Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Map and key to major points of...

Title: Lima, city of treasures and tradition
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087236/00001
 Material Information
Title: Lima, city of treasures and tradition
Series Title: Lima, city of treasures and tradition.
Physical Description: 96 p. : folded map ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Parodi, Frances E
American Women's Literary Club (Lima, Peru)
Publisher: American Women's Literary Club
Place of Publication: Lima
Publication Date: 1965
Edition: Rev. ed.
Subject: Guidebooks -- Lima (Peru)   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Peru
General Note: Foreword signed by Frances E. Parodi.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087236
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 30845854

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Full Text

,A ,io -,- "".




JULY 1965

Printed under the auspices of
American Women's Literary Club


T HIS compilation of notes and translations, used dur-
ing the three years that I was Chairman of the Peru-
vian Arts and Culture Section of the American Women's
Literary Club, Lima, Peri, is presented in the hope that it
will enable you to enjoy this fascinating South American
Capital, and find it as interesting as I have though you may
be here for only a short period of time.
The notes include translations from some of the "Tra-
diciones" of Ricardo Palma, articles from newspapers, and
excerpts from various other writers. In translating from
the Spanish, I have tried not to lose the piquant humor
which makes the language so enjoyable.
Don't be afraid to visit these places. I was always re-
ceived with graciousness and left having made a good friend.
So, it is to these good new-found friends that this compila-
tion is dedicated. Also, I wish to thank each Club member
who helped retype the manuscript and prepare it for the

Frances E. Parodi

July, 1965
San Isidro, Lima


Plaza de Armas ...... ... ...... .. ...... ... .... 4
Government Palace ............ .. ... ... ... ... .. 5
The City Hall of Lima ........ ............... ... 6
The Cathedral . ..... ............ ............ 7
Death of Pizarro ......... ... ... ... ... .... .. 7
El Puente de Piedra .............. .. .. ... ... .... 10
A Hill with an Interesting History ......... ...... ... 11
Church and Convent of Santo Domingo ...... ...... ... 13
The Little Mice of Fray Martin ............ ... ... ... 14
San Francisco Church ... ........... . .. ... ... 16
Tiles of San Francisco .................. ... ....... 17
San Agustin Church ................. ............. 21
Church of San Marcelo ... ......... ..... ...... ... 22
San Pedro Church ...... ........... ......... ... 24
The Three Doors of Saint Peter's ............ ..... ... 25
La Merced Church and Monastery ... ......... ...... 27
The Columns of Santa Mercedes ............ ...... ... 27
Santa Rosa Church ............ ... .. ..... .. .... 28
El Rosal de Rosa .............. ... ...... ......... 28
Church and Convent of the Nazarenas ... ... ... ... ... 30
The History of Sefior de los Milagros ...... ...... ... 32
Church of Jesus Maria ............ .. ... ... ..... 33
Church of Santa Magdalena Vieja ......... ...... ... 35
Church of San Carlos and the Pate6n de los Pr6ceres ... 36
University of San Marcos ........ ... ... ... ..... 36
The Patron Saint of San Marcos ............... ... ... 37
Tribune of the Inquisition of Lima ...... ... ... ... ... 40
The Death of the Conde de Nieva ......... ...... ... 42
Escuela de Bellas Artes ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 44
Sculpture in the Times of the Viceroys ... ... ... ... ... 45
The Residences of the Spanish Nobility in Lima ... ... ... 46
La Casa de Aliaga .................. .......... 47
El Palacio de Torre Tagle ......... ...... .... ..... 48
Casa Oquendo ................................. 49
Historical Notes on the Residence of Sefior Don Fernando
M anuel Barbieri ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 50
Private Museum-home of the Prado Heudebert Family ... 52
Casa de Cultura ............... ... ................ 53
Casa de Pilatos ............ ..... ......... .. .... 53
Trece Monedas Restaurant ......... ...... .. ...... 55
Casa Hacienda Orbea ......... ... ... .......... 55
Casa de M. Angelica Macedo ...... ............ ... 56
The Olive Grove of San Isidro ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 57
The Famous Excommunication ......... ... ......... 58
Club Hipico ............ ...... ... ...... .......... 60
La Plaza de la Tradici6n .. ..... ...... .......... 61
National Museum of Archeology and Anthropology ... ... 61


Museum of the Republic ............... ......... ... 61
Museum of Military History ... ...... ............ ... 62
Quinta de Presa, Viceregal Museum of National History ... 63
Micaela Villegas "La Perricholi" ... ................. 64
National Museum of Fine Art ......... ...... ... ... 69
Museum of Taurino (Bullfighting) Art ......... ...... 69
The Plaza de Acho ............... ..... .. .. ... ... 70
Notes on Bullfighting and the Plaza de Acho ...... ... 71
Private Archeological Museum of Sefior Yoshitaro Amano 72
Museo de Sitio, Pan de Azdcar ............... ... 72
Notes from Pan American "Instant Archeology" ......... 73
Puruchuco Museum and Reconstruction of Temple ...... 75
Anc6n ............ ... .... ..... ...... ... ...... 76
Museum Julio C. Tello Paracas ......... ...... ... 76
The First Bell Heard in Lima ...... ... ......... ... 78
El Peje Chico (1575) ... ... ......... ... ... ...... 79
La Tradici6n de la Saya y Manto .................. ... 82
Los Tesoros de Catalina Huanca ............... ... ... 84
Conversion of a Libertine ...... ........... ......... 86
The End of Slavery in Peru ...... ... ....... ...... 88
A Very Original Lawsuit ...... ............ ......... 91
The Horse of Santiago the Apostle ......... ...... ... 92
Lava Platos .............. ...... ................. 93
Permanent Museums Open to the Public ............... 95
Public Art Exhibitions .................. .......... 96
Private Museums ................. ............ 96
Map and Key to Major Points of Interest ......... ... 97


MUSEUMS ......... ......... ............ .... 61-73
Addresses and Visiting Hours ............... ... 95
TYPICAL ENTERTAINMENT .............. ... 56, 60, 70
MEETING OF MAY 16th, 1960 ......... ... ... 78-94



The Plaza Mayor, as it was called in the olden days, has
been since the time of Pizarro the hub of the life of Lima. Every-
thing of importance took place there fiestas, trials and hang-
ings, the burials of victims of the Inquisition, shooting of heroes
and martyrs and even the first bullfight celebrated in Lima. The
bronze fountain which you can admire today is the same one
that was given by the Viceroy Salvatierra in 1650, and which
replaced the stone one that had been in the plaza since 1572.
Pasaje Olaya (at the side of Casa Oechsle) was the site of the
gallows erected for public trials and hangings. The small street
at the side of Casa Klinge, at the side of the Cathedral, and which
is known today as "Judios" was fenced off and used as the bull
pen for the bullfights which took place in the plaza. Pizarro
himself was a very good "picador" and took part in the bullfight.
The plaza was used daily as the general market and on holi-
days or special occasions all the stalls were moved over to the
side streets where the well-known stores are found today, while
the bleachers were set up in the plaza.
In the year 1696 the river Rimac overflowed and inundated
the plaza and the portales, which had just been finished, and
many of the city's records were lost as the notaries had the
habit of laying their papers on the floor wood for shelving
being much too expensive. The plaza has seen many changes
over the years, but still retains its original character. The
modern buildings which have gradually replaced the old colonial
ones are obligated by law to maintain the type of facade of
former times. (Casa Oechsle, one of Lima's leading department
stores, is a good example of this). The statue of Pizarro which
stands in the small square at the right of the Palace is the work
of the American sculptor, Charles Rumsey, and was presented
to the city of Lima by his widow, Mrs. Mary Harriman Rumsey,
on the occasion of the fourth centenary of the city. A twin statue
was also given to the city of Trujillo, Extremadura, Spain, which
is the native city of the conquistador. Strange to say, the
sculptor forgot to give Pizarro a scabbard in which to rest his
sword. Therefore, as the Limefios remark, the poor man is con-
stantly on the defense.



Don Francisco Pizarro took up residence in the Government
Palace in 1538, when the construction was well advanced, although
not finished. It is completely different in appearance today as
can be seen from old prints. The many changes have often been
unavoidable, as the damage caused by earthquakes during the
fifteenth to eighteenth centuries was serious. Each reconstruc-
tion made way for improvement.
The entrance halls have nothing much to attract one's atten-
tion beyond the tile work. These tiles are dated 1925. The pic-
tures depicted are mostly of joyous, fat little angels. The first
salon is called the golden room and is used for receptions.
Stepping down into the hall and turning right, you will see three
lovely chairs. These are for the new ambassadors when they
arrive to present their credentials. Behind the marble balustrade
at the back of the chairs the ministers stand to take the oath
of allegiance. The ceiling is all gold leaf, the table of Carrara
marble, and the rugs French. This room was constructed in 1924.
The second salon is called the Colonial or Pizarro room. This
also was built in 1924. The armchair and side chairs at the
right end of the room are imitiations made here in Peru, beauti-
ful copies. In this room the President takes his daily meals.
Above will be noticed two Colonial balconies with jalousies for
the musicians. The statues representing the four seasons are of
bronze and were made in Lima. The magnificent painting of
Francisco Pizarro is by Daniel Hernandez, 1927. HernAndez was
also the founder of the School of Fine Arts (Escuelas de Bellas
Artes). The carpet here is 45 meters long, and the different
types of wool used alpaca, vicufia, and llama, are woven in
their natural colors. This was woven in Arequipa in 1925. The
principal court with its beautiful Carrara marble floor was laid
in 1938. The door on the right hand side leads to the Plaza
de Armas. On the left you will see a lovely little theatre with
two charming stained glass windows, representing "The Tapada"
and "The Perricholi."
Upon entering the banquet hall, your attention will be drawn
first to the magnificent chandeliers. They are all of rock crystal
from Czechoslovakia, and the center piece is 3 meters 30 tall and
weighs 500 kilos. There are also two musicians' balconies here.
The beautiful rose window, when illuminated in winter time by
electric lights with rotating reflectors, gives the impression of
huge flames dancing behind it. In summertime it is decorated


with plants and flowers. The President sits at the center of the
round table, immediately at the foot of the stairs, with his back
to the window. The First Lady sits opposite him. The chairs
are placed with the designs alternating Colonial and grapevine.
As the center chair for the President is Colonial, it would seem
safe to say that the grapevine chairs would be for the ladies.
When a banquet is given for visiting ambassadors, the flags of the
two countries represented are placed behind the President's chair.


The original "Municipalidad de Lima" (City Hall of Lima)
was built on the same site. The building has suffered from many
earthquakes and revolutions, as have all buildings in Lima, and
was reconstructed in 1925. However, it still retains a traditionally
dignified air and contains many beautiful works of art and colon-
ial carvings. The different salons and the magnificent library
may be seen through the courtesy of the Mayor's office. Of special
interest are the Office of the Lord Mayor, the "Sal6n Azul"
(Blue Room) where can be seen the painting of Col6n explaining
the roundness of the world to the scientists in Salamanca, Spain,
the Office of the Vice Lord Mayor, the "Sala de Recepci6n" (Recep-
tion Room), and the "Ante Sala" (Ante-room) where are displayed
the "Cuzquefio" painting of "The Virgin of Cocharcas" which is
over 200 years old and "The Procession leaving Church of "San
Agustin" by Te6filo Ram6n Castillo. The "Sala de Sesi6n" (Meet-
ing Room) has several portraits of note, namely that of Pizarro by
the Spanish painter Vila Pradis, of Bolivar by an unknown painter
(on the right wall), of San Martin (on the left wall), and of
Ram6n Castilla in the background. There is also a bronze plaque
of don Antonio Rivera with family crests below. Upon leaving this
room one sees a portrait of Admiral de Du Petit Thouars, who,
holding the highest rank among all the naval officers, was made
commander of the international sea forces who volunteered to help
Peru and protect their own interests here, during the war with
Chile. It was this Admiral who persuaded Chileans not to raze
the city by fire, on fear of being completely sunk.
There are also some paintings by Ignacio Merino, famous
Peruvian painter, who donated all of his collection to the "Muni-
cipalidad de Lima." None of his paintings can be found in any
other museum in the world. The larger part of the collection
from the "Municipalidad" has been transferred to the Art Museum
on Paseo Col6n and Avenida Wilson. The magnificent paintings
to be found in the "Sala de Recepciones" (Reception Room) can


best be viewed in mirrors. Here are "The sale and purchase of
a noble title," "The hand of Carlos V of Spaird on his deathbed,"
"The reading of the will", and a three-quarter length portrait
of Bolivar. The inlaid work on the small tables is not Peruvian.
The clock and vases are probably French, and the corner vases
are most likely antique Chinese. In the Library a copy of a por-
trait of don Ricardo Palma can be found, as well as colored photos
of tapestries, including one woven in Paracas, which displays the
yearly calendar. In a glass case there are copies of different
declarations in legitimate handwriting, together with the ink wells
and blotter stand used for this purpose. It is most interesting to
note Pizarro's "rubrico" (flourish added to his signature), as he
learned to write only late in life. Speaking of Pizarro, he even
went in for the planning of streets angling them to the east
for shade.
Contrary to the supposition in many paintings, Peru's Inde-
pendence was not proclaimed from a balcony, but rather from
the center of the "Plaza de Armas" where a platform had been


The present structure was begun in 1746, after many earth-
quakes had destroyed previous ones. Of particular interest are
the magnificently carved choir stalls sent as a gift to the first
cathedral of his new realm by Charles V of Spain.
The tomb of Pizarro in the beautiful little chapel at the
right of the main entrance was erected during the presidency
of Don Augusto B. Leguia at the instigation of the father of
Sefior C6sar Revoredo, who was at that time Lord Mayor of Lima.


From "Tradiciones" by Ricardo Palma

Francisco Pizarro left Panama with two ships, sixty men and
ten horses, and after a very trying voyage arrived at the island
of Gallo, situated at the mouth of the Guayas river in the


gulf of PunA. All but thirteen of his men left him. Those were
the companions always pictured as having crossed the line in
the ground which Pizarro is said to have drawn with his sword.
After some months they arrived at the port of Tumbes where
he sent a messenger ashore to speak to the Indians, who were
greatly impressed by the warrior. Pizarro went back to Spain
to seek help from the King for carrying out the conquest and
on his return, when this was accomplished, he sent an expedi-
tion to Jauja to see whether that climate would be suitable for
setting up the capital. His famous soldier companion, Candia,
not liking Jauja, crossed the Andes, which was a terrific accom-
plishment since at times he had to make use of his knowledge
and have the horses hauled to the tops of the mountains with
pulley and tackle. The expedition finally arrived in Lima on the
evening of January 6, hence the title "City of Kings" by which
name Lima is known, referring to the arrival of the Kings to
pay homage to our "Saviour."
In those days where the business house of Scala now stands
in the Plaza de Armas, there lived the Spaniard Pedro de San
Millan, along with eleven other patriots belonging to the Alma-
gristas who had been beaten in battle by Pizarro, at Salinas
on April 6, 1538. They lived in dire poverty and had refused
the charity which Pizarro offered them after he had confiscated
all their properties and graciously allowed them to breathe the
air of Lima. They always held resentment against him, and his
secretary, Picado, who is said to have had an unnaturally bad
influence on the General, always took every opportunity to an-
noy the Spanish gentlemen, feeling safe from reprisals owing
to his employment. In those days all noblemen wore a full
length cape when on the street, and these gentlemen, having but
one solitary cape among them, therefore had to take turns in
going on the street. Picado one day referred to them as the
"Gentlemen of the Cape." This same man had betrayed a former
employer, the Marshall Pedro de Alvarado, by selling the secrets
of a certain campaign to Diego de Almagro and afraid of being
found out, he went over to the enemy camp. The Marshal
wrote Don Diego to return the traitor but Almagro refused and
thereby saved the life of a man who later was to bring such
disaster upon them. Pizarro took him as his secretary and it
is said that Picado had a demoniacal influence over him.
The Almagristas finally could stand no more of Picado's
insolence and one night erected three gallows over which they
hung signs with the names, "para Picado Velasco y Pizarro."
This didn't bother the Marqu6s, but Picado, yes. That afternoon,
which was the 5th of June, he dressed elegantly in satin breeches
and a small French cape adorned with silver gallons, and mounted
on a superb horse, rode back and forth in front of the house
of Juan de Rada, the tutor of the young Almagro, and the house
of Millan. When some of the gentlemen came to the window


he lifted his arm in salute and touching the spurs to the horse
cried "For those of Chile." The gentlemen sent immediately for
Juan de Rada, who was respected and looked up to as the leader
of the group. He was very indignant at this latest insult and
the "Gentlemen of the Cape" decided then and there to take
matters into their own hands. Garcia de Alvarado, who was
wearing the cape that afternoon, threw it to the floor and stand-
ing on it proclaimed, "We swear for the salvation of our souls
to guard the honor of the young Almagro and to cut from this
cape the burial shroud of Picado."
The Marqu6s received many letters advising him that the
Almagristas were planning his death, and after a while he sent
for Juan de Rada to ask about it. Pizarro talked with him at
length and showed no fear and little interest. They passed into
the garden where he plucked six figs from the tree growing
there (which it is said he had planted and which can still be
seen in the patio of the Government Palace) and handed them
to Rada. Later a young priest also came to warn him of the
danger, but to this Pizarro said, "That young lay-brother prob-
ably wants me to make him a bishop." That evening his page
told him of the rumors in the street and was told to get about
his work and not worry about grown men's affairs. The next morn-
ing he awoke preoccupied and called the Lord Mayor of the city,
whom he told to do some enquiring about the plans of the Alma-
gristas. If he should find them to be serious he should arrest
the principals and followers. Pizarro had mass celebrated in the
palace chapel instead of going out on the street. The Lord Mayor
was careless and talked of the plans he had to the municipal
treasurer and others. Word reached the house of the enemies,
who called Rada and told him they would have to act im-
mediately or they would all be in jail by the morning. Nineteen
of them left the house hurriedly for the palace, and one man
who went around a puddle of water in order not to get his feet
wet was sent back by Rada, who told him, "We are going to
bathe ourselves in human blood, and you don't want to get your
feet wet. You are no good to me."
About five hundred people were passing about in the Plaza
de Armas at this moment, but no one took any notice of what
was happening. One cynic remarked, "They are probably going
to kill the Marqu6s or the secretary." Pizarro was conversing
with the Bishop-elect of Quito in one of the salons of the palace,
along with about fifteen others, when a page rushed in shouting,
"They have come to kill Your Excellency!" The confusion was
terrible. Some ran into the garden, while others hung out of
the windows, including the Lord Mayor who had sworn to
protect Pizarro as long as the staff of office remained in his
hand. At this moment the staff was between his teeth, so that
he could better hold on to the window sill. Pizarro was poorly
equipped" at this moment, but with only his cape and sword in


hand he attacked the enemies, who already had killed a captain
of the guard and three or four servants. Helping him were his
legitimate brother, a friend, and two pages. In spite of his sixty-
four years he fought as valiantly as a young warrior and pre-
vented them from entering the room. "Traitors, why do you
want to kill me like bandits in my house?" he cried, at the
same moment wounding one of them whom Rada had pushed
onto him. At this moment another struck him in the neck with
his sword. Pizarro was only able to cry "Jesis" and as he fell
made the sign of the cross with his own blood on the floor and
kissed it. One of the enemy broke an earthenware jug over his
head and he expired on the instant. His brother and the two
pages died with him. Only the pleas of the Bishop and the
respect they had for Juan Rada kept them from taking the body
and dragging it through the streets. At night, two humble
servants washed the body of Pizarro and clothed him in the habit
of a gentleman of Santiago. They buried him in the grounds
of the Cathedral, known as the Patio of Oranges.


(The Bridge of Stone)

I had gone to Lima on a sunny Sunday morning to visit "The
little church across the Bridge," and on my return stood contem-
plating the "Puente de Piedra." Wanting to make sure of the
facts, I approached a humble-looking mail carrier and asked him
if this bridge were in fact "the" "Puente de Piedra." I got a big
smile and although three or four teeth were missing I felt the
warmth of kindness immediately. "Como no, Sefiora." (Yes,
indeed, Sefiora) and he began to tell me the history of it, but I,
being in a hurry as usual, interrupted to tell him that I had
read up on that and loved it. On my thanking him for his
information, he bowed from the waist as gallantly as any Viceroy
and said, "Gracias a usted, Sefiora, for your interest in 'our'
The bridge, located on Calle Palacio, back of the right side
of the Government Palace, was commenced in 1608 by the Mar-
qu6s de Montesclaros to replace the wooden one which had been
built by the "Conquistador" Jer6nimo de Aliaga and was finished
in 1610. It was the first hydraulic construction known in Peru,
and the author of this engineering feat was a cross-breed monk.
The people of Lima are very proud of their bridge -and- justly so.

It originally measured 500 feet in length and was composed of
seven arches. In 1776 the foundations of the first arch were
weakened considerably by the strength of the river, and eleven
years were spent in repairing it. The bridge at one time was
adorned with a lovely archway surmounted by a huge clock
which had belonged to the Jesuit priests. In 1852 this was
replaced by a more elegant one which the President, General
Echenique, had sent from Europe and which disappeared in the
terrible fire of 1879. A most interesting point about the bridge
is that you will often read that it was constructed of limestone,
sand, and white of egg! No one ever mentioned just where
the egg whites came from. Feeling pretty sure that there were
not a great number of chickens in the country at this time (if
any), I asked a young priest of the San Francisco church, who
was showing us the basement arched roofs in the catacombs,
where the egg whites did come from. As I had suspected, the
answer was, "From the 'guano' birds, of course, Sefiora." An
old book which had been loaned to me stated that the people
from the outlying districts came into the city bringing with them
thousands of egg whites for the bridge.


From "Tradiciones" by Ricardo Palma

Just a quarter of a league from the Plaza de Armas and
joined to a series of small hills which are a ramification of the
Andes, there rises to about 400 meters above the sea a small,
cone-shaped hill. Geologically this hill has no value whatsoever,
although at one time a wise person said that it was a constant
menace to the city of Lima because it enclosed nothing less
than a volcano of water. The first rains of spring give the hill
a very picturesque appearance as it becomes covered completely
with flowers and coarse grass. In 1536 the Thca Manco, while
besieging Cuzco with an army of eighty thousand Indians, also
sent an army of twenty-five thousand warriors against the
recently founded city of Lima. In order to keep hidden from
the sight of the Spanish cavalry, these men camped at the foot
of the hill in front of which passes a tributary of the River
Rimac. which continued on through the districts called today
Otero and Pedegral.
For ten days the Indians fought desperately against the
defenders of the city, who numbered scarcely five hundred
Spaniards. This was when, according to Quintana in reference


to the chronicles of Montesinos the mistress of Pizarro and sister
of Atahualpa, Inez Huaylas Tusta, at the instigation of one of
her serving maids, was surprised making her way to the Indian
camp with a jewel box full of gold and emeralds. Pizarro
forgave his mistress who later became the mother of his two
sons, Gonzalo and Francisco, but sent to the gallows the servant
who had been responsible for the escape plan. Each time the
Indians, thinking to exterminate the Spaniards, would start over
the river the tide would rise so suddenly that hundreds of
Indians would be drowned. On the contrary, for the Spanish
it was sufficient for them to recommended themselves to Saint
Christopher (the carrier of the cross) in order to cross the river
without any danger and to invade the trenches of the Indians,
even though they were always thrown back and had to retrench
in the city. If heaven hadn't worked a miracle the Spaniards
would have been lost. And so, on the morning of the 14th of
September, the day on which the church celebrates the feast
of the exaltation of the Cross, the Indians suddenly retired, and
no historian has ever been able to explain the cause of this
decision. At four o'clock in the afternoon Don Francisco Piza-
rro, followed by his brave companions, made his way to the hill
and baptised it with the name of San Crist6bal, and in order
to start the building of a chapel, placed at the summit a large
wooden cross.
At this time, as there was as yet no church in Lima, the
Sunday mass was celebrated in the Plaza de Armas with a port-
able altar which was set up in the alleyway called Petateros.
Then in 1537 the chapel of San Crist6bal was inaugurated and
for devotional faith and the love of an outing the people of
Lima would flock there on feast days. Each year afterwards on
the 14th of September the people made it a custom to climb
to the top of the hill for a noisy and diverting pilgrimage to
the chapel. There were all kinds of entertainment and dancing
and fireworks. Even though the terrible earthquake of 1764
almost completely destroyed the chapel, leaving only a small
piece of the walls standing, the public still didn't give up its
yearly picnic, and where once the ground was sacred the people
now indulged in all types of profanity. In the year 1784 the
Archbishop of the city prohibited the pilgrimage. He sent work-
men to finish demolishing the chapel, leaving only as a reminder
of the spot on which it had existed a wooden cross and the arch-
way of the door, in memory of Pizarro.
Today, the hill of San Crist6bal, with its illuminated cross,
can be from many points of the city as well as from quite a
distance away on the north or south roads out of the city.



Located just a block from the Plaza de Armas, Santo Do-
mingo was the first church and convent built in Lima by the
monks who arrived with the Spanish forces. It has many notable
features carved ceilings, paintings, the bronze fountain, the
tiles in the patio, and the beautiful images inside, all dating from
e sixteenth century. The church of Santo Domingo is the
resting place of the relics of Santa Rosa de Lima and of San
Mart'n de Porras.
i "The porteria" (porter's lodge), where inquiries are made,
is on the right hand side of the patio which faces one side of
the\Lima General Post Office. Through a huge door with glass
panes one enters the room where all appointments with the
clergy are kept. The settees and chairs here are all the original
Colonial furniture. A very famous painting, somewhat subdued
in color hangs in this hall. The ceiling is a marvelous example
of Colonial carving. The cloisters and garden, seen through the
far door, are not open to the public. The tiles here are beautiful
examples of the old Spanish art of picture-making. The Univer-
sity of San Marcos was founded here and used one part of the
church for eighteen years.
The altar of Santo Domingo was brought from Barcelona. To
the right of it there is a painting of the mother of the Saint as
a young child. The first image of Santa Rosa, done in repose,
/bears the inscription in Latin, "Made in Rome by Melcor Cafa
/of Malta, 1669". This image was presented to Lima by Pope
Clement IX, \who was responsible for the beatification of the
Saint of the Americas. The famous tower of the church is sixty
feet high. The church had the honor of being elevated to the
rank of Lesser Cathedral in 1929, by Pope Pius IX.
The "Camarin" of the "Virgen del Rosario" (Virgin of the
Rosary) is a small dressing room in the charge of a group called
the Brotherhood of the Twenty-four. The original chapel of this
group is to be found on the left hand side of the main patio of
the church front. This Brotherhood is one of the oldest religious
groups in Lima, having been registered canonically in the
Dominican convent since the year 1541. It is said that the image
was smuggled out of Ireland to escape the persecution of Henry
VIII, and that it was donated by Charles V of Spain. The Virgin's
wardrobe has all been made and kept in condition by the Brother-
hood. It is one of the most costly known in the world today.
The Saint is brought into the dressing room from the altar by

- 13 -

means of sliding rails manipulated from the dressing room. On
our visit we were favored with a demonstration! The vestments
are all changed periodically, and while the Virgin's robes are
changed the image of the Baby Jesus is placed on a small gold-
painted chair.
The paintings in both dressing rooms are all by Jos6 del Pozo,
who came to Lima with a scientific group from Spain in 1793.
These are veritable jewels and merit much study. A number
of them were painted over older paintings which came to light
when they were being cleaned. There is also a lovely little
chapel which was built for the personal use of the Viceroy and
his family. The foregoing notes were taken from a history
"Lima Pre-Colombina y Virreynal", written in 1928 by Carlos
G. G6mez Zavala. The author was a fourth year student of the
School of Letters at San Marcos University.
The "Custodia" (shrine) of the "Virgen del Rosario", located
behind the altar in the first chapel, was inspired by the Re-
naissance and is in the form of a small temple with a magnificent
sunburst over the Cross. In the time of the Viceroys it was
adorned with 1,300 diamonds, 500 rubies and 1,000 emeralds, not
to mention numerous pearls, amethysts and topaz.


From "Tradiciones" by Ricardo Palma

"And they ate together from one plate dog, cat and mouse'.
With this little verse they finished off an accounting of the
virtues and miracles attributed to Fray Martin in a circular which
was being distributed in Lima around 1840 to celebrate his beatif-
ication. This saintly man was born in Lima on the 9th of Decem-
ber, 1579, and was the natural son of the Spaniard Juan de Porras,
a gentleman of Alcantara, and a Panamanian slave woman. When
he was a very young child his father took him to Guayaquil where
he went to school and also showed much interest in things pertain-
ing to the church. Two or three years later his father came back
to Lima and apprenticed him to the trades of barber and blood-
letter. Martin proved very apt at the profession even though he
did not care for his work, but he asked to be allowed to study for
the priesthood, which in those days was a profession the same
as anything else. He took the habit of a laybrother in the
convent of Santo Domingo where he passed away on the 3rd of
November, 1639, a saintly man.


During his life and after his death he performed miracles
wholesale. It came so natural to him to make a miracle that the
superior of his church had to prohibit his performing any more
without first asking his permission to do so. And to prove to
you what an obedient spirit he had, it is said that as he was
passing by a construction a bricklayer fell from his perch ten
of twelve meters up, and our laybrother stopped him in mid-air,
shouting; "Hold on a minute, brother", and the bricklayer remain-
ed suspended until Fray Martin returned with the permission of
the Superior to save him. A really good miracle, no? Well, where
there is a good one, there is always one better. The prior ordered
Fray Martin to buy a block of sugar for use in the hospital.
Maybe there wasn't money to pay for the more refined white
one, and Fray Martin came back with a very dirty looking sugar.
"Brother, don't you have eyes?" asked the prior. "Anyone can
see that this is not white sugar". "Don't get upset, father", re-
plied Fray Martin serenely. "By just washing the sugar off right
now, it will be quite all right". And without giving the prior
time to argue, he passed the sugar through the water of the
fountain in the patio and took it out white and dry. "You may
believe it or not. I shall not try to convince you".
My intention was to speak to you about the mice in the care
of Fray Martin, and I will get back to the topic. Fray Martin
had a very special predilection for the mice, a little pest which
was not known here until the year 1552. They first came from
Spain in a shipment of bacalaoo", sent by the Bishop of Palencia.
The mice began to propagate and were still a curiosity at that
time, and maybe this is the reason Fray Martin became so fond
of them, thinking them little creatures of God, and he probably
thought as one verse said: "God wasted just as much time creat-
ing me as He did in those little mice". When our laybrother
performed the functions of a nurse in the hospital of the convent,
the mice camped everywhere like servants without a master
in the kitchens, refectories and elsewhere. The cats which had
been known only since 1537 were very scarce. The priests got
tired of trying to catch the mice with all kinds of devices, and
Fray Martin who had placed a little trap of sorts in his cell
caught one daring little mouse who had been attracted by the
lovely aroma of the cheese. Martin took him out of the cage,
and holding him in his hand, said; "Go, little brother, and tell
your companions not to be a nuisance and dirty in the cells. Tell
them to live outside in the garden, and I will take care of them
and see that they get food every day". The ambassador kept his
promise to the embassy, and all the mice stayed in the garden.
.It is supposed that Fray Martin took them a basket of leftovers
every morning, and that the mice came running as at the ringing
of a bell.
Our lay brother kept in his cell for companionship a small
dog and a cat, and he had been able to get them to live so well


together that they ate out of the same plate. He stood watching
them eat very peacefully one afternoon when suddenly the dog
began to growl and the cat's hair stood on end. A mouse attracted
by the aroma of the food in the plate had stuck his little nose
through the hole in the wall. Fray Martin on seeing this turned
to the cat and dog, saying, "Calm down, creatures of God". Going
over to the wall, he said: "Come on out, little mouse. It seems
to me that you want something to eat. Get up to the plate; they
won't do you any harm". Then turning to the other two animals,
he added, "Now, boys, always make room for a guest. The Lord
will provide for the three of you". And the little mouse without
much coaxing accepted the invitation and from that day ate in
perfect harmony and love with the dog and the cat.


(Located on the Plazuela de San Francisco)

The first convent by this name was built in 1546. Both church
and convent were humble buildings at first, but during the six-
teenth century the Viceroy of that time was very generously
inclined towards the Franciscans and the old church and convent
were pulled down to be replaced by something more worthy.
Then on February 4, 1656, the whole church collapsed, possibly
during one of the many tremors suffered at that time. Practical-
ly all the objects of art were lost. The cornerstone of the present
church was laid on May 8, 1657, and the building was finished
in 1674. It took seventeen years to complete. Originally the
towers represented the Papal tiara but after the earthquakes of
1687 and 1746 the third tier was removed for safety's sake.
On the archvault is carved in the stone the tiara and keys
of St. Peter, a sign that this church enjoys the same privileges
as the Basilica of St. John Lateran in Rome. This favor was
granted by Pope Clement V. The images are of the Virgin,
St. Francis, and his good friend St. Dominic. The side entrance
is called the door of St. Louis the Bishop. It is Renaissance
The present tabernacle was built in the beginning of the
nineteenth century to replace the one constructed in 1670. Notice
the beautiful monstrance made in 1671 by Cuzco silvermiths.
It is about thirty-six inches high and contains many emeralds
rubies, and diamonds.
At the time of its construction San Francisco was the largest
church in the city, next to the Cathedral. It has fifteen chapels.


Notice the flat arch under the choir, proof of the skill of Colonial
craftsmen. The only legitimate retablos left untouched are of
San Diego and Our Lady of Light in the side nave at the right.
The altar of San Francisco Solano in the transept contains relics
of the Apostle. The choir was reconstructed in 1672 with cedar
imported from Panama, the carving done by Colonial workmen.
It is one of the most artistic choirs on the whole continent,
profusely decorated with scrolled flowers and the shield of the
Franciscan order. The top row has seventy-one seats, the lower
fifty-nine. The single carving in the center represents St. Francis
and St. Dominic promising eternal friendship. This promise has
united the two orders for over seven hundred years. In the upper
arch is the Immaculate Virgin, patroness of the order. Note the
lectern. Two large choir books were used with large print owing
to scarcity.
The church is now being restored and repainted in its original
form and coloring. The main altar and central nave are already
finished in a lovely soft rose, which reminds one of the Inca
colors derived from the sea shells and stones. The cupola of
the Moorish vault, which fell during the earthquake of 1941, was
picked up in hundreds of pieces and is now being put together
by a group of young men under the guidance of the Committee
and the monks of the church. It is hoped that the vault can
be rebuilt in its original form.
Catacombs. In the olden days the christians belonging to the
church were buried beneath the building. This custom ceased in
the year 1810 when Ferdinand IV of Spain ordered the catacombs
sealed up. These catacombs were re-opened in 1950. One of the
monks is usually available as a guide for which a nominal charge
is made.


(A Tradition which goes to show that even with the rope
around your neck, you should never lose hope)

"Let everyone present know that the very just and royal
audience of the Inquisition of this City of Kings of Peru has
condemned to die ignominiously on the gallows one Alonso Go-
dinez, a native of Guadalajara, Spain, for the assassination of
Martha Villoslada without fear of divine or human justice. As
he has sown, so shall he reap. Let everyone take notice in
order not to find himself in the same situation. Make way for


Such was the announcement in the streets at 11:00 a.m. on
November 13, 1619. The gallows was already set up at the
entrance to the street Patateros. Let us hear what a group of
lazy, curious young men standing near a street stall were saying.
"What a fine young man we are losing," said one young gallant
from Andaluz, "and just for the sake of one ordinary sinner.
Does this Viceroy think that getting rid of a fellow man such
as this one is the same as composing a verse blindfolded?"
'Stop talking nonsense," replied another, a dry looking sub-
ject if ever there was one. "First thing you know you will
end up the same as Don Martin de Robles for speaking out loud
against the Viceroy."
"Well, Seiior Montufar, I can't keep my words bottled up,
come what may. And, I still repeat that it is an injustice to
condemn a man to death for a love affair."
"Hm," said the companion. "He'll probably be a pretty poor
specimen when he gets to the gallows."
"No, sir, Alonso Godinez is as honorable and brave as they
come," replied the first.
"Yes, but with all his honor and bravery, a sinful woman
could bring him to his death."
"To the devil with women and all the trouble they bring!"
"Don't speak against the women, Don Gill Menchaca. It is
bad enough with them, but worse without them, and you are
one of the first to cast an eye when a lovely little pigeon passes
by," interrupted a third voice which belonged to a very gracious
"tapada" who was looked at and stared after more than a pic-
ture in the prayer book.
"Hurrah, for the grace of Lima. Adios," cried the young
man to his friends as he started after the young lady. At this
moment a wave of people and the sound of a trumpet announced
the arrival of the death watch.
A brother of the order of charity stopped in front of the
group of young men and chanted, "Do good for the good of the
soul about to depart."
"Here, brother," shouted young Menchaca, throwing two coins
into the plate held out by the monk. "If I had the power I
would save my fellow man from this shameful death. He is
no crossbreed dog,. to die in a public square. He should die as
a Christian in a convent with monks around." And a voice
murmured, "And in a convent he shall die."
All turned around surprised and saw that the one who had
spoken was the guardian of the San Francisco church who, mak-
ing his way through the multitude, went straight up to the
gallows where the prisoner was standing. This was a young man
about thirty years of age, in all the glory of his youth, whose
aspect apart from valor revealed resignation. The crime for
which he was about to die was one of those which so many people
commit in the heat of the moment when they find they have


been cheated. The guardian arrived at the spot where the fatal
.pole was mounted, and when the hangman had finished his
preparations, took out of the sleeve of his tunic a petition which
he handed to the captain of the guard. Then taking the prisoner
by the arm he passed with him through the crowds who followed
cheering and clapping their hands until they reached the doors
of the convent of San Francisco. Alonso Godinez had been
pardoned by the Viceroy.
Let us look at a historical paragraph. The church and con-
vent of San Francisco are monumental works of beauty. The
Franciscan monks arrived in the same year that Lima was found-
ed, and Francisco Pizarro gave them a very small piece of ground
on which they promptly began to build. Later on they asked
for more ground and the Viceroy Marqu6s de Cafiete told them
they could have all that they could rope off in one night. Having
faith in this promise they put in stakes and stretched ropes and
when morning came the Franciscans were the owners of about
3,400 meters of ground frontage, which in one spot completely
cut off a public byway. The Lord Mayor complained of the
abuse, but the Viceroy in order not to lose face had the land
registered and paid the expenses from his own pocket.
It does not come under the character of the "Tradiciones"
to mention all the details of the artistic beauties of this temple.
The frontage, the towers, the arch, the catacombs and lateral
naves, the chapels, the tank where San Francisco Solano bathed,
the garden with its sixteen fountains, the hospital, everything in
fact attracts the attention of the traveler. When we write about
the roofs, we can never praise sufficiently the hand that did
the carvings. Each angle is a different design, and the whole
assembly and molding so magnificently put together not only
manifest the ability of the craftsmen but also convey an idea
of the opulence of those times. But we, being legitimate sons
of Spain, just don't know how to conserve anything, only how
to destroy. Today the beautiful roofs are just homes for the
woodworms, and the magnificent paintings which were a treasure
in themselves have all disappeared.
They say that there lived in Lima a very rich Spanish merch-
ant who had supplied the monks over a space of many years
with wood with which to build the church and they could never
seemingly pay for it except with beautiful words and promises,
a currency which has never coursed through our markets. In
this way we come to the year 1638, and the merchant now quite
aged and convalescent because of sickness, was invited to the
convent to assist at the feast of the Patron Saint. After the
ceremony everyone was invited to the vestry where the priests
had prepared a light supper, and which was honored by the
presence of no less a person than Don Pedro de Toledo y Leyva,
MarquBs de Mancera and fifteenth Viceroy of this kingdom.
Menacho the merchant, because of his delicate stomach, could

- 19-

not accept more than a cup of chocolate. Came the moment to
leave the table and the merchant, whom the monks had over-
whelmed with attentions and toasts, inclining his head towards
the guardian, said, "I have never drunk more delicious chocolate,
and as you know I really know good chocolate when I taste it."
"May it turn into good health for your soul and body,
brother", said the monk.
"That it will do my soul good I haven't any doubt because
it is chocolate which has been blessed and savors of indulgence.
As to my body, believe me, Reverence, I feel like a new man,
and it is only just that I repay such a satisfaction with a gift
which will be of some use to your order". Saying which the
merchant laid alongside his empty cup the documents pertaining
to the debt of the brotherhood which were all signed by him
cancelling the debt. A few years later the generous benefactor
passed away, having in the meantime given the church the beauti-
ful tiles which adorn the entrance. You can still read the fol-
lowing inscription, "Jim6nez Menacho gave these tiles as a gift.
We reverend gentlemen recommend him to God". Year 1643.
In conclusion the whole monumental structure was made with
gifts from the faithful. And take into consideration that they
spent 2,250,000 pesos on it. The chroniclers say that in this con-
vent the body of San Francisco Solano lies buried, but no one
seems to know where. On the feast day of the Saint the coffin
and head are exposed to public view. The monks also exhibit
a huge wooden cross of which all the devotees carry a small
chip on their persons. The mother-in-law of a friend of mine
carries two chips, but not even these have sweetened her character
one bit.
To get back to Alonso Godinez (the man condemned to
death). The chieftainess, Dofia Catalina Huanca, had ordered
brought from Spain as a gift for the convent of San Francisco
some thousands of tiles which, when put together formed the
images of various saints. But Dofia Catalina forgot the
principal item: a person sufficiently intelligent to put them in
place. For some years the tiles were left piled up in a corner
because a worker capable of sorting them into their respective
piles could not be found in Lima. The morning that Alonso
Godinez should have been hanged he asked for confession from
the guardian priest of San Francisco, and from the talk which
took place between them it turned out that the criminal was
a man who understood the art of tile placing.
The guardian didn't throw this knowledge into a sack with
a hole in it, as the saying goes, but without waste of time went
to the palace and spoke to the Viceroy and the justices of the
Inquisition, who agreed to grant a pardon on condition that
Alonso take the habit of the convent and never set foot again
in the outside world. Alonso not only laid all the tiles in one
year, but also made more from the earth in the first cloister


where an inscription reads, "A new man is working and every-
one enjoys seeing him make tiles from the mud around here".
Alonso finally died a saintly man and he is one of the forty
whom the Franciscan chroniclers recognize among the venerables
who helped to develop this very successful order in Lima.
(Inscription is in first cloister, which is not open to the
public. Merchant's tiles may be seen in left-hand refectory


(Located at 225 Ica Street)

The padres of the Augustine order arrived in Peru in May
of 1551, and built their first small convent and church on the
site which is today occupied by the church of San Marcelo.
Twenty years later they moved to their present site, where the
first stone was laid by the first Archbishop of Lima. The rail-
ings which surround it are considered to be the most beautiful
of their kind in Lima. The facade is Churrigueresco, that period
signifying the culmination of Spanish baroque. Notice from the
street the lack of towers. One was never built and the other
was blown off by a cannon ball shot from the roof of Santo
Domingo during one of the small disturbances in the city. The
decorated frontispiece is the finest in all Lima. The Sacristy
is more than three hundred years old. It contains three sections
- Sacristy, Anti-sacristy and Lavatorio. The most valued piece
is the three paneled ceiling, completely covered with hand carved
designs and painted with gold leaf over blue enamel. Repara-
tions will be noted. The border of Sevillian tiles came from
the convent of San Francisco in 1661.
Notice over the entrance to the Sacristy the painting of
"The Sepulcher of the Virgin", also that of San Pedro display-
ing to Saint Thomas the belt which .the Virgin wore during
widowhood, and which she is said to have displayed to Santa
M6nica, the mother of Saint Augustine, in an apparition. This
is the source of the Augustinian belt. The picture arrived from
Rome with other paintings, during the seventeenth century. On
the right-hand side is "The Ecstasy of San Agustin". The statue
of death sculpture by Baltazar Gavillan was carried through the
streets in procession on Holy Thursdays. Ricardo Palma tells
us that the sculpture was so life-like that the artist, arriving
home drunk one night, was so impressed on entering his home
that he dropped dead. Notice the beautiful shell-work over the
windows, the thickness of the walls, and the two alabaster
fountains, dating from 1660. The large painting is by an unknown


artist. The books certify that it arrived in 1781. On the op-
posite wall, "Saint Peter in Prison" is an exact copy of the paint-
ing in the Prado museum in Spain, which was done in 1741 by
a Peruvian artist named Lozano. The twelve paintings of the
Apostles, done on copper sheeting with Venetian frames, are
Florentine artistry. The niches with carved figures and the
table in the center belong to the second half of the seventeenth
century. Much beautiful work was lost in the earthquake of 1746.
The central niche was occupied until 1940 by a plaster figure of
Saint Augustine. An inventory of 1781 states that the central
niche was occupied by "The Risen Christ". Search was made for
the figure which was eventually found in a private home. After
negotiations it was returned to the fathers of the convent, and
when the necessary repairs had been made, it was replaced in
its original niche. Reference to this is made in the church
account book of 1692. The doors and windows of today were
originally made in 1653. The center table is of carved ebony.
The top was destroyed when the roof fell in during one of the
bad earthquakes and was painstakingly restored by Sefior Fer-
nando Barbieri, who was a former pupil of the padres of this
order. The lines and decoration denote Bourbon artistry. The
tomb located in the center of the Lavatorio was found when a
new floor was being laid. You will notice the Cross of Santiago
carved in these doors. This signifies that this room was a meet-
ing place of the noblemen of a military order. The cross of "El
Santo Cristo de Burgos", hanging in this room, was brought
from Spain in 1593. The nail of the left foot is missing, as in
the original in Spain. Until the beginning of the nineteenth
century this cross adorned the altar of that name in the main


(Located on Jir6n Arequipa & Arica)

This church, built by order of the Archbishop Jer6nimo
Loayza, was first administered by the Augustinian monks, who
when they arrived from Spain, occupied the convent alongside.
They later sold both buildings to the University of San Marcos,
which in turn later sold them to the monks of La Trinidad, an order
founded in 1584. The church naturally suffered many reforms in
changing hands, the most important reform being that of 1696, or-
dered by the parochial priest, who later suffered two years' im-
prisonment under the Inquisition. On his release he took over the
church again and ordered the main altar built. This was a

-22 -

masterpiece of carved wood completely covered in gold donated
by a parishioner. This has since disappeared, and -of the eleven
altars which the church possessed only seven remain. The original
Baroque frontispiece was restored between 1925 and 1933. An
enormous turned wooden screen divides the two naves at the
entrance. The windows are covered with a wooden mesh, and
the artistic altars are also of dark wood which combine to
produce a sombre light. The side walls are decorated with
beautiful antique Sevillian tiles. Each side has a beautiful chapel
profusely decorated with Salomonic columns and grape vines
supporting the undulating cornices.
In the first altar stands the lovely image of Santa Rosa de
Lima. Its style is Churrigueresco, the highlight of Spanish arch-
itecture at this time. The second altar is pure Renaissance a
very simple base and small niche with delicate columns. In the
wings two niches depict the life of San Jos6. Against one pillar
stands the pulpit, a marvel of delicate carving. In high relief
are the images of four evangelists. A balcony runs around the
cupola. The main altar denotes the decadent Baroque style. It
was constructed at the end of the sixteenth century. The Sagrario
and Tabernacle are the only gold ornaments here. The central
figure is Our Lady of the Remedies. On each side in the lower
section, are the figures of San Joaquin and Santa Ana, and above
the busts of San Luis, King of France, and Santa Isabel of
Hungary. The second half contains the effigy of San Marcelo.
On each side of this are the images of San Pedro and San Pablo.
The main altar is a beautiful example of carved ornamentation
- a small world of statues and seraphic faces of small angels
peeping out of an abundance of leaves. The wood itself
breathes angels and flowers. Every element in this altar is
deformed contortion, and the only parts which stand out are the
recent repairs which completely lack the initial spiritual anima-_
tion of the liberal and dynamic Spanish Baroque architect. The
lateral nave was originally made up of individual chapels. Be-
tween 1925-1933 these were opened up to permit the passage
from one to the other. On the left-hand side is the lovely new
Baptistery. The entrance is guarded by a magnificently turned
bannister door. The lower side walls are decorated with antique
Sevillian tiles, and on the far wall is represented the Baptism
of Our Lord in Venetian mosaic work, with the original marble
Baptismal font standing in the centre of the floor. Upon enter-
ing the first chapel you see the figure of Our Lady of Carmen.
The second chapel is in Baroque style, blended with Rococ6.
Notice the beautiful composition on the altar table. The altar
of Santa Rosa is of more recent construction but contains some
lovely antique elements. The door to the Sacristy opens from
this chapel. The altar ornaments are kept here. The Choristry
evidently has superb wood carving in the windows. Spanish
Baroque dominates all the art here. The dynamic and lyric ex-

-23 -

pression denotes the anguish in the soul of the artists of this era,
which was concerned mainly with the lust for gold and pre-
ocupation with death, which was sudden in those days. Some
of the most magnificent paintings in the city are to be seen in
this church, up towards the main altar.


(Located on the Plazuela de San Pedro)

Jesuit priests arrived in Peru in 1568 and established them-
selves on a plot of land. The first church measured 30 by 10
yards and was divided from the patio by a long iron grille, with
the women inside and the men outside. The priests had been
told to concentrate on the Indians, and at times 2,000 to 3,000
attended on Sundays. In 1569 the church was enlarged to 50
by 17 yards and the main chapel to 20 by 13 yards wide. This
work took six years to finish. The population of Lima at this
time was 10,000. The renowned friar Herman Bernardo Bitti
painted the famous picture Expectation, which is still hanging
over the arch of the entrance to the chapel at the far end of the
evangelical nave.
In 1618 it was decided to build a new church, and the corner-
stone was laid around 1625. It was first known as Maximum
College of San Paul and was dedicated in 1638. In the earth-
quake of 1687 it suffered very little, but seventy years later in
the terrific earthquake which destroyed Callao, the church was
considerably damaged. Repairs took six years and the doors
were re-opened in 1752. The altar was much less richly decorat-
ed. Then the Jesuits were expelled from Peru. They had inter-
fered too much with the Viceroy's politics. San Pedro was
abandoned until October 1770, when it was handed over to the
Padres of the Congregation of San Felipe Neri. This measure at
least gave it caretakers, but they made certain alterations which
changed the aspect considerably. All the riches had been re-
moved beforehand, with only the absolute necessities left.



From "Tradiciones" by Ricardo Palma

That cathedral churches have three doors in their front
entrances no one doubts, but why should the Church of St. Peter
in Lima have three doors when it is not a cathedral and at one
time not even much of a church? Even though I am poking into
something which will not do me any good, I feel today that I
must solve this puzzle. I must confess that, even though I have
searched through archives and documents, I have found nothing
to satisfy me, so I will just go by what an old man told me
who was a great investigator of antiquities and knew just how
many hairs the devil had on his head and which were the two
towers of Lima that, for lack of money to cast two bronze bells,
had two of wood hung in them, not intended to be rung to
call the faithful to worship but just to satisfy the vanity of the
devotees and to fool the ignorant with appearances. I believe
these bells were in the towers of Saint Teresa y el Carmen.
It was San Francisco de Borja, the third general of the Com-
pany of Jesus (Jesuits), who in the year 1568 sent to Lima the
padre Jer6nimo Ruiz del Portillo with five helpers, some good,
some bad, to found the institution about which I have written.
Soon after arriving in the city they started to build the cloister
known at that time as the Colegio Maximo de St. Paul and St.
Peter and which, after the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1767, took
the name of the convent of St. Peter as it is known today. This
church, which was begun in 1623 and took fifteen years to finish,
is among all the churches in Lima the most solidly constructed.
Altars like the one of San Ignacio are a marvelous work of art.
The temple was consecrated on June 3, 1638, with the assistance
of the Viceroy of Chinch6n and 160 Jesuit priests. The same day
the bell was blessed with the name of Augustina. The bell
weighed about five tons and is the most sonorous which Lima
possesses. The walls of the tower were made after the bell had
been put in place so if anyone ever wants to take the bell down
they will have to destroy the walls of the tower first.
The festival lasted three days and the custodia, which was
a gift of families who favored the Jesuits, was of great value.
When the building was begun a plan was shown in which the
church was seen divided into three naves, leaving the curious
to think that the central door was the entrance to the church.
In the meantime ,the superior of the order had sent a petition


to Rome asking the Pope to grant him a license for a door. (In
those days the Vatican made as much of the church founded in
Peru as of those of Rome, and that is why the church of San
Francisco has over the principal door the tiara and keys of the
Pope.) On receiving the petition of the Jesuits, the Pope didn't
know whether to take it seriously or not. Is it humility, candid-
ness, or malice, he wondered. Are they trying out the represent-
ative of Christ on earth, looking for his apostolic agreement
even concerning the most trivial thing? All this and very much
more his Holiness must have thought. However, the permission
was granted. Once the Jesuits received the permit they promptly
had three arches built and put a door in each one. The head
of the ecclesiastic body in Lima raised a hullabaloo and demand-
ed that the municipal authorities make the Jesuits remove one
door. "How is it," cried the priests of the other orders, "that
you give this order privileges of a cathedral? We can't allow
this." Then the Jesuits who had many friends among the gov-
ernment officials and the people calmly brought out their permit
from the Pope. The others argued that the permit needed more
explanation and could mean anything but authorization to open
three doors. To this they replied with much scorn, "Look, we
knew that for two doors we didn't need any permit, so with
the two we have and the one from Rome we get three doors.
That is plain logic." The head of the church body would not
give in so easly so both parties went to Rome about it. The
Pope had to admit to himself that the Jesuits had fooled him
with a master hand but as the successor of Peter, he could not
admit his mistake to the world at large, so he adopted an ex-
pedient which reconciled all the caprices and vanities of the
clergy. Permission was given as a privilege and for private
reasons for three doors for the new church of St. Peter, but it
was prohibited under severe canonical punishment that the third
door ever be opened except in case of fire, earthquake or complete
reconstruction of the church. This door has never been seen
open even on SAbado de Gloria. A padlock covered with rust
proves to all that one door of St. Peter's is just an adornment and
has never served the purpose for which all doors have been
constructed ever since the time of the Ark, the oldest doors
in history, even to the doors of the cage of my little parrot.

-26 -


2nd block of Jir6n Uni6n

The exact date of the foundation is doubtful, but it is known
to have been in existence since 1537. It has been restored several
times, and, although the baroque exterior has suffered consider-
able alteration, the beautiful granite pillars can still be admired
in their original form. The church contains an historic treasure
in the form of a small image, the Christ of the Conquest, which
was placed on the altar of San Pedro de Nolasco, a revered
martryr, and before which was intoned the first mass celebrat-
ed in a church in Lima. The seventy choir stalls, especially the
upper forty, are an exceptional example of fine carving.

From "Tradiciones" by Ricardo Palma

It has come to my mind to tell you the history of the beauti-
ful columns you see at the entrance to the Merced church on
Jir6n Uni6n, and I have to revert to the legend, as the Padres
of the Mercedes didn't have the habit of keeping files of historic-
al happenings pertaining to their church. The popular legend is
that around the year 1550 the Spaniard, Francisco de Herrera,
wrote to Europe asking for the shipment of a number of granite
columns to adorn the patio of his house situated in the street
called Encarnation (This is a little street one block up Carabaya
from Plaza San Martin where the street car makes the turn.)
When the boat arrived at Callao the workmen proceeded to un-
load the columns which weighed a tremendous amount, and
whether for the delicate operation there was too little intel-
ligence employed or whether the cables were too weak, the
result was that various columns fell into the sea. The owner
resigned himself to losing them and had those that were saved
stacked in the backyard of his house.
The priest in charge of the Merced church at that time was
Padre Juan de Vargas. Approaching the wealthy Spaniard who

-27 -

was incidentally a generous benefactor of the church, he said, "'
come to ask Your Honour, whose religious faith and generosity
are so well known, if you will donate the columns, for which
you have no use at this present time, for the adornment of my
church entrance." "Reverend, the columns are yours, and if you
can take up from the sea those which fell into it, you will have
made Holy wafer from ordinary bread and they are yours."
"Sefior, don't worry about that," replied the priest. "The essential
for me is your permission. Besides, I will recommend you to
my Patr6n Saint, Pedro Nolasco, and trust him to make a little
miracle for your house." One year later during the high tides
known as the Equinox, usually in the month of March, the
waves in Callao were furiously high and threw up onto the
beach the columns which had fallen in while being unloaded.
Only one of them had suffered slight damage and still may be
seen today on the front of the church.


This small yellow church is situated at the end of Avenida
Tacna. The garden, hermitage where the "little Saint" spent
much of her time in meditation, and the well where she is said
to have thrown the key of the chain of chastity which she wore
around her waist, are all well taken care of and revered by
the people of Peru who constantly visit the church.

EL ROSAL DE ROSA (The Rose Garden of Santa Rosa)

From "Tradiciones" by Ricardo Palma

In the year 1581 the Greek shipowner, Miguel Acosta, along
with the businessmen in Lima, made a collection for the build-
ing of a hospital to take care of all the foreigners arriving in
Peru who were inevitably affected by the change of climate.
At the back of the hospital was a large piece of ground which
the owner, Gaspar Flores, used for building various small rooms,
in one of which was born his daughter, Isabel, or, "Santa Rosa
de Lima" as she is known today. In the spare ground she made
a flower garden. In those days everyone planted fruit rather


than flowers and the carnation was a luxury. Roses, jasmine,
lilies, etc., were not known in Peru before the conquest. Imagine
the surprise of the little virgin upon finding one morning that
a rose bush had appeared spontaneously in her garden and pro-
duced roses abundantly. It is said that when in 1669 Pope
Clement, IX, received the petition asking for the expedition
of the beatification of Rosa, he couldn't quite hide a little doubt
and murmured between his teeth, "Santa y Limefia? Hum, hum.
So much should bring showers of roses." And a miracle was
performed then and there because a shower of rose petals fell
on the Pope's desk. From this incident the Pope's enthusiasm
for Rosa de Lima was born, because in two years he expedited
six breves in favor of our patriot. The last one was to name
her patron saint of Lima and Peru and to reform the constitu-
tion of Urbano VII in order to accelerate the canonization laws.
Santa Rosa was canonized 150 years after her death. When Pope
Clement X died in 1669, he left a sum of money sufficient to
build a beautiful church to Santa Rosa in his native town of
Pistoya, just outside of Florence, Italy. When in 1672 the canon-
ization was celebrated in Lima, block after block of the streets
leading to the church were paved with bars of silver; and ac-
cording to eye-witnesses, the value of silver in the street and
jewels adorning the altars surpassed eight million pesos. It was
at this time that the owners of the land on which stood the little
house and garden gave the property over for the building of
the church of Santa Rosa. The rose garden which she had
cultivated was transferred to the garden of the Padres Domini-
canos in the principal cloister of their convent.
The bridge of Santa Rosa at the end of Avenida Tacna was
inaugurated on August 30, 1960.
NOTE: As I understand it, the peso was a piece of silver
sometimes valued at 8 and other times at 9 reales. (80 or 90



Located at the intersection of Jir6n Tacna and Jir6n Huancavelica.
The following translation gives its history.


Taken from a small booklet purchased at the church of the
"Madres Nazarenas"

Among the sacred images which we venerate in this city
of Lima, none is more worthy of our devotion than the one
which represents "Christ Crucified" and which is venerated on
the main altar of the church of the Nazarenas and known amongst
us as "El Sefior de los Milagros". It was painted in 1651 on
the wall which constitutes the face of the main altar, with
singular perfection and without any more art than the natural
ingenuity with which the Almighty had blessed the poor, humble
Negro from Angola, whose name is not even known.
This particular location at that time was a meeting place
of the Negroes to celebrate their fiestas, and during the frightful
earthquake of November 13, 1655, it was completely destroyed,
except for the wall on which was painted the crucifixion. This
was left to the mercy of the elements for six years without
suffering the least imperfection. Then one Andres de Le6n who
lived nearby started to pay tribute once again to the Saint and
made a roof of straw and an altar and adobe steps, placing flow-
ers and candles as tribute whenever his poverty permitted. He
was blessed for his worship by being completely cured of a
supposedly incurable cancer.
Many more people followed in his steps, attracted by the
miracles performed, and it became an established custom for
many people to meet under the roof each Friday evening to say
prayers and sing hymns. Quite a few disorderly evenings took
place among the people of the pueblo, and at the insistence of
the parish priest the civil and ecclesiastical tribunes passed a law
prohibiting further meetings and sent workmen to destroy the
wall of the sacred image. When a workman lifted his arm to
strike a blow, his arm became dead, and he fell to the floor un-
conscious. The very same thing happened to the second work-


man who came along. The consternation was tremendous amongst
the people who witnessed these happenings, because at the same
time (4 o'clock in the afternoon) the sun was completely darken-
ed, and a strange rain storm fell on Lima. Such a demonstra-
tion of divine power awakened fervent and general devotion and
from that time people referred to the painting as "El Sefior de
Los Milagros" and as a consequence, a lovely little chapel was
built and inaugurated on September 14, 1671, with a sung mass
attended by the Viceroy, Conde de Lemos, the Tribunes, the
religious communities and an immense number of people. The
authorized devotion continued, and when in 1684 Don Sebastian
Antunano y Rivas arrived from Spain to collect an inheritance,
he became a fervent devotee of the "Sefior de Los Milagros"
and offered his life's services in favor of the Saint. In order
to prove his devotion he bought up all the land around the chapel
which later became the home of the women known as Las Na-
zarenas, who until this time had lived apart from the world in
a small college or home in the street called Monserrate. The Span-
iard called upon the Superior of these women to take over the
founding of the monastery which exists today, promising his
personal services for the collecting of sufficient funds for their
keep, which he did until he passed away. October 20, 1687, the
terrible earthquake which completely destroyed Callao also
caused untold damage all over the city of Lima, and it was decided
to pass the "Sefior de Los Milagros" in procession around the
city in memory of the anniversary of this awful tragedy. After
the earthquake the Spaniard decided to rebuild the chapel with
better materials and enlarge it at the same time, as a thanks-
giving for the painting not having suffered the slightest im-
As time passed and the miracle increased, the public of Lima,
represented by their pastor, the law and council, decided to make
the 14th of September of each year a special feast day to cel-
ebrate the exaltation of the cross, giving particular emphasis to
thanks for delivery from earthquakes, epidemics and other
calamities. Twelve years later, at the instigation of the com-
munity, the Vatican approved on the 26th of August, 1727, a
special edict of the Pope, Benedict XIII, making the Institute of
Nazarenes (formerly only a cloister for women) a formal mon-
astery as it is today.
The great earthquake of October 28, 1746, brought down the
greater part of the walls and offices of the monastery and total-
ly ruined the chapel with the exception once again of the wall
with the painting. This so moved the Viceroy Amat that in the
year 1766. he decided to rebuild the chapel completely, and he
himself laid the first stone. This, as were so many of the con-
structions undertaken by this Viceroy, was of such good material
that it stands today as a grateful memory to him. The inaugura-
tion of the new church, which is the one you see today, took


place on January, 20, 1771, with the grandeur such an occasion
Pachacamilla is the original name of the spot where the
church of the Nazarenas stands today, in the block next to the
Tacna Theatre. The original painting, which is over the main
altar, is in the same position in which it was originally painted.
Some years ago two Italian craftsmen were brought over to see
what could be done to preserve the ,original wall, and I under-
stand that they reinforced it from the back so that there is no
immediate danger of its falling. The painting which is carried
in the procession is a copy of the original by a Peruvian artist,
as is the painting on the reverse side representing "Our Lady of
the Clouds".


(This short history gives another aspect of the devotion to
"El Sefior Negro")

The image of the "Saint of the Miracles" has withstood, since
the seventeenth century, earthquakes and calamities, which sure-
ly confirms the divine character of the painting.
"Forward, brothers!" At the command of the Mayordomo, or
head leader of the Brotherhood of Twenty-four, as they are known,
they lift onto their shoulders in two distinct movements (first
on to the arms, then up to the shoulders) the immense platform
bearing the "Saint of the Miracles", the two tons of ornaments,
for the most part solid silver which adorn the image, then start
on their slow march through the city of Lima by way of those
streets marked on the plan of the procession. All along the
route the image receives showers of flowers, silver ornaments
and multiple offerings from faithful devotees testifying to their
faith. I would like you to picture this procession as I once saw it
from the balcony of the apartment house where I lived when first
in Lima. The mass of humanity, I would say for the most part
Negro, is almost stupefying and maybe a little frightening -
old and young, well-dressed and in rags, jet black and white,
many of them in the purple robe signifying the period of suf-
fering of Our Lord. Many of them are barefooted; often an elder-
ly woman makes her way along on her bare knees, with a heavy
wooden cross on her shoulders. Add to this the cries and moans
of suffering humanity, the dirge-like music and the drums, while
all the time people are throwing flowers, petals and bouquets


from their balconies down into the street. You can imagine how
heavy the platform carrying the figure must be as the bearers
shuffle along, so slowly. All the faces immediately around the
platform are tense with the thought that they must bear up under
the weight. It is considered a great honor to be allowed to
act as bearer, and the brotherhood of this order are all consider-
ed upright citizens. They are also chosen for their height and
The platform of the "Saint" was redecorated in October, 1962,
all the small relics donated in thanks over the years having
been melted down and used in new decorations. It is really
a beautiful sight to see with the sun shining on it.


(Located on Moquegua St., 2nd block)

In the religious architecture of Lima we find four distinct
types of buildings, each denoting an element apart from religion.
This is partly due to the rivalry between the different religious
orders and the help of the devotees of this or that Saint. To this
was added the pride of the Spanish grandees, who testified to
their wealth or superior nobility by the building of churches,
chapels, and altars, or by a large donation to a certain convent,
establishing therein a priest in their favor. In the first category
you find neutral elements such as the Cathedral, a symbol of
power, sumptuosness, and great magnificence. The altar in each
niche is really a chapel in itself, and though dark and cold, has
as apsect of grandness, silence, and desolation. In the second
category we have the church convent such as San Pedro of the
Jesuits, La Merced, San Agustin, San Francisco, and Santo Do-
mingo. Here there is much more light and the architecture is
of a gracious nature. The once gold altars have been remodeled
and painted over, in certain instances, to keep pace with the neo-
classic style of Matias Maestro. We cannot criticize this, as the
correct was just as correct to the era of yesterday as an error
is an error to us of today. This type of church is the rich man's
house of prayer. The poor people prefer something less grand
looking. The third category is the monastery type. The arch-
itecture here is much more simple with one nave, having very
rarely any ornamentation. It. has an air of its own a feminine
presence and greater care shown in the care of its altars. Some-
times a little handwork will be seen in artificial flowers and
other small items. One of these is the church of "Jesfis Maria."


In the choristry behind closely placed iron railings, the prayers
are intoned day and night, and fortunately this is where you
find the antique Colonial altars better preserved, for the simple
reason that all monasteries are poor and haven't the money to
spend on modernization. Therefore the poorer the monastery the
older the works of art some very simple, others of great rich-
ness. In the fourth category are the small churches built to the
order of the persons who paid for them.
The church of Jesis Maria was founded at the corner of
Jir6n Camana and Jir6n Moquegua, at that time one of the back
streets giving onto a large farm whose boundary lines ran along
the meridian wall of Lima. The church stands back from the
street with a small courtyard and was at one time enclosed within
walls with lovely wooden bannisters between the pillars. The
entrance gate was of the same design. It would seem that there
was a special interest in keeping the outside so simple. It con-
trasts so greatly with the complicated and magnificent carvings
inside. The interior is known to relatively few people. This
church, as does the monastery of the Capucine sisters on the
left, has a very interesting history linked up with miracles, pirates,
suffering, and hunger.
By the middle of the eighteenth century a veil of mystery
had covered this house with the tranquil life to which it was
consecrated. The construction of the church is intimately linked
with the house established by the tailor from Chiclayo, Nicolas
de Dios Ayll6n and his wife Maria Juanita Montoya, better known
as "Sister Maria Juanita de la Trinidad." They both dedicated
themselves to gathering under their roof all the young girls who
were in danger of falling into bad ways, and supporting them out
of their own earnings. When Don Nicolas died in 1677 he was
given a pompous funeral and many fine orations. The fame of
the piety of those gathered in his house spread, and many in-
fluential people came to their help, building them an Oratory, in
which was celebrated the first mass in January, 1678. Some
short time later it was noticed how very little space these good
women had for their devotions, and a new chapel was decided
on, since it was not considered decent that, at any time of the
day or night, anyone should enter and interrupt their prayers.
The house next door belonged to a Spanish gentleman, a lawyer
of the Inquisition and auditor to the armed forces, who turned
it over to the women at the request of the widow, Sister Maria.
At this time a door was opened into the patio so that the sisters
could have privacy.
In this new chapel the first mass was celebrated in April,
1678, and again space was found limited. The next enlargement
came about as the result of the earthquake of 1678, just two
months later, which caused great damage to all the churches
between seven and eight in the evening, and resulted in another
large room being added and also a Sacristy. At the time of


the building, the Provost of the city paid a visit and ordered
to be made the beautiful iron screen to divide the church from
the nuns' quarters, and also a Communion table. Three altars
were also made. The main one was decorated with a painting
of the Holy Family. In another was placed an antique painting
of the Crucifixion from Rome, which had hung in the house
of Dios Ayll6n for many years. Another altar held a beautifully
sculptured gold Tabernacle, in which was placed the "Image of
the Bundle." Over this Tabernacle was placed the painting of
Santa Rosa de Lima, which the benefactor had ordered painted
according to the ideas he had conceived when she was beatified
by Pope Clement XII. The chapel was very badly damaged dur-
ing the earthquake of 1687 as was the monastery, and the re-
pairs took six months. The date of the final construction, as it
stands today, is not well known. The church and monastery
were finally finished in 1721. When Sister Maria asked for
trained nuns to run the convent, the Capucine sisters were sent
from Spain. As a consequence of the earthquake of 1746 nearly
all the churches, convents and monasteries had to be rebuilt.
One of the last dates mentioned concerning work being done on
this church is 1794-1798. We have evidence that even though the
building itself suffered the carvings did not. Only on the main
altar do you have a new Tabernacle and Sagrario, which had to
be replaced due to a fire. Of all the many jewels and rich
ornaments which the church possessed at the time of its founda-
tion, there exist today only the Custodia and the chalices. We
don't know whether the others were sold to allay the poverty
caused by the earthquake of 1746, or to help so many poor people,
but the nuns more than once had to ring the bells to call for
help in order to put an end to so many days of enforced penitence.


This little gem of a church, situated just two blocks from
the Anthropological Museum in Magdalena del Mar, is small
but richly appointed. Apart from the lovely main altar, there
are about eight side altars each pure baroque, with the gold
leaf decoration having retained a particularly new looking bright-
ness which is rather unusual. Two or three of these niches
are without their center figure at the moment as these are
being repaired, having suffered damage during the last big
earthquake. It was constructed in 1557, and as that section of
Lima was at that time an important residential district, Don
Francisco Pizarro heard mass there each morning before taking


up his duties in the house alongside the Museum which is
now known as the Casa de Bolivar. The whole building is being
repaired by the Council for Preservation of Historical Monu-
ments, and is to be declared a National Museum.


This small church is situated at the Parque Universitario
just two blocks from Plaza San Martin, and was first built in
1606. It was reconstructed after serious damage caused by the
terrible earthquake of 1746 and restored in 1924 when its crypt
(Pante6n de los Pr6ceres) was chosen as the final resting place
for the bodies of the heroes of the War of Independence. The
altars, balconies, and graceful pulpit are all exquisite examples
-of colonial carving.


The University of San Marcos was founded in 1551, just one
hundred years before Harvard got its charter, and is recognized
as the oldest university in South America. In the month of May
of that year Charles V of Spain "issued the order or permission
to establish a general study in the Monastery of Santo Domingo.
The papers were finally delivered here by Father Tomas de San
Martin, and the university was originated. In 1571 confirmation
from the Pope was received and it became known as the "Royal
and Pontifical University." In the year 1861 the university was
moved to the buildings it now occupies, and in the year 1908
women were first admitted as students. (From "Under the Dust
of Lima," by Winifred Fischer.)
When the school was set up in Santo Domingo the special
classes and literary functions were held in one of the chapels in
the cathedral, known as the chapel "La Antigua" (the Old One.)
During the Viceregal period the most interesting spectacles took
place here. The conferring of degrees was attended by important
ceremonies, and celebration of high mass. The candidate after-
wards spent two days in theological examination. If successful,
he went to the chapel accompanied by fellow students, and pledged


faith to the Immaculate Conception, as was required of students
at that time in the University of Paris. There were different
chapters organized under the same roof that of San Carlos,
Santo Toribio, Del Principe or "Caciquis" (sons of the Indian
chiefs.) They could be distinguished by their different modes of
dress. San Carlos men dressed in black with cocked hats and
dress swords. Santo Toribio wore an almond-colored gown rather
like a poncho, with a pale blue scarf and a square black bonnet.
The Princes wore a green suit with a crimson shoulder ribbon
and cocked hat.
The most important study was theology. Law and medicine
papers sounded like treatises. The daily studies at the University
were: three in theology, three in law, two in canonical law,
two in medicine, two in grammar, and one in native languages,
considered necessary for converting the Indians to the faith.
During the Viceregal reign San Marcos was devoted to educat-
ing the nobility and clergy, the latter being considered as important
as high society. Expenses were so high that only the select few
could afford to attend. Each faculty doctor, rector, dean of his
faculty, sponsor, and ministry official had to be given generous
sums of money. When a student got around to his fellow men it
is recorded that "four pounds of food and six hens were received."
At times, according to the students' means, they gave bullfights,
for which they rented the whole plaza, marvelous dinners followed,
and oratorical speeches. The smallest sum which could be paid
was 10,000 dollars during the first years. In the middle of the
eighteenth century a law was passed limiting expenses to a deposit
of 2,000 dollars to the treasury of the school, with no more re-
sponsibilities. In 1870 fees were reduced again to 800 dollars.
Subsequent laws reduced the fees to the present ones of 50 soles
for a Bachelor's degree, and 100 soles for a Doctorate.


From "Tradiciones" by Ricardo Palma

There was much to do amongst the Limefiian society ladies in
the month of September, 1574, and it was considered very worth
while when you consider that nothing less than the choosing of
a name for the university was at stake. The new rector,
Juan Herrera, who was a lawyer and had replaced the Doctors
Meneses and Sanchez Menedo, who were the first rectors, was
inclined along with the rest of his legates toward San Bernardo.
One party wanted San Cypriano, and the theologists were definitely


for Santo Tomas. The Viceroy, in order to keep peace among the
three parties, proposed for candidacy San Agustin. The Limeflian
ladies, who at that time (and up to the present day) interfered
in everything, proposed to choose from the four evangelists, San
Juan, San Lucas, San Marcos, and San Mateo. So it happened
that each doctor of the university who was engaged to be married
found that his fiance asked for his vote for San Juan, and his
sisters for San Lucas. And if he were already married, his wife
wanted his vote for San Marcos, and his mother-in-law for San
Mateo. Not even the priests were free from the insinuations
of those who went to confession in favor of the evangelist of
their choice.
A convocation was called in the cloisters for the 6th of Septem-
ber, and San Marcos received five votes, San Juan four, San Lucas
and San Mateo three each, while San Agustin. San Cypriano, San-
to Tomas and San Bernardo each got more than twelve, as there
were sixty-eight doctors of the claustro voting. As no saint had
gained a majority, the voting was postponed to be repeated the
following week. The ladies calculated, and quite rightly, that
there was no possible chance of an evangelist winning. The men
of politics say that the accumulative vote is an invention of the
nineteenth century. That is a great lie, I say. The accumulative
vote is as old as the hills, at least in Peru. The Limefios invent-
ed it three centuries ago. They all wanted an evangelist and
decided to get together for San Marcos, who had received the
highest number of votes in the first ballot.
At the second meeting, which took place on September 16,
the Viceroy retracted the name of San Agustin and it was said
that it was only because he bowed to the powers of a satin skirt.
The other adepts reinforced the files of the Tomasistas, Bernar-
distas, and Cyprianistas. The voting was a bitter, bitter fight,
but no one got a precise majority. It was resolved to call a third
meeting on the 20th, and trust to luck who got the vote.
The great day arrived and four papers with the names of
Santo Tomas, San Bernardo, San Cypriano and San Marcos were
placed in an urn, and a little five-year old boy who belonged to
the Viceroy's household was taken along to draw the lucky paper.
In this way there was not the slightest suspicion of any trick.
Victory for the Limefias. Their female luck favored them. In the
claustro itself on the 22nd of December, 1574, the name of San
Marcos was solemnly proclaimed and adjudged as Patron Saint of
the Royal and Pontifical University of Lima, whose first building
under the new name was the one now known as the Camara de
Diputados (Chamber of Deputies.)
The Sal6n de Grados in the Faculty of Letters was originally
the chapel of Colegio San Martin of the Compafiia de Jesfis and
afterward of Colegio San Carlos. "It is notable for its gilded
moldings, its vaulted roof, its allegories and its gallery of the Holy
Fathers and illuminated holy writings which defend the dogma


of the Virginity of the Mother of God and praise the beauty of
her life, as shown by the words 'tota Pulchra' on the dome of the
chapel, where also are found the images of the four Evangelists.
But what excels in the chapel is the outstanding panelling of the
ceiling, whose arch, in the style of the colonial chapels, is divided
into six allegorical groups, separated by a like number of arches
on which can be seen the Latin inscription: Es Maria Emmaculata
originales nome into tu Gloria Jerusalem to lettitia Israel tu
The allegorical groups which adorn the ceiling are the follow-
ing: "First": the figures of a well, a cypress, and a palm tree,
meaning that Mary is a fountain of fresh water of life and is
raised to Heaven with graveness and flexibility;
"Second": two figures, one of an enclosed orchard, and one
of a temple, signifying that the Virgin is an incorruptible field
to the outside world and a temple of the Holy Ghost;
"Third": a figure of the Virgin surrounded by angels, with
a crown held over her head by the Holy Trinity, which means
the coronation of Mary in Heaven by the Father, Son and Holy
"Fourth": the figures of a door with the legend "porta celi,"
a tower and a castle, with their corresponding inscriptions, which
signify that Mary is the Door of Heaven, and Tower of David,
and the Shelter of Jesus;
"Fifth": the figures of a candelabrum with a Latin inscrip-
tion which means light upon life, and a stairway which represents
the dream of ascension into Heaven of Jacob;
"Sixth": the figures of a crown which makes Mary a Queen,
a ship which means that the Virgin is an Ark of Salvation, and
a city, which means that Mary is a City of Refuge.
On either side of the arch are found: to the left, pictures of
St. Gregory, St. Augustine, St. Thomas of Aquinas, Sta. Theresa
of Jesus, Sta. Catharine of Siena, and Sta. Gertrude Magna; and
to the right, St. Jerome, St. Ambrose, St. Buenaventura, Bridget,
Doctors and Saints, as has been said, who were distinguished in
life for having made the apotheosis of the dogma of the purity of
the Mother of God. (Source of Information, Dr. Gieseke now re-
tired from the American Embassy).



(Located on Calle Inquisici6n and Avenida Abancay, Lima)

From "Tradiciones". by Ricardo Palma

This institution originally came from Europe with the fifth
Viceroy, Don Francisco de Toledo. It was decreed by Philip II
of Spain on February 7, 1569. Its primary use in Spain was to
safeguard the Catholic faith from Mohammedanism. The Tribune
was composed of the Inquisitors, one of whom was the president.
also fiscal treasurer, a secretary and a public notary. Later on
the governing body was enlarged, and the oldest member auto-
matically became president. The salaries were greatly increased
and dignities and honors were never ending. The function of the
Holy Office in Lima consisted of combating all heresy, which might
easily propagate, especially the pursuance of Protestantism, Ju-
daism, blasphemy and sexual deviation. Later, under this law.
scandal was included, much to the great satisfaction of the Inqui-
sitors. This greatly increased the number of cases heard. One
reliable source quotes them as numbering 3,000. Fortunately the
Indians were excluded from the jurisdiction of the Holy Office.
Upon its arrival in Lima the Holy Office met with resistance
from the Archbishop Jer6nimo de Loayza, who did not wish to
recognize any superior authority with regard to the defense of
religion. A case was begun on the receipt of a verbal or a written
denouncement, and in absolute secrecy. The guiding rule for the
members of the Tribune was that the guilty party should be
proven at all cost. Following this rule the Tribune took into
account only the proofs which condemned the accused; and if
these were not of sufficient number, instead of being allowed a
lawyer, the accused was obliged to point out proofs or report
instances which tended to compromise him even more. No defense
lawyers were permitted. The witnesses spoke through the small
opening in the door on the right of the council platform, which
opened into the secret chamber. There they could file by without
being seen, much to the stupefaction and impotence of the accused.
Later, the accused was supposed to defend himself, but first had
to recite the "Lord's Prayer" and "The Creed." And heaven help
him if he made a mistake. Even at the end of his defense, he
was expected to plead guilty. Then came the sentence. If the
accused did not plead guilty, he was taken to the torture room to
draw the confession out of him. Once the confession was made

-40 -

the sentence was imposed according to the class of the crime and
at the will of the Inquisitors. The sentence depended on whether
or not the accused had confessed and asked pardon. Sentences
varied between prohibitions and humiliations; for those who
retracted or who refused to make a false confession there was
confiscation of all properties, deportation, or orders sending them
to the galleys, to the stake or to be shot, etc. Often the family
and relations were included in the sentence. The carrying out
of the sentences was a public spectacle attended by the Viceroy
and all public officials, university heads, and the people. The
accused were subjected to various degrees of humiliation in the
streets. The representative of the law read the sentence from a
specially constructed platform, and it was carried out im-
mediately. The most spectacular ceremony was that of burning
at the stake.
From the time that the "Santo Oficio" began to operate there
was always discord among the different members, some of whom
were later brought to trial for having misappropriated funds from
the treasury, which received all the fines imposed and derived
from confiscated property. Life went on for the Tribune in this
way until February 22, 1813. when the Court of Cadiz suppressed
these institutions by a special decree. This was favorably received
in Peru and carried out by the Viceroy Abascal in the same year.
When the inventory ordered by the Viceroy was completed the
people of Lima joyfully ransacked the Inquisition building and
destroyed everything which might remind them of the awful sig-
nificance of the Tribune. The building itself remained standing
but the archives, furniture, instruments of torture, etc. disappeared.
Practically speaking, the Holy Office disappeared from Peru at
that time, although Fernando VI, after Napoleon's defeat in Spain,
reinstituted, it. However, it languished in Lima until 1820 when
it was finally abolished by General San Martin at Palma Huaura
The original "camara secret" (Inquisition Chamber) still
exists and communicates with the "Sala de Audiencias" (Audience
Hall) by the secret door. The ceiling of this room is one of the
most beautiful examples of wood carving in Lima in the "Mudejar"
style. It dates from the eighteenth century and has been valued
at half a million dollars. Other compartments are the subterranean
passages where the life sentences were carried out. Inscriptions
made by the prisoners can still be read on the walls.
The table used by the Tribune is worthy of mention. It is
one solid piece of cedar. Among the lesser arts of the period of
the Viceroy, this is a positive work of art. The armchair also is
the original, as is the Cross laid on the table and an iron bar from
the cells. Finally we should mention the Christ of the Inquisition;
some say it was a beautiful painting, others that the image was a
figure in which the head moved, absolving or condemning the pri-
soner according to the wishes of the Tribune. This was destroyed
by the public in 1813. The historian, Stevenson, who was in Lima

- 41-

at the time of the ransacking of the building, swears he saw the
figure and that is was a bulk and movable. The severity and
solidity of the construction and the magnificent decoration of
the ceilings are most important from an architectural point
of view.


From "Tradiciones" by Ricardo Palma

Charles V of Spain was quite worried about Peru, the pearl
of all his possessions, and just before retiring to a monastery
he confided ample powers on Don Andr6s Hurtado y Mendoza,
Marqu6s de Cafiete, and the title of Viceroy. He was a very
prudent and conscientious man. Prior to making his entry into
the city with a solemnity never before witnessed, he passed by
the Municipal offices to check on some article and addressed
the members as "Noble Sirs." His predecessor, the weak charac-
ter Antonio de Mendoza, had addressed them as "Very Noble
Sirs." This change of address annoyed somewhat all the young
upstarts, one of whom remarked in a loud voice "Let the Viceroy
come. We will teach him what it is to have servants." And in
effect he did arrive and his first action was to clear out all the
rebels and trouble makers. These acts of severe justice and
the sagacity with which he attracted the Inca Don Crist6bal Sayri
Tupac, a descendant of Atahualpa, and heir to his empire, enabled
him to carry out the founding of the Viceroyalty.
With the death of Charles V and the coming into power of
Felipe II, all the Viceroy's enemies at the court of Spain clamour-
ed for his removal, and the present king, forgetting all the
Viceroy's many sacrifices for his former king, without notifying
him, named the Count of Nieva, don Diego L6pez de Zufiiga y
Velasco as the new Viceroy to Peru. He was a man with ab-
solutely no qualifications to recommend him for governor. He
had hardly landed in Panama when he began to abuse the good
name of the elderly Marqu6s and to echo the discontent of the
young opposition. The Viceroy had sent a messenger to greet
him on his arrival in Panama, and it is said that only the fol-
lowing words passed between them: "His Excellency the Mar-
qu6s de Cafiete sends me to convey to Your Excellency his"... The
Conde de Nieva did not let the emissary finish the sentence but
interrupted angrily: "Understand, Sefior CapitAn, that here there is
no other excellency but myself, and the Marques from today on
will have to accustom himself to being addressed as Sefior. Now,
get going and tell your master that I hope he understands." The


messenger returned immediately to Lima, while the new Viceroy
remained up north visiting different places. The old Marques
de Cafiete who had not wanted to flatter the vanity of the Mu-
nicipal officers by addressing them above their station was about
to suffer the same humility himself. The crude message related
to him by his messenger deeply wounded his noble pride and that
day he fell sick, to die a few days before his successor arrived
in Lima, but in his feverish delirium he had exclaimed continual-
ly, "Nieva; you will die a bad death." How the fevered Mar-
qu6s's prophecy came about you will now hear.
The governorship of the Conde de Nieva lasted only three
years, and he would have passed away without leaving the
faintest impression had it not been for the mysterious and ro-
mantic ending to his career. It was the night of the 19th of
February 1564, that a little after midnight a cloaked figure des-
cended a rope ladder from a balcony situated in the angle which
today forms the Plaza de La Inquisici6n and the lonely street
called Trapitos (Rags). The night, the balcony, a rope ladder
and a cloaked figure have over the years always meant an affair
of skirts and love, and the eternal question "who is she?," which
has been asked since it pleased God to create her. The house
of, the balcony belonged to a very rich, influential, and aristo-
cratic family of that time. When the gallant gentleman was just
a few rungs of the ladder from the ground it broke away from
the balcony rail, and as he fell, five cloaked and masked figures
really began to attack him with sacks of sand shouting: "Robber
of Honour." The servants of the Marqu6s de Zarate who lived
in the house opposite awoke to the cries of the unfortunate vic-
tim and rushed out to see who needed help. However. when
they arrived across the street they found only a corpse. This
was the Conde de Nieva, fourth Viceroy of Peru, who had died
in obscurity and traitorously, sacrificed to the just vengeance
of an offended husband, whose name according to the chronicles
was Don Rodrigo Manrique de Lara. Although the Viceroy's
body was taken into the palace before dawn and word given out
that he had died in bed from an apoplectic fit, the truth was
known all over Lima. He was buried with great pomp and ce-
remony in San Francisco. The royal judges tried with great
secrecy to make a case against the assassin; but as so many high
personages were concerned they finally decided to throw sand
over the papers and let them die a natural death, in order to
avoid more scandal. "Long tongues make long lies" so says the
refrain. Felipe II sent a special lawyer from Spain to track
down the culprit, but, on his arrival in Lima he found that the
husband had passed away. The four other accused were rich
and influential men and the widow a young and lovely Spanish
noblewoman, a second cousin of her lover the Conde de Nieva.
Taking everything into consideration the lawyer decided to break
all protocol and closed the case.



(The School of Fines Arts)

(Located at Colegio Real & Ildefonso, Jir6n Ancash 681, Lima)
Since its foundation in 1919 the National School of Fine Arts
has occupied a building that in days gone by was a convent for
nuns. Of Colonial design, it was built at the end of the seventeenth
century. In 1924 the main front was redecorated but the earth-
quake of 1940 seriously damaged the rest of it, rendering it useless
until 1944 when it was reconstructed and occupied once again. The
rest of the building was in such bad shape from constant use
through the years that it was all reconditioned in 1957.
The school has nine studios for painting, two for sculpture,
seven for design, four classrooms for oral lessons, a studio for
ceramics, one for engraving of medals and enamel work, and one
for murals. There is also a library, a museum of popular art, a
doctors' and dentists' workroom, an exhibition hall ,and a studio
for restoration work. Besides these, there are the administrative
offices and the principal's office, which is a little art gallery in
itself. The "Sal6n de Actos", which takes the form of a beautiful
theatre, serves as well as the exhibition room for the preceding
year's work. What a beautiful sight met our eyes the day of our
visit. All the rooms mentioned are distributed around three patios.
The principal one is that on Colegio Real, and the oldest of the
three is that of San Ildefonso. The new one was, at one time, the
original garden of the convent.
During the forty-one years of its existence the school has seen
changes according to the ideas of the different directors in charge.
The founder, Sr. Daniel HernAndez, was director from 1919 to 1932.
During this time the school was run on the lines of a French
Academy. He was succeeded by Jos6 Sabogal who imprinted
regional characteristics. From 1943 to 1945, under German
SuArez V6rtiz, many liberal changes took place with regard to
teaching methods, including the students' right to elect their own
professors, as well as a new system of free workrooms for the
students. In 1945 Ricardo Grau took over the directorship, re-esta-
blishing student government, so that during this time there were
changes for the better. At the end of 1956 there was a complete
reorganization, and a committee was formed and presided over
by the new and present director, Juan Manuel Ugarte Elespuru.
A list of regulations was drawn up, re-establishing some of the


rules which had been abolished, and at the same time introducing
effective new ones which were needed.
The faculty is composed of heads of workshops, who are the
principal professors. The courses include those for designers,
specialities, lectures on theoretical material with complementary
and invited speakers. The study course of six years is divided into
three cycles under the new system Elementary for the first and
second years, Intermediate for the third and fourth years, and
Superior for the fifth and sixth years.
The curriculum consists of practical courses in painting and
sculpture under the direction 'of a head professor. The design
course is taught in the evening under a new teacher each year and
lasts three years. Required courses for all students for the first
four years, in theory, include History of Art for four years, Artistic
Anatomy for two years, Perspective for one year, Peruvian Culture
for one year, and Peruvian Art for two years. A special normal
section trains teachers in the plastic arts. This course may be
requested at the end of four years' study and requires two years
work, but it is given only if the student has qualified with an
adequate scholastic average. At the end of the six-year course
the student presents a thesis for graduation.
Scholarships are granted providing free tuition to those stud-
ents whose grades of the previous year warrant them. The schol-
arship given for plus excellent grades is worth 500 soles a month
from April to December. In 1961 eighteen students won this type
of scholarship. For post-graduates there is a scholarship which
entitles them to one year's study abroad within three years after
Medical and dental care as well as periodical physical examina-
tions are free to all students. The student body, whose board of
directors is elected by secret ballot, takes part in the governing
of the school. Many important foreign exhibits have been brought
to Peru under the auspices of the school; and, equally important,
the school has sent exhibits to the Biennial of Youth Exhibition in
Paris, to Dallas, Texas, to the second Biennial Hispano-Americana
Exhibition in Mexico, and a special selection of exhibits to the
Pan-American Union, in Washington, D. C.

SCULPTURE (in the Times of the Viceroys)

Sculpture was first introduced by the Spanish priests, and
many works of art were brought over from Spain for the
churches. The "Santo Cristo" (Statue of Christ) in the Lavatorio
of San Agustin Church (Plazuela de San Agustin, 225 Ica St.)

-45 -

came from Burgos, Spain, and is an exact copy of the original
by the same artist.
Among the sculptors of the times of the Viceroys, those
who made religious images were called "imagineros". There were
also the sculptors who did the ornamental work for altars,
the detail in low relief, the assemblers, gold paint decorators
and the "animadores" those who gave the images their life-
like appearance with polychrome painting, producing a brilliant
finish by rubbing the images with a lamb's bladder sponge.
Certain artists used a colorless oil, which for several days had
been purified by the sun and night air and constantly renewed
snow water.
Another very unusual type of religious image of Spanish
origin is the "candelero" (candlestick), so-called because it consists
of only head, hands and feet, placed on a stand hidden by the
material 'of the gown of the image, and on which were fixed
hair, nails and eyebrows. The gowns for religious images were
made of ample material, suggesting capricious folds and move-
ment. These gowns were hardened with glue and covered with
plaster and then painted. The candlestick statue was usually
painted in a dark color in order to show up its previously ap-
plied gold and silver leaf, which had been scratched with a
very sharp instrument to produce different designs, such as stars
or flower combinations.
In the Sacristy of San Agustin Church can be seen twenty-
eight images, the work of the Peruvian sculptor, Diego de Me-
dina, who was given this commission by the monks of the church
in April 1643. The word "estofado" (ornamented) always occurs
when referring to very fine works such as those of this Sacristy.


The most important feature of a Spanish nobleman's house was
always a beautiful patio. Living quarters were built around the
patio, utilizing the remaining ground. Two-storied residences had
a stairway built at one side of the patio (Casa de Prado Heudebert,
Jir6n Cuzco). Some residences, however, had the stairway built
directly opposite the street entrance. This was a prerogative
granted exclusively to a "Conquistador" (conqueror) and his
descendants (Casa de Aliaga), and the present Casa de Cultura.
Very few patios can be found now which have the remains
of the "derecho de cadena" (right to the chain). This consisted
of two cannons placed at either side of the staircase with a chain
stretched between then. I have it on good authority that any


criminal fleeing justice who could jump the chain was automatical-
ly immune from the law. This, I think, has the same significance
as the refuge doors in the old churches found in England.
In the nobleman's house, only his family occupied the second
floor. The ground floor was always used for servants or rented
out. No house, however small, ever lacked a garden, usually to
be found in the first patio. Up until about the middle of the
seventeenth century all balconies were made of fine wood. Iron
was then introduced and used during the eighteenth century.
Bronze came into use during the latter part of the eighteenth
century for windows as well as balconies. Glass did not appear
until the nineteenth century. The use of these new building
materials dictated the changes which took place in the Colonial


(Facing side entrance of Government Palace)

The home of the Aliaga family is one of the thirty-six houses
built in 1535, the year in which Lima was founded. Apart from
being the only one which has survived 430 years of history, it
also has the singular distinction of having belonged to the same
family all during this time.
Captain Jer6nimo de Aliaga, the 20th paternal grandfather
of the present owner of the house, was one of the illustrious
gentlemen of the conquest who helped found Lima. It was he
who initiated the traditional family history which has been main-
tained up to the present day, and his house stands as one of the
symbols of his family.
The house was built on a mound which previously had been
the prayer site of the Inca Chief of the Rimac Valley. This
accounts for its elevated position. The family occupies the second
floor, as was the custom, with the slaves' quarters on the ground
floor level. From a ground floor patio ascends a flight of marble
steps to the second floor patio, which contains some lovely marble
figures and an antique bench. Here also is found the main
entrance to the house, the door of which is a beautiful example
of Colonial woodwork. The first salon has two lovely old circular
windows built up at roof level with colored glass adornment.
Each room has its personal history. The dining room ceiling,
for instance, is laid in carved squares, richly adorned. Each one
can be removed individually for cleaning and preservation. The
adornments are all from Europe, but the door frames were made

-47 -

in Peru following the design of the typical mirror frames found
in Peru today, using small bits of European mirror.
The inner patio is very lovely There is an air of old Seville
about it. The old, old tree there has recently been cut back as
it had become so enormous that it was cutting out too much
light. In the center of this patio is a tiled fountain, singularly
interesting because it receives its water by gravity from a branch
of the Rimac River which runs underneath the house.


Jir6n Ucayali, 861

(Article translated from the book "Splendour of Old Lima"
by Jochamowitz 1958)

The beautiful Torre Tagle Palace is constructed in the very
finest Sevillian style of churrigueresque architecture, and is the
most important and imposing civil building of the Virreynal epoch.
The Arabian influence which gives it such an original character
converts it into an architectural relic. It was during the first
half of the eighteenth century that the Spanish nobleman Don
Jos6 de Tagle y Brancho started the construction of the mansion
which was to remain in his family until the first decades of this
century. In 1730 King Philip V of Spain conceded to Don Jos6
de Tagle y Brancho the title of Marqu6s de Torre Tagle, the name
which has been perpetuated in the majestic palace, and which
until his death in Madrid a few years ago was borne by Don
Jos6 Bernardo Ortiz de Zevallos Vidaurre Tagle y Panizo.
The first marquis, the sire of the superb palace of Moorish
balconies, of doors studded with bronze nails, cannons in the
entrance courtyard, blazoned entrance, and of royal privileges,
married Dofia Juliana SAnchez. Four marqueses succeeded him
in this same mansion. The second marques was Don Tadeo de
Tagle. Don Jos6 Manuel de Tagle e Isisaga, who married Dofia
Josefa Portocarrero y Zamudio, was the third, and father of the
fourth marquis, Don Jos6 Bernardo de Tagle y Portocarrero, who
was born on May 24, 1779, being the last marquis of the house,
during the late years of the Viceregal reign and the coming of
The illustrious fourth Marques de Torre Tagle was one of
those who signed the Independence Charter of the nation, pro-
claimed our liberty from the Spanish crown in Trujillo on the
29th of December 1820, the first to make by this public act the

-48 -

lawful reality and fundamental force of our liberty, as was
testified by the Liberators San Martin and Bolivar.
Don Jos6 de Tagle was President of Peru, Grand Marshal,
Gentleman of the Order of Santiago, Sergeant Major of the
famous regiment of Distinguished Volunteers of the Spanish Con-
cord of Peru (formed by the Viceroy Don Fernando Abascal y
Souza), Deputy for Lima to the Court of Cadiz; and on January
13, 1822, by protectorate decree was made Marques de Trujillo,
the title which took the place of Torre Tagle, and was in recog-
nition by General San Martin of his contribution to the indepen-
dence of the country.
As there was no male heir to carry on the name of Torre
Tagle, the palace passed to the family of Doctor Manuel Ortiz
de Zevallos y Garcia Tovar when he married the daughter of
Don Bernardo, Dofia Josefa, who lived in it until the year 1918,
when it was sold to the government and functioned for a while
as the Ministry of Marine, afterwards becoming the seat of the
Foreign Office. During the celebration of the first centenary
of the Independence it was the residence of the Extraordinary
Ambassador of the King of Spain Alfonso XIII and of the Pope,
His Eminence Cardinal Benloch.
The Marqueses Torre Tagle were the possessors of the title
Hereditary Paymasters of the Fleet of the Southern Seas. The
symbol of this office is the figurehead of a Spanish galleon which
adorns the principal patio. This was used to balance the scales
on which the gold was weighed when paying the salaries. (From
an article written by Quinto Marcio, in "El Comercio", 1959).
The balconies are constructed in four phases. First, the board
base; second, small openings for the children to see through;
third, the shutters, where the grown-ups looked out; fourth, the
ventilation. Three different epochs may be observed in the style
of balcony. The first and oldest is pure Spanish style called
"alfajor", small rectangular squares. These will be found in the
Torre Tagle palace. The second, as in the balcony of the house
of Rivera el Viejo, an example of which may be seen in front of
the Torre Tagle. The third corresponds to the French influence
with curved lines, a medallion in the center, and wreath of flow-
ers. The balcony of the Casa de Oquendo is a lovely example.


This outstanding home is truly Limefia. Situated at the side
of Santo Domingo church in Jir6n Lima, it dates from the end
of the 18th century. From the "mirador" or lookout tower the


banker, Sr. Osambela, with his telescope could contemplate the
entry and departure of the ships in Callao harbor.
In recent years the house has been completely restored under
the supervision of the very able architect, Sr. Hector Velarde.
The greatest care was taken to conserve the colonial characteris-
tics of the building and many adjustments had to be made. Where
ceilings, for instance, had been covered over with boards, these
were removed revealing the lovely woodwork underneath. The
paint work color scheme; which is a bright blue trim on a white
background, is definitely of the viceregal era.
Today the house is used as the headquarters of the "Oficina
de Turismo".


(Situated in Calle Piedra 380, Lima)

As I was passing through Jir6n Ica to Avenida Tacna my
attention was drawn to a lovely carved stairway and Spanish
tiled patio. I was bold enough to climb the stairs and pass onto
a balcony like a trespasser, but my fear vanished on beholding
a lovely sight -a legitimate Colonial house and patio with an
air of having been very much loved- as shown by the flower
pots around and the genteel atmosphere which hung over every-
thing. I made my way down, determined to find out who was the
owner of such an interesting home. The main entrance door was
very imposing, beautiful wood studded with huge bronze nails.
Inquiring at a little silversmith's across the way, I was told that
the owner, Sr. Barbieri, was a charming gentleman and always de-
lighted in showing his house to interested people. I promptly
called the number listed in the telephone directory and was
assured that I would be most welcome to see the house and its
contents and decide whether I would like to take the group of
people to see it. The following notes are from the history relat-
ed to me by Sr. Barbieri.
The house dates from the time of the foundation of Lima and
was first owned by don Antonio de Rivera, who was given a block
of land at the time of the partition of land amongst the "Conquis-
tadores" by Francisco Pizarro. The last political military governor,
the Count of Villar de Fuente, Jos6 Gonzales de la Puente, ap-
pointed by the King of Spain, lived there. It was he who paid
the royalist troops the sum of money demanded within twenty-
four hours in order to save the city from complete destruction by
pillage and fire. This was at the time that the Spanish Generals


Rodil and Canterac refused to surrender to the oncoming army
of liberation led by General San Martin, who was approaching
from the north. The Count of Villar had also placed his "hacien-
da", named "Retes", which is located in the valley of Chancay, at
Q the disposal of the General who used it as his headquarters for
planning the final assault on Lima.
The Count of Villar de Fuente was also one of those who
signed the Declaration of Independence at the City Hall in Lima.
He was a Colonel of the Royal Spanish army, Lieutenant Colonel
of the Dragoons of Lima, and head deacon of the Royal Tribune
of Consuls. Considering all these attributes, both personal and
historical, this once lovely home is ideal for maintaining Colonial
culture and keeping historical traditions alive.
The entrance roof is beautifully carved and the iron gateway
is over four hundred years old. There are four patios in all, the
first having a lovely Carrara marble fountain. The flowered
doorknobs of the rooms are all Spanish hand-painted porcelain.
The first salon was a general drawing room for both sexes, while
the second was for ladies only. The furniture in this room was
designed and made for Queen Isabel II of Bourbon, grandmother
of Alphonso XIII, last King of Spain. When the Queen was de-
throned, a Peruvian diplomat was able to purchase the furnishings
and shipped them to Peru. The ceiling was covered over with
gold over blue enamel. The magnificent altar was made by order
of the original owner of the house. Many baptisms and weddings
have taken place in front of it. The chairs, although somewhat
worn, have beautiful minute copper decorations, and the lovely
roses at the top were made by jewelers.
The second salon has a very interesting painting of one of
the crusaders. He is reputed to be one of those sent by the Queen
to search for the Cross and nails and responsible for placing the
thorns and nails on the corpses to which they belonged. Another
striking painting is that of San Francisco de Paulo, founder of the
order. The portrait on the left hand side is that of Carlos V,
Emperor of Spain at the time of the founding of Lima.
The second patio, in Sevillian style, has a beautiful fountain
of Spanish tiles. Here one can admire the beautiful fretwork
jalousies of the bedroom windows. The decorations over the
windows and those of the magnificent bronze railings are unique,
The ceiling and wood paneling of the dining room all around depict
scenes from the hunt and are truly beautiful. Here also are
marble busts of the Venus de Milo and Hermes, two beautiful
bronze urns of Florentine design and a lovely silver tea set of
Christofle, France. The third patio is very special, being tiny
and personal. The windows are all Sevillian and give an air of
Andalusia. Here is also seen an antique leather trunk, the twin
of one now in the George Washington Memorial Museum. The
lock and hasp are particularly noteworthy, as well as the false
lock on the inside.



(Jir6n Cuzco, 484)

This truly Colonial mansion merits special attention because
of the imposing iron grille doorway with the family coat of arms
above and its lovely patio. Dr. Javier Prado H. has his office in
the front of the building, and after making an appointment
through his secretary, it was here that I arranged the date for
a visit.
Dr. Prado has every right to be so proud of this lovely
family museum. The whole house is in perfect order and each
room is represented just as it was when lived in. For instance,
the Sefiora's sewing stand has every thing needed, just as though
she were working on something that particular day. The fur-
niture, the lovely portraits, paintings of historical interest, the
very beautiful chapel and the architecture of the house itself all
combine to give one the feeling of having been transported to
another world. As Dr. Prado H. himself, says: "It is a little
piece of Sevilla". Up until quite recently many christenings
and weddings took place before the altar in the chapel. The
four connecting patios are dreams. In one there is an enormous
bougainvillea vine which is years old and a lovely little Saint which
lends such an air of tranquility to the place. The floor and
benches of Sevillan tile are so worn that one can picture the
ladies and gentlemen of the olden days passing back and forth
in their picturesque garments. The bell with the rope attached
arouses the imagination. This, we were told, was used to call
the family to the dining room and everyone came running. The
main salon is a picture of daintiness and the dividing doors are
painted with lovely designs. In a room off one of the patios
is a marvelous collection of "huacos", many of them musical
according to the design. The mouse squeaks, the parrot squawks
and the owl hoots. Here we learned about the "tiatina" windows,
which can still be seen on the very old houses in Lima, but which
are fast disappearing as buildings are torn down. These windows
are divided down the middle like a pyramid cut through the center,
one half being permanently closed with glass for light only and
the other half shuttered to open up as a jalousie. When two
such windows are opened on the east and west, at roof level in
a room they form perfect airconditioning without drafts.



This old mansion, situated between Jir6n Ancash and Azan-
garo on the right-hand side of San Francisco church, was formerly
the property of the heirs of Dr. Marcos Nicolini. For many years
it served as a girl's school. In October of 1962 it was purchased
by the Peruvian government in order to restore it to its former
beauty, and it now functions as the "Casa de Cultura". The res-
toration, done by one of Lima's famous architects, is superb. It is
of this house that Ricardo Palma writes in the "Casa de Pilatos"


From "Tradiciones" by Ricardo Palma

In front of the small chapel of the Virgin of the Miracles,
part of San Francisco church, stands a house of singular architec-
ture, the only one of its kind in Lima. Although it has a spacious
patio, it envelops one in a definite feeling of humidity. It has the
air of a cloister, feudal castle, and municipal palace all in one.
That the house belonged to one of Pizarro's companions is proved
by the fact that the main staircase is situated facing the street
entrance. This was a prerogative granted by royal decree to
the conquistadoress" of outstanding actions. Today the houses
with such a staircase do not number even six. Any foreigners
passing through the street of Milagros will involuntarily stop
before this house and glance inside, and the strange thing is
that the "Limefiians" do the same thing. It is a house that
breathes fantasy.
For the last four or five generations the house has been known
by a name that, invites the imagination. Our parents and grand-
parents knew it by the name of "La Casa de Pilatos" (The house
of Pilate). Could it be that Pontius Pilate was ever a householder
in Lima? No, according to the deeds which the present owners
have placed at my disposal to satisfy my curiosity, the Prefect
of Jerusalem was never here. Why then the name? The house
was built in 1590, just half a century aftei the founding of Lima.
The Superior of the Jesuit priests who drew the plan was an


intimate friend of a Spanish merchant by the name of Esquivel,
the owner of the land. With wood and bricks left over from
the construction of San Francisco church, which Esquivel had
bought for a song, he ordered the house built by the same Jesuit
architect who had built the church known today as Saint Peters.
It was of definitely solid construction to resist earthquakes. By
means of a subterranean passage six blocks long, the house was
connected with the church occupied by the Jesuits.
Up until 1635 the house served as a hostelry for miners and
Portuguese merchants. And here comes the reason for the name.
The story is told that in the month of August of that year, on a
certain Friday evening around midnight, there passed by a wild-
living young man who was definitely the worse for drink. The
porter had evidently been careless about his work and had left
the street door slightly ajar. Peeping inside, the curious drunk
saw lights upstairs, and hearing the murmuring of voices, thought
he had found another free party and had the nerve to pass
through the patio and climb the stone staircase. The intruder
passed around the corridors until he came to a window with
shutters, which enabled him to see into the room. It was a
grand salon completely draped in black with a life-size crucifixion
standing under an archway, lighted with candles on each side.
Seated in an armchair was one of the richest merchants in the
city, Manuel Bautista P6rez and around the room were about
one hundred of his compatriots, listening to a discourse which
completely eluded the spy. When P6rez had finished speaking,
each of those present moved in turn from his seat and, advancing
toward the crucifix, struck the figure of Christ a resounding blow
with a large palm leaf. P6rez, even as Pilate, with his presence
authorized this degrading action. The spy did not wait to see
any more profanity, but escaping as fast as possible, he ran to
denounce the act to the Office of the Holy Inquisition, which
within a few hours had arrested more than a hundred Portuguese
Jews. The Limefiians immediately gave the name of "Pilate"
to Manuel Bautista P&rez, and hence the name for the house.
In the public library you can find the original papers deal-
ing with the case where P6rez is named chief Rabbi of the
Synagogue in the calle Milagros and of the trial which lasted
for three years. P6rez and ten of his co-religionists were burned
at the stake in 1639 and another fifty were condemned to prison,
having all their property and money confiscated by the Office
of the Inquisition.



(Located on Jir6n Ancash at the end of Avenida Abancay)

This old house was originally built in 1787 by the family of
the Count of Puente y Pellafio y Casa Doria. The coat of arms
over the entrance door to the house itself displays thirteen coins.
The history of these can be traced by looking up the family history
in Genoa, Italy. It seems that the coat of arms started with five
or six coins and was added to as the family fortunes improved.
This, Colonial house has the distinction of being built com-
pletely of bricks, a rather unusual occurrence. The doors and
window grilles are the originals. The first family to occupy the
house was the L6pez Flores, Gallo de la Oliva y de La Estrada,
the branch which later formed the head of the house of the Counts
of Puente Pellafio. Years later in the time of the Republic,
through matrimonial connections, it passed into the hands of the
ancestors of the engineer Morawski, the P6rez Rudolfos, who pos-
sessed the title of Marquis de Casa Doria. In 1906 it was willed
to the Congregation of Our Lady of "O" with a chapel situated
in St. Peter's, Lima. "The Beneficencia de Lima" (The Board for
Charities in Lima) is the administrator of the funds accruing from
the rental of the house. Although nothing can erase the memories
of the meetings in the lovely salons of the first Civil Party, whose
leader was don Manuel y Lavalle, of the drinking fountains for
the horses, the minute cobble stones in the patio, or of the lovely
roofs and doors, the most significant reminder today of all the
romance of the past is evinced by the lovely jasmine bush in the
patio between the dining rooms and the kitchen.


del Sr. Jos6 A. de la Puente

(on Juan Acevedo at the end of San Martin, Magdalena)

This house, with its tremendously high walls painted "Inca
pink", its coat of arms, and two cannon stood on end outside the


main entrance (signifying that the family in the olden days were
granted "derecho de cadena" the right of the chain) naturally
attracted my attention.
It occupies one whole block. On inquiring at a small door
as to the owner's name I was shown into a small patio, and, while
waiting for someone to attend me, peaked through the next door.
What a charming sight! A lovely old-fashioned Spanish court-
yard quite large and completely paved with cobblestones. The
guardian very kindly let me walk around it. The center circle
is decorated with old trees and geraniums. At one side is an old
well constructed in 1639 and an unusual stone pillar with iron
rings attached, used for tethering horses. An old-fashioned car-
riage much the worse for wear stands under some trees,
and it is easy to imagine the ladies lifting their voluminous skirts
to reach to two steps of entry on one side. On the other side of
the patio stands an old work cart with the shaft through the
center for the oxen. A little chapel stands in the courtyard and
the present house, which was built in 1653, has been completely
restored by the present occupant, who is a grandson of the late
President don Manuel Candamo. I am told that the house is to
be declared a National Monument. If so, it will probably be pos-
sible to visit it by calling the family to make arrangements.


(Porras Osores, 350, S. I. Back of Country Club) Tel. 20483

A very agreeable way of getting to know something about
Peruvian folklore in a typical and beautiful Peruvian home is to
visit this house. La Sefiora Angelica is probably the first person
in Peru to open a private home to tourists and interested local
residents. For groups of fifteen persons, more or less, arrangements
may be made for a program of Peruvian music and dances with
original costumes and instruments. Cock fights can also be ar-
ranged (without blood letting as no blades are attached). Cocktails
and snacks are served at a reasonable charge. The house was
designed by the late Sr. Camino Brent, a world famous Peruvian
artist, and brother-in-law of tTeSefiora. It is a Mlending of modern,
Spanish colonial, Inca, and pre-Inca cultures. Some of the fur-
niture has been in the family for many generations. There are,
for example, a beautiful chest from the time of the conquest,
ceramics one thousand years old, and paintings from the Cuzco
school of art. The fireplace in the dining room is decorated with
part of the old stock used as a punishing block for negro slaves.


The sitting room has a lovely "torno" from one of the grape pres-
ses or olive mills. The works of art are numerous and include
paintings by artists such as Sabogal, Julia Codesido, Camino Brent,
and the Mexican, Jos6 Luis Cueva. The garden, with its exotic
and strangely formed plants, has a tropical air and makes a de-
lightful spot for watching the show. Enormous huacos adorn the
patio, and everything combines to make a lovely setting for a
happy experience.


(History of the trees and the mill)

The olive press which you see set up in its original form
in front of the Municipal Hall in the "Olivar de San Isidro",
is over 200 years old, and was brought from the valley of Camana
by the employees whom the Lord Mayor of that time, Dr. Felipe
Tudela y Barreda, had sent out to look for artefacts used in
the past in relation to the consumption of olives. The Sefiora
Luzmila Justo de Ochoa graciously made a present of this very
interesting, press to the suburb of San Isidro, and it is now a
monument in a National Park. The way it works, as explain-
ed to me by the engineer Sefior Garcia, is fascinating. A plaque
gives, in part, the story written by Garcilaso de la Vega of the
olive culture in Peru.
When the Spaniards were about to leave Peru they ordered
the trees to be cut back to the height of a man, thinking that
this would kill them, but one little branch sprouted between
the cut in the main trunk, and that is why today you see a thick
growth waving in the air from a sturdy trunk. The olive is a
tree which "has its years", as the saying goes. Every third
year a regular crop is taken. As in Lima proper you have
defenders of old balconies, so in San Isidro you have defenders
of the olive trees, the most understanding and enthusiastic
being Don Luis Alayza y Paz Soldan, whose house, situated on
the corner of the street by that name, stands among some of the
most beautiful and oldest of the original olive trees. It is hard
to tell whether his house was built among the trees or the trees
were planted inside the walls.
You may be interested to know that the name of this district
is taken from that of the patron saint of all farm workers: San
Isidro Labrador.



From "Tradiciones" by Ricardo Palma

The period of governorship by Andr6s Hurtado de Men-
doza, Marqu6s de Cafiete, was without doubt accompanied by
more religious fanaticism than any other time. I don't say this
because of the number of religious houses founded, nor the
sumptuous fiestas, nor yet because the rich left all their fortunes
to the church, impoverishing thereby their rightful heirs, nor
because, as the "Conquistadores" thought, that no matter what
wrong they had committed all could be washed away with a
good donation to the church for the masses to be said for their
souls at the time of death, but rather because the church was
taking a lively interest in everything, and was even excommun-
icating people so that someone could get even with them.
At this time an excommunication was passed which astounded
all and sundry. 1550-156,0 could be called the period of the
chicken, bread, wine, olive oil and mice. The chroniclers say
that at this time Dofia Maria de Escobar, wife of the Spaniard
Diego de Chavez, brought from Spain half a sack of wheat which
she shared with various neighbours. From the first crop various
amounts were sent to Chile and other places in the Americas.
With the wheat arrived the mice.
The Indians called these little pests "hucuchas", which
meant, "from the sea". Fortunately the Spaniard Montenegro
had brought some cats over in 1537 and it is well known that
Diego de Almagro bought one for 600 pesos. The Indians, not
being able to pronounce "miz-miz" as the Spaniards did, baptized
them with the name "Mitchitus". There was very little wine
to be had at this time and approximately 15 lbs cost 500 pesos.
Then Don Francisco de Carabantes brought from the Canary
Islands the first stalks of black grapes which were planted in
Peru. It is said that even today (1840) there still exists on a
certain farm in Ica a grapevine which is of the original planted
by Carabantes, and which still gives a fine crop of grapes.
Human injustice! The drunkards always bless Noah who
planted the first vine, and never think to bless Carabantes who
was the Noah of our country.
Having obtained bread and wine we now lacked the oil and
in 1559 Don Antonio Ribera embarked in Seville with great
care 100 olive stalks. Don Antonio was a man of great import-
ance in Lima and had a coat of arms of great beauty and strength.


He was a famous soldier and after the rebellion of Giron left
Spain and was named procurator of Peru. He was the owner of
a huge farm which we know by the name of "The Lost Farm".
He possessed a great fortune which he acquired from the sale
of figs, melons, oranges, peaches and other fruits, which before
the coming of the Spaniards, were unknown in Peru. The first
pomegranate grown here was carried in procession, and given
almost as much importance as the Holy Sacrament and was
phenomenal in size.
Unfortunately for Ribera the trip from Sevilla took nine
months and he found on reaching Peruvian shores that only
three of the olive stalks were still good for planting. He took
great care cultivating them and watched over them with more
love than his gold pieces, and this mind you although he
was known as the greatest miser. So that they would not be
out of his care for one moment he planted them in a little
garden at the back of his house, and put two huge Negro slaves
and a cage of vicious dogs to guard them twenty-four hours
a day.
Those little olive stalks had more people in love with them
than a beautiful girl, and as you all know, to all men who fall
in love with someone else's possessions, be it a lovely woman
or anything worthwhile, there is no obstacle which cannot be
One morning Don Antonio got up at dawn, not having been
able to close his eyes all night, because of the feeling that some-
thing disastrous was happening. After crossing himself he made
his way to the garden in dressing gown and slippers. Upon his
arrival there his heart gave a terrible jump and almost left his
mouth, together with the violent exclamation he made, "Por Dios;
me han robado". ("Oh, God, they have robbed me".). He then
fell to the ground unconscious. One of the stalks had disap-
peared. That day Ribera almost crippled all the dogs, and the
whip went crazy amongst the slaves who had to pay for their
master's anger.
At last, tired of punishments and enquiries which were
getting him nowhere, he went to his good friend the Archbishop
and told him of his misfortune, alongside of which the mis-
fortunes of Job were as nothing. What I relate now is not just
a story but a true fact.
That day all the church bells rang as they had never rung
before, and after many imposing ceremonies and rites the Arch-
bishop passed major excommunication on the person who had
stolen the olive stalk. But still nothing happened. The thief
must have been one of those unbelievers of which there were
plenty in this era of gas and vapor. In those days an excom-
munication weighed many tons on the conscience of a person.
Three years went by and the olive stalk did not appear. It
is true that it didn't make the slightest difference to Ribera as


the two remaining stalks reproduced so many times that he had
plenty to sell and give away to friends. I imagine that the
famous olive groves of Camana were founded by a stalk from
"The Lost Farm".
One day there presented himself to the Archbishop a gentle-
man with letters of recommendation, who had just arrived on
a boat from Valparaiso and, according to the secret of confession,
revealed that he was the thief of the olive stalk, which
he had taken with great secrecy to his farm in Chile, and even
though under the awful ban of excommunication the stalk had
flourished and produced a famous olive grove. As this confession
was made under secrecy, I cannot tell you the name of the young
man, but he was the son of a very well respected family of
our neighboring republic. All I can say is that the excommun-
ication had been a little fly buzzing around in his head.
The Archbishop agreed to remove the ban on condition that
he replace the stalk in the same mysterious way in which he
had stolen it. He brightened up immediately and how did he
overcome the difficulty? Well, one morning when Don Antonio
visited his little garden he found together with the long-lost
stalk a leather bag containing a thousand duros (gold pieces)
and a note without signature asking a Christian pardon, which
Don Antonio was only too pleased to give when he opened
the little bag and let the gold pieces trickle into his hand. The
hospital of Santa Ana which was begun at this time also re-
ceived a legacy of 2000 pesos which no one knew anything about
except the Archbishop.
The truth of the whole matter is that the person who came
off best in the whole business was Don Antonio because in
Sevilla the stalk had cost him only ten cents.



Every year usually in April -- a fascinating horse show
is held here. The various owners of the famous Peruvian "caballo
de paso" compete in many different categories. These horses,
which are a cross between Arab and Andalusian breeds, have the
peculiarity of moving both right legs together, then both left
legs. This makes for floating-on-air saddle riding most useful
in caring for large haciendas. The horses are also very adept at
cutting figures and keeping pace to music truly a delight to



Home of Sr. Dr. C6sar Revoredo
(Salaverry, 3052)

The model of the Plaza de Armas of 1860 took Dr. C6sar
Revoredo two years to build. Dr. Revoredo did it because he
"loves the beauties and the old tradition of Lima, which he
hopes to preserve". The replica stands as a reminder, Dr. Revoredo
feels, for Peruvians to hold onto the best traditions of the past;
and it also reminds us that even with the changes wrought by
wars, earthquakes and the passage of more than 400 years, Lima
still has the finest Spanish Colonial plaza on the South American


(See listing on back pages for addresses and hours)


This is the largest national museum of this type and a "must"
for those interested in archeology. It houses a great collection of
Pre-Incaic and Incaic ceramics, textiles, stone-carvings, etc. Here
the most complete specimens of the famous Paracas mantles may
be seen. "Mummies", skulls showing brain operations, along with
the ancient instruments used, etc., are displayed.


(adjoining the above museum)

This museum is located in the villa built by Viceroy Pezuela
and occupied by San Martin (1821-1822) and Bolivar (1823-1826).


It exhibits objects of a historic and artistic nature pertaining to
the period of Independence and the beginning of the Republic.
Outstanding among the exhibits are the original papers of the
Surrender of Ayacucho (1824) and of the Surrender of Real Fe-
lipe (1826). There is a gallery of oil portraits of the viceroys and
one of the presidents of Peru. Among the famous paintings
displayed are the Oath of Independence by Lepiani, Alfonso Ugar-
te by A. Morazzani, The Carmelite Martyrs by Baca Flor, the
Shooting of Maria Bellido by Cisneros, and an interesting oil re-
presenting a view of the Walls of Lima.


The Real Felipe of Callao

This fort named for King Philip II of Spain was begun in
1747 and finished in 1774. The long and obstinate struggles be-
tween Spain and the pirates of Holland, France, and England made
the construction of a fort at Callao very necessary. Every port on
the coast of Peru was a temptation, as from them boats left for
Spain loaded with unbelievable wealth. Between 1567 and 1763
no less than 37 invasions of the southern seas took place. The
first walls of Callao built between 1622-1629, together with a fort
defended by cannon cast in Lima, were destroyed by an earth-
quake before they could be used. The restorations and amplifica-
tions of the defenses included 13 emplacements each named after
a saint and provided with bronze cannon.
But nature once again undertook to destroy man's work, and
in 1746 a terrible earthquake and tidal wave totally destroyed
Callao and the greater part of Lima was left in ruins, including
the walls of the city. The again reconstructed fort consisted of a
simple rampart crowned by artillery which completely covered
the anchorage in the bay.
There were 188 bronze cannon and 124 iron cannon. It was
pentagonal in form, measuring 1,580 metres on the exterior. The
fort has been the site of many heroic battles, the most prolonged
of which was the siege of January 3rd, 1825 to January 23rd, 1826,
during which time the General Jos6 Ram6n Rodil was in com-
mand of the Spanish troops inside the fort. When further resis-
tance became useless Rodil surrendered to the Peruvian General
Salom, who on asking his Commander in Chief what punishment
should be meted out to Rodil received this noble reply from Gen-
eral Sim6n Bolivar: "Heroism never merits punishment, and
generosity is the prerogative of the victor. I know you have a


thousand reasons to be furious with Rodil, but think how proud
you would feel had he been a patriot". Noble words from a noble
heart. Rodil was given honorable military safe conduct to Spain.
The Museum Real Felipe was founded in 1925. In 1944 Capt. Jorge
Patifio adapted the present precinct and this was inaugurated by
Pres. Manuel Prado. The museum occupies six rooms where the
trophies and relics of Peruvian military history are displayed.


This museum is situated on Jir6n Chira in the Rimac district
and functions in what was once the country estate of don Pedro
Carrillo Albornoz, gentleman of the Order of Montesa and Colonel
of the Royal Army of His Majesty, the King of Spain. It. is usually
possible on paying the entrance fee to obtain a catalogue printed
by the Ministry of Public Education, giving the history of the
Quinta de Presa.
The house was built around 1760 in accordance with the
architecture in vogue at that time, French Baroque, or Rococo,
during the governorship of the Viceroy Manuel Amat y Juniet,
and is now the only building of civic architecture of its type
left standing in this proud City of Kings. Around the mansion
is woven the legend, without foundation, that it was the residence
of the famous singer, Micaela Villegas, better known by her
nickname of La Perricholi, supposedly the companion and mistress
of the Viceroy Amat. The property carries the name of Presa
in memory of the former owner of the ground, Isabel de la
Presa, an aunt of the builder of the house.
It is interesting to pass by the Paseo de Aguas and the
Alameda de Los Descalzos on the way to the Quinta. The Viceroy
Amat had the arch for the fountain built. it is said, in order
to carry the water to the pool for his mistress to bathe with
her ladies-in-waiting. Legend has it, too, that for their refresh-
ment during the heat of the day, Indian "Chasqui" runners would
arrive with loads of solid ice from Ticlio, near Oroya, which is
five hours train journey from Lima! The brewery on the left
stands in these days on the original site of the Perricholi
house of that time. As one passes down the Alameda de Los
Descalzos, one recalls the tradition of Maundy Thursday, when
all the young society ladies of Lima dressed in the poorest rags
they could find, and with their finest jewels and shawls, made
the pilgrimage along with the city's destitute to receive a bowl
of beggars' soup from the priests. This avenue at that time

-63 -

was a lovely one and was the meeting place of all the best
people of Lima. Efforts are being made now to restore it to
its original beauty.


From "Tradiciones" by Ricardo Palma

Micaela Villegas (La Perricholi) was a child not as poetic
as drawn by Jos6 Antonio de Lavalle, nor as prosaic as said
by a contemporary, who was the author of an article called
"The Drama of the Palanganas". This was a very damaging work
of a hundred pages, published in 1776 against the Viceroy Amat,
soon after he retired from his post, and which was prohibited
by decree to be circulated or read under penalty of severe
punishment. Miquita received the meager education which was
allowed girls in those days, from her very poor parents. Blessed
with an ardent imagination and a wonderful memory, she could
recite with great childish charm romances of the age and comic
scenes from the then famous authors. She played the harp with
ability, and accompanying herself on the guitar, could sing with
a splendid air all the popular songs of the day. She was just
a little more than twenty years of age when she first stepped
onto the stage in Lima, and from that night on she was the
idol of the public.
Was she a beauty? No! Not if we understand beauty by
regularity of features, with the resulting harmony. But if grace
and attractiveness are beauty, then undoubtedly Miquita was
worthy of enslaving all men of good taste. Of a small body.
somewhat thickset, her movements were full of vivaciousness.
Her small, slightly dark face was disfigured by many scars from
smallpox, which she cleverly disguised with make-up. Her eyes
were small, black as coal, and really animated. Her hair was
profuse and her feet and hands microscopic. Her nose was not
at all well formed, rather what we call "fiata" (flat). A tiny birth-
mark over the upper lip made her mouth irresistible. It was
rather full and showed tiny teeth which shone like ivory.
Her neck was lovely, her shoulders exciting, and her bust in
full bloom. With such perfections and imperfections she could
pass, even today, for a "buena moza" or a fine woman. This
is how she was described sometime ago for us by an impartial
and prosaic old man, who had known her in the time of her
splendor, and which is very much the same as Lavalle's gallant


account of her. Add to this the fact that she dressed elegantly,
with refined taste, and had all the piquancy of the true "Limefia".
The Viceroy Amat had recently taken over the government
of Peru when he met at the theatre Micaela Villegas, who was
the current darling of the stage and in all the glory of her
youth. Miquita was a fresh little chicken and the sexagenarian
Viceroy, who because of his white hair thought himself irrestible,
fell completely under her spell. He paid more attention to her
during fourteen years, than would a young man of twenty,
taking no notice of the murmurs of the starchy, long-necked
Lima society, which was very exaggerated and two-faced. The
lovestruck Viceroy usually spent his Sundays with his nephew
at his residence in Miraflores, and on Saturday afternoons it
was not unusual to see him leave the palace in his gold coach,
taking the Perricholi with him. Sometimes she was dressed as
a man, mounted on horseback and with two attending gentle-
men, and at other times she was dressed in ultrafeminine clothes,
riding in the carriage with the Viceroy. She was especially fond
of a sky blue skirt with gold edging and a hat with many
feathers. Miquita was a very genteel horsewoman. Amat was
not well liked in Lima even though he was responsible for
enlarging the city. It may be for this reason that the "Limefias"
exaggerated his little sins, and bad tongues among his contem-
poraries even said that he only had the Paseo de Aguas built
to please his ladylove. Her splendid house is the one we know
today, which stands near the Alameda de los Descalzos right at
the foot of the river [Backus & Johnston Brewery]. He also
projected the building of a bridge at Barranco where the "puente"
Balta stands today. One writer of the times, destroying Amat's
character in both private and public life, paints him as the most
insatiably greedy man for power and money and the most
cynical fraud where the royal treasury funds were concerned.
He writes as follows: "The annual income of Amat as Viceroy
was sixty thousand "pesos", and more than twelve thousand for
gratifications from the branches of the Crusades, "Estancos," etc.,
which in fourteen years and nine months of governing brings
in 1,080,000 "pesos." Calculate also 300,000 "pesos" more or
less each year which he gets from the sale of seventy-six govern-
orships, twenty-one royal offices, and all the innumerable other
placements for which he received at least 3,000 "duros" (gold
coins) as a gift, and then there were always the unimportant
little jobs for anyone who had 20,000 "pesos" in his pockets. With
all these incomes, and all those of which we do not hear, in
fourteen years of governorship he could not have collected less
than five million, to say nothing of all the ounces of powdered
gold which his counselors presented him with on his birthday
for small favors done."
The same malicious writer says that the only reason he
was so vigorously just with the thieves Ruda and Pulido was


because he did not want competition in the field. He also stirred
up a lot of ill feeling because of his attempt to reduce the area
of the monasteries and sell the other piece of land, also to open
up streets by cutting through any convent which occupied more
than one block of land. But the cries of protest that went up
made him give up the idea. You cannot say that he wasn't a
good Christian, when you consider that he spent 200,000 "pesos"
to rebuild the tower of Santo Domingo and delineate the "camerin"
of the "Virgen de las Mercedes" out of his own salary. He also
made the plans for the church of the Nazarenas and personally
directed the work of the bricklayers and carpenters. As later
against Abascal, there also rose the rumor against Amat that,
being unloyal to his king, he was hoping to make plans for the
independence of Peru and crown himself king. This gossip was
absolutely without foundation. But observe here that in order
to satisfy my mania for historical gossip, I am forgetting that
the "Perricholi" is the theme of this "Tradici6n". "A sin confessed
is almost forgiven."
In 1773 the owner and producer of the Lima theatre was
an actor by the name of Maza, who had contracted Miquita
for 150 "pesos" a month (about the least he could possibly pay
her!). Certainly Villegas, the mistress of an opulent and gener-
ous man, had no need to appear on the stage; but the theatre
was her passion and delight, and before giving that up she
would have preferred to break off her relationship with the
Viceroy. It seems that the comic producer in distributing the
parts gave preferences to a certain new young actress known
as Inesilla, preferences which made Miquita sick with rage. One
night during the presentation of a comedy in which Maza took
the part of the hero and Miquita the heroine, half way through
one scene Maza murmured in a low voice; "More soul, woman,
more soul! Inez could express that much better." Her rage
boiled over and forgetting that she was facing the public, she
lifted a small fan which she carried on her wrist and struck the
impertinent actor across the face. Down came the curtain. The
public was outraged and cried, "To the jail with the comedienne,
to the jail." The Viceroy, with a face redder than a cooked
crab, abandoned his box, and the function concluded in a fist
fight. That night When the city was absolutely quiet the Vice-
roy made his way to the house of his mistress and said; "After
the scandal you made, everything is over between us, and you
should thank me that I don't make you go onto the stage tomor-
row on your kness and ask pardon of the public. Adi6s, Perri-
choli!" And without paying any attention to her tears Amat
turned his back and made his way back to the palace, determin-
ed to follow the advice of a certain poet who said, "When you
put out your cigar, never relight it; and when you fight with
a girl never care for her again." As I have pointed out on
another occasion, Amat spoke with a very marked Catalonian

-66 -

accent, and when he derided his mistress he had called her
Perra-chola (Dog-bitch), but as he had no teeth the words sounded
like Perricholi. This was the origin of her nickname. What a
shame they didn't have newspapers or gazettes in his time!
What a time the chroniclers would have had writing up every
grain of information for the public and theatre goers. Have
patience, I have had to be content with what information I could
get from an anonymous author. Amat passed many months
without seeing his mistress, and she didn't appear in the theatre
for fear of the public taking revenge. But time calms everything,
and through the good offices of a friend, Pepe Estacio and more
than anything a father's love, the warm ashes from the fire
began to glow. Ah! I forgot to tell you that the love between
the Perricholi and the Viceroy had borne fruit. In the patio of
the house on Puente Amaya you could sometimes see a beautiful
little boy dressed luxuriously with a red sash across his chest,
imitating those used by the gentlemen of the royal order of San
Jenaro. From the balcony the grandmother would shout to this
little boy. "Get in out of the sun, little fellow; you're not just
anybody, but rather the son of a great man." Well, the lovers
finally made up, and, if I can believe a certain writer who had
some inside information, the reconciliation took place on Septem-
ber 17, 1775. But it was also necessary to reconcile the Perri-
choli with her public, who had almost forgotten the happen-
ings of a year and a half ago. The public is always short-
memoried and applauds today those that yesterday they whistled
and threw things at. Maza was completely cured of the shame
which he had suffered from the blow delivered by his leading
lady with a few presents she sent him. The public always hook-
ed by clever agents, was impatiently waiting to applaud its favor-
ite actress. In effect, on the 4th of November, just a month
and a half after the reconciliation of the lovers, the Perricholi
made her appearance on the stage and before the play sang a
new couplet which was very much to the public's liking. That
night she received the greatest ovation which had ever been
rendered in our theatre. The picaresque author adds that
Miquita seemed to be timid on entering the stage, but that the
Viceroy gave her courage by saying to her from his box, "Eh!
Don't be a chola. 'Valor', and sing well." But the one who
was unhappy because of all this was Inesilla, who during the
year and a half of the eclipse of her rival had been acting as
first lady. She couldn't resign herself to being second to Perri-
choli and ran away to Lurin, a little village about 30 kilometros
from Lima. They arrested her and brought her back, and the
only way that she could get out of jail was by breaking her
contract and with that, her future. Amat was relieved of office
in 1776, and while he was preparing to leave the palace many
couplets were written about him, some lamenting his leaving
and others rejoicing. Lavalle, Ridigdet in "L'Amerique Espag-


nole," and Mfrimee in his comedy, "The Carriage of the Holy
Sacrament," all refer to the fact that when the king of Naples,
afterwards Charles III of Spain, conceded Amat the grand order
of San Jenaro (which by the way, was celebrated in Lima with
wonderful parties and even a bullfight in the Plaza de Armas),
the Perricholi had the audacity to attend these parties in a
carriage drawn by a double team of mules, a special privilege
of the titled Castilians. She realized her intent amidst great
scandal on the part of the aristocrats of Lima; she drove through
the streets of the Alameda in a superb coach covered in gold and
adorned with beautiful paintings, drawn by four mules conduct-
ed by footmen, brilliantly dressed and adorned with silver galloon,
equal to the footmen of the highest families. Then as she was
returning to her house, radiantly beautiful and savoring the
pleasure of vanity satisfied, she met on the street of San Lazaro
a priest of the parish who was taking the Blessed Sacrament
to a dying person. In her heart she suddenly realized the terrific
contrast between the splendor of her life as a courtesan and
the poverty of the man of God, of her human pride and his
divine humbleness, and descending rapidly from her coach, she
made the poor priest get in with his previous burden. Weeping
tears of tenderness, she accompanied the Holy of Holies, drag-
ging her laces and brocades through the streets, not wishing to
profane the carriage which had been purified by the presence
of God. She then and there made a present of the coach, its
fittings, reins and footmen to the priest of San Lazaro. This
story is correct except in one detail, as given by Lavalle. It was
not during the parties given for the Viceroy that she gave her
coach away, but rather during the fiesta of the Porcitincula
(Maundy Thursday), which the padres of the Descalzos Church
celebrated in the Alameda named after them, and to which
she had gone that afternoon, along with all the Limefiian
aristocracy in their finest jewels and carriages. It is less than
twenty years ago that I myself saw the carriage of the Perricholi
in the garden of a house on the Alameda where it was on view
as a curiosity. To me it was very heavy and ugly and the
passing of time had rendered it quite useless. When Amat
retired to Spain, where at the age of eighty he married one
of his nieces, the Perricholi said good-bye to the theatre for good.
By taking the habit of the Carmelite nuns and subjecting herself
to the austere customs of the order she was able to forget in
time the scandals of her youth. Her treasures she consecrated
to the help of the unfortunate, and when, covered with the bless-
ings of the poor whose misery she relieved with a generous hand,
she died in 1809 or 1812 in the house on the Alameda, she was
accompanied by unanimous sentiments, and left very good
memories amongst the Lima poor.



This museum has a permanent exhibition of lovely paintings
from all over the world displayed on the second floor. Many of
these are by famous Peruvian artists. Outstanding among them are
those of Baca Flor and Ignacio Merino whose paintings cannot be
seen in any other museum in the world.
Ceramics and textiles of past cultures of Peru may be studied
in another section of the building.
Of particular interest, at the top of the first stairway, is the
huge painting of the "Death of Atahualpa." All of the details
are so vivid that the figures seem to be alive.
The ground floor is used during the year for especial exhibi-
tions, frequently organized by the foreign embassies. At the present
time the "Gold of Peru" is on show. This marvelous exhibit is
to be shown in three stages, each lasting several months. Every
lover of fine art in its many different forms will delight in con-
templating the beautiful jewelry, gold masks, textiles, and ceramics.


This is a fine collection of etchings and paintings on bull-
fighting owned by Sefor Don Fernando Berckemeyer and situated
on Calle Matavilela. Here is found a very typical "casa Limefia"
(Lima colonial home), which has been beautifully reconstructed
by Sefior H6ctor Velarde, one of Perf's outstanding architects,
to house Mr. Berkemeyer's magnificent collection. Permission
was obtained to visit it from Sefior Luis Berkemeyer.
Most of these works are astounding to those persons who
know even a little about the art of bullfighting. So many questions
come to mind that a guide well educated in this art is essential
in order to explain all the fine points of the pictures.
Here is the introduction to a famous book which gives one
a very good idea of what bullfighting really is, and not what so
many people imagine it to be:
"He who would understand the purpose of bullfighting should
take into consideration that the festival is not merely a pastime
debatable from moral, pedagogical, esthetic, and sentimental points
of view, but must accept that it is a fact of profound meaning in


the Spanish way of life, and possessing roots so deep and extensive
that there is no social or artistic activity from the language to
industry or commerce, where traces of it cannot be found."
We know that ancient peoples such as the Cretans practic-
ed games with bulls, leaping over their backs, and performing all
kinds of acrobatic tricks, but the actual fighting of the bulls finds
its origin in Spain. The reason for this is "Bos Taurus Ibericus,"
the bull indigenous only to the Iberian Peninsula. Most people
do not realize that the fighting bull is a race apart from the
domestic animal. The savage "toro bravo" and the placid "toro
manso" are as different as a cobra from a gopher snake.
The fighting bulls are born to fight, never trained, tortured
or starved as people will try to have one believe. This species of
bull, "toro bravo," is the only animal suitable for the arena.
The Romans imported these wild bulls from Spain for their
Colosseum orgies, but it was the Arabs who gave real impetus to
bullfighting following their victory over the Goths. It began as
sporting chase after vicious herds of fighting bulls in the woods,
the horsemen lancing the animals as the bulls charged them. Sup-
posedly the celebrated cavalier, "El Cid Campeador" (the cham-
pion, Cid) was the first person to participate in organized bull
festivals in enclosures.


In 1962 a very pleasing "traditional" restaurant was opened
beside one of the entrances to the old bullring. In atmosphere it
has a little of Madrid and lots of Seville which, combined with
the excellent decorations, produces that delightful unmistakable
Peruvian-Spanish air. Many dedicated "aficionados" like to eat
there before witnessing the afternoon performance. The Lima
season for bullfights is usually October and November, but you
may find "novilladas" or apprentice fights on Sunday afternoons
throughout the year. Should you decide to try the restaurant you
are entitled to wander around the splendid Museo Taurino which
adjoins it. Here you may contemplate the history of the "Fiesta
Brava" from the first programs issued down to the last donation
of a famous matador's "Traje de Luces" (suit of lights). Many
wonderful photographs of the lidia are shown around the walls.
It is altogether a most rewarding visit. The museum is open to
the public on weekdays for an admission fee of ten Soles.



From "Tradiciones" by Ricardo Palma
The people of Lima have always had a great affection for
bullfights. My notes come from old men who could talk of nothing
else but the Royal Fiestas, held in the Plaza Mayor (the Plaza de
Armas of today) to solemnly celebrate the ascension of Charles
IV to the throne of Spain, or the entrance of different Viceroys
into the city.
The first bullfight was held in 1540, on Monday, the 29th of
March, the second day of the Feast of the Resurrection, to celebrate
the consecration of the Holy Oils by Padre Vicente Valverde. This
took place in the Plaza de Armas, starting at one o'clock in the
afternoon, and three young bulls were played. Don Francisco
Pizarro himself killed the second bull from horseback.
In 1559 the Municipalidad ordered four days in the year set
aside for this diversion: the Feast of Kings, Saint John, Saint
James, and the Ascension. The contractor who won the contract
to build the stands and galleries around the Plaza made a grand
profit from the renting of the seats. In these times the public
market was situated in the Plaza and on the days of the bull-
fights everything was transferred to the smaller plazas and side
On the day of a bullfight the following little ceremony took
place. In the morning two or three small bulls, with their horns
shaved, were let loose in the Plaza for the delight of the public.
This lasted until ten o'clock. At two in the afternoon the Viceroy
left the Palace with a large committee, all of whom were mounted
on superb horses and magnificently caparisoned. While they rode
around the Plaza the ladies showered them with flowers from
the balconies, and the people who occupied scaffolding and any
other vantage point in front of the Cathedral, cheered until they
were hoarse. Fifteen minutes later the Viceroy took his seat on
the terrace of the Palace, under an elegant canopy, and threw-
into the Plaza the key to the bull ring, shouting, "Long live the
King." The key was retrieved by a gentleman who had been
chosen for this honor beforehand, and he, spurring his horse
towards the corner of the street Judios (where Casa Klinge stands
today), where the bulls were enclosed, made as though to unlock
the door with the gold key.
The present Plaza de Acho was built and finished in 1768,
and after certain clauses in the contract had been complied with,


it was turned over to the Beneficencia de Lima who have adminis-
tered it ever since. But, even with a legitimate bull ring, the
Fiestas Reales and those celebrating the receptions of Viceroys
were still held in the Plaza de Armas.


This private museum is one of the finest of its kind to be
found in the Lima area. It contains examples of most of the past
cultures of Peru and a few which cannot be found elsewhere.
An hour or two spent here is very rewarding. Mr. Amano is the
gentleman who first introduced Peruvian art to Japan. He visited
Tokyo in 1961 with Sefior Miguel Mujica Gallo for an exposition
of Peruvian Arts and Treasures, which was organized by the Peru-
vian Embassy in Japan, the Japanese Ministry of Education and
the Society of Bellas Artes of Perl.
This exhibit caused profound admiration, and while in Tokyo
Mr. Amano published a very interesting and beautiful book of the
outstanding art objects photographed at the exhibition. This
book, "Huacos Pre-Colombinos de Peri", can be purchased at
leading bookstores in Lima.
Both Mr. Amano and his wife are delighted to have groups
of interested people visit them, and arrangements to see their
collection can be made by calling Mr. Amano's office. Tel. 32-301.


(Located on Avenida Rosario & Choquehuanca, San Isidro)

This museum is another example of the great interest Dr. Ar-
turo Jimenez Borja has in preserving the past cultures of Peru.
It is the first of its kind in the city, constructed on the site where
everything displayed in the museum was originally found. Un-
opened mummies, masks, beautiful textiles, black and colored cer-
amics and objects of adornment in gold and silver constitute the
contents of this small, but very well arranged museum, built
alongside the "Huaca" (cemetery) which is being restored as it
presumably was before the fifteenth century. The workmen have


dug out funeral shrouds and lovely ceramic articles in such
quantity that there seems to be no end to the archaeological
objects to be found. Up until two years ago the "Huaca" was just
another mound of earth 35 meters high. The part already restored
is in the form of a pyramid of three platforms of adobe bricks,
representing ears of corn symetrically aligned. The pieces in
the museum, although few in number, are of great value to the
experts, as from these they are able to reconstruct the life of
the people of Lima of over three thousand years ago. Dr. Jim6-
nez says that the objects found show that the "Huallas" were a
race of highly-cultured, hard-working and peaceful people. This
is proved by the fact that no armaments were found, but rather
musical instruments, laces, and delicate fabrics. They would also
appear to be a refined people who took great interest in their
personal appearance, as tweezers for depilatory uses and tubes of
color for cosmetic use were found. One of the mummies exhibited
has hair over two meters in length, greater than the height of the
average person of those times: It is thought that this was a mag-
ician or fortune teller. This "Huaca" is one of the oldest monu-
ments in Lima, and the supposition is that it was a house of
worship before the Incas arrived in the fifteenth century.
In order that visitors to the museum and "Huaca" may observe
in detail the excavations which take place from time to time, a
stairway has been constructed to the top of the hill from the
side of the museum. Here a lovely view of a large area of San
Isidro can be appreciated. The museum was officially inaugurated
by Dr. Manuel Prado on August 11, 1960.


Courtesy of Mr. T. Pelikan

Pachacamac: 20 miles south on Pan American Highway. Open
daily 9 12 a.m. and 3 6 p.m. The remains of this metropolis
date from 300 B.C. 400 A.D. A great temple pyramid of Inca
and pre-Inca importance. So great was the veneration for this
religious mecca that when the Incas conquered the area, they wise-
ly permitted continued worship of the ancient deities together with
their Sun worship. Pizarro in 1533, hearing of its golden treasures,
dispatched his brother, Hernando, who destroyed idols, killed
priests, and looted temples although most of the gold was hidden
and remains hidden to this day.


Principal features of interest:

1. The ancient temple of Pachacamac of the "Creator God".
Here can still be seen the Llama sacrificial chamber, the
pedestal of the red idol and the bases of the four pillars
which once supported a golden curtain.
2. The great Inca "Temple of the Sun." It is well worth
climbing to the top for the marvelous view.
3. The reconstructed "Temple of the Virgins."
4. A newly discovered temple of steps now being excavated.
5. To the north on a sandy plain can still be seen the remains
of an ancient elevated adobe highway which resembles
and is often taken for the city walls. This road continues
up the Pachacamac (Lurin) valley into the highlands.

Puruchuco: 6 miles east of Lima on Central Highway. Open
daily 9:30 11:55 a.m. and 2:30 5:55 p.m. Reconstructed village
center. Definitely worth a visit to visualize better how early people
lived, cooked their meals, slept, tended domesticated cuyes (guinea
pigs), corraled llamas, alpacas, and vicufias. This exceedingly
interesting restored pre-Inca "palace" was constructed in the 12th
century by a "cacique" of the Huachos tribe. It became an Inca
stronghold when their power was extended to the coast. Later
still it presumably was headquarters for a Spanish conquistador
who ruled the surrounding region. Many colonial artifacts have
been dug up including old Spanish spurs, stirrups, bridle bits and
belt buckles. An excellent adjacent museum displays the beauti-
ful Inca costumes, feather work, jewelry, silver ornaments, cera-
mics, and textiles found in the vicinity.
(See also "Puruchuco". Page 75).

Cajamarquilla Ruins: 12 miles east of Lima off Central High-
way. This is a mystery in a lonely valley a great ancient ruin,
deserted, empty when the Incas arrived; an enormous congested
area of adobe walls, plazas, ceremonial roads and stepped temples.
Probably the most fascinating are the underground storage bins,
15 feet deep and 6 feet across. Also the "maze" of houses with
3 foot connecting doorways which portrays the intelligent planning
of its defenses. There are no through streets down which an enemy
could attack. One theory is that soldiers would be required to
overpower the city house by house, crawling on hands and knees
through the low doorways an awkward position for a warrior.
A single defender with a club could hold back an army. "Nieveria"
(literally snow storehouse) located on a ridge near Cajamarquilla
is of interest as once a storage site for glacier ice brought down
from the Andes by llama train.



Puruchuco seven hundred years ago was a serene sight. Pic-
ture the women of the palace passing to and fro through the
palace corridors, while the surrounding countryside was a picture
of beauty with the corn waving gently in the breeze. Here was made
the delicious Manjar Blanco which the Puruchuco enjoyed in his
palace of banana leaf roof and split cane walls, which allowed
to pass the sunshine and the breezes, equally as beneficial as our
air conditioning and persianas of today. In this splendid palace
situated at the foot of the hill called Mayorazgo -a perfect model
of pre-Inca architecture- the women ground the corn on the
huge stones called "batanes", and lovingly watered the fuchsias
floripondio and other flowering plants which grew alongside the
deadly nightshade, the sweet pacae, and the sharp and decorative
maguay (cactus). As the sun went down the Sefior of Puruchuo
watched from the center terrace the arrival of the farm hands
and the shepherds, amidst the vicufias and llamas whose beautiful
necks stood out in sharp relief against the cotton plants. So life
went tranquilly along for the "Huanchos" seemingly for some
centuries. Their constructions, agricultural plots and industries
are the product of an advanced culture.
One morning the women of Puruchuco were awakened by
the sound of loud voices, the clash of armaments and terrible
screams all through the corridors of the palace. From the high
Andes the imperial warriors of the "Quechua" tribe flowed down
over the lands of Puruchuco, Huaycin, Huancan6, Late, Copaca-
bana, Callao and Chucuito in the valley of the Rimac. These
unfortunate people saw their chiefs' beautiful palace turned into
an administration office, and the valley divided into three counties,
Carahuayllo to the north, Maranga in the center, and Surco in the
south by the invading chief Pachacutec. Four centuries later the
descendents of these women saw the bearded white men mounted
on diabolical four footed animals cross the Rimac. They were
led by Captain Hernando Pizarro and had journeyed from Ca-
jamarca searching for the gold train of Atahualpa.
Some years later the men sent by Francisco Pizarro arrived
searching for a more beneficent climate than that of Jauja. What
did they see? Probably between the green of the valley the res-
plendent remains of the palace, and the temples painted in their
bright yellows and reds, and the women working in the patches
of "mani", "yucca", potatoes, etc.


Today the palace you see is the result of eight years' continuous
work of reconstruction carried out by Dr. Arturo Jim6nez Borja.
You can easily see where the original walls have been since
they were built, and the marvelous work of joining up. The main
patio has marvelous acoustics. The speaker's voice can be heard
equally well from any spot. The museum which we shall visit
afterwards is also the loving work of Dr. Borja and is called
"Museo de Sitio" as is the one in San Isidro, because all of the
objects of art exhibited there were found on the site. You can
see specimens of pre-Inca, Inca and Colonial art. The oldest
objects belong to the fifth century, the Maranga culture. I had
the good fortunate to attend a fiesta organized and directed by Dr.
Borja in which native people displayed all the different styles of
dress throughout the country, complete with hats, musical ins-
truments, and folklore songs and dances. The entrance from the
highway to the palace was lit up with two thousand little kerosene
and tallow flares. It gave the impression of fairyland.


Twenty miles north of Lima is a treasure ground for archeol-
ogists. Debris of cultures which flourished over 3,000 years ago
has been found in quantity. Graves have yielded hundreds of
mummies buried with their fishing nets, sewing and weaving
baskets, textiles, and pottery. A one-time fishing village, Anc6n
today is a most popular seaside resort. A very pleasant day may
be spent bathing in its tranquil 'waters and walking along the
magnificent modern malecones.


Anyone interested in past civilizations and their mode of living
and cultures should certainly pay a visit to this museum. Paracas
is situated just beyond the town of Pisco, 300 kilometres south
on the Pan-American Highway, and can be reached easily in three
hours by car. The Paracas Hotel is a delighful place to spend a
few days or week-end if you have the time to spare, and the
museum is a very short drive from it. If you have only the one
day to spare, leave Lima early in the morning and visit the
museum. Then lunch at the hotel before driving back. Dr. Fre-
deric Engels, the eminent French archeologist is the person


responsible for the building of the museum, as well as the furn-
ishing and decoration. It is built from stones gathered from the
remains of the original houses of the inhabitants who lived there
many thousands of years ago. Once inside you can appreciate the
complete evolution of the Peruvian man in the distinct cultures
displayed; from the first form of agriculture, which was the
pallare bean (a large type Lima bean) 3000 B.C., up to the
settling of large fishing villages during the last century before
Christ. The village houses had low walls of stone and clay mix-
ture which supported strong tree trunks of algarroba, the roofs
being covered with rushes and heavy grass. No cities or ceremonial
centers were found here. Agricultural products were corn, hot
peppers, peanuts, yucca, sweet potatoes, etc., supplemented with
the meat of the guinea pig, shellfish, and whale. Later we find
a complete cultural change. It is not known whether another
race of people arrived or not, but architecture changes complete-
ly. Houses are now built under the ground with roofs of Totora
reed or corn stalks suspended over tree trunks. A short distance
from the museum a miniature village has been reconstructed.
In the village of Cabezas Largas (Long Heads) a number of these
houses may still be seen. Some of these were found to contain
quite a number of mummy bundles, giving rise to the idea that
it might have been a burial ground. The only changes in the way
of life are seen in the textile designs copper appears in the
fish hooks and gold is used for ornamentation among the
poorer people. In the next period a complete revolution takes
place. Many more vegetable foods became available, allowing the
expansion of villages. Architecture became normal and houses
were once again built above the ground. Textile and ceramic
designs and styles change completely. Classic art is born known
as Nazca and ceramics are fired before painting. One valuable
addition to the museum is a skeleton dug up in the region which
is reputed to be 9,000 years old.



Presented for the American Women's Literary Club meeting
of May 16, 1960.


From "Tradiciones" by Ricardo Palma

On a certain afternoon in September, 1535, in a garden situated
on the land which is today called Martinete, and which was
where Francisco Pizarro founded the first flour mill and bakery,
there were gathered four gentlemen of the highest rank both
militarily and socially of the Spanish conquerors truly the
cream and flower of nobility intent on a serious game of
Boch6 (hard court bowls). These were the Marques Don Fran-
cisco Pizarro, Governor of Peru by mandate of his Majesty Don
Carlos V of Spain; Don Pedro de Candia, Captain of Archers
and Falconers and Knight of the Golden Spurs; Don Nicolas de
Rivera el Viejo, Lord Mayor of the City; and Don Blas Atienza,
a close friend of the Marques a perfect gentleman and one
of the eleven who opposed Atahualpa's plea for mercy at Caja-
marca. "Trick and retrick," cried Don Francisco, pitching the
bowl he held in his hand. "Good shot, Sefior Governor!" ex-
claimed Pedro de Candia. "Marvelous, marvelous," added Rivera,
applauding the good shot of Pizarro. "The hour of prayer,
gentlemen," interrupted Bias de Atienza. Each one removed his
head covering, and with bowed head prayed between his teeth,
while in the street there sounded a terrific blast on the bugle
and a roll of drums.
Just eight months had passed since the founding of the city
of Lima, and in order to bring the people together for mass and
to let them know the hour of the Angelus and other religious
ceremonies, these instruments were brought into use. With the
prayers over, the gentlemen covered their heads again, and Bias
de Atienza, for whom Pizarro had great respect and affection,
turned to the Governor and said, "It seems to me, Don Francisco,
that instead of living the life of a city we are living the life of
the army. Heavens above! the true trumpets of the Lord are
the consecrated bells, not cornets and patched drums". "You are
more than right, my dear sir," answered Pizarro, "and I am
positive that among all my friends there must be one man who
understands the casting of bells." "Well, my brains and ingenuity
can't be worth much if in me your Honor hasn't got the man
he needs for the job," answered Pedro de Candia. "Give me
your five fingers, Captain." "I take you at your word," replied
the Marqu6s, shaking the hand of the nobleman. "And I, in the
name of the Lord Mayor of the city," added Nicolas de Rivera


el Viejo, "am obliged to furnish the metal and whatever else
the furnace might need." "Well then, tomorrow morning to work,
gentlemen, and let's get home now for night is falling fast,"
said Pizarro.
And sure enough the next day they started to get together all
the necessary materials and in a very short time the foundry
was working, and even Don Francisco himself often took his
turn at attending the fires. The bell when finished weighed
1,300 pounds and had a very deep echo. It was heard for the
first time on Christmas Eve of that year, much to the great
enjoyment of all the people of Lima. In honor of Pizarro, the
people baptised the bell with the name "La Marquezita" (little
Marqu6s). Sad to say, the bell functioned for only about nine
years, since in 1554 the Viceroy Ndfiez Blasco de Vela took a
fancy to it and had it melted down to make more guns. How-
ever it wasn't greatly missed because by this time the Domi-
nicos, Mercedarios and the Franciscanos all had made bells of
one size or another, one of which weighed a ton. It is inter-
esting to note that in the following year the city received its
first public clock, which had been bought by the mayor of the
city for 2,200 pesos oro, according to Padre Cobo in his very
interesting book.


From "Tradiciones" by Ricardo Palma

In the year 1575 there lived in the walled city of Trujillo.
which Pizarro built a month and a half before the foundation of
Lima, an Indian known to the conquerors by the name of Don
Antonio Chayhuac, and amongst the natives as the heir of the
grand Chimu, the last grand chief of Mansiche. Don Antonio,
whose father had accepted with enthusiasm the new cult of the
conquerors, also practised fervently as a devotee. Instead of living
in the grand manner of his antecedents, he practiced ostentatious
poverty and personally cultivated the few acres of land upon
which he lived. At this time, a young traveling salesman Garci-
Guti6rrez from Toledo, Spain, made frequent trips from Lima to
Trujillo. He was obliged to spend the night with the Inca chief
and always gave him the best of his paltry merchandise. This in
time made the Indian chief very fond of him and Garci-Guti6rrez
even became Godfather to two of the Chief's sons. He returned
one afternoon completely fed up with his poor sales, which he
realized were never going to lift him out of his miserable existence.


He was an ambitious young man and Don Antonio would advise
him to resign himself and persevere. It was a lost sermon. Gu-
tierrez wanted money, not words.
One night as they sat talking at the door of the hut under
the moonlight Don Antonio, tired of listening to the complaints,
said: "Well, all right, young man, as you base all your happiness
on gold, I am going to make you the richest man in all Peru. But
you must swear not to become proud with your change of fortune,
to be charitable to the poor and to use one quarter of the treasure
I am going to give you towards the praise of God and His holy
Mother. Remember always that no one bothers the spider while
she is quietly weaving her web on the wall but the moment she
comes down onto the carpet everyone fights for the satisfaction
of squashing her". Guti6rrez thought for a moment that the Chief-
tain was fooling him, but his avarice won out over his doubts
and he promptly swore by all he held holy that he would comply
with all the conditions Don Antonio had imposed. The traveler
who today makes his way to Trujillo by way of the coast will see
about two miles from the city the ruins of a densely populated
area from the time of the Incas. These ruins were the capital of the
Great Chimu. Don Antonio conducted the Spaniard to a "huaca"
(mound) hidden in the labyrinth of the ruins, and after removing
some huge stones which covered the entrance he lit a torch and
went inside the space where there were stacked up idols and objects
of solid gold. Guti6rrez was on the point of going mad. He ran
from one place to the other, laughing, crying and embracing the
Indian. In the centre of the room on a silver platform was a
figure representing a fish. The body was of gold and the eyes
two magnificent emeralds. The Spaniard was in a state of ecstasy
contemplating the idol. "Well, everything is yours," said Don
Antonio. "Today I make you a present of the Little Fish. Be
happy and keep your word and one day I will take you to the
Big Fish."
Whoever read the book edited in Madrid in 1763 titled "Des-
criptive Relation of the City of Trujillo" by Don Miguel Fejo de
Sosa, Governor of the City, will find the following lines which
bear out the fabulous importance of the treasure given to the
traveling salesman by the Chief Mansiche. "In the year 1576, Gar-
ci-Gutidrrez, of Toledo, son of Alonso Gutierrez Neto gave to his
Majesty from extraction of the Small Fish of the mound of the
great Chimu, the sum of 58,527 gold coins. Some years later he
also gave in the figures of Fish and other animals taken from
the same mound the sum of 27,020 gold coins." Now we shall see
how Guti6rrez kept his promise. Once he became rich he comple-
tely forgot his humble origin, just a human debility! As we have
said, the Viceroy Don Francisco de Toledo spent five years travel-
ing over the country and got back to Lima in 1575 exactly when
the Spaniard began to exhibit his wealth. The Viceroy, according
to public opinion, was extremely avaricious. Guti6rrez went to


call on him and made him a present of twenty thousand pesos
worth of curiosities in gold. "Don't look so much at the present
I have made you, but rather affection I have for you. Toledo
is Your Excellency's and I am Garci-Gutierrez of Toledo." "May
you be my relation for many years," answered Don Francisco
amiably. Guti6rrez was satisfied that the Viceroy had recognized
him publicly. His Excellency for his part thought that one could
easily recognize as a relation a person who gave instead of ex-
pecting to receive. "Let it rain cousins such as this", he thought.
"I shall not ask for the geneological tree." The years passed and
Gutierrez, who was always referring to his cousin the Viceroy
and living like a prince, saw his fortune rapidly disappearing in
splendid banquets and presents for friends. As to works of char-
ity, they were completely forgotten.
Came the day when he found himself completely ruined and
then he remembered his friend the Chief. He made the trip to
Trujillo, and on seeing Don Antonio said, "Friend, I am completely
ruined." "That doesn't surprise me," replied Don Antonio. "It is
remarkable that after all these years you should remember the
saint by my name. What can I do for you?" "Give me the mound
of the Large Fish." "I am not yet crazy," replied the Chief, "and
we won't talk any more about that. The secret will go with me to
my grave." Guti6rrez implored, cried, and tried every means pos-
sible to get his wish, but his efforts came up against the brick
wall of the Indian's stubborness. After three months he lost all
hope of softening the chief's heart and returned to Lima, trusting
in the goodness of his cousin, the Viceroy. But fortune turned its
back on Guti6rrez. The Viceroy had left for Spain three weeks
before. Our man didn't know the world. He didn't realize that in
the days of prosperity friends abound, and in the hours of disgrace
they all disappear. Seeing him poor, all his former companions of
the good days turned their backs on him, and as in the days of
his good fortune he had denied his humble origin, even the poor
people wanted nothing to do with him.
Finally destroyed by the deceptions, sick in heart and soul,
old and without the strength to work, Guti6rrez accepted a cell
and his daily bread from the good Franciscan monks. The histo-
rians all agree that Atahualpa had offered to pay for his release
in gold. In effect, the Inca sent emissaries all over the empire
and there was already deposited in Cajamarca a great part of the
ransom when Pizarro decided to stain his glory in the murdering
of the Inca. As soon as the emissaries learned of this they decided
to bury the treasure which they were conveying to Cajamarca.
This was the origin of the mounds the Big Fish and the Small
Fish. Even in our time serious attempts have been made to discov-
er the treasure of the Chief Mansiche but the avarice of man has
always been fooled, and as though providence takes delight in
tormenting humans, every so often an object of gold is found in
the ruins of Chimu.



From "Tradiciones" by Ricardo Palma

When you want to avoid talking about something very dis-
agreeable you just say, "That went out during the night." Speak-
ing of the Saya y Manto it never was a fashion in Spain or any
part of Europe. It sprang up in Lima like mushrooms in a garden.
I have investigated many times but have never found any definite
date mentioned. I would say that it happened in the year 1560.
Look at the reasons I give you for affirming this and I think I
can promise you that it is not just imagination on my part. In
Lima around 1535 there were only ten women who had arrived
from Spain so it is clear that only between 1555-1560 were there
daughters of parents of Spanish blood or of the peninsular or
Indian blood who could have introduced the "Saya y Manto."
No one disputes the exclusive rights of the Limefia to having
originated this fashion, which gave rise to the nickname by the
Mexicans of "the women in the sack," when referring to the
Limefiians. This fashion didn't even spread to Callao which is
so near the city.
Each year on Maundy Thursday the people made a pilgrimage
to the Alameda de Los Descalzos (those without shoes) where
the good fathers entertained the poor of the city. The most beau-
tiful and wealthy of the young ladies of Lima attended this ce-
remony dressed in the poorest rags they could lay hands on and
in contrast wore their most beautiful shawls and jewelry. All of
them ate one piece of the bread and a cup of the soup of the poor.
With the Independence, the revolution met up with the
"Saya" and without the older women renouncing their primitive
"Saya" for the car ride, the young people invented the Gamarina
which a year later became the "Orbegosina". The main change was
the color. The "Gamarina" was named for General Gamarra and was
black satin or kid leather. The "Orbegosina" was named for General
Orbegoso and was a blue green. The "Saya" became a political form
of dress. These two new fashions were an improvement on the
primitive "Saya" as they were fuller in the skirt and had a trimming
of a light colored satin as an adornment. In 1835 when General
Salaverry headed the revolution the "Salaverrina" was born, a
loose gracious skirt which permitted freedom of movement.
This was the "Saya" which gave so much fame to the "Tapada
Limefia," for with this, fashion, apart from the beautiful forms
which came to light, they could indulge all their coquetries. -This


was the "Tapada" which I knew in my student days and which, for
my part, could still exist. After 1850 the relative social security
produced by the millions of the consolidation was invaded by the
French fashions of Paris. What iil three centuries neither the
Archbishop nor any Viceroy had been able to abolish just slowly
disappeared without any fight. In 1860 exactly three centuries
after the mushroom first sprouted the "Saya y Manto" disappeared
completely from the processions.
On the 11th of April, 1601, the third conclave was called by
the Archbichop Mogrovejo in which the "Saya y Manto" was
ordered to be abolished under penalty of excommunication. The
population of Lima was about 30,000 souls and the devotees of
the "Saya y Manto," who were mostly the society women of the
city, numbered around seven or eight hundred. The Archbishop
had forgotten that since 1590 when Dofia Teresa de Castro, wife
of Viceroy Garcia Hurtado Marquez de Cafiete, arrived in Lima
the rank and file of the "Saya y Manto" had greatly increased.
Among maids, chambermaids and nursemaids, Dofia Teresa had
brought with her twenty-seven women, all of whom within the
year had found the complimentary half of the orange (husbands).
Also there were in the committee of the Viceroy more than forty
employees with their respective wives, sisters, daughters and ser-
vants. Among the recently arrived some for novelty and others
in order to ingratiate themselves with the Limefias, all took to
the sack. Dofia Teresa was the first to adopt the fashion, maybe
at the instigation of her husband, the Viceroy, as it was well
known that he was always at loggerheads with the Archbishop.
By the year 1601 all the women of Lima were devotees of the
fashion, that is to say, two or three thousand daughters of Eve.
You see how very difficult it would have been to enforce the law.
The Viceroys Guardalcazar y Montesclaros also tried to abolish
the "Saya y Manto" but accomplished nothing. The fact is that
we men never interest ourselves very much with feminine fashions,
and even today we leave them tranquil with those phenomenal
hats which they put on their heads. We know that they will
disappear in their own good time. The primitive "Saya" which
lasted many years was very antiesthetic, a type of bag from the
waist to the feet which made the women feel as though she had
fallen down a crack in the sidewalk, as she could not take a step
longer than three inches. For the "tapadas in Spain and all the
capitals of Spanish America, the mantilla was the covering for
coquetry. For the Limefia the headress was black sateen or heavy
silk, not entirely without grace. The head covering called the
"Saya de tiritas" (strips) was a curious extravagance.
It is said that many gallant husbands eventually found out
that they were flirting with their wives.

-83 -

From "Tradiciones" by Ricardo Palma

The Huanca tribe of Indians of the valley of Huancayo, at
the beginning of the llth century, was a belligerent and inde-
pendent tribe whom the Inca Pachacutec finally dominated and
brought under his rule, although he recognized the chief Oto
Apiri-Alaya and gave him the right to transmit his title and
rule to his descendents. With Atahualpa a prisoner Pizarro sent
his men into the depths of the country, and the chief of Huan-
cayo was one of the first to recognize the new order on condi-
tion that they respect his old privileges. Pizarro, a clever poli-
tician, recognized the convenience of the pact; and in order to
further flatter the chief and inspire his confidence, he even
undertook to stand as Godfather to Catalina Apiri-Ayala, the
heiress to the title and domain.
Catalina Huanca, as she was generally known, was a woman
of great devotion and charity. The values of the tiles and wood
which she donated for the building of San Fracisco was more
than a hundred thousand pesos and she also donated the funds
for the building of the hospital Santa Ana, along with lands
which she owned in Lima for its maintenance. She established
a fund in the royal tax office of Lima to help the Indians of her
home town, San Jer6nimo, and of villages round about, and with
it the custom which still exists, that on the feast day of the
Patron Saint of each village, all the blind should congregate in
the home of the Lord Mayor as his guests, and be fed and cloth-
ed at his expense. As you might know, in the sierra this type
of fiesta lasts from ten to fifteen days, so the blind ones really
had a good time. Catalina died at the age of ninety and was
mourned by young and old. She used to pass four months of
the year in her summer home in San Jer6nimo and returning
to Lima was carried on a litter of pure silver, and escorted by
three thousand Indians. Each year on this journey she brought
with her fifty beasts of burden laden with gold and silver. From
where did she get these riches? Was it tribute from the mines
and other properties she owned, or wealth accumulated over the
centuries by fathers and sons? This was the general belief.
The Dominican priest in charge of San Jer6nimo around
1642 was a very good keeper of his flock. He cared for their
health as well as their souls, and never troubled them for tithes,
or charged for marriages or funerals. I tell you his paternal


feelings were something rare. Even with such evangelical con-
duct the poor priest never knew where to turn for his next pen-
ny. But the day did arrive when he felt envious of his fellow
priests who had so much of this world's goods. Word came that
the Archbishop had appointed a delegate to visit the different
parishes, and as always each priest tried to outdo his brother
in the matter of entertainment for the visitor. The days flew
by and our poor priest had cold shivers up and down his back
trying to decide how he could receive the visitor with dignity.
But it was impossible to do anything at all without funds. But
the saying goes that someone always turns up with a penny when
you need it badly enough, and strange to say the man who saved
the priest was none other than the sacristan of his little church.
The bellringer was an Indian who looked as though he could
hardly carry the weight of his birth certificate on his shoulders.
He was wrinkled like a raisin and smelled of misery through
his rags. One evening after the fires had been dampened down
he approached the priest saying, "Taita cura" (stop worrying).
"Let me cover your eyes and you come with me. I will take you
where you will find much more silver than you will need." The
priest thought at first that the Indian had been drinking, but
in the face of his insistence he allowed him to place a handker-
chief over his eyes, and putting one hand on the Indian's shoulder
he started off through the sleeping village. The sacristan after
many turns and twists in order to confuse the old priest finally
arrived at a door on which he knocked the proverbial three times,
and opening it stepped into a patio. He repeated the turns once
again, and then led the priest down some steps into a subterranean
passage where he removed the covering from his eyes, saying
"Look, 'Taita'. Take what you need." The Dominican froze in his
tracks. When he came to, he realized that he was jumping up
and lown with joy. They were in a vast gallery lighted by resin
torches placed around the walls. He saw idols of gold placed on
huge platforms of silver and bars of this shining metal strewn
over the floor. This was enough to turn anyone's head.
One week later the delegate arrived accompanied by his sec-
retary and committee. Although he had thought to spend as lit-
tle time as possible in this poor parish he remained three days,
such was the entertainment provided. There were bullfights,
masquerades, dances, and the usual festivities with plenty to eat
and drink, and everything so splendidly done that the parish-
ioners marvelled at the sight. Where had their poor little priest
got the wherewithal for such a feast? But from the day the visitor
left town our little priest began to lose weight, his good humour,
and to talk to himself in strange phrases. Also it was the talk
of the town amongst the women that the sacristan had disappeared
completely and no word ever arrived from him. The truth was
that our good priest was suffering from scruples as to the means
of having been able to put on such a grand show. He believed


that the sacristan had been the devil himself in flesh and bone
and the gold and silver which he had used for the celebrations
had come from hell. His preoccupation was finally the death of
him. In the archives of the priests of Ocopa, there is a declara-
tion made by the dying priest telling of the treasure which the
devil showed him. He had been tempted by avarice and vanity.
In the village of San Jer6nimo the house of the princess Catalina
Huanca still exists, and the natives are still convinced that there
must be a subterranean passage where the treasure is hidden.
Every so often someone makes an excavation thinking to prevent
the gold and silver from becoming mouldy.


(Tradition Pertaining to La Merced Church)

From "Tradiciones" by Ricardo Palma

In the church of the Merced one may see a painting of a
man riding a horse who is certainly not a saint but a criollo of
Peru. As this painting could only be there to commemorate some
important happening, I thought I would enquire about it, and
this is the story told me by a priest. Don Juan de Anduesa
was everything that a wild living young profligate could be.
There was no one to equal him with regard to flirting with
married women and inciting young ladies to love. He was a
devotee of San Rorro, the patron saint of the lazybones, drunk-
ards and others who live from day to day without giving thought
to anything. As long as he could find on the face of the earth
women, wine, cards, etc., there was no hope of any improvement
in his conduct.
On October 28, 1746, there were gathered together in a
tavern in Callao quite a few people of his own category and half
a dozen girls of easy virtue, none of whom would have inspired
envy even in the devil himself. The wine was flowing freely,
and one of the girls was dancing with a partner, to the tune of
a guitar, an inspired "cueca," undulating with more agility than
a snake and attempting to raise from the floor with her mouth,
without any help from her hands a glass of piscoo." Everyone
accompanied the dance with a clapping of hands, and intoning
a popular refrain. It is said that a certain Bishop on seeing
this dance asked the name of it, and on being told that it was
called the "Zamacueca," replied; "It is wrongly named. It
should be called the resurrection of the flesh."


Aboard the warship San Germain it had just sounded ten-
thirty when a most horrible noise, accompanied by a most awful
shaking of the earth, came to interrupt the dancers and drinkers.
When this had passed, they went on with their wild party. Af-
ter fifteen minutes Juan de Anduesa, who had left his horse tied
up at the entrance to the tavern, went outside to get some cig-
arettes from his saddle bag, and unconsciously looked toward
the sea. The spectacle which met his eyes was so terrifying that
Anduesa with one leap was in his saddle, and putting spurs to
his horse made to escape, but not without having shouted to
his companions of the orgy, "Run for your lives, boys! The sea
is coming up and will put out everything!" In effect, the sea,
like a gladiator who gathers up all his strength to face his
adversary, had retreated two miles from the beach, and now a
gigantic wave was advancing toward the town. In reality, of the
7,000 inhabitants of Callao, according to the Marquez de Obando,
only about 200 people escaped drowning by the tidal wave.
The earthquake which occurred in Lima at t en-thirty at
night caused terrible damage, and of the 70,000 inhabitants, 4,000
were buried under the rubble of fallen buildings. "In three
minutes," says one of the writers quoted, "the work of 211 years
was laid waste." Even though the churches did not offer ab-
solute security, and some, like San Sebastian, were already down,
the doors were thrown open and the people rushed in to pray
for deliverance. Meanwhile, the people of Lima did not know
of the catastrophe in Callao, and when a little after 11 p.m. the
rider saw the doors of the Merced church open he entered at a full
gallop and did not stop until he reached the main altar steps,
where the faithful, aghast at such seeming sacrilege, held the
horse at bay, and the rider fell to his knees before the priest,
crying, "Confession! Confession! The sea is coming out!" The
tremendous news spread through Lima with the speed of electri-
city, and all the people ran to San Cristobal and any other high
ground in the vicinity. There is no pen capable of describing
the infinite desolation of the scene. The Viceroy, Manso de
Velasco, proved so capable in dealing with the situation that the
King of Spain later rewarded him with the title of Count of
Superunda. Juan de Anduesa, the libertine, changed his way
of life completely, and took the habit of a lay brother in the
Merced church, where he later died a good Christian.



From "Tradiciones" by Ricardo Palma

In the year 1886, the government of Brasil having asked
the Peruvian government to supply them with the decree and
details of the carrying out of the liberating of the slaves in
this republic, I was officially appointed to compose this copious
historical paper. The introduction of African Negroes into Peru
was begun soon after the conquest, as it was thought that the
native Indians were not able-bodied enough for certain tasks.
So, in 1555, a few months before Carlos V of Spain retired to
the convent of Yuste, he gave the ex-governor Vaca de Castro
in return for his service to the crown, permission to introduce
free of duty into Peru "500 pieces of ebony," as the Negroes were
called. In this year the number of slaves scattered along the
coast numbered 11,200. They could not stand the frigid climate
of the sierra.
According to the royal "cedulas" of 1713-1733, the fiscal tax
was 40 pesos per head, in place of the 80 ducados in the time
of Charles I and the succeeding Philips. Also, each Negro arriv-
ed insured for 100 pesos and the royal treasury collected 6%
of this insurance. As you can see the importing of slaves brought
lots of money to the treasury of Spain. In order to cover these
taxes the pirate merchants sold their goods at 300 400 pesos each.
I will not take time to tell you of the inhuman treatment these
poor people received at the hands of their owners, but in 1718
the Viceroy received the royal "c6dula" prohibiting the use of
the "carimba" (branding iron), used to mark slaves in the same
manner in which cattle is marked today.
Sixty-six years later, in 1784, another royal "c6dula" arrived
abolishing completely the "carimba" which proves that the order
of 1718 had not been strictly obeyed. According to the Viceroy
Avilez, during the twelve years prior to his assuming command
there were imported into Peru 65,747 African Negroes, and at
300 pesos each this amounts to 19,724,000 pesos. During his four
years in office only three ships arrived with human cargo. The
political situation in Spain had paralyzed the infamous commerce.
The last cargo arrived in 1814 and was sold at the high price
of 600 pesos each, there being a tremendous demand.
The French invasion and the alliance with the British upset
the sailings. Fernanlo VIII was obliged to give in to the British
demands that they prohibit absolutely the traffic in Negroes to
the Americas. During the war for independence General San


Martin issued a decree, in August of 1821, which said: "For three
centuries a portion of our species has been subject to a criminal
traffic. Men have bought men, and have not been ashamed to
disgrace the family to which they belong. I shall not try to
wipe this custom out at one blow. That same element of time
which sanctioned it will have to destroy it, but I am responsible
to my public conscience and private sentiments, and there-
fore I declare the following : "All sons of slaves born in Peru
since the 28th of July of the present year shall be free and enjoy
the same privileges as the rest of the citizens". Complementary
to this decree the protector, San Martin, issued a decree on the
24th of November, in which he gave the former masters the
title of tutor to the slaves; males up to twenty-four years of age
and females to twenty. In return for their service they were
to be taught to read and write and be instructed in some trade.
The big land owners received these decrees with disgust
and showed their hostility towards the liberators by favoring
the royalists. The number of slaves in the country numbered
41,228, of which 33,000 were occupied on the farms. It was a very
poor farm which had 50 slaves, and quite a few had 300 or more.
San Martin calculated that by 1850 the number of slaves would
have been reduced to a quarter part, around 10,000 to 11,000 and
that it would take about a third of a million pesos to compensate
the former owners. The Congress ratified the decree of San
Martin in 1823 and 1828. The "esclavocratas" waited for the
right moment to interpret the decree to their own advantage
and to change the title from tutor to owner again. The word
was spread around that with the abolishment of slavery the farms
would be ruined for want of workers, and a simple presidential
decree of 1830 turned the free peoples into slaves again. In 1833,
getting ready to fight the liberal faction which was calling a
national convention for that year, the farm owners through news-
paper articles and pamphlets declared San Martin and the
Congress of 1823-1828 incompetent to have legislated the decree.
In their opinion there was no one on earth with the power to
free the slaves. They added that in twelve years the Negroes
would be completely emancipated and with the resulting death
of agriculture the country would be ruined and as though
the right could be proved by the fact, they pointed out that there
had been owners and slaves since the beginning of time.
The convention didn't have time or did not wish to discuss
the point, but with the civil war one of the chiefs, General
Salaverry, in order to enlist the help of the wealthy people,
re-established the slave trade. The Congress of Huancayo, to
its eternal shame, approved the law of 1839 which extended the
patronage of the tutors over the freemen to fifty years of age.
In this Congress the tutors had more success than they had
bargained for. They accepted the obligation to pay the freemen
one peso per week for work in the fields and in the city half


the wage of a free citizen. In this manner they also freed
themselves from the obligation of having to maintain people who
were useless, as the majority of slaves at fifty were already
decrepit. This infamous Congress of Huancayo, by obliterating
the constitutional clause, "None shall enter Peru without re-
maining free," really put into action the decree of Salaverry and
800 slaves were brought in.
The commission of codification created by the Congress of
1846 started to undermine the base of the law passed at Huan-
cayo, and the Supreme Court of Justice ruled that the Congress
of Huancayo had had no right to legalize a decree against the
eternal principles of justice. The good cause was gaining ground.
In the middle of the nineteenth century all the Spanish-
American colonies were moving toward abolishing slavery. On
May 20, 1851, Colombia, then known as Nueva Granada, passed
a law of manumission, issuing certificates valued at 46%, paying
160 pesos for each male Negro, and 120 pesos for each female.
8,000 slaves were freed. Ecuador, in 1862, passed an identical
law. They had less than 3,000 slaves. Venezuela followed suit
in 1854 freeing more than 4,000 slaves. Among all the American
republics Peru stood out like a sore thumb. Fortunately, one
year later she was freed of this terrible dishonor. Let us see
how it happened.
On December 3, 1854, the great Marshal, Don Ram6n Cas-
tilla, head of the revolution against President Echenique, dictated
a law, also in Huancayo, abolishing slavery. This law contributed
greatly to the victory at Palma. This dictatorial decree was
motivated by one passed by President Echenique in the previous
month, declaring free all slaves who enlisted in the army. A
miserable decree in any light. The decree of Castilla provided
for payment over a period of five years with 6% interest an-
nually, assigning for the amortization the fifth part of the
public utilities rent, and permitting payment to the fiscal re-
venue, of the fourth part in certificates of change. The owners
of one or two slaves would get cash. After the injustice of
the Congress of 1829, making slaves of Negro children born after
the 27th of November of that year, and the impossibilty of the
patrons to claim those born after the 28th of July 1821, it seems
a little absurd that Castilla should set the same price for slaves
as free men. But this law turned out to be a necessary weapon
of war, and at the same time, an expression of human sentiments.
With the success of the revolution laws were passed in the next
two years setting aside one million pesos to redeem the certificates
and reduce to three years instead of five the decree made in
Huancayo. With three different grades of values, according to
the year in which they were born, the redeeming of the slaves
cost the country four million pesos. The patriotic Marshal had
no idea there would be falsifications of birth certificates, and
that claims would be put forward for lots of slaves who for years


had been domiciled in the cemetery. The number resurrected
is estimated at nine thousand.
By July of 1860 all claims were finished. The number of
slaves liberated was 25,505 which represented the sum of 7,651,500
pesos. After use of various forms of payment seven years later
there were only certificates pending for the value of 427,575 pesos
and these were finally redeemed during the administration of
President Balta 1868-1872.


From "Tradiciones" by Ricardo Palma

Between the Marqu6s of Santiago and the first Count of
Sierrabella there existed an enmity of the devil. The title of the
first dated from the reign of Philip IV and of the second from the
time of Carlos the Insane. In war let us say between coats of
arms and faded pergaminos, these men were determined not to
give quarter either way. For much less Troy was burned.
One day when all of aristocratic Lima had attended mass at
the church of San Agustin the Count of Sierrabella decided to
visit a lady friend afterwards, but as his coach turned the corner
of the church into Jir6n Lampa he met the coach of the Marqu6s
coming around the next corner. Each thought he had the right
of way and threatened the coachman with death by flogging if
he dared to give way. The fight went on with all Lima society
looking on and giving advice.
Finally after some hours a young nobleman convinced one
of the gentlemen that they should take the case to the Viceroy
for settlement. The two gentlemen made their way to the palace
with their respective sympathizers, but as the Viceroy was a
friend of both he suggested that the case be sent to Spain for
After two or three years when the verdict came back from
Spain the winner celebrated with a grand banquet. Of the coach-
es there didn't exist one nail, because, as the coaches had been
left standing in a public highway, there wasn't one person who
didn't feel authorized to help himself to a wheel or whatever
took his fancy. And if you want to know who won the case
I cannot tell you as I have friends on both sides.
(Original painting of "The Two Carriages" by Te6filo Cas-
tillo in Foreign Office, Torre-Tagle Palace).



From "Tradiciones" by Ricardo Palma

A very valiant soldier, but at the same time one who loved
to show off, was Marco Saravia, one of the cavalry, who for the
King and Vaca de Castro, fought in the bloody battle of Chupas
against the hordes of Almagro el Mozo. The enthusiasm in which
the troops held their young leader as well as his reputation for
good luck and good treatment which they enjoyed (because there
were among them so many of the best soldiers who had accom-
panied Pizarro to Peril) didn't bode well for the royalist troops
who were very doubtful about victory. Marcos Saravia was not
the type whose mouth dried up on meeting danger, but during
the first encounter, which made his teeth rattle, he found himself
in such serious danger that he made a formal promise to the
Apostle Santiago that he would make a present of his horse to
the saint if he brought him safely through the battle. (Horses
were worth a great deal of money at this time as none had been
seen before the Spaniards arrived with them). At this time the
government did not provide the soldier with his horse, saddle and
reins. These were the property of the soldier himself, and the
treasury paid for the maintenance of the horse, which was equal
to half the soldier's pay. For instance, horses were so scarce and
expensive that the most humble, skinny animal was worth a
thousand pesos, and no captain or person, of repute mounted a
horse that was not valued at three or four thousand duros of
The Saint answered the prayer of the cornered soldier and
brought him through the battle without a scratch. The time had
arrived to pay up, and the next day when the victors arrived in
Huamanga, our hero went to visit the church of the Apostle San-
tiago to give him thanks, but it seemed just too much for him to
humble himself to the unimportance of a child. Dismounting at the
door of the church and kneeling down in front of the Saint of
Spain, he said, "Look, my Saint. You don't really need my horse,
but you can use the value of it," and took out of his leather purse
400 pesos in gold pieces, which he placed on the altar, saying,
"Now we are at peace, Master. I am a good payer." But Santiago
the Apostle did not accept him as such but rather as a cheat, and
a man without honor. The horse was worth at least twice as
much, and it was foolish to try to make a deal with a saintly
fighter whom no one had ever seen painted on foot, but always


arrogantly astride a magnificent beast, well bridled, and with a
flag held in one hand. Coming out of the church, Marcos jumped
on his horse and gave it the spurs, with the intention of being
on his way without loss of time, but the animal rebelled and
refused to move. The horse had always been gentle and obedient,
never one to show off and cavort around, and this was the first
time that he had revealed insubordination and stubbornness. This
could only be caused by the influence of the Saint. Bored after
awhile, Marcos got down and went back into the church and
said to the Apostle Santiago, "Ah, you smarty. No one can fool
you," and forthwith he placed another 400 pesos in gold on the
altar, in all 800 gold pieces. Leaving the church, he remounted
the docile animal and slowly made his way to the inn. Marcos
turned his face around to the church, murmuring between his
teeth; "Santiago, Patron Saint of Spain, you are not of cloth or
straw; you will grant favors but your very worst horse you
wouldn't sell even slightly reduced."


From "Tradiciones" by Ricardo Palma

The hacienda San Borja just outside of Lima was a large
piece of land which received water from the irrigation ditch
eight and a half times a year, which was certainly very little.
The Jesuits who were the owners of San Borja used to say that
the hacienda hadn't even enough water for a duck to take
pleasure in a swim, but they always got around the difficulty
even at the expense of the neighboring farms with whom they
were constantly in difficulties. Around the year 1651 the prov-
incial mayor and the judge of the water office of Lima decided
to make an inspection of all the farms in the valley of Surco
so that they could reorganize the distribution of water. They
spoke to the Viceroy, and as he had more than twenty cases
pending over the water disputes, he decided to go with them.
Every three days during four months the Lord Mayor and his
attending committee left the palace at six in the morning well
saddled and took the road to the hacienda where their visit was
anticipated. The owner of each farm would meet the king's
representative at the door and accompany him on horseback
over the farm explaining precisely the pros and cons of the water
system. The inspection was usually finished in about two hours
when everyone returned to the farm house for lunch where, as
you might imagine, each one tried to outdo his neighbor. When


it came time to vist San Borja, the Jesuits could not be found
wanting and prepared the most succulent lunch with each dish
accompanied by the finest wine. The service was of beautiful
silver, but it annoyed the Viceroy to see that only his plate was
changed for each course and that the rest of the party had to
use the same plate, knife, and fork throughout the meal. Leav-
ing the table, the Viceroy could not help expressing his surprise
at the grossness and bad manners of people like the Jesuits who
had the reputation for refinement and cleanliness. At which the
administrator hurried to explain. "We are frightfully sorry, Your
Excellency, for the lack of attention on our part, and please
believe that only an impossibility prevented our changing each
plate and knife and fork." "And what impossibilty could that
be, Father?" "Sir, the fact that we haven't sufficient water to
wash the plates." The Viceroy could not help smiling to him-
self and probably thought: "These gentlemen don't have one
length of cord without a knot, and when you give them a wing,
they want all the breast along with it." However, he concluded
by saying, "Well, just in case I ever have to come back to San
Borja to eat, I would like to avoid having my companions eat
off dirty plates, Sefior." "Sefior Judge of the waters, assign one
more watering to San Borja." To this day there is a water
channel running through the center of the kitchen with the very
original name of Lava Platos (wash the plates).

Note: I visited this farm and found everything historical
in complete ruin, with the exception of the two pine trees which
are over four hundred years old. The only other item of interest
was the facade of the old house which was completely covered
with barn swallows' nests. The property is now being urbanized
under the name of San Borja, Javier Prado.



Museum of Anthropology and Archeology, Plaza Bolivar, Magda-
lena Vieja (Pueblo Libre).
22nd block of Avenida Brasil.
Open every day: 10 a.m. to 12 m., and 3 to 6 p.m.

Museum of the Republic, Plaza Bolivar, Magdalena Vieja
(Adjacent to above museum)
Open every day 10 a.m. to 12, and 3 to 6 p.m.

Museum of Fine Arts, Col6n and Avenida Wilson.
Open Tuesday to Sunday 10 a.m. to 12, and 5 to 9 p.m.

Museum of Italian Art, Paseo de la Reptiblica Parque Neptune.
Open Monday to Friday 10 a.m. to 12, and 3 to 6 p.m.
Saturday, 10 a.m. to 12, Sunday, 4 to 6 p.m.

Museum of Peruvian Culture, Avda Alfonso Ugarte, 650, Lima.
Open Monday to Friday 9 a.m. 12, and 3 to 6 p.m.
Saturday, 9 a.m. to 12.

Museum of Natural History, Avenida Arenales, 1256.
Open Tuesday to Friday, 9 a.m. to 12, and 3 to 6 p.m.
Saturday and Sunday, 9 a.m. to 12.

Museum of the Vice Royalty (Quinta Presa). Guardia Republicana
Barracks, Avda. Francisco Pizarro, Rimac.
Open every day, 9 a.m. to 12, and 3 to 6 p.m.

The Rafael Larco Herrera Hoyle Museum, Avenida Bolivar, 1515,
Pueblo Libre (15th block of Brasil).
Open every day, 9 a.m. to 12, and 3 to 6 p.m.
Museum of Military History, Fort Real Felipe, Callao.
Open every day, 10 a.m. to 12, and 3 to 6 p.m.



Institute de Arte Contemporbneo
Ocofia, 174, Lima
Miraflores Art Center
Alameda Ricardo Palma, 246, Miraflores.


Memorial Prado, Calle Lima, 444, Chorrillos.
Colonial paintings, textiles, and ceramics.
Pedro de Osma Museum, Avenida Pedro de Osma, 421, Barranco.
Marvelous collection. Visits are sometimes permitted to small
groups. Tel. 50019.

Museo Taurino, Berkemeyer, Jir6n Lima, Tel. 70400.

Casa de la Tradici6n, Sefior Revoredo, Salaverry 3052, Tel. 48047
(Home, 74241 (Office).

Museum of Sr. Amano, Retiro, 160, San Isidro, Tel. 32301.



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