labor, female power arising from matrilineal and matrilocal social organizations, the
instability of marriage, and the effects of Thai Buddhism. The study also examines relationships between female labor-force
participation and significant social variables such as Thai peasant personality, family organization, social stratification, types of
work, and geographic ethnicity. Thailand's labor force participation rates for women are compared to those of the Philippines.
The author also mentions a broader classification of such patterns in different Asian countries based on differences in the
relationship between the female employment cycle and stages in the life cycle. 323 pp.

Croll, Elisabeth. Women in Rural Development: The People's Republic of China. 1979. International Labour Office
(ILO), CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. Examines the changing roles and status of Chinese women in relation to the
revolutionary changes in China's politics and rural economy. Maintains that the massive drive undertaken by the government to
redefine sex roles and create equity has significantly improved the lives of Chinese women. Women have specifically benefited
from progressive legislation, the mobilization of females for social production, and the establishment of communal services which
lighten household work. The author points out, however, that sex discrimination persists despite Mao's dictum "What a man
can do, a woman can also do." Women are discouraged from jobs considered to be physically taxing, they tend to receive less
work points and therefore less remuneration, and are still affected by the remnants of oppressive relationships within the rural
family unit. The study concludes by asking whether the Chinese model of women in development could be replicated in countries
with a different ideological orientation. 61 pp.

Deble, Isabelle. The School Education of Girls: An International Comparative Study on School Wastage Among Girls
and Boys at the First and Second Levels of Education. 1980. Unesco, 7 Place de Fontenoy, 75700 Paris, France. Reports
the results of a research study sponsored by Unesco to examine the problem of wastage in the education of girls in 62 countries.
The term "wastage" refers to students' prematurely dropping out before a program of formal study (e.g., primary or secondary
school) is completed, or having to repeat grades or forms in school. Wastage is viewed as a significant problem in achieving
equal educational opportunity for girls and boys. The author concentrates on aspects that specifically concern girls and on
factors that differentiate the schooling that boys and girls receive in a given educational setting. Parts One and Two report
aspects of girls' schooling related to access to primary and secondary levels of education, and compare school careers for boys
and girls. Deble relates educational wastage among girls to women's productive roles that is, to vocational training that follows
the traditional division of labor and perpetuates the characterization of certain jobs as appropriate only for males or for females.
In Part Three, the author discusses probable cultural, socio-economic, and pedagogical causes of wastage in education.
Socio-economic causes noted are poverty, attitudes toward the benefits of schooling, poor health and malnutrition, migration,
language problems, rural isolation, and the perceived lower status of girls and women. Pedagogical causes cited include lack of
compulsory education, unsuitable courses of instruction, inadequacy of educational and vocational guidance, high costs of
schooling for poorer students, and lack of trained teachers. These causes can particularly affect the schooling of girls. Finally in
Part Four, Deble describes the efforts of various countries to reduce female wastage in their educational systems. 129 pp. +

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Dixon, Ruth B. Assessing the Impact of Development Projects on Women. AID Program Evaluation Discussion Paper
No. 8. 1980. Office of Women in Development (PPC/WID) and Office of Evaluation, Agency for International
Development (AID), Department of State, Washington, D.C. 20523, USA. Methods of project-evaluation now in use are
inadequate for providing an accurate assessment of the accompanying social effects on women. So Ruth Dixon concludes in this
report analyzing evaluations available for 32 selected development projects in which women were the intended beneficiaries.
Initially, the report catalogues the projects according to purpose (those designed to increase productivity versus those designed
to improve welfare) and sector (e.g., agriculture, education, health, community organization). The projects are then analyzed
according to intended beneficiaries, the means used to achieve stated purposes, and their treatment of women's roles. In looking
at the adequacy of the treatment received by women, Dixon rates the development projects on three factors: (1) extent of
women's participation in decision-making; (2) extent of their direct access to project benefits; and (3) immediate and long-term
effects on women's social and economic status (both in terms of absolute changes and changes compared to the status of men in
the family or household and within the community). She then offers a series of thought-provoking "lessons learned" for each
aspect of women's participation, with suggestions for a more suitable evaluation system. An important resource for development
planners, administrators, and evaluators. 105 pp.

Ford Foundation. Women in the World. 1980. Ford Foundation, Office of Reports, 320 East 43rd Street, New York, New
York 10017, USA. Argues that sex discrimination causes poverty, limits productivity, and is a condition of gross social injustice.
Drawing upon a fund of interesting examples, this position paper illustrates the consequences of sex discrimination in the labor
force, and shows how sex stereotyping relegates women to low-income, low-status occupations. Women are shown to have
limited access to education, vocational training, and credit facilities. The author perceives the glorification of motherhood as an
example of the cultural forces that inhibit women from seeking activities beyond the household. The paper also reports on
present and projected activities of the women's program at the Ford Foundation. These include support for programs to develop
leadership skills among working women, research on the development and significance of sex differences, and efforts to ensure
that programs on employment and production take women's roles into consideration. 36 pp.

Fordjor, P.K. (ed.). Agricultural Development in Savannah Ghana. 1980. Institute of Adult Education, University of
Ghana, P.O. Box 31, Legon, Ghana. A report of the proceedings of the 1980 Easter School of the Institute of Adult Education,
University of Ghana, held in Bolgatanga. The report includes lectures, introductions to panel discussions, and workshop reports
on irrigation, extension, and the role of small-scale farmers, both men and women, in the development of savannah agriculture.
Of particular interest is the list of recommendations from the workshop on women's participation in savannah agriculture. 54 pp.

Fortmann, Louise. Women's Involvement in High-Risk Arable Agriculture: The Botswana Case. 1980. Office of Women
in Development (PPC/WID), Agency for International Development, Department of State, Washington, D.C. 20523,
USA. Reviews the literature on women's role in arable agriculture in Botswana. The author identifies two key problems: women's
limited access to use of draft animals and to agricultural labor. She presents arguments both for and against keeping women in
agriculture, and concludes by recommending that programs be created to assist them for example, introducing alternative
crops that are less labor-intensive, and sponsoring appropriate social welfare measures. 32 pp.

Frank, Genevieve and Rose Marie Greve. Women, Work and Society. A Selected Bibliography, 1970-1978. Bibliography
Series No. 2. 1980. International Institute for Labour Studies, International Labour Organisation, P.O. Box 6, CH-1211
Geneva 22, Switzerland. Part A, "Women at Work and in Society, 1970-1975," offers references to more than 500 documents
in English and French on the division of labor between the sexes; problems experienced by women in the labor force; and social,
psychological, and political obstacles to decision-making by women. Part B, "Women at Work, 1970-1978," focuses exclusively
on women's participation in the labor force of the industrialized countries of Eastern and Western Europe and North America. It
includes several hundred references to documents published in English, French, and German. 99 pp.

Guyer, Jane I. Household Budgets and Women's Incomes. Working Paper No. 28.1980. African Studies Center, Boston
University, 10 Lenox Street, Brookline, Massachusetts 02146, USA. Promotes a household budget-analysis approach to
the study of African rural economies. The approach is based on the importance of understanding production choices and
budgeting practices related to the sexual division of labor in order to estimate the impact of regional economies on domestic
household structures. The author contends that theories on household economies in fully industrialized western societies are
inapplicable to African peasant societies. The western model depicts the household as a single decision-making, income-sharing
unit. Yet among the African peasantry, work, sources of income, and expenditure of husbands and wives are distinct. Cites
societies such as the Yoruba, Ewe, and Hausa as examples. The study examines in more detail the household economy of the
Beti of southern Cameroon. This economy involves complex interrelationships. The day-to-day welfare of the family depends on
the females who are the chief producers of food. Males are seen to be responsible for costs incurred in the social maturation of
children such as tribal initiation, education, and marriage. 24 pp.

Halim, Abdul and Akmal Hossain. Women: Time Allocation and Adoption of Family Planning Practices in Farm Family.
GTI Publication No. 23. 1981. Graduate Training Institute (GTI), Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh,
Bangladesh. Based on data collected from three project villages of the Agricultural University Extension Project of Mymensingh
district, this report gives an in-depth account of the types of work, both agricultural and non-agricultural, performed by women.
Pays particular attention to the details of time scheduling. Findings reveal that the participation of females in homestead farming
and kitchen gardening is about 62.5 percent. The study also investigates the spacing of children, and the extent of the adoption
of family-planning practices by farm women. In light of the vital role played by women in agricultural production, and in furthering
the welfare of their families, the authors recommend that all extension educational efforts be structured in ways that would benefit
women as well as men. 30 pp.

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Henderson, Helen K. Women's Role in Livestock Production: Section 2.4.2. in Baseline Data Report, Village Livestock
Project, Upper Volta. Contract AID/afr-C-1338. 1980. Consortium for International Development, Executive Office,
Utah State University, UMC 35, Logan, Utah 84322, USA. A report on women's economic activities in the village of Koukandi
in Upper Volta. Combining a formal questionnaire methodology with in-depth observations, the researcher traces differential
patterns of livestock ownership, farming, and household work among the women of three ethnic groups in the village. The study
links prevailing kinship, lines of authority, inheritance, and ownership with women's role in animal husbandry and agriculture.
Also identifies leading women and women's groups within the community, and explores the potentialities of improving livestock
production. Deploring the lack of communication between the government and village women who are anxious to improve
their living conditions the report advises planners to work closely with a committee of village women. 180 pp.
Hoskins, Marilyn W. Income Generating Activities with Women's Participation. A Re-examination of Goals and Issues.
1980. Office of Women in Development (PPC/WID), Agency for International Development, Department of State,
Washington, D.C. 20523, USA. Acknowledging women's need to earn money, the author discusses the economic, social, and
political issues involved in planning projects on income-generation for women. Hoskins stresses that the active participation of
women in all stages of a project, including project selection and control over benefits resulting from the project, has to be
encouraged. The paper also includes case studies that illustrate the variety of strategies used to organize women's
income-generating projects. Both women-specific and general projects with a women's component are included, and the
strengths and weaknesses of each type are discussed. 45 pp.
Institute Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar (ICBF). Bibliografia Sobre la Mujer. Boletin Bibliografico e Informative,
No. 18. 1980. ICBF, Sistema Nacional de Bibliotecas del ICBF, Bogota, Colombia. A bibliography on women and
development published by the ICBF documentation and information center on women in partial implementation of the regional
plan of action for the 1975-1985 women's decade. Covers such topics as law, education, participation, working mothers, single
mothers, employment, and underemployment, and includes references from Africa, Asia, Latin America, Europe, and North
America. In Spanish. 159 pp.
International Center for Research on Women. Bringing Women In: Toward a New Direction in Occupational Skills
Training for Women. 1980. Available from Office of Women in Development (PPC/WID), Agency for International
Development, Department of State, Washington, DC 20523, USA. Focuses on occupational training of preliterate and
functionally literate women that would enable them to find employment or become involved in income-generating activities.
Examines current vocational programs for women and concludes that although such programs are expanding, they often
reinforce traditional sex-segregated employment patterns. Cites examples of women being discouraged from pursuing training
related to industrial, technical, and mechanical skills. Also comments on sex-segregation in paraprofessional training and the
accompanying stereotyping of certain paraprofessional occupations as female (especially in the health field), while professional
roles are viewed as male. One resulting consequence is low pay for women, because the roles assigned to them are viewed as
extensions of their traditional unpaid roles as wives and mothers. The authors draw attention to other constraints, such as
women's lack of knowledge about available vocational training and program schedules that fail to take their family
responsibilities into account. The paper concludes with policy recommendations to increase training opportunities for women,
and improve their access to training. At the program level, recommendations include encouraging the creation of training groups,
utilizing formal and informal information channels among women, and establishing training centers in locations that can be
reached easily by women. 22 pp. + footnotes and references.
International Center for Research on Women. Keeping Women Out: A Structural Analysis of Women's Employment in
Developing Countries. 1980. Available from Office of Women in Development (PPC/WID), Agency for International
Development, Department of State, Washington, D.C. 20523, USA. Identifies critical issues related to women's employment,
underemployment, and unemployment in developing countries. Based on empirical data, the report makes clear that single and
married women in Third World countries need employment and that their contribution to the economy is significant in all sectors.
The report also seeks to demonstrate that the demand for women workers can be restricted, either by prejudice or circumstance.
For example, it is sometimes argued that employing women will increase the unemployment rate for men. And in the short run at
least, capital-intensive development and the introduction of high technology often mean that women lose their jobs. On the other
hand, the data show that women are actively seeking employment and that lack of education does not prevent their entering the
labor market, even though it may relegate them to low-status, low-paying jobs. Claims are also set forth that various trends in the
labor market act to keep women marginal. These include changes in agricultural production, land fragmentation, and lack of
incentives for off-farm, small-scale production activities. The report acknowledges the role of transnational corporations in
creating employment opportunities for women, but questions employment conditions in these firms. A range of recommendations
to improve employment possibilities for women in developing societies is included. 92 pp. + bibliography.
International Center for Research on Women. The Productivity of Women in Developing Countries: Measurement
Issues and Recommendations. 1980. Available from Office of Women in Development (PPC/WID), Agency for
International Development, Department of State, Washington, D.C. 20523, USA. This paper examines how women's
economic participation is measured, evaluates the techniques used, and explores policy issues regarding household production
and women's labor-force participation. The authors make several recommendations to improve available data on women's work.
Recommendations for measuring home production include, among other things, designing culture-specific measures to
distinguish among various definitions of work and leisure, and initiating time-use studies to pinpoint inefficient activities which
could be made more productive through technological innovation. 46 pp.
Kanhere, Sujata and Mira Savara. A Case Study on the Organising of Landless Tribal Women in Maharashtra, India.
1980. Asian and Pacific Centre for Women and Development, P.O. Box 2444, Kuala Lampur, Malaysia. Describes the
sufferings as well as the resistance activities of landless tribal women in Maharashtra. Acute poverty compels this class of

page 17

females to engage in agricultural labor for a mere pittance; they are also frequent victims of abuse by husbands, landlords, and
even the police. The paper documents militant action taken by the women in order to gain greater control over their lives.
Recently, for example, women revolted against drunken violence by organizing to break liquor pots in public. Involvement in
Shramik Sanghatana (Toilers Organization) led them to join males in demanding higher wages, to participate in the effort to
regain tribal lands acquired illegally by landlords, and to protest against other injustices. The author points out, however, that
despite progressive action taken, cultural inhibitions such as timidity and lack of control in matters related to marriage may
obstruct greater participation of women. The study concludes that rural women's problems are class-specific, that isolated
women's movements are ineffective, and that the leadership of women activists is essential in most situations. 13 pp.
Leon de Leal, Magdalena and Carmen Diane Deere, with Ingred Caceres G. et al. Mujer y Capitalismo Agrario: Estudio
de Cuatro Regiones Colombianas. 1980. Asociacion Colombiana para el Estudio de la Poblacion (ACEP). Carrera 23
No. 39-82, Bogota, D.E. 1, Colombia. Seeking to place the rural Colombian woman in regional and historical perspective, this
study analyzes the sexual division of labor at home and in the market, and explores women's contribution to the economy and the
effects of the development of capitalism on their participation. Notes that work done by rural women is closely related to the
socio-economic position of the peasant family, and concludes that although female participation in the rural areas is important,
women's role is that of helpers who participate sporadically in agricultural activities when demand is very acute. Thus, in effect,
women constitute a reserve labor force in agriculture. In Spanish. 295 pp.
Lerch, Patricia B. Brazilian Women and Development: National Trends and Local Responses. 1980. Available from
Non-Formal Education Information Center, College of Education, Michigan State University, 237 Erickson Hall, East
Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA. In this paper, presented at the Latin American Studies Association Meeting, Indiana
University, Bloomington, 17-19 October 1980, Lerch argues that the instruments used in many economic development studies
that have shown Brazilian women to be marginally involved in economic development do not show a true picture. This argument
is based on the findings of a study of the traditional social and economic role of the Umbanda cults of Porto Alegre which
comprise 80 percent of Brazil's population. The study showed that the Umbanda open up social and economic alternatives to
women who cannot yet participate fully in economic development by providing opportunities for them to offer curative health care
services at Umbanda centers. 16 pp.

Levy, Marion Fennelly. Bringing Women into the Community Development Process: A Pragmatic Approach. Occa-
sional Paper No. 2. 1981. Save the Children Federation, Inc. (SCF), 54 Wilton Road, Westport, Connecticut 06880, USA.
Defines the development interests of the Save the Children Federation and reports on efforts to upgrade the participation of
women in its programs. The strengthening of SCF programs for women began by sensitizing agency staff to women's issues,
increasing the number of female staff members at all levels, and by allocating more resources to women's activities. In the field,
the agency encourages informal women's groups to build projects around specific group needs. Promoting self help, the agency
acts as a catalyst in providing advice and supplementing resources. The booklet includes case studies of SCF projects in
Indonesia, Upper Volta, Colombia, and Honduras. 47 pp.
Lewis, Martha Wells. Women and Food: An Annotated Bibliography on Family Food Production, Preservation and
Improved Nutrition. n.d. Office of Women in Development (PPC/WID), Agency for International Development,
Department of State, Washington, D.C. 20523, USA. Describes publications, papers, and resource materials on growing
vegetables, raising small animals, and improving nutrition through family food production. Additionally covers appropriate
technology for women's food production tasks. This useful guide to the literature also has descriptions and evaluations of
selected vegetable garden projects, and a Resources Section. 47 pp.
Lindsay, Beverly, Melanie Milner, and J. Harris. Women and National Development in Africa: A Critical Assessment.
1977. Bureau of Educational Research, Faculty of Education, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, Kenya. A
paper examining the factors influencing African women's integration into the modern sectors of the economy. Historical and
social reasons for their traditional roles and the adverse effects of colonialism upon the contemporary position of women are
reviewed. The writers suggest that education is a major tool for preparing women for economic integration, and recommend ways
in which such integration can be accomplished. 9 pp.
Loutfi, Martha F. Rural Women: Unequal Partners in Development. 1980. International Labour Organisation Publica-
tions, International Labour Office (ILO), CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. This study acknowledges the productive
capacity of women and describes their important role in social production. The author looks beyond commonly held assumptions
about women in development, and points out that certain effects of modernization of the economy may bring greater access to
employment for men. Because men are usually paid higher wages than women, the economic dependency of women on men
may therefore be increased. Though governments tend to recognize the equality of sexes, administrative policies sometimes
undermine the status of women. Formalizing land titles, for instance, may mean that property is registered in the names only of
males, leaving women without direct access to land. The author states that life prospects differ according to their social positions.
In lower classes and castes, where status is earned rather than ascribed, a greater degree of equality exists because women
engage in paid employment in addition to housework. In conclusion, Loutfi warns that the acceleration of agricultural production
and the entry of women into the wage labor force could increase the present hardship of women, unless corresponding measures
are taken to ease their already disproportionate share of domestic work. 81 pp.
McCarthy, Florence E., Saleh Sabbah, and Roushan Akhter. Bibliography and Selected References Regarding Rural
Women in Bangladesh. 1978. Women's Section, Planning and Development Division, Ministry of Agriculture and
Forests, Dacca, Bangladesh. This bibliography includes studies on rural women in Bangladesh completed during the 1970's.
Covers both traditional roles for women and newly emerging roles. A section is devoted to program reports, but on the whole the
studies present a general perspective on the status and activities of women in relation to health, nutrition, family planning, politics
and government, technology, and law. Controversial practices such aspurdah and dowry are also covered. 44 pp.

page 18

Nash, June. Women in Development: Dependency and Exploitation. LTC Reprint No. 133. 1978. Land Tenure Center
(LTC), University of Wisconsin, 310 King Hall, 1475 Observatory Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA. Referring to
sectoral developments of Third World economies, this paper illustrates how women's positions could worsen with the
establishment of modern economic activities. Postulates that production for profitable exchange rather than for the welfare of the
population diminishes the value placed on production for subsistence, thereby eroding the control and creativity exercised by
women in traditional societies. Questions whether capital-intensive production, heavy industry, and mechanization of agriculture
are really agents of progress, since the use of sophisticated technology narrows employment opportunities for women. Also
criticizes mono-cropping patterns introduced by the "Green Revolution" which tend to undermine and neglect home gardening -
traditionally the domain of women. 21 pp. (pp. 161-182).
National Planning Agency, Government of Maldives, with Overseas Education Fund (OEF). Report on the Survey of
Island Women. 1980. OEF, 2101 L Street, N.W., Suite 916, Washington, D.C. 20037, USA. Provides basic information on the
geographic, demographic, political, and socio-economic characteristics of the Maldive islands, and outlines the survey research
design used. The report includes a questionnaire which addresses topics such as the skills, routine activities, and
communication patterns of women; the scope and power of both male and female decision-making; and local resources which
can be utilized in development projects. Interpretation of data lead to interesting findings, for example, that men and women
perceive the ownership of property and the distribution of power and responsibility in different ways. 94 pp.

Newland, Kathleen. The Sisterhood of Man: The Impact of Women's Changing Roles on Social and Economic Life
Around the World. 1979. W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10036, USA. (US $3.95.)
Changes are taking place worldwide in women's social, economic and political roles, however slowly. It is important for policy
makers and development planners to keep the consequences of these changes in mind, and not to rely on outdated notions and
stereotypes about women. This message is forcefully conveyed by Kathleen Newland in her examination of the changes women
are experiencing, the positive and negative social and economic forces which are at work, and the resulting impact on patterns of
life in societies at all levels. She characterizes the changing status and roles of women from the perspective of important issues
in seven broad topical areas legal status, education, health, communications media, politics, work, and the family. Chapter 7,
"Women Working" and Chapter 8, "For Love or Money: Women's Wages" insightfully discuss women's participation in and
access to traditional/non-traditional, formal/informal, and paid/unpaid employment sectors. This book is an important
background document for all those concerned with women's issues in developed and developing countries. 242 pp.
Newland, Kathleen. Women, Men, and the Division of Labor. Worldwatch Paper 37. 1980. Worldwatch Institute, 1776
Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036, USA. (US $2.00.) Argues that the sexual division of labor is the
result of historical economic forces interacting with sex-role stereotypes. The author observes that the entry of women into the
paid labor force has created an imbalance, because women are still obliged to perform the major portion of household work.
Newland regards Third World female employment as being motivated by circumstances of poverty arising from inflation and
urbanization, both brought about by the newly emergent monetized economy. In industrialized countries, however, it is the
proliferation of the service sector, small families, and longer life expectancy that encourage women to seek employment. Finally,
the author reflects on problems faced by national accounting systems when attempting to define and measure women's
productivity. 43 pp.
Nji, Ajaga. "Technology, Women, Agricultural and Rural Development in Africa." Approtech. Vol. 3, Nos. 2 and 3, 1980.
International Association for the Advancement of Appropriate Technology for Developing Countries, University of
Michigan, 603 East Madison, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. Presents an analysis of the literature concerning African
women's current and future roles in agricultural and rural development. Points out that modern agricultural technology can have
an adverse effect on social relationships. The need to develop appropriate agricultural technology, consistent with the
socio-economic and political environment within which it operates, is also discussed. pp. 3-8.
Overseas Education Fund (OEF). The Human Development Project. 1980. OEF, 2101 L Street, N.W., Suite 916,
Washington, D.C. 20037, USA. A report of the Human Development Training Project conducted during 1977-79 by the Costa
Rican Federation of Voluntary Organizations (FOV) in the slums of San Jose. Based on needs assessments done in the slums, a
training program consisting of ten learning units, covering personal and group development, was designed. More than 1,000
women participated in programs conducted by teams of trained volunteers in low-cost housing communities, skills training
programs, and workplaces. Several government agencies have indicated an interest in including human development training as
part of their women's programs. 40 pp.
Roark, Paula. Successful Rural Water Supply Projects and the Concerns of Women. 1980. Office of Women in
Development (PPC/WID), Agency for International Development, Department of State, Washington, D.C. 20523, USA.
Underlying this paper is the idea that change and development occur through people participating in a learning process. The
author believes that project success depends on discovering and working through the "local learning system" (LLS), the
culturally determined way knowledge is organized and shared. Because of their traditional roles as water carriers and managers,
women's participation in related learning processes is critical. Ultimately, they are the ones to decide whether the new water
source is worth the effort to use and maintain. To aid project planners, Roark offers an "LLS Operational Framework" containing
four components: technology analysis, participation, information, and knowledge outcome. This framework distinguishes
between service and development projects, with important implications for policy and program directions. 73 pp.

Rogers, Barbara. The Domestication of Women: Discrimination in Developing Societies. 1980. Kogan Page Limited,
120 Pentonville Road, London N1 9JN, England, UK. A critical analysis of the attitudes and actions of Western development
planners toward women in Third World countries. Part 1 discusses how Western ideas about women's proper place can create
discriminatory effects. Part 2 analyzes the mechanisms by which discrimination functions in development agencies themselves,
through methods used to collect data on Third World societies, and through special women's projects. In Part 3, Rogers

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examines the effects on women of development planning that does not acknowledge their crucial role in subsistence agriculture.
Women's access to land and other development resources are considered. Women's work and the effects of development
planning on their workload also receive attention. Finally, Rogers considers the importance of women's full participation in the
benefits of development programs as a prerequisite for overall project success. 200 pp.

Safilios-Rothschild, Constantina. "The Role of the Family: A Neglected Aspect of Poverty." In Peter T. Knight (ed.),
Implementing Programs of Human Development. World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 403.1980. The World Bank, 1818
H Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20433, USA. Recognizing that kinship is an important aspect of social organization and
production in the Third World, the article advocates placing development programs in a familial and household context.
Developers should first understand the structure of the family that is, whether it is nuclear, extended, matriarchal, or
patriarchal in organization. The power bases of family members should be defined with respect to decision-making, control of
income, and allocation of labor and resources. Patterns of rights, obligations, interdependencies, and the division of labor should
be identified and development programs designed accordingly. The author pays special attention to the manner in which
patriarchal and matriarchal types of family organizations differentially affect the independence, power, and health status of
females. In particular, she considers modernization to have affected family life by encouraging males to migrate to urban areas,
thus causing more female-headed households. Recommends that family strategies which effectively combat poverty be
strengthened, and that female dependency on men be diminished by the provision of income-generating activities for women. pp.

Schumacher, lisa, Jennefer Sebstad, and Mayra Buvinic. Limits to Productivity: Improving Women's Access to
Technology and Credit. 1980. Office of Women in Development (PPC/WID), Agency for International Development,
Department of State, Washington, D.C. 20523, USA. The authors contend that the primary constraints upon women's access
to productive resources modern technologies and credit are due to their historic economic roles in traditional or subsistence
production, reinforced by those development policies that introduced modern and cash production techniques to men only. This
has marked women as marginal producers, often landless, with neither the collateral for credit nor the necessary information and
economic power to obtain equity from the suppliers who consider their needs of low priority and high risk. The authors conclude
with a comprehensive list of policy recommendations for governments and development planners, among them, to develop
financial markets that provide credit for women's traditional economic activities and to encourage savings and expanded
economic opportunities. 66 pp.

Shields, Nwanganga. Women in the Urban Labor Markets of Africa: The Case of Tanzania. World Bank Staff Working
Paper No. 380. 1980. The World Bank, 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20433, USA. The paper is based on the 1971
Tanzanian National Urban Mobility, Employment and Income Survey (NUMEIST) which sought an explanation for the disparity in
employment opportunities for men and women in the modern sector. The structure and characteristics of the female urban labor
force and the determinants of female employment and labor earnings were examined to determine the relationship of sex
differences to labor market performance and sex discrimination. Besides Tanzania's overall economic constraints, women's
employment status was found to be related to marital status, nature of female dependence on husband, and educational
attainment. Labor earnings were found to be associated with both the provision of and demand for educational services by
women rather than with sex discrimination. Policy options that could be adopted to remedy the situation are discussed. 135 pp.

Snyder, Margaret. "Women, Development and Adult Education." Convergence. Vol. 13, No. 3, 1980. International
Council for Adult Education (ICAF), P.O. Box 250, Station F, Toronto, Ontario M4Y 2L5, Canada. In this paper prepared for
a Working Session on Adult Education, International Aid and Poverty, in June 1980, the author discusses why there has been so
little action in response to the rhetoric about women's role in development. She argues that many development planners and
practitioners do not see the participation of women as essential to the development process, and that those who do, fail to share
successful strategies with one another. Finally, she identifies three categories of action related to adult education to overcome
these problems. These are: (1) increasing the number of women adult educators; (2) initiating research on women's programs;
and (3) increasing the number of women learners. Examples of action-oriented programs undertaken in the United Nations
system are given for each category. pp. 54-58.

South Pacific Appropriate Technology Foundation (SPATF). National Women's Workshop on Appropriate Technology:
Tradition-Linked Technology. n.d. SPATF, P.O. Box 6937, Boroko, Papua New Guinea. Reports on activities organized by
SPATF as part of a National Women's Workshop on appropriate technology. The active group sessions covered use of a
well-equipped kitchen, construction of a drum oven, village home technology, blacksmithing, sewing machine repair, and
agriculture. In a final evaluation session, participants discussed the relevance of the activities to their particular situations and
suggested improvements and alternative activities. 17 pp.

Spring, Anita and Art Hansen. Women's Agricultural Work in Rural Zambia: From Valuation to Subordination. 1979.
Available from the Non-Formal Education Information Center, College of Education, Michigan State University, 237
Erickson Hall, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA. A paper prepared for a panel discussion at the 1979 African Studies
Association's annual meeting in Los Angeles. Sets out general hypotheses and conclusions from the literature on the economic
impact of agricultural development on women. The researchers then examine the agricultural and economic changes that have
occurred since the 1930's among the Luvate-speaking peoples of Zambia. Conclusions about the relative economic positions of
men and women in the same rural community are compared to the general condition of women in agriculture. Questions as to
whether either or both sexes have an improved living standard as a result of modern agricultural technology are also discussed.
The authors conclude that agricultural development has led to an increase in the women's workload and their economic
dependence on men, and that the negative attitudes of project planners and policy makers toward women's role in production
serve to perpetuate this situation. 25 pp.

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Tadesse, Zenebeworke. Women and Technological Development in Agriculture: An Overview of the Problems in
Developing Countries. Science and Technology Working Papers Series No. 9. 1979. United Nations Institute for
Training and Research (UNITAR), 801 United Nations Plaza, New York, New York 10017, USA. In this critical review,
Tadesse argues that the impact of technological change on women in Third World countries has to be understood in the context
of the particular social formation and the resultant division of labor between men and women. She analyzes issues related to
women's participation in agriculture, plantations, food processing and storage, trade and commerce, and the formal labor
market. She also discusses women's access to resources, including education and training, and points out that lack of training
and education is both a serious cause and a consequence of women's exploitation in the production process. 38 pp.
Technical Assistance Information Clearing'House (TAICH). Women: A Select Annotated Bibliography of TAICH
Holdings. Updated Since 1975. 1980. TAICH, American Council of Voluntary Agencies for Foreign Service, Inc., 200
Park Avenue South, New York, New York 10003, USA. A useful bibliography designed to encourage interest in the issues
related to women's role in development. The eighth section was published in 1980. It includes more than 80 references to books,
reports, and articles received in TAICH since 1978. 20 pp.
Tinker, Irene. Women and Energy: Program Implications. 1980. Office of Women in Development (PPC/WID), Agency
for International Development, Department of State, Washington, D.C. 20523, USA. Deals with the effect of the rising cost
of oil on poor rural women, the major managers and consumers of energy at the village level. Tinker argues that program
designers must consider the total energy system and the tangible benefits of a proposed innovation to the users, as well as the
opposition it may encounter, when advocating technologies and programs to reduce energy use in cooking, heating, and lighting.
She suggests involving local women and children to obtain accurate information about their own energy practices. 12 pp.
Unesco. Comparative Analysis of Male and Female Enrollment and Illiteracy. 1980. Unesco, Division of Statistics on
Education, Office of Statistics, 7 Place de Fontenoy, 75700 Paris, France. Presents two studies that deal with male-female
inequalities in the areas of school enrollment and illiteracy. The first, entitled "Comparative Study of the Enrollment of Boys and
Girls: A Statistical Analysis 1965-1975," uses data compiled by Unesco's Office of Statistics to compare worldwide school
enrollment trends by sex. Findings from this study indicate the greatest inequalities in enrollment occur in secondary and higher
education, even in many developed countries. In contrast, primary enrollments for girls have increased dramatically, even though
drop-out rates remain high. While 40% of girls are enrolled in school, their school life expectancy is shorter than for boys. The
second study, "Comparative Study of Female and Male Illiteracy in the World," is based on estimates of the number of illiterates
who are 15 years of age and older. This study describes male and female illiteracy in 1970; projects trends for 1980 and 1990;
and analyzes and projects the differences by gender for major world regions, and by country (using a sample of 101 countries),
for the same time periods. Among the conclusions drawn are that men are generally more literate than women (confirming
existing views) and that this discrepancy will increase by 1990, despite a general decrease in overall illiteracy. Further, when the
results of the two studies are considered together, they fail to bear out the claim generally accepted in development circles that
improved literacy instruction and increased female enrollment will result in higher literacy rates for women. The gap between
male and female educational opportunities and literacy rates in developing countries, especially in Asia and Africa, is still wide -
even though there have been steady improvements in developed regions and in Latin America. Educational planners and policy
makers should find this document, particularly the projections, useful. 165 pp. + annexes.
Unesco. International Congress on the Situation of Women In Technical and Vocational Education: Final Document.
ED-80/Conf. 401/5. 1980. Unesco, Education Documentation Center, 7 Place de Fontenoy, 75700 Paris, France.
Summarizes the results of a conference sponsored by Unesco, the International Labour Organisation (ILO), and the German
National Commission in June 1980, at Bonn, West Germany. Officially called the "Charter of the Bonn Congress on the Situation
of Women in Technical and Vocational Education," the document acknowledges that inequality of opportunity, sex-
differentiation, social and sex-role stereotyping, and limited availability of career and vocational guidance for girls and women still
characterize this field. Recommendations are made regarding educational policy; the infrastructure needed for research and
development; education and training systems (i.e., structure, administration, curricula, staff and guidance); training for
employment; support services; and utilizing the mass media to influence public opinion. 5 pp.
United Nations. Report of the World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and
Peace. Copenhagen, 14 to 30 July 1980. A/Conf. 94/35.1980. United Nations Publications (UNIPUB), 345 Park Avenue
South, New York, New York 10010, USA. (US $18.00.) Summarizes proceedings and results of a conference held to review
worldwide progress in implementing the recommendations of the 1975 World Conference of the International Women's Year,
and to revise programs for the second half of the decade based on recent research findings. The subtheme for the 1980
conference was "Employment, Health and Education."Participants emphasized action-oriented plans for integrating women in
the development process. To this end, the conference report advocates economic activities and employment opportunities
stressing the equality of women and men, with the provision of better health and educational facilities for women being critical.
The adopted Program of Action proposes practical measures for improving the status of women and ensuring that women's
concerns are accounted for in the design and implementation of international development strategies in the Third UN
Development Decade. 238 pp. + annex.
United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Illustrative Statistics on Women in Selected
Developing Countries. 1980. Available from Office of Women in Development (PPC/WID), Agency for International
Development, Department of State, Washington, D.C. 20523, USA. A series of 13 statistical charts prepared through the
collaborative efforts of the Office of Women in Development and the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Using data compiled during the
1970's, the charts present information on such topics as age of women, residence, longevity, childhood mortality, age at
marriage, marital status, fertility, literacy, school enrollment and completion, labor force participation, sector of employment, and
professional occupations. Each chart is accompanied by a brief interpretation of key findings. Where possible, comparative
indicators are provided to compare the status of women to the status of men. 24 pp.

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Vavrus, Linda G., with Ron Cadieux and the Staff of the Non-Formal Education Information Center. Women in
Development: A Selected, Annotated Bibliography and Resource Guide. Annotated Bibliography No. 1. 1980.
Non-Formal Education Information Center, College of Education, Michigan State University, 237 Erickson Hall, East
Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA. The first in a series of topical bibliographies prepared by the Non-Formal Education
Information Center staff. Includes reference sources on general development; agriculture and food production; education;
employment and work; and family, nutrition and health. Also includes project reports, case studies, and resource guides with a
specific geographical focus. The regions covered are Africa and the Middle East, Asia and the Pacific, and Latin America and the
Caribbean. Other sections present journals and periodicals concerned primarily with women, specialized bibliographies, and a
list of international and regional organizations dealing with issues related to women and development. 69 pp.
Weeks-Vagliani, Winifred, with Bernard Grossat. Women in Development: At the Right Time for the Right Reasons.
1980. Development Centre of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 2 Rue
Andre-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France. (US $13.50.) Presents a wealth of information on family formation and on how
women's productive roles in society are influenced by age of marriage. The following questions were addressed by the authors:
(1) What are the current "determinants" of age at first marriage? (2) Given an early age for marriage or first conception, what are
the "consequences" with respect to level of education, type of employment, and other major factors in life style? (3) What
changes are apparent between the situation of young women today and those of 15-25 years ago? These questions were
answered for each country (or ethnic group) studied in order to isolate patterns specific to each cultural context. Comparisons of
these analyses then revealed recurring patterns which might be generalized to other settings. The findings are organized
according to factors identified by the authors as important in the design of effective development programs and policies that
affect a population as a whole, not only that population's young women. The factors are: (a) ethnicity and family systems
associated with ethnic groups including education, employment, age at marriage, and involvement in agriculture; (b) domestic
life cycle patterns; (c) the significance of delayed marriage, especially on fertility patterns; (d) women's economic autonomy; and
(e) the influence of particular socio-cultural patterns on development policy effectiveness, especially in the rural agricultural
sector. Those interested in the individual case studies will find the select bibliographies and data tables compiled on marriage
and family formation for each country of particular value. 330 pp.
Women in Development, Inc. A Study of Low Income Women in Barbados. 1980. Women in Development (WID), Inc., 6
Bartletts, Christ Church, Barbados, West Indies. Reports on a nationwide survey to obtain basic information on women in the
lowest income category in Barbados. The sample consisted of women between the ages of 16 and 44 who were either
underemployed or unemployed. The study also attempted to find out the social system, specific life needs, and entry-level skills
(both academic and practical) of potential participants in women's programs. The report gives an overview of the general
employment situation and employment status of women in Barbados, while discussing specific problems in education, family life,
health, and nutrition that affect women's acquisition of skills and employment. Using research findings, WID makes
recommendations relating to admission criteria of program participants, health care, staff training, training and loan programs,
and training materials. 79 pp.
"Women's Studies Programme." ICSSR Newsletter. Vol. 10, No. 1, April-September 1979. Indian Council of Social
Science Research (ICSSR), Social Science Documentation Centre, 35 Ferozshah Road, New Delhi 110001, India.
Reports on the proceedings and proposals of three Asian conferences held in 1979, which called upon governments to devise
strategies for integrating women into all national activities. Considers the leadership role of governments essential in eliminating
cultural inhibitions which tend to prevent women from participating in the more productive sectors of the economy. One of the
recommendations emerging from the conferences advocates research into the particular causes and consequences of women's
problems in relation to family structure, sex-role stereotypes, and the negative effects of development projects. pp. 25-28.
Youssef, Nadia H. Women and Their Professional Future: An Assessment of Training Needs and Training Programs in
Morocco. 1978. Office of Women in Development (PPC/WID), Agency for International Development, Department of
State, Washington D.C. 20523, USA. Advocates the entry of more Moroccan women into the public and service sectors, and
considers how their present educational marginality hinders this process. The author suggests that women should receive
training in paramedical professions, social work, middle-level management, and technical skills. Such training is perceived to be
culturally appropriate, and it is recommended on the basis that the integration of females into all professions on equal terms with
males should be preceded by the entry of females into semi-professional areas. 63 pp. (Also available from Office of Women in
Development are: Non-Formal Education for Women in Morocco [1979, 61 pp.], and An Evaluation of Non-Formal
Educational Programs for Women in Morocco [n.d., 47 pp.].)

Journals and Special Issues
AI-Raida. Institute for Women's Studies in the Arab World. P.O. Box 11-4080, Beirut University College, Beirut,
Lebanon. A quarterly publication for and about Arab women. Articles in two recent issues address the topic of women and work.
"Women, Employment and Development in the Arab World" (Vol. 3, No. 13, August 1980, p. 7) considers why women's
labor-force participation in Arab countries is low compared to that of African, Latin American, and Far Eastern countries. Policy
recommendations are offered to encourage women's participation in development. "Women and Work in Lebanon" (Vol. 4, No.
16, May 1981, pp. 6-7) reviews the demographic data available on women in the labor force and on employer preferences, and
makes recommendations to encourage women's participation in non-traditional careers.
Asian Women. Lucknow Publishing House, 37 Cantonment Road, Lucknow, India. The official publication of the Asian
Women's Institute, this journal includes general articles, information about participating centers, news items, and book reviews.

page 22

The Bridge. "The Fifth World: A Special Report on Women in Development." Vol. 5, No. 4, Winter 1980. 1800 Pontiac
Street, Denver, Colorado 80220, USA. This special report covers the progress (or lack of it) made by Third World women in the
production sector at the midpoint in the United Nations Decade for Women (1975-1985.) In "Women in Development," Paula
Goddard states that women in developing countries still do not share the resources and rewards of economic development
equally with men. She believes the following factors have contributed toward slowing women's progress: (1) the emergence of
female-headed households as a result of increased male labor migration; (2) the rising cost of petroleum products which has
forced a return to traditional energy sources; (3) female worker displacement by increased mechanization and women's lack of
access to new technologies; and (4) underestimation of women's need for income to meet their domestic financial
responsibilities (pp. 4-5, 31). "Non-Traditional Training for Women in the Arab World," by Samira Harfoush, critiques the
persistent inequality and gender discrimination influencing educational training and employment opportunities available to Arab
women (pp. 6-7, 32-34). In "Technology Transfer and Education in Africa," Gayla Cook contends that while education is the most
important aspect of the technology transfer process, indigenous training for employment, particularly for women, is poorest in
Africa compared to anywhere in the world. Much of the blame for this, she believes, is to be found in the lingering effects of
colonization. In order to produce technological progress in Africa, educational structures, opportunities and systems must be
oriented toward the needs of African societies (pp. 8-9, 35-36). Kathleen Newland's article, "Women at Work," discusses the
problems created by the division of labor that places men in paid occupations and women in the household (pp. 10-11, 37).
Centerlines. Center for Women in Development, South-East Consortium for International Development (SECID), 1901
Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Suite 300, Washington, D.C., 20006, USA. A quarterly publication providing information on
events, opportunities, research and resources in the field of Women and Development. Highlights the activities of member
institutions of SECID.
Comparative Education Review. "Women and Education in the Third World." Vol. 24, No. 2, Part 2, June 1980.
University of Chicago Press, 11030 South Langley Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60628, USA. In theoretical articles, case
studies, and an extensive bibliography, this special issue reviews recent research on the formal and non-formal education of
women in the Third World. Separate essays cover the relationship between education and a country's economic development,
the effects of cultural patterns on women's access to education, the time constraints that limit women's participation, and
families' perceptions of the rewards of education. The editors encourage researchers to examine the schooling process itself, not
merely the outcomes of participation in education, and argue that studies of the impact of education has to be broadened beyond
a consideration of labor-force participation and fertility to include all aspects of adult life. 266 pp.

Ideas and Action. Freedom from Hunger Campaign/Action for Development (FFHC/AD), Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy. A bimonthly publication
focusing on efforts of FAO and others to promote greater participation of people in their own development. Frequently includes
articles on women's role in development. In "Forest Conservation and 'Campesinas' in Honduras" (No. 136, 1980/4, pp. 20-24),
Diana Calafati describes how peasant women participated in a reforestation project, and raises questions about the unintended
consequences of development projects. "Integration of Women into Development What Does It Really Mean?" (No. 137,
1980/5, pp. 14-18) challenges the assumptions underlying the assertion that women must be integrated into the existing
development process. (Also available in French and Spanish.)

Indian Journal of Youth Affairs. Vol. 2, No. 2, September 1980. Vishwa Yuwak Kendra, Circular Road, Chanakyapuri,
New Delhi 110021, India. Contains two articles which discuss cultural forces leading to the oppression of women in Indian
society. In "Protest Movements by Women," Huma Ahmed contends that the subservient and passive role traditionally ascribed
to females is a recent historical phenomenon, for in the ancient Vedic ages women enjoyed equal status with males and achieved
eminence in the arts and in politics. Considers the status of women to have improved in the modern milieu, with the spread of
western humanitarianism and the efforts of a host of Indian reformers (pp. 15-25). In "The Oppression of Women by Women,"
Renuka Singh draws attention to the obstacles women create for one another through competition within the family as well as in
employment circumstances (pp. 59-75).

New Internationalist. "Women: Part 2." No. 90, August 1980. Montagu House, High Street, Huntingdon PE18 6EP,
Cambridgeshire, England, UK; or 113 Atlantic Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11201, USA. Separate articles in this special
issue on women and world development review how women are working together for equality. Authors highlight as key issues for
women's liberation their demands for equal pay for equal work; greater access to male-dominated professions; recognition of the
productivity of traditional domestic work; and protests against the dowry system, violence, and discrimination. Also cites the
experience of Sweden, as a nation working towards equality of the sexes through legislation and propaganda. 32 pp.

The NFE Exchange. "Women in Development." No. 13, 1978/3. Non-Formal Education Information Center, College of
Education, Michigan State University, 237 Erickson Hall, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA. Presents an overview of
what some aspects of development have meant to women and the varying perceptions of what is needed to assist women and
why. Differing orientations to problems concerning women and development are identified, since these are likely to influence
attempts at solutions. Discusses three major issues of concern: equity and segregation, traditional vs. non-traditional roles, and
cultural integrity vis-a-vis human rights. Includes synopses of eleven development projects concerning women, and an extensive
policy- and program-oriented bibliography. 20 pp.
Resources for Feminist Research/Documentation sur la Recherche Feministe. Department of Sociology, Ontario
Institute for Studies in Education, 252 Bloor Street West, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1V6, Canada. An interdisciplinary and
international quarterly publication on research relating to women and sex roles. Includes abstracts of Canadian and international
research, book reviews, bibliographies, reports of archival holdings, innovative women's studies syllabi, and periodical and
resource guides. In French and English. (Formerly the Canadian Newsletter of Research on Women.)

page 23

The Urban Edge. Vol. 5, No. 2, February 1981. Council for International Urban Liaison, 818 18th Street, N.W.,
Washington, D.C. 20006, USA. A special issue of this monthly publication is devoted to strategies for broadening
income-earning opportunities for urban women. In "Helping Urban Women: New Ideas and Programs," myths which must be
overcome before employment opportunities for women will increase are addressed. The myths include: (1) women's place is
primarily in the home; (2) the income needs of women are less than those of men; and (3) greater female employment creates
greater male unemployment (p. 1). In "Improving Opportunities for Urban Women," Gloria Scott discusses how urban
development projects can improve opportunities for women by considering location of services and support facilities, examining
women's income and their access to credit and technical assistance for income earning, and by assessing community support
systems and services available to working women (pp. 1-2). "Non-traditional Employment Opportunities for Women"
summarizes programs in Yemen, Costa Rica, Jamaica, and Korea which have attempted to train women for non-traditional
occupations, while supplying necessary support services (pp. 2-3). Other articles are concerned with women's access to credit,
educational opportunities, technical and marketing assistance, transportation arrangements, child care services, and legal aid.
The Women and Food Information Network Newsletter. 24 Peabody Terrace, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.
Provides news on United States foreign assistance and on projects concerned with women in agriculture and food production.
Also gives information on upcoming meetings, and brief reports on past meetings and conferences.
Women at Work. Vol. 1, 1980. ILO Publications, International Labour Office (ILO), CH-1211 Geneva 22, Switzerland. A
special issue of this semi-annual bulletin published in preparation for the United Nations Mid-Decade Conference on Women
(Copenhagen, July 14-30, 1980). Articles focus on various issues, with the emphasis on women's status and productive roles in
both the paid and unpaid work force. Major issues identified include: (1) the difference between work and employment while
most women permanently work, they are not permanently employed in the paid work force; (2) the inequality in income between
men and women for similar work performed in paid jobs; and (3) women's unequal access to training in marketable skills and
technical and scientific knowledge which could enable them to obtain better and higher paying jobs. Of particular interest is the
section, "Jobs and Beyond," which presents a series of case studies designed to highlight how women's work is undervalued,
how they are usually excluded from international economic negotiations, and how many of their contributions to the economies of
their countries are normally ignored by economic and social indicators. Also provides information on legal issues associated with
conditions in the workplace; and women's participation in decision-making in trade unions. An extensive bibliography on women
and employment (1976-79) is also included. 65 pp.
World Health. "Women, Health and Development." June 1980. World Health Organization (WHO), Avenue Appia, 1211
Geneva 27, Switzerland. Several articles in this special issue consider the relationship between women's health and national
development. In "Fatigue," Krishna Ahooja-Patel argues that because women's activities are undervalued in society, little
attention has been given to the physical effects of their work that is, women as producers, reproducers, and consumers
responsible for household tasks. She argues that fatigue is a constant reality for most women, which hampers their own
development and that of their societies (pp. 14-15). Also of interest is Esmeralda Arboleda Cuevas' article, "Women in the
Media," in which she calls on the media to portray a more positive image of women (pp. 23-25).
Zeidenstein, Sondra (ed.). "Learning about Rural Women." Studies in Family Planning. Vol. 10, No. 11/12, November/
December 1979. The Population Council, One Dag Hammerskjold Plaza, New York, New York 10017, USA. A special
issue on developing a better understanding of the roles and status of rural women in different societies. Articles are organized to
discuss why such knowledge is crucial for all aspects of rural development policy, planning and implementation, and how data
about rural women can be rapidly and effectively collected, pp. 309-422. (A Spanish version of this collection of articles in a
special issue of Estudios de Poblacion, entitled "Vida de la Mujer Rural en un Mundo en Desarrollo," [Vol. 5, No. 1-6, 1980] is
available from Asociacion Colombiana para el Estudio de la Poblacion [ACEP], Carrera 23, No. 39-82, Bogota, D.E. 1,

Women's Groups

Social and economic development requires the active participation of everyone concerned. Increasingly, people are recognizing that
women's organizations and groups formal and informal, indigenous, national and international are effective channels whereby
women can share more fully in development decision-making and in the benefits that may result. Here we present some of the many
documents received by the NFE Information Center that address the problems and prospects of women's organizations. Readers are
encouraged to share with us their own experiences in this area.

Publications from USAID In Various Perspectives on Using Women's Organizations
in Development Programming (1980, 33 + pp.), Marilyn W.
The Office of Women in Development of the Agency for Hoskins summarizes information from conferences organized by
International Development (AID) has published four papers on AID for representatives of women's organizations, private volun-
women's organizations, teer organizations, and donor groups. Hoskins discusses the roles,

expectations, and needs of indigenous user groups. She also
considers intermediary groups that link donor agencies and user
groups, and programming issues related to women. Research
suggestions in the areas of training, income-generation, and mar-
ket research, are included. The author recommends that donor
agencies and intermediary organizations establish stronger links
so as to share information that will heighten the capacity of
indigenous groups to meet the needs of women and their com-
munities. An appendix describes the activities of six non-
indigenous intermediary organizations.
Arguing that women's groups can play an important role in
reaching out to help women truly become a part of the social and
economic life of their communities, Katherine Blakeslee Piepmeir
examines some of the issues that such a strategy raises in
Women's Organizations: Resources for Development (1980, 48
pp.). Strengthening the capacity of women's groups will require,
among other things, the fostering of a greater political commitment
to such groups, finding effective means to assist them, and
examining the donor agencies' pertinent policies and practices.
Women's Organizations in Rural Development by Kath-
leen A. Staudt (1980, 71 pp.) presents the view that the active
political participation of women at all levels is essential if they are to
reap the benefits of the development process. She argues that
women's organizations can foster their political empowerment. She
reviews the literature on women's participation in politics, in both
elite and popular movements, and the constraints that can impede
such participation. Policy recommendations are included.
In Evaluating Small Grants for Women in Development
(1980, 36 pp.), Judith F. Helzner provides donor agencies with
useful information on criteria and methods for evaluating invest-
ments in funding small grants as part of a strategy to enhance
women's role in development.
All four publications are available from Office of Women in
Development (PPC/WID), Agency for International Development,
Department of State, Washington, D.C. 20523, USA.

Case Studies
Rural Women's Groups as Potential Change Agents: A
Study of Colombia, Korea and the Philippines (1975, 101 pp.) by
Marion Ruth Misch and Joseph B. Margolin contains several case
studies of women's groups. Common success factors and general
recommendations for research and development in countries simi-
lar to those of the study are discussed. Available from Program of
Policy Studies in Science and Technology, George Washington
University, Washington, D.C. 20006, USA.
The Inter-country Project for the Promotion and Training of
Rural Women in Income-raising Group Activities, undertaken by
the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
(ESCAP) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations (FAO) in nine countries, seeks to help governments locate
successful income-generating group projects, and to enable rural
women to share their knowledge and skills with one another. In
Learning from Rural Women: Village-level Success Cases of
Rural Women's Group Income-raising Activities (1979, 120
pp.), ten such small-scale local efforts, many of them started by the
women themselves without outside support, are described. Among
the projects included are a cattle project in Korea, and vegetable
farming in Nepal. Available from ESCAP Secretariat, United Na-
tions Building, Rajadamnern Avenue, Bangkok 2, Thailand.

"Women of the Village," a special feature in People (Vol. 8,
No. 3, 1981, pp. 4-20), reports on the activities of women's groups
in Indonesia, India, Korea, the Philippines, and Kenya. The diver-
sity of the groups reflect the range of socio-cultural contexts in
which they operate yet all share a commitment to self-reliance,
as they seek to integrate family planning with other aspects of
development. People is published quarterly in French, English,
and Spanish, and is available from International Planned Par-
enthood Federation, 18-20 Lower Regent Street, London SW1Y
4PW, England, UK.
In Village Women Organize: The Mraru Bus Service (1980,
20 pp.), Jill Kneerim tells of the activities of the Mraru Women
Group, an affiliate of the national women's organization of Kenya,
Maendeleo ya Wanawake. The group's first major project was to
start a bus service to solve the transportation problem of their
community. The success of the project encouraged them to expand
their activities. First, they invested in a small retail store, which they
hope to expand to include a hotel. With the help of the Women's
Bureau in Nairobi, they are also building up a small herd of goats.
Unfortunately, the group did not make ample provision to cover the
depreciation of the bus. Consequently they experienced difficulty
when the first bus had to be replaced. Nevertheless, the group has
shown that rural women can identify their needs and organize to
meet them. Based on the Mraru women's experience, Kneerim
makes several recommendations for women's groups embarking
on income-generating activities. She recommends, among other
things, (1) selecting a product or service that is strongly needed in
the community; (2) starting with a simple project, then gradually
expanding as members gain skills and more funds become avail-
able; and (3) making use of support services to the fullest extent,
without creating dependency. Project Address: Mraru Women
Group, Box 163, Voi, Kenya. The report is available from Seeds,
P.O. Box 3923, Grand Central Station, New York, New York 10163,
Two case studies in "Planning with Rural Women," a special
issue of Assignment Children (No. 38, April/June 1977), demon-
strate the role of women's sections of government ministries in
promoting the activities of indigenous women's groups. "Providing
Access to New Skills and Modern Techniques" by Jane Cole
describes the work of the Ghana National Council on Women and
Development (pp. 71-79). In "Barriers to an Effective Organization
of Women's Work," M.A. Adekoya discusses some of the difficul-
ties experienced by the Women's Programme Section of the Oyo
State Government of Nigeria (pp. 80-83). Assignment Children is
available from UNICEF, Villa Le Bocage, Palais des Nations, 1211
Geneva 10, Switzerland.

Available Resources
Issue No. 14 of The NFE Exchange (1978/4, p. 19) contains
a list of international, regional, and national organizations, many of
which support the activities of local women's groups. Available
from Non-Formal Education Information Center, College of Educa-
tion, Michigan State University, 237 Erickson Hall, East Lansing,
Michigan 48824, USA.
Where on Earth Are the Women? A Women's Develop-
ment Support Resource (n.d.), published by the International
Women's Tribune Centre (IWTC), Inc., contains an extensive
listing of international organizations and women's bureaus in
Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Available from IWTC, Inc., 305
East 46th Street, New York, New York 10017, USA.

page 24

page 25

Reference Review: The Environment

During the last decade there has been increasing concern over the environmental impacts of development. In this
section we review some of the efforts of international, national, and local organizations to incorporate environmental
concerns in policy making, planning, implementation, and evaluation of development projects.

Ecodevelopment is a concept which emphasizes the
interrelationship of the social, economic, and physical envi-
ronment in all development efforts. It requires that projects
focus on the real, basic needs of the poorest people; use
local knowledge, values, and experience to find solutions to
problems identified by local people; and recognize the
relationship of people and their environment. Ecodevelop-
ment incorporates a commitment to appropriate technology,
the wise use of natural resources, and local participation in
all phases of development. Proponents of this perspective
stress that when such principles guide the planning of
projects, development will be sustained after the project is
over, because it was planned within the total context of the
human and natural environment. A note on ecodevelop-
ment is available from CODEL, Inc., 79 Madison Avenue,
New York, New York 10157, USA.
CODEL, an ecumenical consortium of agencies, is
currently sponsoring a program on Environment and De-
velopment in Third World countries. The objective is to help
private voluntary organizations (PVO's) give proper weight
to environmental factors when setting up and carrying out
small-scale development programs. CODEL assists by or-
ganizing training workshops, preparing teaching materials,
and providing information on available resources. During
1979 and 1980 CODEL offered 1- to 3-day workshops for
executives and field staff of PVO's on the integration of
concerns about human and natural resources in develop-
ment programming, and practical training in the use of
simple tools and resources for testing the environmental
impact of projects. In addition to publishing a newsletter,
CODELnews, the consortium has a collection of helpful
project illustrations available. For further information, con-
tact CODEL, Inc., 79 Madison Avenue, New York, New York
10157, USA.
Also developed by the CODEL Environment and
Development staff is a role-playing exercise, based on a
case example from Tlemces, Niger, that was originally
designed for use in seminars on "Relating Environmental
Factors to Small-Scale Development Projects." An outline
on two ways to present the exercise and the CODEL
workshop case-study material are available from the Non-
Formal Education Information Center, College of Educa-
tion, Michigan State University, 237 Erickson Hall, East
Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA.
Another organization formed in response to the grow-
ing concern about the environment is the Environment
Liaison Centre (ELC) in Kenya. Its membership includes
about 200 non-governmental organizations, ranging from
international agencies to local societies, which have a keen
interest in the relationship of the environment to human
settlements. Apart from information campaigns to heighten
public awareness of environmental issues, the ELC pub-

lishes a quarterly bulletin, Ecoforum, which disseminates
membership news and reviews existing or projected pro-
grams. For further information, contact Environment Liaison
Centre, P.O. Box 72461, Nairobi, Kenya.
Environmentally Sound Small-Scale Agriculture
Projects (1979, 103 pp.) is the first in a series of Planning
Guidelines, produced by Volunteers in Technical Assist-
ance (VITA). With admirable lucidity, it explains the
dynamics of an ecosystem a complex of living organisms
interacting with one another as well as with non-living
substances. When agriculture impinges on an ecosystem,
positive or negative reactions take place the knowledge
of which is essential to farmers and agricultural planners.
The booklet contains guidelines on water, soil, nutrient, and
pest management. There are suggestions on how farmers
could solve such problems as erosion, preparation of
manure, and pest control by using simple methods that rely
on local labor and materials. A second manual, Environ-
mentally Sound Small-Scale Water Projects. Guidelines
for Planning (1981, 142 pp.) by Gus Tillman, has been
published recently. Subsequent booklets in the series will
give similar information on forestry, energy, livestock,
wildlife, and human settlements. Available from VITA, 3707
Rhode Island Avenue, Mt. Rainier, Maryland 20822, USA.
About five years ago, the United Nations Environment
Programme (UNEP), together with the International
Management School of Geneva and some 200 Third World
educational organizations, launched a project to help coun-
tries set up local environmental management programs for
policy makers in government and industry. Environmental
management is considered a complementary development
strategy linked to basic needs. Such a program envisages
making resources available to provide safe water, fertile
land, clean air, sanitary housing, healthy lifestyles, appro-
priate knowledge and technology, relevant education,
meaningful employment opportunities, useful and sound
products, community involvement, and contact with beauti-
ful surroundings, while encouraging the preservation of
traditions. Most of the government administrators contacted
were eager to benefit from the program, which was carried
out mainly through seminars, both national and interna-
tional. One such gathering was the 1977 International
Environmental Management Seminar in Geneva, attended
by about 60 high-ranking policy makers who were urged to
organize similar seminars upon returning home. Source:
"Self-Reliance and Environmental Management Education"
by Michael Royston and Victor Johnson, in Focus: Techni-
cal Cooperation (1978/1, pp. 25-26), a section of Interna-
tional Development Review, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1978. Avail-
able from Society for International Development, Editorial
and Business Offices, Palazzo Civilta del Lavoro, 00144
Rome, Italy. (Reprints of past volumes are available from
Johnson Reprint Corporation, 111 Fifth Avenue, New York,
New York 10003, USA; or Johnson Reprint Company, Ltd.,
Berkeley Square House, London W1X 6BA, England, UK.)

page 26

Resource Management
Drastic change in socio-economic systems, coupled
with the phenomenal growth of population in the Third
World, has caused the rapid deterioration of crucial natural
resources as evidenced by increasing deforestation, soil
erosion, and environmental pollution. These ecological
crises urgently require the application of sound policies of
resource management.
The South-East Consortium for International De-
velopment (SECID) considers environmental management
an integral part of all its development activities. Currently,
SECID is a collaborator in two large-scale projects in Asia
and Africa, aimed at enabling countries there to formulate
and carry out sound environmental policies. A five-year
project on Environmental Training and Management in
Africa (ETMA) is designed to improve information efforts on
environmental conditions and problems, identify relevant
strategies, and monitor trends in 13 African countries.
Development of appropriate training programs is a major
activity. Three types are being planned: short-term semi-
nars, designed to make policy makers aware of environ-
mental issues; medium-length courses covering 4 to 6
weeks; and long-term individualized courses lasting 6
months for local extension agents and fieldworkers. In
Nepal, SECID is involved in the Resource Conservation and
Utilization Project (RCUP), aimed at reducing environmen-
tal pressures on that country's mountainous regions. One
interesting feature of RCUP is the formation of village
conservation centers and village committees to ensure local
representation at all stages of the program. For additional
information, contact SECID, 1901 Pennsylvania Avenue,
N.W., Suite 300, Washington, D.C. 20006, USA.

Environmental Education
Environmental education is being advocated as a key to
easing dangerous pressures on the environment. A dossier,
"Education for a Better Environment," Prospects: Quar-
terly Review of Education (Vol. 8, No. 4, 1978, pp.
439-515), presents a collection of articles on the topic.
Environmental education is viewed as being primarily in-
strumental in creating awareness about the state of the
environment, capable of reaching planners and adminis-
trators as well as the general public. In "Environmental
Education and the Third World" (pp. 456-465), Leopoldo
Chiappo speaks of such education as cultural ecology. The
author sees its chief intellectual aim as one of probing the
political, economic, and ethical roots of environmental prob-
lems. Seeking not so much to negate science as to revise
its application, environmental education works toward har-
monizing man's relationship with the natural order.
Other articles in the collection refer to global propaga-
tion of environmental education through the 1972 Stock-
holm Conference on the Environment, the formation of the
United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP), and the
1977 Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental
Education at Tbilisi, Georgia, USSR. In "Stockholm to
Tbilisi The Evolution of Environmental Education" (pp.
446-455), Peter J. Fensham illustrates how certain Asian
countries have successfully incorporated the subject into
school curricula. Examples include such courses as
"Choosing the Best Fuel," a subject of study in Nepal, and
"Model Home Gardening" in the Philippines. Prospects is
published by Unesco, 7 Place de Fontenoy, 75700 Paris,

Regional and Local Action
Concern about the environment cannot be expressed in
theoretical or ideological terms only. Recognition and dis-
cussion of problems must lead to concerted action, stimu-
lated and directed by a combination of guidelines, regu-
lations, and incentives for protecting the environment. In-
creasingly, it is being realized that environmental considera-
tions must be incorporated into planning when priorities are
established for resource use, investment, construction de-
signs, and tax benefits. Indiscriminate use of advanced
technologies and superficially considered attempts to im-
itate sophisticated industrial models can prove financially
disastrous, offering little practical value in return. Recent
issues of various journals and newsletters received in the
NFE Information Center illustrate local initiatives in en-
vironmental protection.
World Neighbors in Action (Vol. 11, No. 3E, n.d., 7
pp.) tells how bio-gas digesting plants which convert refuse
into energy provide fuel for cooking in Nepal. Available from
World Neighbors International Headquarters, 5116 North
Portland Avenue, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73112, USA.
National governments play a crucial role in enforcing
legal measures to curtail industrial pollution and deforesta-
tion, control waste disposal and recycling, and regulate the
use of natural resources. In Voluntary Action (Vol. 23, No.
6, January 1981, pp. 274-276), "Women in Community
Forestry" by Sevanti Ninan describes how the Chipko
Movement in India vigorously opposed the destruction of
Himalayan forests, proving the effectiveness of popular
participation in protecting the environment. In the same
issue (pp. 288-290, 293), "For People-Oriented Social
Forestry" by Gopa Joshi describes India's plans to form
forestry labor cooperatives to prevent denudation of the
land and make a more democratic, economic use of forest
resources. Available from the Association of Voluntary
Agencies for Rural Development (AVARD), D-19, Gulmohar
Park, New Delhi 110049, India.
Some other publications focusing on the environment
are listed here.

The Urban Edge. Vol. 5, No. 1, January 1981.
Published by the Council for International Urban Liaison,
818 18th Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006, USA.

Asian Action. No. 25, 1981. Available from the Asian
Cultural Forum on Development (ACFOD), GPO Box 2930,
Bangkok, Thailand.

Tambalan. No. 8, November-December 1980. Avail-
able from Council for Primary Health Care, % P.O. Box 259,
Greenhills P.O., Rizal, Philippines.

How. Vol. 4, No. 4, April 1981. Available from the
Editorial and Circulation Office, 6/9 Sarva Priya Vihar, New
Delhi 110016, India.

Development Communication Report. No. 33,
March 1981. Published by the Clearinghouse on Develop-
ment Communication, 1414 22nd Street, N.W., Washing-
ton, D.C. 20037, USA.

Interciencia. Vol. 6, No. 2, March-April 1981. Avail-
able from Edificio Funda VAC-ASO Vac, Avenida Neveri,
Colinas de Bello Monte, Apartado de Correos 47286,
Caracas 1041, Venezuela. (In Spanish.)

page 27

Special Information Needs of Women

NFE Information Center Study
Those involved in the area of women in development are
attempting to build an integrated field of study and to design
programs that respond sensitively to the needs of women and their
communities. Groups and agencies seeking to assist people work-
ing in this area need to be aware of the different kinds of
information and knowledge sought. The Non-Formal Education
(NFE) Information Center of Michigan State University recently
completed a study of inquiries concerning women in development
directed to the Center, as part of its work as a clearinghouse of
user-oriented information on non-formal education and women in
development. The study was conducted in cooperation with the
Agency for International Development's Office of Women in De-
velopment. On this page we share some of the key findings and
implications of the study.
The sample consisted of 358 persons who directed inquiries
relating to WID to the NFE Information Center between July 1978
and December 1980. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were
carried out on all correspondence in the WID-related corre-
spondent files.

Key Findings
More than two-thirds of the WID-related correspondents are
Almost one-half of all WID correspondents live in Third World
Almost one-third are of Third World national origin.
According to organizational affiliation, the largest group are
associated with universities (23%), closely followed by women's
organizations (20%), and non-governmental organizations (18%).
With regard to occupation, slightly less than half are de-
velopment planners and programmers, while researchers account
for 14%, and practitioners for 10%, of the sample under analysis.
Nearly half of the persons identified as having WID-related
interests sought publications not exclusively concerning women in
development but on a broader range of human resource develop-
ment topics.
Those correspondents expressing interests covering a wide
spectrum of development issues in such sectors as health, agricul-
ture, and income generation, tend to be mostly of Third World
Correspondents with more precisely WID-specific requests
and interests were more numerous among those living in North
America and Europe.
Correspondents who work as researchers and professors
tend to express interests more sharply focused on specifically
defined WID and women's studies issues than do those who work
as practitioners and planners.
Practitioners and planners tend to demonstrate a greater
concern for a broad range of topics, which would be of greater use
in the implementation of integrated projects and programs.

Differences in Inquiries
The report postulates that the differences between inquiries
from correspondents in less-developed countries (LDC's) and
developed countries (DC's) are related to two factors: access to
data bases, and information needs due to differences in roles.
It may be that Third World correspondents are more dependent
on the NFE Information Center for materials on a broad range of
topics in diverse sectors, such as agriculture, income generation,
health and literacy, as well as materials on WID, because they lack
the extensive library facilities and information networks available to
correspondents in DC's. At the same time, correspondents in
LDC's seem to be more directly involved in the implementation of
projects than DC correspondents. Thus, it is hypothesized that
individuals whose work is more closely related to project implemen-
tation need to have knowledge of a wider range of topics and must
draw on the knowledge bases of several disciplines and sectors.

Implications of the Study
Recognizing that researchers and planners or programmers
have different vantage points and different needs can have implica-
tions in three areas, namely, the generation of knowledge regard-
ing WID, the application of this knowledge, and the role of informa-
tion networking systems.
Generation of Knowledge. As new knowledge, based on
field experiences and baseline data gathering, is being generated,
it needs to be adequately summarized in order to address complex
issues and themes.
Application of Knowledge. Complex knowledge sum-
maries need to be made more practical, intelligible, and readily
accessible to practitioners and planners, to ensure that the knowl-
edge is appropriately applied.
Information Networking. There is a need to initiate and
maintain reciprocal information exchange systems and collabora-
tion among researchers, planners or programmers, and practition-
ers to strengthen WID as a field of knowledge and practice. Since
the data indicate that Third World correspondents' interests in WID
are inextricably linked with their need for broad, practical informa-
tion on all facets of human resource development, it seems of
utmost importance to strengthen indigenous WID resource centers
which can cover an array of development areas.

Report Available
The report of the study, An Analysis of Inquiries Regarding
Women in Development as Directed to the Non-Formal Educa-
tion Information Center by Development Planners, Practition-
ers, and Researchers (1981, 131 pp. + Appendices), by Joan M.
Claffey, Valerie Auserehl Kelly, Mary Joy Pigozzi, and Ruth Hill
Useem, is available from the Non-Formal Education Information
Center, College of Education, Michigan State University, 237
Erickson Hall, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA. This publica-
tion is available free of charge to development organizations in
Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Others must remit US $5.50 to
cover costs for printing and postage.

page 28

Network News

Instructional Materials
A Report on the Workshop for Writing Instructional
Materials for Non-Formal Education (February 1980,174
pp.) describes how participants were familiarized with the
theoretical and practical aspects of designing instructional
materials. The report includes examples of a variety of
instructional materials, and applications of their use in
teaching. Available from the Lesotho Distance Teaching
Centre, P.O. Box 781, Maseru 100, Lesotho.

Evaluating Literacy Programs
Based on experience gained during the operation of the
Experimental World Literacy Programme, Roger Couvert
discusses the theoretical and practical issues involved in
judging the rate of program success or failure in The
Evaluation of Literacy Programs: A Practical Guide
(1979, 168 pp.). Topics covered include techniques and
instruments, preliminary studies, quantitative and qualita-
tive evaluation of results, evaluation of program content and
predicted changes, and global evaluation of a project.
Available from Unesco, 7 Place de Fontenoy, 75700 Paris,

Participation is the focus of several documents recently
received in the NFE Information Center.
In "Promoting People's Participation" (Ceres, Vol.
14, No. 1, January-February 1981, pp. 37-40), Colin Fraser
argues that people can only participate in decision making if
they have been consulted. He recommends the use of
mass-media devices for a two-way communication process
between development planners and the poor. Topics of
educational value should be those originally requested by
the would-be recipients and information conveyed through
audio-visual means should be presented in a culturally
acceptable idiom and format. Available from Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Via
delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.
In "Co-opting Freire: A Critical Analysis of Pseudo-
Freirean Adult Education" (International Foundation for
Development Alternatives (IFDA) Dossier 24, July-August
1981, pp. 28-39), Ross Kidd and Krishna Kumar criticize the
current distortion of key concepts in Freirean pedagogy,
such as "culture of silence," "conscientisation," and "criti-
cal consciousness." Freire believes that poverty and con-
comitant psychological traits such as fatalism, apathy, and
naivete stem from conditions of oppression. Accordingly,
his philosophy and teaching techniques aim at making the
poor critically aware of the political and economic structural
causes which impede realization of their needs. Many
development agencies which refer to his concepts operate
on the belief that poverty and apathy are primarily self-
generated. Such misinterpretation serves those who wish to
contain explosive discontent by converting the poor into
petty capitalists and "participants" in development. Avail-
able from IFDA, 2 Place du Marche, 1260 Nyon, Switzer-

National and international agencies are often preoc-
cupied with introducing new ideas and technologies to
accelerate rural development. But a different strategy has
been adopted by an inter-country project of the Economic
and Social Commission of Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)
and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
Nations (FAO). Planned to promote and train rural women
in income-raising group activities, it recognizes that there
are always some local individuals who have shown remark-
able resourcefulness and high leadership qualities. The
project therefore teaches by demonstrating "grass root"
success cases. This methodology has been used in work-
shops organized for three groups of participants namely,
those already involved in one of the selected success
cases, those who wish to learn from such experiences, and
administrators who want to assist groups in initiating new
activities. The methodology and two typical cases from
South Korea and Sri Lanka are described in Transfer of
Knowledge and Skills Among Peer Groups: A Manual of
Methodology (1979, 47 pp.). Available from ESCAP Sec-
retariat, United Nations Building, Rajadamnern Avenue,
Bangkok 2, Thailand.
Peer learning is advocated as an effective participatory
teaching method in two World Health Organization (WHO)
documents. Students Learning from Students: A Guide
to Ways of Using Students in the Instructional Process
by Fred Abbatt (HMD/80.3, n.d., 24 pp.) and Students
Helping in the Teaching/Learning Process (WHO/
EDUC/81.181, n.d., 22 pp.). The papers describe methods
of peer learning, such as mutual learning organized by the
teacher, and independent mutual learning. Students can
learn from each other by participating in the preparation of
learning materials; assuming the roles of demonstrators,
lecturers, counsellors, and evaluators; and by forming syn-
dicate groups for learning and doing collaborative project
work. Available from the World Health Organization (WHO),
Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. For further
information, contact: Fred Abbatt, Liverpool School of Trop-
ical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, England,

DIRECTOR ............. ..... ................ Joan M. Claffey
ASSISTANT DIRECTOR ......................... Mary Joy Pigozzi
NilouferAbeysuriya Crissy Kateregga Milla McLachlan
Linda Gire Vavrus
PUBLICATIONS EDITOR ....................... Earl K. Brigham
You are cordially invited to send information and make comments and
inquiries to the Director.
THE NFE EXCHANGE is published by the Non-Formal Education
Information Center, College of Education, Michigan State University,
237 Erickson Hall, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA, in cooperation
with the Science and Technology Bureau/Office of Education, and the
Office of Women in Development, Agency for International Develop-
ment, Washington, D.C. 20523, USA.


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