Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Summary report of the conferen...
 Wednesday, September 26, 1979
 Thursday, September 27, 1979
 Friday, September 28, 1979

Title: Women in development
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087143/00001
 Material Information
Title: Women in development Conference on the Role of Women's Organizations in Development, September 26-28, 1979, Washington, D.C.
Series Title: Women in development
Physical Description: 75 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Conference on the Role of Women's Organizations in Development, (1979)
États-Unis -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Women in Development
Pacific Consultants
Publisher: Office of Women in Development, United States Agency for International Development
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Publication Date: 1979?
Subject: Femmes -- Congrès -- Pays en voie de développement   ( rvm )
Femmes -- Conditions sociales -- Congrès   ( rvm )
Femmes -- Associations -- Congrès   ( rvm )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
conference publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: sponsored by Office of Women in Development, United States Agency for International Development ... under contract with Pacific Consultants.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087143
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 53743624

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
        Foreword 1
        Foreword 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Summary report of the conference
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Wednesday, September 26, 1979
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Thursday, September 27, 1979
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Friday, September 28, 1979
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
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        Page 46
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        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
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        Page 53
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        Page 56
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        Page 61
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        Page 63
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Conference on the Role of Women's Organizations in Development

September 26-28, 1979

Washington, D.C.

Sponsored by




Under Contract with


The material in this publication was prepared
pursuant to Contract number AID/OTR-C-1680
with the Agency for International Development.
Contractors undertaking such projects under
government sponsorship are encouraged to
express freely their judgment in professional and
technical matters. However, the opinions
expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the
position or policy of the Agency for International
Development, and no official endorsement by the Agency
for International Development should be inferred.

"My entire address has been emphasizing the crucial role played by
women's groups in integrating women into the development process.
What we now seek -- of utmost importance to us since our own means
are so very limited -- is to strive to improve international cooper-
ation in this field. Women's organizations on the national and
international level must learn to work together more closely. Better
coordination and technical assistance among different organizations
on a reciprocal basis could help their programs improve the condition
of women in all walks of life and particularly in the developing

S. developing country resource
speaker at the conference

Table of Contents


Appendices s ii

Summary report of the conference 1

Wednesday donor meeting agenda 5

Informal donor women in development meeting 7

Wednesday international participant agenda 9

Site visits and roundtable discussion

Thursday agenda 13


Small group discussion

Chart of national structures 24

Working luncheon

Small group discussion

Friday agenda 33


Plenary presentation

Small group discussion

Conclusion of the conference 42



Outline for country papers 44

Site visit descriptions and reports 46

Site visit contact list 50

Conference procedures 51

Participant evaluation 52

List of participants and observers 55

Women's organizations in development: a bibliography 73

Summary report of the conference

The Conference on the Role of Women's Organizations in Development
was one of a series of conferences and meetings sponsored by AID/WID
over the past year, to assess the potential for women's organiza-
tions to cooperate with poor women in developing countries; to
determine the state of academic interest and involvement in women
and development; to provide liaison between government assistance
agencies and developing country organizations for women in develop-
ment; and to make interested persons and organizations aware of
U.S. AID's Women in Development (AID/WID) program and policy.

Pacific Consultants, under contract with AID/WID, assisted in
conference planning and support.

This three-day conference was planned in conjunction with an
informal meeting of women in development representatives from
OECD/DAC nations. It brought together 50 participants who were:

o representatives of donor assistance countries;

o donors' guests from women's organizations and
developing country women's bureaus;

o resource speakers from developing countries;

o women in development officers from AID missions;

o representatives of international and U.S. national
women's organizations.

Observer status was given to approximately 60 additional partici-
pants representing staffs of AID, the Depar.ment of State and
other U.S. Government agencies; the U.N.; and representatives of
women's organizations, funding agencies, and public interest groups.

The conference grew out of an awareness by AID/WID and other
donor country representatives that there were already a number of
programs operated by international women's organizations and a
growing interest in using women's organizations to deliver
assistance to women in developing countries. There were also local
women's groups working on development projects who needed access
to financial and technical assistance to expand and develop those
projects. Additionally, conference planners were aware of the
momentum being generated by the proposed U.N. Mid-term Conference
on the Decade for Women and the need for women's organizations to
discuss their plans, priorities, and ideas for the Copenhagen


Summary report of the conference

The Conference on the Role of Women's Organizations in Development
therefore brought donors and developing country representatives
together with representatives of international and local women's
organizations to develop four themes:

1) the impact of women's organizations on the lives of

2) collaboration between governments and women's

3) sharing information on women and development;

4) the roles of women's organizations, especially as
regards women's participation in the Copenhagen

On the first day of the conference (for international participants
only) visits to sites of local projects sponsored by U.S. national
women's organizations preceded a discussion of possible roles for
women's organizations. Concurrently, representatives of women in
development in OECD/DAC donor countries met informally to report
their countries' WID activities and to share information about pre-
parations for the U.N. Mid-term Conference on the Decade for Women.

For the remainder of the conference, these two groups joined others
with an interest in women in development for sessions organized
around the four themes of the conference enumerated above.

Several themes suggesting further discussion and action arose from
the conference, including:

o the usefulness of women's bureaus, and the various
liaison and advocacy roles they might play on behalf
of women

o the leadership role that women's organizations can
play in obtaining government intervention on behalf
of women

o donor government consideration of women in development
as part of larger development efforts vs. separate
policy, program, and funding concerns

o the need to consider "women's" issues in a larger
development context

o how to reach rural poor women; related to this, how
to get funding in small, manageable amounts from
donor governments and/or women's organizations to
rural poor women

Participants' discussions, reactions, and individual evaluations of


Summary report of the conference

the conference pointed to their need for information about what
others are doing in women in development, about different govern-
ments' approaches to women in development, and about the relation-
ships between governments and women's organizations. Many
participants felt that establishing contacts was an important
outcome of the conference; others stated that sharing ideas
about how to collaborate was the most helpful activity.
Participants could have benefited from more extensive sharing
of actual experiences. They also felt that with the large
number of organizations and interests represented, more time
was needed to get acquainted with people and projects. A
consensus was reported on the final day of the conference that
continued communication was essential and must include not
only seeking and providing information, but also influencing,
raising consciousness, and directing further efforts in women
and development.

A full report of conference proceedings follows.


Agenda for the Conference


September 26-28, 1979

Wednesday, September 26, 1979

Note to participants: Two separate activities are planned for
today. An informal meeting of the OECD/DAC donor organization
representatives only will be held concurrently with field
activities and visits to local projects/organizations by
representatives of international organizations.

OECD/DAC Donor Meeting


8:30 a.m.

9:00 10:00 a.m.

Endowment for International Peace
11 Dupont Circle

Meet at Carnegie, Conference Center
8th Floor, Room D



Welcome: Arvonne Fraser


Background: why we are here, review of
previous meetings

Agenda: discussion, modification, acceptance

10:00-12:00 noon

Overview of country papers

12:00 2:00 p.m. Working lunch, Carnegie

Report from UN Secretariat on Decade for
Women, Elizabeth Reid


2:30 4:30 p.m. Long-term cooperation among donors

Discussion of major issues
Themes: UN Decade for Women, Third Develop-
ment Decade, women's organizations,

Means of cooperation: meetings,

Agenda for the future: long and
short term

6:30 p.m. Cocktails and buffet, Arvonne S. Fraser


The meeting was convened by Arvonne S, Fraser, Coordinator of the
Office of Women in Development, AID, at 9:00 a.m. Wednesday, Septem-
ber 26. Thirteen representatives of OECD/DAC donor countries
attended the meeting, which was the fourth in a series of informal
women in development meetings. (See participant list, appendix 7.)

The agenda included a review of previous meetings, an overview of
each country's paper on donor assistance prepared for the meeting, a
report from the U.N. Secretariat on the Decade for Women, and a dis-
cussion of long-term cooperation among donors. Exchange of research
and documentation was added as an agenda topic.

Each participant gave a brief statement of how his/her country admin-
isters foreign assistance, and any special considerations which are
given to women. (See appendix for a chart of donor country for-
eign assistance structures.)

Elizabeth Reid, Deputy Secretary General of the U.N. Secretariat
for the Mid-term Conference, reported on the status of the Secretar-
iat's planning for the Copenhagen conference. Regional meetings of
the U.N. Economic Commission and other preparatory conferences are
scheduled from October through April, 1980. A tentative conference
agenda includes:

o apartheid and women

o obstacles to progress in meeting goals of 1975

o program of action from 1980 to 1985

o strategies and national machinery for monitoring progress

o women as refugees.

Ms. Reid described the conference as a review and appraisal of
women's participation, strategies toward equality, and institutional
and financial arrangements.

Following Ms. Reid's report, participants discussed needs for

o institution building at the government level

o evaluation of programs from the viewpoint of women in develop-

women in develo~ment meetincr

women . . in ........ ....... mee

Wednesday sessions: informal donor

o the role of donors at Copenhagen, and

o a program of action for the second half of the Decade for

Outstanding topics to be researched included migration and labor,
women-headed households, the productivity gap, education and train-
ing, predictions and trends analysis on women in developing countries,
and division of labor within households.

The group scheduled its next meeting for the spring of 1980
and tentatively listed agenda items:

o integration of women into large development projects

o social and economic impact of large projects

o addresses on issues

o discussion and examples of micro-project funding.

Wednesday sessions:

inf ormal1 donor women in development meeting


Agenda for the Conference

Washington, DC

September 26-28, 1979

Wednesday, September 26, 1979

Note to participants: Two separate activities are planned for
today. An informal meeting of the OECD/DAC donor organization
representatives only will be held concurrently with field
activities and visits to local projects/organizations by
representatives of international organizations.

Resource Speakers and International Organization Representatives
Dupont Plaza Hotel, Suite 224

8:30 a.m.

9:00 10:00 a.m.

10:00 1:30 p.m.

2:30 2:30 4:30 p.m.

6:30 p.m.

Meet in Suite 224



Welcome, Judy Gilmore

Introductions and briefing, Lael Stegall

Site visits to local projects

Lunch on location

Potential roles for women's organizations

Roundtable discussion

Buffet dinner, Lael Stegall

Wednesday sessions: site visits and roundtable discussion

International participants met Wednesday at 9:00 a.m. in the
DuPont Plaza Hotel for registration, coffee, and a brief
introductory session. Judy Gilmore, Office of Private and
Voluntary Cooperation, AID, welcomed members of international
women's organizations and participants from developing countries.
Lael Stegall Consultant, Office of Women in Development, AID,
introduced participants, hosts for site visits, and conference
staff; then briefed participants on four selected projects to
be visited. (See appendices 3, 4, and 5 for descriptions and
reports of site visits, contact list for project personnel, and
suggested site visits topics.)

International participants selected sites and formed groups of
four to six for the visits to local projects and women's
organization headquarters. It was suggested that each
group have lunch with project personnel. Participants left at
10:30 a.m. for site visits, and reassembled at 2:30 p.m. for a
roundtable discussion.

Following reports from each group's visit (see appendix) inter-
national participants formulated a list of roles possible for women's
organizations suggested by the visits. The list included:

o influence policy on other than "women's" issues;
for example, housing

o form coalitions to make recommendations to government

o educate the public to change attitudes towards women

o provide a body or forum for discussion, headed by
women leaders

o raise consciousness among women at two levels: "those
who know but don't do; those who don't know"

o provide outreach to poor rural and urban women


Wednesday sessions: site visits and roundtable discussion

o sponsor income-generating projects to improve women's
economic outlook and make them economically self sufficient

o train women in technical skills: food preservation,
journalism, business management

o make use of mass media to improve women's image

o coordinate communications and "networking" between women,
and between women's organizations

o foster security and stability in family life; for
example, the man's role in family planning

o help women become emotionally self sufficient

o address inequities in the law, especially family law

o encourage women's participation in government: work closely
with elected women officials, encourage women in rural areas
to participate in local administrations

o national organizations can act as a resource for local
groups: keep women informed about job opportunities,
urge cooperation and sharing, educate men to share respon-

o set realistic goals, develop capabilities, and handle
specific management concerns.

The group decided there was no uniform model for government women's
bureaus. Elements necessary to a women's bureau included funds,
technical capability, political skills, "savvy," and logistical


Agenda for the Conference

Washington, D.C.

September 26-28, 1979

Thursday, September 27, 1979

8:00 8:30 a.m.

8:30 9:00 a,m,

9:00 10:30 a.m.

10:30 11:00 a.m.

11:00 12:30 p.m.

Conference moderators'meeting, Gallery Room

Guest registration
Circle Room, Dupont Plaza Hotel

Plenary session: Welcome and opening
remarks, Arvonne Fraser

Conference background and purpose

Agenda, procedures

Report from the OECD/DAC meeting
Ulla Lehman Nielsen
Overview of papers by foreign assistance
country participants, Geerte Thomas


Women's organizations: impact on women's

Panel presentations by resource speakers

Reactions by representatives of international

Group 1
Gallery Room,
Dupont Plaza
Vivian Derryck

12:30 2:00 p.m.

Group 2
Executive Room
Dupont Plaza
Moderator: Kathryn

Working Luncheon
International organizations: their unique
function and role

Introductions and greetings, Arvonne Fraser
Introduction of speaker, Roxanne Carlisle
Luncheon speaker, Elizabeth Palmer, World


2:30 4:00 p.m.

Government and non-governmental women's
organizations: ways to collaborate

Small group discussions

Group 1 Group 2 Group 3
Gallery Room Circle Room Executive Room


Kay Wallace

Willie Campbell Irene Petty
M. Nachtergaele Michael
Ms. Missant Bauer

4:30 5:30 p.m.

6:30 p.m.

Ways to collaborate: overcoming obstacles
(same small groups)

Reception, Overseas Education Fund, Suite 916
League of Women Voters
2101 L Street, N.W.


Thursday sessions: plenary

Welcome and opening remarks. The conference opened at 9:00 a.m.
with a welcome to all participants and observers by Arvonne
S. Fraser, Coordinator of the Office of Women in Development, U.S.
Agency for International Development. Ms. Fraser noted that this
conference was called to further the goals of the U.N. Decade for
Women. Ms. Fraser gave a special welcome to resource speakers and
guests from developing countries. Fay Thompson of the AID Women
in Development staff introduced each resource speaker hosted by
AID and European representatives of donor countries introduced
their international guests.

Ms. Fraser presented special guests attending the opening session:
Perdita Huston, representing the U.S. Peace Corps; and Albertha
Whitley, representing the office of Sarah Weddington, Special
Assistant to the President and Coordinator of the Interdepartmental

Ms. Geerte Thomas-Lycklama, representing the Netherlands, gave
a brief overview of country papers prepared by donor representatives
for the previous day's informal meeting. Ms. Thomas said the
papers described:

o their governments' structures for foreign
assistance at home and in the field

o each donor country's links with women's
organizations and private voluntary

o how the government has adapted to the needs
of women in development

o statistics and case studies

o preparation for the Mid-term World Conference: at
the national, women's organization, and local levels.


Thursday sessions: plenary

Ms. Thomas characterized most donor nations as providing three
types of WID assistance: bilateral, multilateral, and through
nongovernmental organization channels. Women in development
projects are usually handled in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs,
with bilateral and multilateral aid sometimes coming from a
separate agency.

All donor country governments have made structural changes to
accommodate WID programs; i.e., a special women in development
office or staff assigned to a strategic position to coordinate,
activate, and stimulate women in development programs. Ms.
Thomas said donor representatives found it best not to isolate
WID but to integrate it into the rest of their country's assistance

Regarding special WID funds, Ms. Thomas said that key issues in
funding were local support of proiectsand pressure by women's
groups; and programs to fund small Proiects in developing countries.
There was also a need to find ways to prevent large-scale devel-
opment schemes from being destructive to women.

Ulla Lehman Nielsen, Denmark, reported from the informal meeting
of representatives of donor countries' women in development programs,
which had taken place the previous day. General consensus had
been reached that all donor governments have some funds, and that
there is "good will" toward women in development. There is a
lack of project proposals, however. Ms. Lehman Nielsen mentioned
two ways to get proposals from women's organizations:

o through governmental authorities in developing

o through indigenous nongovernmental organizations
and international (donor) NGOs. These groups
were described as helpful in identifying needs and
formulating projects with local (indigenous) organizations.
Sometimes, donor governments cannot provide funds
directly to indigenous NGO's; it is important for
national NGOs to work with their own governments.


Thursday sessions: plenary

Ms. Lehman Nielsen outlined other problems to be addressed.

a. How to intensify collaboration with local groups to
ensure that the poorest are being served.

b. How to build institutions at the local level.

c. What help is needed in carrying out of projects.

d. Whether women's project criteria are necessary to ensure
that women in development is effected.

e. Whether universal women in development criteria are

Ms. Fraser reported on the presentation of Elizabeth Reid, deputy
to the Secretary General of the U.N. Secretariat for the Mid-term
Conference on the U.N. Decade for Women. Ms. Reid had met with
donor representatives and had described the work of the nine-member
secretariat charged with preparation for the conference and conduc-
ting regional and other preparatory meetings.

Ms. Fraser reiterated an important task of the conference: finding
ways to collaborate. She said it was not uniquely American to
organize a group to solve a problem. We need to understand the
how, when, where, why of informal and formal organizations; how
organizations and individuals deal with each other. We need to
understand that different kinds of organizations are necessary in
different cultures: to respect diversity, differences, self-
interests, and government interests.

She pointed out that in organization there is power,
and the power of the whole is greater than that of each part.
In groups we learn from each other: learn organizing and mana-
gement skills, gain new insights and information, learn each
other's abilities and problems. We should ask whether we need
new structures, as well as how to revitalize and reorganize
the old structures. We need to expect conflict as inevitable,
and to work with outside organizations as well as build national


Thursday sessions; small group discussion

Resource speakers from developing countries were asked in advance
of the conference to prepare a panel address to a small group
session, giving their views on the role women's organizations play
in their countries in three areas:

o the development of the individual women.

o their participation in society,

o the development of society in general.

Speakers numbered six women from the following countries: The
Gambia, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Senegal, Sri Lanka, and Thailand.

Reactions to each presentation were requested from representatives
of other developing countries,and were provided during the small
group sessions by women from Bangladesh, Barbados, Kenya, and
Mozambique. Three groups were formed, with two panel presentations
and two reactions in each group.

Several questions were answered in the group discussions.

1. What kinds of women's organizations exist?

A comparison of national women's organization structures in each
of the countries represented shows all six with a federation or
association of women outside the national government.
(Federations comprised from 15 to 40 women's organizations.)
Four of the six countries also have a government women's bureau,
with a fifth women's bureau "soon to be passed in Parliment." In
one country a national women's movement was formed within the
government party. In another, the women's bureau was established with
funds from a donor country. (See chart following this section.)

One participant viewed women's organizations in her country as
being of four types: structures related to party or government;
denominational women's organizations; mutual aid societies; or
international women's associations. Also beneficial to women
were trade unions.


Thursday sessions: small group discussion

2. What services do women's organizations provide?
Participants noted that women's
organizations did, indeed, develop the individual women, increase
her participation in society, and develop the society in general.

a. To develop the individual; women's organizations

o teach girls to be housewives and mothers

o teach dressmaking

o teach functional literacy; develop literacy handbooks

o provide education, especially to the handicapped

o counsel girls/young women to stay in school

o operate homes for vagrant girls, and place them in
other institutions including the university.

b. To increase women's participation in society; women's

o train rural village leaders

o educate women for participation in local government

o translate information into local languages

o obtain government support for women (for example,
60-day maternity leave is now granted to working
women in one country)

o provide services ranging from social welfare
to development.

c. To develop the society in general, women's organizations

o fight disease, staff hospitals

o combat prostitution

o set up family court to handle domestic problems

o influence changes in la\vs that adversely affect women
(for example, removing a 20% maximum for women working)

o give information and advice, raise consciousness
regarding women's rights and responsibilities,
especially legal rights


Thursday sessions: small group discussion

o protest the use of women in advertising

o establish institutions for mentally ill, orphanages,
creches, preschools and nursery schools, child care
centers, refugee centers

o research women's issues

o provide government liaison, advise government on policy,
collaborate, cooperate, and pressure government

o provide funding for projects

o channel information to women.

3. Why is there a need for women's organizations?
Inequities exist in every country, and those which received
special emphasis by speakers were under-representation of women
in government and under-utilization of women in the work force.

Representation of women in government, while not specifically
mentioned by all speakers, was a concern evidenced in these
statistics provided by three of the speakers fcr their countries:

o two women in the national assembly

o four "traditional" (vs. "Western") women
in the national legislature

o 14 women at administrative levels of government
(of 60 total).

Women in the work force was another concern. While the worldwide
average is a 73% dependency ratio for the female population
(or 27% of women working), said one speaker,her country has an
85% dependency ratio, or 15% of women paid for their work.
Equal pay for the same job is law another country, but the law is
not effective. (The constitution guarantees equality for women,
said one speaker; but social attitudes sometimes defeat this).
Only one panelist pointed to a successful policy by her country
of equal pay for equal work.

Women were described as underutilized in the paid work force yet
spending their adult lives devoting most of their time and energy
to unpaid, seasonal agricultural work and domestic chores. In
rural areas, women's concerns are improving food production, caring for
their children, organizing and simplifying of their domestic chores.
In urban Africa, a study tound women generally working more
than men, but still considered inferior and feeling they


Thursday sessions: small group discussion

"cannot speak out." Another study found that when women worked for
pay, their earnings became community property used to meet all
the needs of the community .

4. What are some constraints on women's organizations?
Participants detailed a large number of problems that limited
the success of women's organizations in development activities.
One of the problems was financial. How does a small, local
organization interest the national government in its projects?
(When merely the government's concurrence, or permission, rather
than a government request, is required, funding is easier to achieve.)

Getting the government's attention is a block to funding, as
is the inability of the local group to provide the information that
government needs for funding: letting the funding agency know in
advance how the money will be used. The difficulties are greater
when outside donor government assistance is sought. Most donor
countries must grant funds through the government, not directly to the
local organization. Matching funds required for some funding
are difficult to obtain from a small rural group.

Some of the panelists stressed the need to focus on projects for
urban women, whose problems are often overlooked in efforts to
reach the rural poor. One panelist wondered how to eliminate the
distinction between rural and urban women, traditional and modern,
so that all women's needs could be addressed.

Another set of problems was attitudinal. Even though changes
in law and tradition legislate equal opportunity for women;
social, religious, and historical attitudes defeat current efforts
by women and by government. Women traditionally have been excluded
from education and employment. They marry early or stay at home to
care for siblings. Their work at home and in the fields requires
long hours. They want to have children and with a high infant
mortality rate, they must have more children and consequently
jeopardize their health and even their life. One panelist pointed
to statistics which showed a shorter life expectancy for women in her
country. A wide range of difficulties must be overcome, from providing
better health care to persuading government to change its policies
affecting women. Public intervention and public awareness were
both necessary: both men and women must be aware of the problems of
underdevelopment specific to women.


Thursday sessions: small qroup discussion

Organizational structural problems also exist. Panelists called
for better coordination between organizations and interaction
on all levels. Collaboration between local organizations may be
necessary for projects. A constantly repeated theme was the need
for information about how to draw up an acceptable project for
funding by the national government or an outside donor government
or organization. The difficulties of getting projects funded were
multiplied when the requesting organization was an informal group
with no links to an official women's organization or to government.
The problem of translating a successful project into long-term
funding was also mentioned.

The groups made a number of recommendations to increase the impact
of women's organizations.

a. Use local, rural organizations to improve women's
economic standing in the community. Women farm
together, save and use the funds collectively.
Use this as a point of departure for programs which
demonstrate modern farming methods (use of tools,
fertilizers, introduce new crops.)

b. Liberate women from drudgery by installing communal
facilities and equipment which the local women's organization
can utilize to integrate women into production, into the
economic life of the community, into full community partici-
pation. Use other support networks such as extension agents,
volunteers, etc., to enhance this effort. (The French
Volontaires du Progres and the U.S. Peace Corps were mentioned
by one panelist.)

c. Improve women's organizations at all levels from village
to national, by

o organizing more effectively

o gaining the interest and support of women in
the upper strata of society especially, to increase
access to government

o generating increased funding (international
organizations could channel information and funding to
local affiliates)

o minimizing generational conflicts

o obtaining tax-exempt status.

d. Improve the cooperation, coordination, and technical
assistance capability of local and international
women's organizations on a reciprocal basis.

e. Establish a link between women's organizations and government.


Thursday sessions: small group discussion

f. Establish more women's organizations in rural areas.

g. Institute a national women's day. March 25, 1979
was the first such day in the Republic of Senegal.
Barbados declared its U.N. Day for Women's Equality
for Peace September 19, 1979.



In Gov't

of Women's

of Women


Ivory Coast

Bill pending
in parliament

Ministry of
Women's Affairs

14 of 60
at adminis-
tration level


Association of
Ivorian Women



Sri Lanka


Department of
Women's Affairs

4 "Sande"
Women in
Nat'l Legis-

2 Women, one
nat'l assembly

Funded by

Status of
Women's Promo-
tion Group

Liberia Federation
of Women's Organi-

Federation of
Women's Organi-

Sri Lanka
Women's League
(40 org's)

National Council
of Thai Women


March 25, 1979

(- indicates information not provided)



Thursday sessions: working luncheon

Thursday's luncheon speaker was Elizabeth Palmer, former General
Secretray of the World yACA, and currently Convenor of the
Planning Committee for NGO Activities at the World Conference of
the UN Decade for Women, to be held in Copenhagen, July 1980.
Ms. Palmer's initial remark concerned the work of the Planning
Committee. She spoke of the plan to hold a Forum. Ms. Palmer
said that registration for the Forum would be open, but space
will be limited. NGOs are being urged to be represented at the
5 Regional preparatory meetings to be held between September
and December for the UN Conference as a way they can most
effectively contribute to the meeting. Ms. Palmer said that
there had been rumors of some specialized meetings being planned
just before or during the period of the 1980 meeting in
Copenhagen and that the Planning Committee would appreciate knowing
of those plans so that there can be cooperation.

Ms. Palmer detailed the role played by International NGOs in
development, defining development as "being more, not having
more." "But," she added, "having more may help." There are
throughout the world fully developed people, organizations, and
nations which don't have much of materials goods.

1. International organizations foster initiative and voluntarism
in society. Outside both government and the national structures,
they can be critical in a positive, impartial way. While women
are not always a government priority, women international NGOs
can keep priorities clear for women.

2. International organizations provide a setting that
bilateral arrangements cannot provide. They cut across giving
and receiving relationship which limit both donors and receivers.
They bring equality to the development process. They can help
countries receive assistance more effectively.

3. International organizations can help national organizations
see projects in context. The "seduction of aid" is a problem for
national NGOs, and wise international offices can help local
organizations say "no" if thay is the wise decision.


Thursday sessions: working luncheon

4. Project funds have a definite beginning and ending point.
When aid does not include followup, the international organization
can "pick up the pieces" and provide continuity.

5. Leadership development may be the most difficult task of the
international organization. It should be continuous, long-term,
a generational process which keeps supplying leaders. International
organizations can help national organizations develop their leadership.

6. International organizations can help with the human pain of
development: the dealing with a changing society, the transfer
of learning from members of the same "family," the sharing of

"We do not learn unless we have the experience of being givers
and receivers, teachers and learners, Ms. Palmer concluded. The.
most important function of the international organization is to
provide a context for this kind of experience. She gave the
example of the YWCA Vocational Training School in Sierra Leone
which had been made possible through international help and which
provided training for someone from another National YWCA who was
to become the Director of a Vocational Training project. Local
pride, expertise, "giving back" would not all be possible in a
bilateral, giver-receiver model of assistance.


Thursday sessions: small group discussion

A long afternoon session was given to discussing the need for
cooperation and collaboration between government and NGO's, obstacles
to collaborating and ways to overcome obstacles. Three groups
were formed, and each group's round table discussion was co-moderated
by a member of a women's organization (one a women's bureau
representative) and a representative of a donor government.

One group outlined the need for collaboration to achieve more
effective donor assistance to WID projects, agreeing that

o bilateral negotiations at the national government level
are not always adequate to launch projects directly
related to the real needs of women

o women's organizations have seldom acted as pressure
groups to create an awareness of development issues
and gain consideration of women's needs in their
countries' development policies, either in developing
countries or in industrialized countries

o donor countries' structures for delivery of foreign
assistance tend to be inflexible, tend to give
preference to large-scale projects, and lack the social
and cultural context'and criteria to consider the role
and needs of women.

Participation at each level is necessary if government and NGO's
are to overcome obstacles to collaboration. Three steps were

1. Participation of women is essential to the process
of preparation of projects and negotiating between

2. This implies a strengthening of women's organizations.
Women's organizations have to serve as an intermediary
between local self-help groups and their government.
National women's organizations especially should initiate
more self-help groups and should be informed about
women's needs at the grass-roots level.

3. Women's organizations in donor countries should create
awareness of development issues in general and should put
pressure on their governments to consider the needs of women
in their development policy.


Thursday sessions: small group discussion

Participants decided that the structures for delivering assistance
needed to be modified in several ways:

o consideration of the social and cultural context
within all projects: criteria which include
roles and needs of women

o intensified project-finding by donor countries which do
not have field missions, with emphasis on poverty
orientation and special reference to women and

o establishment of funds and credit for women-specific
projects which do not have to compete for funds with
regular assistance program.

Several questions were asked in an effort to determine the usefulness
of women's bureaus for liaison between government and women's

1. How can national women's organizations influence national

2. Do women's organizations receive sustained government support?

3. Do governments have enough information on women's organi-
zations and their overall interests and abilities?

4. Do women's groups have enough information on government
plans regarding development?

5. Do governments seek advice from women's organizations?

6. Do women's organizations have their own development plans?

7. Are there too many women's organizations, therefore
government confusion as to whom to consult?

8. Are the talents and skills of women's organizations being
utilized by government?

The group which asked these questions devoted much of their
discussion to outlining the role and activities of the government
women's bureau. Theydefined the women's bureau as an office at
government level that can influence government policy toward
equality of women with men. The bureau ensures that women's concerns
are represented in national development policy, by providing
liaison between women and government and by monitoring the activities
of government, of women's organizations, and of other institutions
and groups whose activities impact on women. The groups whose

-2 -

Thursday sessions: small group discussion

activities impact on women. The group detailed the activities
of women's bureaus:

A. Assisting women's organizations:

o help in planning, project formulation, proposal
o provide information to nongovernmental organizations,act as
an advocate for them
o support growth of women's groups and women's
o bring NGOs together in cooperative efforts for
government funding; establish mutual goals; act as
neutralizerr"; prevent duplication of efforts/projects
o provide a clearinghouse for information between
government and community organization
o help women's organizations set priorities
o monitor organizations which receive funding from
donor countries; "cut red tape"; prevent
duplication of effort projects
o provide technical assistance in the form of trainers,
experts, fellowships, participation in seminars, financial
assistance to women's organizations and individual women
o provide continuity; help women's organizations stabilize

B. Formulating, planning, and implementing women in development

o obtain funding fromnational government and outside
donor agencies
o provide leadership training to girls and women especially
in rural areas
o operate pilot projects for income generation
(for example, plantations, irrigation schemes).

C. Reviewing development plans

o interview rural women regarding their needs, and
give information to government for including in
national five-year plans
o set goals for national five-year plans regarding women
o participate in U.N. discussions of individual countries'
development plans
o work with national and regional economic commissions to
establish workshops with followup (for NGOs for women?)

D. Monitoring legislation re women


Thursday sessions: small group discussions

E. Changing attitudes about women and women's roles, and
women's attitudes toward themselves (for example,
re-wife beating, water carrier role)

F. Working with local universities to develop their capacity for
research studies and retrieval of information.

Each group discussed ways to increase the capabilities of
women's organizations in collaborating more effectively with
their own governments and receiving donor assistance for their
projects. Several seminars and regional meetings have been
held on this topic, specifically on basic organizational procedures,
project formulation, how to get funding, different kinds of
assistance (facilities, manpower, etc.), and help with long-range
planning. International women's organizations and U.N. agencies
usually sponsor such meetings, some on a regional basis.
(The Associated Country Women of the World distributed "How to
Get Help for Your Society" to conference participants. Additional
copies are available from Mary Sobey, ACWW--see participant list
for address-- or from the Office of Women in Development, AID.)

One participant made the case for donors setting priorities in
funding, as inflation and increasing costs force donor groups to
choose between activities to fund. Several points were raised for
consideration on prioritizing:

o financing projects vs. holding meetings

o financing small projects as well as large-scale efforts

o funding women's projects which reflect the division of
labor between sexes in industrialized countries vs.
funding nontraditional projects

o including men as participants and beneficiaries of
women's organization projects

o funding of urban vs. rural projects: attention to problems
of migration, quality of urban life

o funding projects in political education not tied to govern-
ment party organizations.


Thursday sessions: small group discussion

Suggested strategies for collaborating included such ideas as
u'twinning,"in which an international organization or other donor
country agency works exclusively with one or two developing countries
to supply financial support and technical assistance. (This model
is being used currently by the International Council of Women.)
The "umbrella project" concept was stressed as solving some cf the pro-
blems of smallprojects & small organizations getting funding:
examples of current possibiilities include the U.S. Ambassadors'
"self-help" fund in developing countries, and the Dutch Ambassadors'
discretionary fund for small, one-time projects up to $7,500.

A plea was made for better exchange of information regarding both
current priorities of developing countries and donor ctiteria
for funding. An example was given of an African country in
which government organizations were linked to party, trade,
and family welfare interests; NGOs were traditional, rural aid
associations whose goals were to pool income and alleviate hardships;
and international organizations represented modern private interest
groups pressuring government for activities in theareas of literacy,
women's legislation, and other decision making. What criteria
operate, in such a situation and country, for determining who
gets aid?

It was decided that there isa role for donors, for NGOs, and for
other institutions and individuals in improving the quantity and
quality of aid by industrialized countries and by international
NGOs to developing country governments and local self-help groups.
Donor countries must establish and maintain contact with all levels
in the developing countries. NGOs must alter their project
finding (identification) and implementation processes and should
play a more important role in assisting thirl-world indigenous
NGOs with project proposals, budgeting, and information on funding

A clearing center could be established which would disseminate
information to women's organizations about project application
procedures and the kinds of aid given by various agencies.
Participantsevidenced their frustration at not achieving such an
arrangement, but mentioned the potential of currently operating
institutions such as the Internationsl Women's Tribune Center
ana the International and Research Centre for Women in
conjunction with the U.N. Regional Economic Commissions.


Agenda for the Conference

Washington, DC

September 26-28, 1979

Friday, September 28, 1979

8:30 9:00 a.m.

9:00 9:15 a.m.

9:00 11:00 a.m.

Note: Observers are

Group 1
Gallery Room

Moderators: Maryann

11:00 11:15 a.m.

11:15 1:00 p.m.

Circle Room, Continental Breakfast

Plenary Session

Introduction of discussion topic

Strategies for communications: sharing
information on women in development

asked to participate fully in today's

Group 2 Group 3
Capital Suite Circle Room

Dulancey Marilyn Hoskins

Mildred Leet


Plenary session
Reports from working groups:

a) Women's organizations, impact on women's
lives: Vivian Derryck, Kathryn Piepmeier

b) Ways to collaborate: Kay Wallace,
Kaija Kahilainen, Willie Campbell, Mr.
Nachtergaele, Ms. Missant, Irene Petty,
Michael Bauer

c) Strategies for communication:
Marvanne Dulansey, Marilyn Hoskins,
Mildred Leet

Donor report: Karin Himmelstrand



Friday sessions: plenary

Arvonne Fraser chaired the session and called for reports from
the previous day's discussion group moderators.

1. Ways to Collaborate. Kay Wallace summarized her group's
discussion by saying that women's bureaus serve an important
function in collaboration between government and women's
organizations. Regularly scheduled discussions at all
levels can lead to understanding of government and NGO
capabilities, so that projects can be considered favorably
and also meet the needs of women. Small as well as
large-scale projects and pilot projects should be funded;
men should be included in planning and implementation.
More matching of groups is advisable between countries
and organizations, and networks should be strengthened and
maintained. Increased costs and inflation may force
governments and NGOs to define priorities.

Michael Bauer's group had discussed establishing a clearing center
to share information about project application and type of
assistance. The International Women's Tribune Centre, the Interna-
tional Training and Research Centre for Women, and the U.N.
Regional Economic Commissions were suggested as having the
potential for this function.

2. Strategies for Communication. Barbara Knudson's group had
identified obstacles to communication as internal to
developing country governments (indifference to women's
concerns, delays, red tape); and external, in the donor relation-
ship (different timetables, cultural misunderstandings,
inflexibilities). They sought effective ways for donor
governments to give funds directly to NGOs. They thought a
balance was necessary between NGO decision making and some
government approval mechanisms to ensure that projects
were related to developing country plans. The group
concluded that each country must develop its own appropriate
strategies, and that women in development issues required
use of all available channels.

Strategies for communication included external pressure by a
federation of NGOs, similar to U.N. efforts to keep a training
center in Addis Ababa; exchange of information about government
operation; increased language ability; continued attempts to be
sensitive to culture; and learning to work more effectively
with male colleagues.

Friday sessions: plenary

3. Women's Organizations. Vivian Derryck's group had presented
two typologies for ways of viewing women's organizations:
the first included village associations, service clubs, and
spontaneous voluntary associations to meet particular needs.
The second typology named government party-related structures,
religious organizations, mutual aid societies, unions, and
international women organizations. The various groups
with different goals each contributed to national development.
Her group had disucssed organizational problems including
transition to new leadership (the "generation gap"),
and reaching grass-roots women through existing organizations.

Joyce Rasmussen's group had discussed the many diversities
between women, their activities and their organizations: cultural,
geographical, economic, historical, and political differences;
and the changing orientation of women's organizations. The
group focused on common solutions: where government and NGO
distinctions are not clear, women should make the lack of clarity
work to their advantage; women in formal organizations should attempt
to reach indigenous organization women and help to channel aid.
The group listed common needs of NGOs:

o access to funding from outside the country

o training in project formulation and implementation

o marketing capabilities, especially with the current
emphasis on incoming-generating projects

o reaching rural women.

Mildred Leet reported that her group had emphasized the necessity
for women's influence and involvement in all sectors of society.
Women also need to communicate among themselves, and establish
stronger links. Projects must be designed to ease the burdens
on women: to give them marketable skills, and to get women into
the labor market with men. NGOs should provide the services that
government does not, and should interest government in appropriate
areas to benefit women. The women's bureau can provide liaison
between government and NGOs; the group saw Kenya's women's
bureau as one that other countries might wish to pursue as a
paradigm. Finally, the group discussed sensitizing government
to women's needs, identifying funding resources, and developing
guidelines on how agencies can affect the status of women.


Friday sessions: plenary

Following the reports from discussion groups, several participants
reiterated that materials were available for those seeking funding
for proposals, from the following organizations:

Associated Country Women of the World
(distributed to participants)

International Alliance of Women

International Center for Research of Women

International Women's Tribune Centre

New Transcentury Foundation.

A brief report was made of the International Council of Women's
triennial meeting in Nairobi, with special mention of resolutions
regarding science and technology; calling for cooperation with
the U.N. Regional Economic Commissions; and recommending
appropriate technologies for agricultural and industrial development.
Teh ICW meeting had reaffirmed earlier statements that women must
be involved in the terms in which their governments make applica-
tion to international and national development agencies for
development assistance; and the importance of creating development
programs based on the participation of all members of society.

Suggestions were made that goals for the meeting in Copenhagen
must be focused and realistic, that planners should be
thoughtful about benefits to rural women, and that women might
take to Copenhagen their income-generating projects.

Ms. Fraser introduced the next session on strategies for
communication, and asked that participants broaden the topic for
group discussions to include not only seeking and providing
information, but also the different needs for information of
various groups; how information needs are being met;
influencing people by giving the appropriate kind and amount of
information; sharing knowledge of access to sources of information;
and consciousness raising or conscientization as an important aspect |
of information snaring.

Friday sessions: plenary presentation

Ann Walker of the International Women's Tribune Centre, New York,
addressed the group briefly on communication strategies used by
IWTC for increasing the effectiveness of communication among women.
First, she said, a minimal strategy for training in development
should include consideration of the following topics.

o Need

o Objective

o Target audience. Major and minor audience: their
age, occupations, places frequented.

o Media utilized

o Evaluation.

Strategies should take into consideration the target audience,
related agencies, and the masses reachable by the media.

How is the media used? Training materials reach the target
audience, providing them with skills in project development,
program, and working with the media.

Training materials can also be used to reach related audiences,
along with newsletters, flip charts, slides, film strips.
Changing attitudes and raising consciousness among related agencies
may also be necessary.

Mass media: radio, TV, newspapers, can be used to reach
the mass audience.

Evaluation of training/communications is indispensable.
Trainers should make sure their evaluation strategy fits their
audience: this may mean house-to-house surveys, etc.

Ms.Walker provided as a case study the work with WAND in the
Caribbean, in which a Caribbean resources book was developed.

The need was for women to know the resources available to them
for development work. Their objective was to develop regional
resources. Women's groups, 300 identified groups, were the
target audience. A resource book was published, containing a
directory of women's organizations and sections on funding/technical


Friday sessions: plenary presentation

assistance, a regional bibliography, and a plan of action. The
project reached related agency audiences by using slides with a
tape and flip charts. They reached regional audiences by use of
a newsletter published by WAND, as well as radio. Cassette evalua-
tion format to be used is now being developed.

Ms. Walker pointed out that UNESCO has a women's feature syndicate.
She directed those interested to

Yvette Abrahmson
Population Division
7, Place de Fontenoy
75700 Paris, France
tel. 577-16-10.



Friday sessions: small group discussion

The session was organized by one group around several
action-oriented goals. One goal was to increase personal inter-
action, help humanize relationships, and maximize possibilities
for international connections among women. To increase communica-
tion between individuals who attend international conferences,
one country sends its participants to the conference several
days ahead, to live with persons in the host community and to
experience the host culture first-hand. After the conference,
the participant is expected to return with a suggestion for a
project as followup to the conference. Reporting is based on
recording, transcribing and editing of all sessions, so that the
participant can give the fullest report and still participate fully
in the sessions.

A second goal was to strengthen relationships among national
and international NGOs. Among suggested ways were working
through U.N. mechanisms, organizations being "inclusive" rather
than "exclusive", involving national NGOs in regional and
international activity. The group wished to encourage greater
cooperation, insure against duplication of efforts, and avoid
excluding groups which should be involved in activities. They
urged that NGOs meet more often and communicate broadly with
other NGOs on all levels.

A third goal was to develop a common area of concern around which
women could unite and work together. One suggestion was the
potential for income generation: a theme broad enough to
generate interest very widely, but specific enough to suggest
a focus, resources, and a plan of action.

This group considered women "underdeveloped" everywhere, and
saw learning from each other as a goal related to the need
for women to communicate and be represented in development plans,
conferences, etc, at all education, socio-economic, and rural/
urban levels.

A final goal identified by the group was to change women's thinking
about funding of projects: rather than seek ways to fund
small projects, women's organizations should seek larger
grants and take on themselves the further dissemination or
distribution for smaller projects. This let to suggestions of
"how-to" materials which could be prepared before the Copenhagen
meeting and distributed through women's organizations, rural
extension programs, and other means.

Friday sessions: small group discussion

Recommendations were also suggested by another group, to be made
to the NGO Forum and to planning committees for the Copenhagen

1. The success of the conference depends on people:
their interest, their communication.

2. Projects are not funded because of problems at donor, host
country, and community levels: either women don't have
priority or there are organizational problems. Use
Copenhagen to solve the problems and to raise consciousness
about women's issues, so that women at the grass-roots and
curbstone level can get the resources they need.

3. Within the themes of education, employment, and health, the
Copenhagen meeting should emphasize the changing roles of
men and women; the concern not just with women's issues and
needs, but with societal issues and needs. Women are
resources to formulate a new development strategy, to help
implement programs, and to solve basic problems; e.g., water
and sanitation, energy, food.

4. Information on successful and unsuccessful projects, model
projects, resource allocation, bottlenecks, obstacles,
constraints and how to overcome them, and on integrating
women in development into large development efforts, should
be more widely disseminated, published and targeted to
women's organizations. Documents should be translated
into all U.N. languages. A strategy for communicating
with women at the curbstone level should be developed.
Written, oral, and audiovisual media should be used.

5. A compilation of information already available or being
written is recommended, to include the following:

o DAC/Paris 1978 case studies

o Secretariat for WID for New Transcentury Foundation,
"Funding Resources for Women in Development Projects"

o Copenhagen Secretariat materials.

6. Questions to be asked as preparation for the Copenhagen
meeting include:

o how to develop income-generating projects

o What is a small project? ($5,000 or less, such as
under the UNDP Special Voluntary Fund)


Friday sessions: small group discussion

o how to make various levels--donor to project level--aware
of women's needs and concerns
o What funds are available? What forms are necessary
for requesting funds? Who decides on allocation of

o how to work through the system better, faster to get

o What is the best intervention?

o (from donors) how to involve a greater number of

o (from national level) how to reach and activate grass-
roots women

o (all) how to involve men, especially at the village

o how to get proposals for projects written, then funded

o how to link an interest in education, employment, and
health among nations at NGO level

o how to follow up on policy

o how to consider needs, strategies, projects, case
studies, resources, what has happened in the last
five years, at the national level

o how to reformulate national plans.

7. Targets for communication should include elite women's
groups in all countries, to affect their own governments;
diplomatic channels of government assistance agencies and
other government agencies.


Conclusion of the conference

The group summarized the needs for communication and followup to
the conference as follows.

a. There is a need for general dissemination of information:

to government officials

to NGO representatives

to media personnel

to lobbyists for influencing women's organizations,
ministry staffs, and influential professional women.

b. There is a need for concrete examples, case studies, experience
sharing, materials, and kits, especially for public information
and training to take place at the Copenhagen conference,

for women's groups

for selected conference officials

for the NGO Forum

for media personnel.

c. There is a need for continued exchange of skills and technical
assistance to specific groups at all levels, including

women's groups

rural women

donor agency personnel

government and politicians.

Reporters from small groups to the final plenary session concluded
that communication among women and women's organizations is essen-
tial to determining needs, to assessing strategies, and to women's 0
participating in the formulation of national plans.

Participants hoped that further communication would include descrip-
tions of projects that work. They stressed a need for all women,
from elite to rural and urban poor, to become involved as agents
of change for their own and for donor governments, for men and
for other women.

The conference closed at 1:00 p.m. Friday, September 28.





Outline for country paper for meeting on the integration of
women in development and on the Mid-Decade Conference,
September, 1979, in Washington, D.C.

Each donor nation participating is requested to prepare
a paper (not more than ten pages) on how their agency in-
tegrates women in development through participation and
cooperation. The following paper outlines the specific
areas to be addressed. Submission of these papers is re-
quested no later than September 10, in order to allow time
for reproduction and distribution to colloquium participants.
Papers should be mailed to:

Women in Development Office
Room 3243 New State
Washington, D.C. 20523

Subject: How to integrate women in development through
participation and cooperation.

With a view to deliberately including the women's component
in development cooperation, the following points need to be

1) your governmental structure for delivering foreign assistance:

(a) at home
(b) in the field

2) links with private organizations:

(a) women's organizations
(b) other private organizations

3) In what way has your government or your government agency
adapted to the manifested need of integrating women in
the development process?

4) Present some statistics on:

o Fellowships granted to women

o Women experts in the field

o Women volunteers

o The percentage of women personnel in
your organization or agency professional
level, administrative level


page 2 (country paper outline)

5) Present two or three case studies showing how integration
of women in development has been accomplished; how were
activities planned, designed, and implemented?

6) What do you do about development education of your
national constituencies:

NGO's, other groups, schools, etc.?

7) How is your government or your government agency preparing
for the development aspect of the Mid-Decade Conference
to be held in Copenhagen in 1980?

The following questions regarding international non-governmental
organizations and LDC women's organizations were only briefly
discussed during Arvonne Fraser's recent trip to Europe. At
this time we would appreciate your responses in writing
to the following questions.

International Non-Governmental Organizations

1) Please list international women's organizations, your
government or government agency has assisted.

2) Types of development projects funded, for example organizational
and institutional development, formal and non-formal
training, educational programs, small-scale technical services,
rural and agricultural projects, cooperative ventures, etc.
All female mixed

3) Financial arrangements and amounts,-grants, loans, loan
guarantees, other (please describe).

LDC Organizations:

1) Please list LDC women's organizations your government or
government agency has assisted and indicate whether they
were: informal or formal organizations; rural or urban;
the average age group and their socio-economic status.

2) What kinds of development projects has your agency funded
through LDC women's organizations? For example, organizational
and institutional development, formal and non-formal training,
educational programs, small-scale technical services, rural
and agricultural projects, cooperative ventures, etc. All
female mixed

3) Types of financial arrangements grants, loans, loan
guarantees, other (please .describe).



Site visit descriptions and reports

Women's Organizations and Women's Projects

September 26, 1979, Washington, D.C.

Briefing: 9:00
Depart for Site: 10:00
Return to Hotel: 2:00

I. Opportunities Industrialization Corporation; Job training
center disadvantaged women and men.

3224 16th Street, N. W.
Washington, D. C.
(tel.) 265-2626

Overseas Education Fund of the League of Women Voters: Private,
voluntary, women's organization that provides technical
assistance to low-income people, especially women, throughout
the world.

2101 "L" Street, N. W. Suite 916
Washington, D. C. 20037
(tel.) 466-3430

The group saw a training center operated by OIC for persons over
18 years old. The OIC center had a staff of 35 working with over
100 trainees. Government funding is received. There are women
at the center in training for nontraditional skills, and about
half the instructors are women. The group saw a "feeder" class for
retraining after coming back to the work force. About 70% of the
small appliance repair class were women. Needed skills are iden-
tified by employers, and followup to the classes is provided six
months after training.

Leaders: Cheryl Williams, Pre-Vocational Specialist, OIC
International; Joseph Harleston, Supervisor, OIC;
Joyce Rasmussen, Field Director for Asia and Pacific,


II. Women's Legal Defense Fund: An organization that provides
free legal services to women in the Washington metropolitan

1010 Vermont Avenue, N. W,
Washington, D. C. 20005
(tel.) 638 9448

My Sister's Place: A residential center for battered women
and their children which was organized by the Women's Legal
Defense Fund.

Participants discussed with WLDF staff members
women's projects, funding, and contacts at all levels. Besides
providing legal defense for women, WLDF encourages women to vote,
supports political candidates and is currently emphasizing its
efforts to get women in the judiciary. They emphasize women's
issues rather than political party affiliation. They can do grass-
roots groundwork on issues with 24 hours notice. One example of
their concerns is a veterans' preference law which WLDF is attempt-
ing to have repealed as discriminatory. They maintain a Washington
women's network and a coalition on women's appointments to political
or government office.

The size of the group visiting "My Sister's Place" was necessarily
limited because of tight security surrounding this battered women's
home. The group was impressed with this security and its effect
on the women, who stay at MSP an average of six weeks. Only staff
members answer the door or phone. The rehabilitation program is
run like a real home, with children in evidence, a playroom, and a
family atmosphere with each woman taking her part in daily "chores."
The center is funded completely with private funds through WLDF.
Fifty volunteers serve part-time with the home, and included in
their duties is private counseling aimed at making the women more
self-sufficient. Extensions of a woman's stay are based on need,
and volunteers help to get the women into jobs or job training.
Welfare payments are sought for the poorer among the women.

The group enjoyed frank talks with the resident women. One woman
told them of her determination to be independent, after several
attempts to leave home. She was expecting a fourth child in December.
December. Another woman told of her belief that violence in the
home stems from husbands' perception of the wives as merely "baby
makers." Another pursued a home-study course in secret to avoid
her husband's anger.

Participants expressed surprise that income-generating activities
at the center often led to a decrease in welfare payments to women
supplementing their income. It was pointed out that government
regulations limit the amount of outside income allowable under the
welfare program.


Leaders: Sylvia Ware, The National Women's Political Caucus;
Judy Lichtman, Executive Director, Women's Legal
Defense Fund; Ann Kolker, The Coalition on Women's

III. The Women's Bureau of the U. S. Department of Labor

200 Constitution Avenue, N. W.
Room S-3317
Washington, D. C. 20210
(tel.) 523-6632

Day Care Center of the U. S. Department of Labor: a
federally funded day care center for working women in this large
government agency.

The U. S. Women's Bureau was established by Congress in 1920
to look after the welfare of working women. This government
organization has had an important history in monitoring
programs and progress for women in the field of employment,
health and welfare.

Participants visited a day care center located'at the U.S.
Department of Labor for children of employees of USDL. The group
was impressed with the facilities and the quality of the staff.
The day care center can accommodate 100 children, and currently
has 97 children registered. A low ratio of 10 children to 1 teacher
was considered important to the success of the center. The center
is not supported by federal funds: USDL provides only the facility.
Parents pay a fee for child care. They are also encouraged to
visit the center during breaks and to eat lunch with their children.

Participants were briefed on the work of the Women's Bureau, and had
an opportunity to obtain materials at the Bureau's reference center.

Leader: Kathryn Wallace, Special Assistant for International
Affairs U.S. Women's Bureau

-I~ ....

IV. National Council of Negro Women: Major national women's
organization with both domestic and international programs.

1819 "H" Street, N. W.
Washington, D. C.
(tel.) 223-8055

Special Projects: Operation Sister's United
Mary McLeod Bethune Archives

Operation Sister's United is a juvenile justice program run
by NCNW that teams up adult volunteers with young, female

Participants visited the headquarters
of NCNW and discussed membership, nongovernment funding strategies
and programs. They were interested in the magnitude of the organi-
zation--4 million members--and its affiliation of 27 local organi-
zations, which they felt showed a realization of the need to organize
women. The reporter pointed out that ideas which visitors discussed
were transferable to their own countries. NCNW works in two African
countries, Senegal and Ivory Coast, at present.

Visitors discussed with staff a housing program which teaches basic
home improvement, repair, and gardening-along with concepts of
solidarity among the local population. They also were interested
in pig raising projects for areas where protein intake is not suf-
ficient. Starter groups of 50 female, 5 male pigs are provided to
a community which then raises new litters, contributing two from
each litter to a "pig bank" for new projects. The NCNW urban pro-
gram included a polio vaccination project in collaboration with the
American Medical Association.

The group visited an Operation Sisters United center operated by
NCNW, where girls considered beyond the control of their parents
were offered therapy, discussions and group lessons in photography,
dance, and arts and crafts. The reporter felt that OSU met a need
of expanding urban centers, especially for girls who were school
leavers or single mothers.

Leader: Stephanie Dailey, Field Developer, International
Division, National Council of Negro Women

- n -


Site visit contact list

I. Opportunities Industrialization Corporation
Mrs. Alexis Roberson
Opportunities Industrialization Corporation
3224 16th Street, NW
Washington, D.C.

Ms. Cheryl Williams, Pre-Vocational Specialist,
2400 Tulpehocken Street
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19144

Ms. Joyce Rasmussen, Field Director for Asia and Pacific
Overseas Education Fund
2101 L Street, NW
Washington, D.C. 20036

II.Women's Legal Defense Fund
Ms. Judy Lichtman, Executive Director
1010 Vermont Avenue, NW
Washington, D.C. 20005

Ms. Sylvia Ware
National Women's Political Caucus
Suite 1110
1411 K Street, NW
Washington, D.C. 20005

Ms. Ann Kolker
Coalition on Women's Appointments
National Women's Political Caucus
Suite 1110
1411 K Street, NW
Washington, D.C. 20005

III.Women's Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor
Ms. Kay Wallace
Women's Bureau
U.S. Department of Labor Room S-3317
200 Constitution Avenue, NW
Washington, D.C. 20210

IV.National Council of Negro Women
Ms. Stephanie Dailey
International Division
National Council of Negro Women
1819 H Street, NW Suite 900
Washington, D.C. 20006




Washington, D.C. September 26-28, 1979


Discussion and exchange between the conference participants

will be most effective if the meetings can take place in an

informal and candid atmosphere. The following "ground rules"

are set forth with this goal in mind.

















Conference on the Role of Women's Organizations in Development
Washington, D.C. September 26-28, 1979


(Fifteen respondents
as of December 1979)

1. What did you expect to gain from participation in the

(8) Contacts with people working in women in development
(9) Information about what others are doing
(3) Information about nature and purpose of women's organizations
(5) Information about women in development projects
(9) Information about government approaches to women in development
(7) Information about funding of projects
(9) Understanding of the relationships between government and
women's organizations
(2) Other: remarks

2. To what extent did the conference meet your needs/expectations?
(3) 100% (5) 75% (3) 50% (1) 25% (0) Not at all
(1) 90%

3. Do you feel the conference has helped you to better understand
your role in women in development?
(12) Yes (2) No


4. Do you feel the conference has increased your technical ability?
(8) Yes (3) No
(2) Somewhat


5. Do you feel the conference has enhanced your potential for
(7) Yes (4) No


6. Do you feel the conference was a productive step toward the
Mid-term World Conference on the U.N. Decade for Women
(8) Yes (3) No (1) Yes and no
If yes, in what way? If no, what other steps should be taken?

7. What topic(s) were not included that you would like to have
seen covered?

8. What topic(s) were included that most surprised you in a
conference on the role of women's organizations in development?
(4) None

9. Please indicate which sessions were most helpful and which
sessions were least helpful in the list below.

( ) Most helfpul Least helpful ( )

(3) OECD/DAC donor meeting (donor country representatives only) ( )
(2) Site visits to local projects (International
participants only) ( )
(5) Women's organizations: impact on women's lives,
presentations by resource speakers (1)
(4) International organizations: their unique function and
role, luncheon presentation (1)
(10) Government and non-governmental women's organizations:
ways to collaborate, small group discussions (1)
(7) Strategies for communications: sharing information on
women in development, small group discussions (
(4) Plenary/reporting sessions (1)



10. Please indicate which of the following skills, in your opinion,
were addressed at the conference; which skills need to be
addressed in any meetings prior to Copenhagen?

( ) Were addressed Need to be addressed ( )

(1) Organizational management (6)
(6) Communications (3)
(9) Networking (3)
(5) Program development (4)
(4) Fund raising (5)
( ) Other: name (1)

11. Please give any general comments or recommendations you believe
would help improve any further discussion or action on the role
of women's organizations in development.

12. Please check one item from each column which describes your
participation in the conference.

A. (11) Participant B. (9) Attended all sessions
(3) Observer (6) Attended most sessions
(11 Staff ( ) Attended some sessions

C. (3) Representative of donor country
( ) Representative of developing country
(2) Member of international women's organization
( ) Member of national/local women's organization in
developing country
(2) Member of national/local women's organization which
has development projects
(2) Member of national/local women's organization with no
projects but interest in development
( Representative of public interest group
() Representative of non-government funding agency
( ) Representative of U.S. Congress
(3) Other:
Rep. of IPPF





I. Ms. Jennifer Porter
Embassy of Australia
1601 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036

2. Mr. Maurits Nachtergaele, General Advisnr
Administration of Development Cooperation
Abos, Dll-92-I
Marsveltplein #5
Bus 57
1050 Brussels, Belgium

3. Ms. Hilde Missant, Attache
Cabinet du Ministere
Minister de la Cooperation
au Developnement
Rue Quatre Brasstraat #2
1000 Brussels, Belgium

4. Mrs. Roxane Connick Carlisle
Coordinator, Integration of Women in Development
Policy Branch, Canadian International Development
Agency (CIDA)
Promenade du Portage 200
Hull, KIA OG 4, P Quebec Canada

5. Mrs. Ulla Lehman-Nielsen
Head of Section, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Amaliegade 7
DK-1256, Copenhagen K,

6. Mr. Corrado Pirzio-Biroly,Economic Counselor
Commission of the European Community
2100 M. Street, N.W. Suite 707
Washington, D.C. 20039

7. Ms. Kaija Kahilainen, Acting Chief for Planning Division
Department for International Development Cooperation
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Tehtaankatu 1-A
00140 Helsinki 14 Finland




8. Mme Beatrice du Lau d'Allemans
Minister de la Cooperation
20 Rue Monsieur
Paris 75700 France

9. Mr. Michael Bauer, Coordinator for a Basic Needs
Strategy and Women in Development
Ministry for Economic Cooperation
Section 225 Karl Marx Strasse 4-6
53 Bonn 12 Germany

10. Dr. Geertje Thomas-Lycklama a Nijeholt
Coordinator of International Women's Affairs
Directorate General for International Cooperation
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Casuariestraat 16
The Hague, Netherlands

11. Mrs. Bjorg Leite, Counselor
Fr. Nauseus Vei 12/14
OSLO 1, Norway

12. Mrs. Karin Himmelstrand, Coordinator, Women in Development
Swedish International Development Authority
10525 Stockholm, Sweden




I. Dr. Neelima Ibrahim
Bangladesh Mahila Samity
New Baily Road
Dacca, Bangladesh

2. Dr. Dietlinde-Lessner-Abdin Dr. Dietlinde Lessner-Abdin
German Women's Council Arnold-Bergstraesser-Institut
Augustastrabe 42 Windausstr. 16
5300 Bonn 2 7800 Freiburg
Fed. Rep. Germany Fed. Rep. of Germany

3. Ms. Terry Kantai
Women's Bureau
Nairobi, Kenya

4. Ms. Josefina da Sousa
Organizacao da Mulher Mozambicana
Rua Fernandez Homey
No.11 R/C Maputo, Mozambique

5. Ms. Joise Mahomede
Organizacao du Mulher Mozambicana
Rua Fernandez Homey
No. 11 R/C Maputo, Mozambique





I. Ms. Carmeta Fraser
Barbados Agriculture Development Corporation
Wildey, St. Michael

2. Mrs. Mary Langley
Establishment Office
Banjul, The Gambia

3. Ms. Aminata Traore (Ministere de la Condition Feminine)
Minister des Affaires Etrangeres
B.P. V 200 Abidjan, Ivory Coast

4. Ms. Leona Chesson
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Monrovia, Liberia

5. Madame Lena Gueye
Depute, Assemble Nationale
Dakar, Republique du Senegal

6. Miss Mahes Candiah
Colombo Group of Hospitals
Ministry of Colombo Hospitals and
Family Health
Colombo, Sri Lanki

7. Mrs. Kanok Samson Vil
The Girl Scouts Association
5 1/2 Phyathai Road
Bangkok, Thailand




I. Ms. Joanne Murphy
Women in Development Office
American Embassy
Dakar, Senegal

2. Ms. Barbara Skapa
Women in Development Officer
American Embassy
Ouagadougou, Upper Volta

3. Ms. Judith Wills
Women in Development
American Embassy
Monrovia, Liberia




I. Mrs. Mary Sobey
Associated Country Women of the World
50 Warwick Square
Victoria SW England

2. Mrs. Laurel Casinader
International Alliance of Women
Parnell House
5th Floor, Room 12
25 Witon Road
London SWIV IW England

3. Mme. Irene de Lipkowski
International Alliance of Women
191 Blvd. Saint Germain
Paris 7e France

4. Ms. Hope Skillman Schary
International Council of Women
770 U.N. Plaza
New York 10017

Internation Council of Women
13 Rue Cauwartin
Paris 75009 France

5. Mrs. Joan Swingler
International Planned Parenthood
18 Lower Regent Street
London, England

6. Ms. Anne Walker
International Women's Tribune Center, Inc.
3o5 East 6th Street, 6th Floor
New York, New York 10017

7. Ms. Elizabeth Palmer
World YWCA
National Board, World Relations Unit
600 Lexington Avenue
New York, New York 10021

Ms. Elizabeth Palmer
Box 171
Cobalt, Conn. 06414




I. Ms. Doris Riehm
Girl Scouts of the U.S.A.
83U Third Avenue
New York, New York 10022

2. Dr. Lois Leffler Lutheran world Federation
Lutheran Church Women P.C. Box No. 6E
2900 Queen Lane Route de Ferney 150
Philadelphia, PA 19129 1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland

3. Ms. Stephanie Dailey
National Council of Negro Women
1819 H. Street, N.W. Suite 900
Washington, D.C. 20006

4. Ms. Irene Petty
National Council of Negro Women
1819 H Street, N.W. Suite 900
Washington, D.C. 20006

5. Ms. Irma Finn Brosseau
National Federation of Business and
Professional Women's Clubs, Inc.
2012 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036

6. Ms. Willie Campbell, President
Overseas Education Fund of the
League of Women Voters
2101 L Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036

7. Mrs. Elise Smith
Executive Director
Overseas Education Fund of the
League of Women Voters
2101 L. Street. N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036




8. Mr. Keith Sanders
PACT, Inc.
777 United Nations Plaza
New York, New York 10017

9. Ms. Judy Helzner
Pathfinder Fund
1330 Boylston Street
Chestnut Hill ( Boston)
Massachusetts 02167

10. Ms. Florence Schott
Soroptimist International of the
4960 Sentinel Drive
Bethesda, Maryalnd 20016

11. Ms. Anita Anand
United Methodist Church
100 Maryland Avenue, N.E.
Washington, D.C. 20002

12. Ms. Rosalie Oakes
YWCA of the U.S.A.
600 Lexington Avenue
New York, New York 10021

13. Ms. Millie Robbins Leet
Leet & Leet Consultants
54 Riverside Drive
New York, 10024

14. Ms. Kathy Piepmeier
3100 Connecticut Avenue. NW
Washington, DC 20008




1. Ms. Ada Adler
Office of Labor Affairs, Bureau for Private and
Development Cooperation

2. Ms. Patricia Baldi
Office of Population
Bureau for Development Support

3. Ms. Mary Lou Becker
Office of International Affairs
Bureau for Intragovernmental and International Affairs

4. Ms. Goler Butcher
Assistant Administrator
Bureau for Africa

5. Mr. Thomas Fox, Director
Office of Private and Voluntary Cooperation

6. Ms. Judy Gilmore
Office of Private and Voluntary Cooperation

7. Ms. Mona Hamman
c/o Office of Technical Support
Bureau for Near East

8. Ms. Roma Knee
Office of Development Programs
Bureau for Latin America and Caribbean

9. Ms. Mary Little
Special Assistant, Bureau for Private and
Development Cooperation

10. Ms. Carole Millikan
Office of Private and Voluntary Cooperation

11. Ms. Barbara Pillsbury
Office of Evaluation
Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination




12. Mr. Calvin Raullerson
Assistant Administrator
Bureau for Private and Development

13. Ms. Peggy Shaw
Office of Development Resources
Bureau for Africa

14. Ms. Ann Van Dusen
Bureau for Program and Policy Coordination
Office of Policy Development and Program Review




1. Ms. Vivian Derryck
Director, Conference Secretariat
U.N. Decade for Women Mid-Term World Conference
International Women's Program
Bureau of International Organization Affairs

2. Ms. Barbara Good,Director
International Women's Progam
Bureau of International Organization Affairs

3. Ms. Line Heyniger
Secretariat to the U.S. National Commission
Bureau of International Organization Affairs




1. Mr. Michael Bennett
Office of Private Sector Program
U.S. International Communication Agency
Washington, D.C. 20547
Attn: ECPA/PW Room. 634-1776 -M

2. Ms.Nancy Graham
Talent Search
Peace Corps
806 Connecticut Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20525

3. Ms. Alyce Hill Peace Corps Country Director
c/o American Embassy
Abidjan, Ivory Coast

4. Ms. Perdita Huston, Regional Director
North Africa, Near East, Asia and Pacific
Peace Corps
806 Connecticut Avenue, N.W.
Washington D.C. 20525

5. Ms. Elizabeth Reid,Deputy Director
U.N. Secretariat, 1980 Conference
on the Decade of Women
U.N. Plaza
New York, New York 10017

6. Ms. -Gloria Scott
Advisor on Women in Development
The world Bank
1RA1 R. street, ".T.
Washington, D.C. 20433





7. Ms. Kay Wallace
Women's Bureau Department of Labor
200 Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20012

8. Ms. Albertha Whitlev
Interdepartmental Task Force on Women
Office of Sarah Weddington
The White House
Washington, D.C. 20500




1. Ms. Elinor Barber
The Ford Foundation
320 East 43rd Street
New York, New York 10017

2. Ms. Pat Blair
1411 30th Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20007

3. Ms. Myra Buvinic
International Center for Research on Women
2000 P Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20037

4. Ms. Maryanne Dulansey
2130 P Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20037
Suite 803

5. Ms. Mary Haney
Women's Studies Department
George Washington University

6. Ms. Fran Henry
Appropriate Technology International
1709 N Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20009

7. Ms. Marilyn Hoskins,Diversified Development
3300 Culmore Court #3
Falls Church, Virginia 22041

8. Ms. Phyllis Howard
Country Women of the World

9. Ms. Lean Janus
OEF Coalition
1435 West Wesley Road, N.W.
Atlanta, Georgia 30327



10. Ms. Ann Kelleran
604 Cambridge Road
Alexandria, Virginia 22314
(Knowledge Transfer Institute, American University

11. Barbara Knudson, Quigley Center for International Studies
1246 Soc. Sci. Bldg., University of Minnesota
267 19th Avenue South
Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455

12. Ms. Rosemary Lyon
OEF Coalition
5127 Worthington Drive
Bethesda, Maryland 20016

13. Ms. Patricia Martin, Consultant
4407 Franklin Street
Kensington, Maryland 20795

14. Mme. Cheffi Neatchi
RPT Central Committee
Union of Togolese Women
B.P. 1173
Lome, Togo

15. Ms. Jean Newsom.
CSIS Georgetown University Suite 520
1800 K. Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20006

16. Ms. Marilyn Richards
New TransCentury Foundation
1789 Columbia Road, N.W.
Washington, D.C.

17. Ms. May Rihani
New Transcentury Foundation
1789 Columbia Road, N.W.
Washington, D.C.

18. Ms. Lynn Stitt
Clearinghouse on Women's Issues
2737 Devonshire Place, N.W.
Washington, .D.C. 20008



19. ls.Kathy Sreedhar
Appropriate Technology International
1709 N. Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20009

20. Ms. Anne Ternes
Inter-American Foundation
1515 Wilson Blvd
Arlington, Virginia

21. Ms. Irene Tinker
Equity Policy Center
1302 18th Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036

22. Ms. Donna Voght
Future's Group
5505 N. 32nd Street
Arlington, Virginia 22207

23. Ms. Carmen Delgado Votaw
Organization of American States
19th and Constitution Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20006

24. Ms. Jane Wood
Overseas Development Council
1717 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C.

25. Ms. Cheryl Williams
Pre-Vocational Specialist
2400 Tulpehocken Street
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19144




1. Ms. Peggy Galey
U.S. Mission to the U.N.
799 U.N. Plaza
New York, New York 10017

2. Ms. Margaret Goodman
U.S. House of Representatives
2170 Rayburn Building
Washington, D.C. 20515

3. Ms. Estrelita Jones
Office of Senator Edmund Muskie
U.S. Senate
Washington, D.C. 20510



1. Arvonne S. Fraser, Coordinator
Office of Women in Development
Agency for International Development

2. Paula Goddard, Deputy Coordinator
Anne Allen
Lena Goodman
Mary Herbert
Jane Jacquette
Debbie Purcell
Eleanor Sajeski
Faye Thompson

Staff members, Office of Women in Development

3. Laei Stegall
Consultant in Women in Dvelopment
712 East Capitol Street
Washington, D.C. 20003

4. Paula Gubbins
Project Director, AID Women in Development Project
Pacific Consultants

5. Maxine Baker
Director, of Conference Management
Pacific Consultants

6. Gale Evans
Ruby Jackson

Staff members, Pacific Consultants



by Kathleen A. Staudt

Brana-Shute, Rosemary, "Women's Clubs and Politics: The Case of a Lower
Class Neighborhood in Paramaribo, Surinam," URBAN ANTHROPOLOGY, 5,2

Calloway, Barbara, "Women in Ghana," in Lynn Iglitzen and Ruth Ross,
Clio Press, 1976).

Caughman, Susan L. "New Skills for Rural Women: Report of a Training
Program for Twelve Malian Community Development Workers Held in Banjul,
the Gambia," Women and Development Program, International Division,
American Friends Service Committee, Philadelphia, 1977.

Cebotarev, "Rural Women in Non-Familial Activities: Credit and Political
Action in Latin America," Paper presented to the Conference on Women
and Development, Wellesley,--976.

Chaney, Elsa, "The Mobilization of Women in Allende's Chile," in Jane
Jaquette, ed., WOMEN IN POLITICS (New York: John Wiley, 1974).

Chaney, Elsa, "Women in Latin American Politics: The Case of Peru and
Chile," in Anne Pescatello, FEMALE AND MALE IN LATIN AMERICA (Pittsburgh:
University of Pittsburgh, 1973).

Dixon, Ruth RURAL WOMEN AT WORK (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1978).

Gruberg, Martin, "Official Commissions on the Status of Women: A World-
wide Movement," Paper presented to the American Political Science
Review Meetings, New Orleans, September, 1973.

Hoffer, Carol, "Madam Yoko: Ruler of the Kpa Mende Confederacy," in
Michele Rosaldo and Louise Lamphere, eds., WOMAN, CULTURE AND SOCIETY
(Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1974).

Joseph, Saud, "Counter Institutions of Institutions: Structural Constraints
and Potential for Women's Networks in an Urban Lower Class Neighborhood,"
Paper presented to the Conference on Women and Development, Wellesley,

' ..Leis, Nancy, "Women in Groups: Ijaw Women's Associations," in Michele
Rosaldo and Louise Lamphere, eds., WOMAN, CULTURE AND SOCIETY (Stanford:
Stanford University Press, 1974).

Lewis, Barbara, "The Limitations of Group Activity Among Entrepreneurs:
The Market Women in Abidjan, Ivory Coast," in Nancy Hafkin and Edna Bay,
sity Press, 1976).


Logan, Kathleen, "Women: Unrecognized Leaders," JOURNAL OF THE INTER-
AMERICAN FOUNDATION 3, Spring-Summer, 1978.

Manderson, Lenore; "The Shaping of the Kaum Ibu (Women's Section) of
the United Malays National Organization," in SIGNS 3,1 Autumn, 1977.

Misch, Marion, "Rural Women's Groups as Political Change Agents: A Study
of Colombia, Korea and the Philippines," Paper prepared for the
Technical Assistance Bureau, U.S. Agency for International Development,

Nantogmah, Matilda, "The Image of Women as Workers with Special
Emphasis on Ghanaian Women Workers," Paper Prepared for the Conference
on Women and Work in Africa, University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana,
April 28-May 1, 1979.

O'Barr, Jean, "Pare Women: A Case of Political Involvement," RURAL
AFRICANA 29, Winter, 1975-76.

Okonjo, Jamene "The Dual-Sex Political System in Operation: Igbo Women
and Community Politics in Midwestern Nigeria," In Nancy Hafkin and
Stanford University Press, 1976).

DEVELOPMENT (New York: Praeger, 1974).

Stanley, Joyce, "The Audio Cassette Listening Forums: A Participatory
Women's Development Project," Office of Women in Development, U.S.
Agency for International Development, 1979.

Staudt, Kathleen A. "Rural Women Leaders: Late Colonial and Contemporary
Contexts," RURAL AFRICANA, forthcoming.

Staudt, Kathleen A. "Administrative Resources, Political Patrons, and
Redressing Sex Inequities: A Case from Western Kenya," JOURNAL OF

Staudt, Kathleen A. "The Umoja Federation: Women's Co-optation into
a Local Power Structure," WESTERN POLITICAL QUARTERLY forthcoming,
June, 1980.

New York: Cornell University, Center for International Studies, 1979).

UNICEF special issue, "Planning with Rural Women," LES CARNETS DE L'ENFANCE/
ASSIGNMENT CHILDREN 38, April/June, 1977.


Wachtel, Eleanor, "A Farm of One's Own: The Rural Orientation of Women's
Group Enterprises in Nakuru, Kenya," RURAL AFRICANA 29, Winter, 1975-76.

Wipper, Audrey, "Equal Rights for Women in Kenya?" JOURNAL OF MODERN

Wipper, Audrey, "The Maendaleo ya Wanawake Organization: The Co-Optation
of Leadership,"AFRICAN STUDIES REVIEW 18, 1975.

Wipper, Audrey, "The Politics of Sex: Some Strategies Employed by the
Kenyan Power Elite to Handle a Normative-Existential Discrepancy,"


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