• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Preface
 Introduction
 Profiles of working women
 Africa
 Asia
 Latin America and the Caribbea...
 European market economy countr...
 North America
 Oceania
 Eastern Europe
 Selected bibliographical refer...
 Appendixes
 Back Cover














Group Title: Statistical publication
Title: Women in economic activity
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087131/00001
 Material Information
Title: Women in economic activity a global statistical survey, 1950-2000
Series Title: Statistical publication
Physical Description: 170 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: International Labour Organisation
International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women
Publisher: International Labour Organization :
United Nations Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women
Place of Publication: Santo Domingo Dominican Republic
Publication Date: 1985
 Subjects
Subject: Women -- Employment -- Statistics   ( lcsh )
Women -- Employment -- Forecasting -- Statistics   ( lcsh )
Femmes -- Travail -- Statistiques   ( rvm )
Femmes -- Travail -- Prévision -- Statistiques   ( rvm )
Genre: international intergovernmental publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087131
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 20724018
lccn - 89156961
isbn - 9221051595

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Preface
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Introduction
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Profiles of working women
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
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        Page 37
        Page 38
    Africa
        Page 39
        Page 40
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    Asia
        Page 55
        Page 56
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        Page 70
    Latin America and the Caribbean
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
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    European market economy countries
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
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        Page 105
        Page 106
    North America
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
    Oceania
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
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        Page 131
        Page 132
    Eastern Europe
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
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        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
    Selected bibliographical references
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
    Appendixes
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
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    Back Cover
        Page 171
        Page 172
Full Text

Women
rin Economic Activity:
A GLOBAL STATISTICAL SURVEY
(1950-2000)
















INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (ILO)
UNITED NATIONS RESEARCH AND TRAINING INSTITUTE
FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF WOMEN (INSTRAW)









Women
in EHconomici Activity:
A GLOBAL STATISTICAL SURVEY
(1o950-2000)





M%, (9)

A Joint Publication
of the International Labour Organization
and the United Nations Research and Training Institute
for the Advancement of Women
(INSTRAW)


















































































INSTRAW Headquarters:


C6sar Nicolds Penson 102-A
P.O. Box 21747
Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
Telephone (809) 685--2111
Telex (326) 4280 WRA SD

















Table of Contents




Preface .................................................................. 5

Introd auction ........... .. .... . .. .... ...... ........... .. ... ... .... ...... .. 7


PROFILES OF WORKING WOMEN

Chapter I
Profiles of W working W omen .................................... ........... 17

Annex I
Trends in Employment and Unemployment in Developing
and Developed Countries (1976-1980) ................................. 32

AFRICA

Chapter II
Women in the Economic Activity in Africa. .................................. 41

ASIA

Chapter III
Women in the Economic Activity in Asia .................................... 57

LATIN AMERICA AND THE CAR IBBEAN

Chapter IV
Women in the Economic Activity in Latin America and the Caribbean .............. 73

EUROPEAN MARKET ECONOMY COUNTRIES

Chapter V
Women in the Economic Activity in European Market Economy Countries .......... 89

NORTH AMERICA

Chapter VI
Women in the Economic Activity in North America ............................ 109






OCEANIA

Chapter VII
Women in the Economic Activity in Oceania ................................. 121

EASTERN EUROPE

Chapter VIII
Centrally Planned Economies (Eastern Europe) ............................. 135

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES

Statistical Sources on Women and Work: Selected Bibliographical References
(1976- 1985) ........................... .............................. 151

APPENDIXES

Appendix I
Unemployment: Selected Market Economy Countries .......................... 159

Appendix II
Women's Wages-Men's Wages. ............................................ 164

Appendix III
Technical Notes........................................................ 166
















Preface


This publication presents a global statistical survey of women's economic activity, by geo-
graphical and economic region as well as by country. Undertaken as a joint endeavour by the In-
ternational Labour Office (ILO) and the United Nations International Research and Training
Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW), it was carried out as part of the effort to
implement the objectives of the United Nations Decade for Women. The information and data
presented would require refinement of the data base and further analysis to enable policy makers
and authorities at the national and international level to formulate programmes and projects
directly benefiting women. This statistical survey on the economic activity of women in the
world is the first step to bring under one cover the latest information and data on the subject for
policy makers and general public.

The Programme of Action for the Second Half of the United Nations Decade for Women
(1980-85), endorsed by the General Assembly in its resolution 35/136, noted that "some of the
concepts and analytical tools of research, particularly those relating to economic processes
-evaluation, labour, work, employment, social productivity, household, family and the like-
should be re-examined so as to improve tools for the analysis and conceptualisation of the eco-
nomic and social roles of women within the home and outside". Moreover, it stated that "national
and regional indicators should be developed and improved for determining the degree to which
women have actually been participating in development, as a means of measuring their actual
contribution to the development process".

During the Decade, an enormous increase in the employment of women has taken place.
Simultaneously, considerable shifts in attitudes towards women's role in the economy have oc-
curred, mainly as a result of social, economic and cultural changes. Despite these positive steps,
however, little progress has been made in efforts to determine accurately women's contribution
to economic productivity, or to promote genuine equality between men and women in the field
of employment.

The aim of this departmental monograph, therefore, is to provide up-to-date and timely in-
formation on the participation of women in national economies and on sectoral and occupational
aspects of the employment of women. The introduction seeks to define the limits of available in-
formation in this regard and indicate the gaps which should be filled in the future.

Lack of knowledge with respect to women's actual, as well as potential, participation in the
labour force will always have a detrimental effect, not only on women themselves, but on national
development processes in general. Awareness of the real extent which women's economic activity
has reached, the importance of women's income for family welfare and the contribution of women
to national development is essential to the formulation of adequate policy measures and the
adjustment of strategies in such a way as to benefit both women and men in the area of employ-
ment and, in turn, to enhance the development process as a whole.







ILO and INSTRAW would like to express their deep appreciation for the contribution
made by John P. Simon, Alexander Vorobiev and Eva Zabolai-Csekme in the collection and tabu-
lation of the data presented in this publication. They would also like to thank Krishna Ahooja-
Patel and Jim Ypsilantis for assistance provided in its preparation. Other who contributed at
various stages are: Zohra Ait-Kaci Ali, Antoinette Beguin, Rosalie Ducommun, Dunja P.-Ferencic,
Marion Janjic, Eva Koprolin, Lilly Morgan, Marie Paul-Aristy, Raissa Smirnova, Mervat Tallawy
and Natascha Verhaaren.

It is hoped that readers will find this monograph useful.


P. Adossama,
Chief of the Promotion of Equality
Department, International Labour
Office, Geneva
















Introduction

Since the beginning of the UN Decade for Women in 1975, it has been recognized that a
qualitative change has taken place in the participation of women in employment and social per-
ceptions regarding their economic contribution. The growing number of women now comprises
an important and stable part of the world's work force.

The statistical information contained in this survey presents I LO's labour force estimates
and projections including national data on participation of women with regard to employment.

While the statistical analysis presented in this study shows that there has been a structural
and sectoral change in the patterns of women's employment, the techniques and concepts by
which this change is recorded have not yet captured its full significance. In 1985, as the UN
Decade for Women ends and forward-looking strategies are formulated for the advancement of
women up to the year 2000, it can be seen that a concerted national and international effort is
needed to obtain a more accurate insight into the relationships between women and work.

The increased participation of women at all levels in developmental processes is tacitly alter-
ing or modifying the existing concepts and notions of the world of work. In some countries,
women entering the labour force are also better educated than their predecessors, and there have
been some notable examples of women making inroads into what have traditionally been con-
sidered men's domains.

A wide range of initiatives have been taken at the national level, including declaration of
policy, legislative change and practical measures to eliminate discrimination based on gender.
There have been serious attempts to introduce affirmative action, variously defined as "equality
policies" or "positive action" to enhance the status and promote the full integration of women
into political and economic systems. Many of these efforts to improve the position of women
have also involved creating better opportunities for their employment, upgrading their skills, and
securing greater participation to enable them to contribute to economic and social progress.

The significant features that have emerged from the activities carried out during the UN
Decade for Women (1976-85) show clearly that existing data based on censuses and surveys often
underestimate and undervalue, as well as overlook, the economic contribution of women. In order
to improve the existing concepts, methods and techniques relating to the development of statistics
and indicators at the international, regional and national levels, a series of plans of action, resolu-
tions, decisions and recommendations have been adopted by the United Nations system as a
whole since 1975.

1. THE INTERNATIONAL MANDATE

The development of statistics and indicators specifically concerned with the situation of







women was first recommended at the global level in the World Plan of Action adopted by the
World Conference of the International Women's Year1. This recommendation was followed up
by the Economic and Social Council in its resolution 2061 (LXII), which dealt with general
issues concerning improvement of the data base for measuring the implementation of the World
Plan of Action for the Implementation of the Objectives of the International Women's Year in
1975. In 1975, the ILO also adopted a Plan of Action2 of Equality of Opportunity and Equality
of Treatment, which stressed, inter alia the need for compilation of an employment-related data-
base for women. The importance of work in the areas of indicators and statistics was reaffirmed
and elaborated in the Programme of Action adopted by the World Conference of the United
Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace in Copenhagen in 19803 and by
the Economic and Social Council in its resolution 1981/11, "Social indicators applicable to
studies on women", adopted at its first regular session of 1981.

The thirteenth International Conference of Labour Statisticians (ICLS) in 1982 introduced
four important changes in the definition of economic activity: two different approaches for
determining a person's status of activity; measurement of unemployment based on the criterion
of "availability of work" alone where the criterion of "seeking work" is not suitable; the linking
of underemployment to the income variable; and explicit inclusion in the labour force of all
persons working on own account and as unpaid family workers who work for at least one hour
per week"4. For analysis of statistics on economic activities of women, this last recommendation
of thirteenth ICLS is particularly significant.

The objectives of INSTRAW include contributing to a methodological framework for con-
sideration of issues on women and development, taking into account that women are equal
partners with men, that the participation of women is crucial in development and that women
are an economic asset whose contribution has not been sufficiently acknowledged or utilized.
Furthermore, it has been recognized that one of the major impediments to an integrated approach
to development especially in planning and programming for the participation of women in devel-
opment, is still the inadequate gathering, analysis and utilization of data and indicators relevant
to the role of women in society. Specific indicators are therefore needed to measure women's
socio-economic participation and contribution to development, which are inadequately reflected
with conventional concepts and methods5. Furthermore, ECOSOC resolution 1983/29 endorsed
INSTRAW's work in this field6.

2. ESTIMATING THE ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF WOMEN

"Why do women work?" "What are jobs women do?" and "What are the rewards women
get from their labour?" are some of the crucial questions which called for precise answers in 1975

1. Report of the World Conference of the International Women's Year, held in Mexico City, 19 June-2 July 1975 (United
Nations Publication, Sales No. E.76.IV.1),soc. I LA, paras. 161-173 on research, data collection and analysis.
2. This plan of action, inter-alia, recommends various measures for international action including: "...in conjunction with
other bodies and experts of the countries concerned, (the ILO) should collect and analyse statistical and other data on
women and men, pertaining both to developed and developing countries, such as are necessary for reviewing the status of
women workers and measuring their total contribution to economic and social life", adopted on 25 June 1975 (60th
session).
3. Report of the World Conference of the United Nations Decade for Women: Equality, Development and Peace, held in
Copenhagen, 14-30 July 1980 (United Nations publication. Sales No. E.80 IV.3) sect, IA, paras. 257-261.
4. In 1954, the labour force, employment and unemployment approach was adopted by the Eight International Conference
of Labour Statisticians. This was extended by introducing the concept of underemployment by the Eleventh International
Conference of Labour Statisticians in 1966. Later modifications extended the definition of economic activity to include
persons engaged in certain subsistence production, such as production of food for own consumption.
5. United Nations: Compiling Social Indicators on the Situation of Women and Improving Conceptsand Methods for Statistics
and Indicators on the Situation of Women. UN Sales No. E.84.XV 11.2.
6. INSTRAW has ongoing activities with the economic regional commissions.






when the International Women's Year was declared by the United Nations. Since then, the United
Nations system as a whole and ILO in particular has developed an information and data base
which attempts to provide at least partial answers to employment-related questions. Statistical
sources at both the international and national levels still need to be developed to obtain more
comprehensive data and to make it globally and regionally comparable for users and policy
makers1.

The profiles of working women that are emerging from censuses at the national levels, house-
hold surveys and other data indicate that human resource capital represented by women has not
yet been properly taken into account in the formulation and implementation of development
strategies, plans and policies. The overall scarcity of employment opportunities, combined with
women's low skill levels and frequently encountered discriminatory practices, have resulted in
large-scale unemployment and underemployment of women. This economic and social phenome-
non has brought to the fore the special problems faced by working women which determine their
status at the workplace and seriously influence the labour market.

A new situation is thus emerging: while more women are seeking jobs, more and more re-
main unemployed in most countries. The present economic crisis has contributed to an even
sharper visibility of the need to redefine "economic contribution", including "economic activi-
ties" of women. The employment patterns that emerge from this global statistical survey reveal
differing socio-economic trends and technological and scientific breakthroughs, which cutacross
the international and national as well as household divisions of labour. In a dynamic sense, the
analysis of women's employment-related questions goes beyond strict definitions, disciplines and
the neat classification of macro-and micro-level problems.

3. REDEFINING "ECONOMIC ACTIVITY" OF WOMEN

The classification of an individual in the economically active population is based on whether
the individual carried out any economic activity during certain reference period. When describing
economic activity of women, the first difficulty arises from the fact that they normally undertake
multiple activities which are usually classified as "non-economic". As for the "reference period",
there is an additional difficulty and complexity in quantification. In many countries, however,
when primary occupations are investigated, women's activities are not often reflected. Apart from
this problem of measurement, major issues in measuring women's economic activity include
gender-based stereotypes, the employment status of unpaid family workers, reference period, in-
formal sector and rural activities. Some of these issues need to be closely examined in order to
measure the economic contribution of women, as most women are involved in two or more activi-
ties during the reference period and this creates serious problems in classifying them by status of
activity, occupation, industry, status in employment and sectoral employment. Since multiple
activities of women add up to relatively long hours of work, the problem becomes particularly
acute in cases where agricultural work and household tasks are not clearly defined or described.

4. WORK AND EMPLOYMENT: DIFFERENCE

It is slowly being recognized that censuses and standard surveys including labour force
surveys, which are essential for development planning, provide only a partial view of the contri-
bution of women in the production process. The general tendency of these data is to rely pri-
marily upon the reproductive functions of women. The main purpose of examining existing con-
cepts would be to evaluate women's work properly by eliminating gender-related biases in design-

1. The first such dialogue on women and statistics for users and policy makers within the UN family took place in Harare
from 29 April to May 1985. See background paper by Claes Norrlof: "Statistics on economic activities with special refer-
ence to the situation of women" (New York, United Nations Statistical Office; circulation restricted).






ing questionnaires, in methods of interviewing, in disaggregating data at the tabulating stage and
finally in economic analysis1.

For this purpose, it is also essential to closely re-examine those aspects of women's work
which have been hitherto unrecorded in national statistics and which are still based on tradi-
tional concepts. For example, statistics on school enrollment and attendance provide information
about the relationship between supply of education and access to education. But this relationship
does not describe the way in which women's education and training enhance their employment
opportunities.

Equally, more precise indicators should be developed related to principal factors affecting
women's health and well-being, such as child-bearing, fertility age, nutrition including maternal
malnutrition, age patterns of mortality, morbidity2. Also, for a better appreciation of women's
responsibilities, work-load and decision-making, improved indicators and measurements are
required to assess the effect of migration on women. Small-scale community studies in areas
noted for high rates of labour-migration have identified several consequences of male out-migra-
tion that bear directly on the condition of women. It is therefore important to investigate sys-
tematically the impact of male migration on women in some detail on the basis of large-scale
population samples.

Although much remains to be done in evaluating the traditional concepts, for the purpose of
an innovative definition of women's work, four main areas need to be closely examined. There
are: (i) the informal sector; (ii) agricultural production; (iii) the household as an economic unit;
(iv) unpaid family work.


i) THE INFORMAL SECTOR

There is no generally agreed upon definition of "the informal sector", but the term is
often used to refer to unregistered, small-scale and informally organised activities. It has been
recognized generally that women's work often relates to the informal sectors of economy in both
rural and urban areas. Studies on informal sector activities usually do not list occupational break-
down by sex, although there is reason to believe that even in the informal sector there are rather
segregated labour markets for men and women. There is a strong connection between the reasons
why so many women participate in informal sector activities and the fact that in this sector they
gravitate mainly to specific kinds of activities.

The majority of women who are currently participating in the informal sector, in both rural
and urban areas, in several countries (both developed and developing) are considered to be, in
general, unskilled workers. While it is extremely difficult to make estimates of the size and pattern
of employment in this sector both for men and women, it is becoming increasingly clear that a
very large number of women derive their low income by performing multiple tasks in this sector
and that this income frequently provides basic needs for the survival of the family. The main
reason why activities in this sector were not earlier quantified is because they were considered to
be the extension of family and household duties. Informal sector activities in which many women,
particularly in developing countries, are engaged also include agricultural processing and storage,
producing food from the family household plots, looking after farm animals and bringing home-
produced goods to the market.

1. Richard Anker: "Female labour force participation in developing countries: A critique of current definitions and data
collection methods", in International Labour Review (Geneva, I LO), Nov-Dec. 1983, pp. 709-723.
2. See UN/ECOSOC: Special issues: Future direction of work on social indicators: Report of the Secretary-General (Statis-
tical Commission, Twenty-Third Session, 25 February-6 March 1985), doc. E/CN.3/1985/3, 30 Nov. 1984.







Equally, very little conceptual work has been undertaken on socio-economic differentials
among the urban poor, whose activities are usually classified as marginal. An important emerging
category of women workers often described as home-based workers is now increasing in the rural
and urban areas. These workers receive their remuneration on the basis of piece work through in-
termediaries. In data collection and coverage of informally organised activities, there has been up
until now, a great gap in clarifying the relationship of women to the labour market and the
distinction between the unskilled activities of men and those of women1.

From the existing concepts and available information on the urban and rural populations, it
might be useful to separate data for men and women to specify the different type of activities
performed by them. This would help to understand the size and nature of occupations performed
by women.

At the first experimental stage in identifying economic marginality among women in dis-
tinction from men, it may be useful that the following urban groups be identified and quantified:
(a) women service workers in private households (not separately identified in the International
Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO)2; (b) women classified as service workers who are
"own account workers"; (c) women classified as sales workers relative to urban women workers
and to male sales workers who are "own account workers"; (d) women classified as urban "own
account workers" relative to all urban workers and to male urban "own account workers"; (e)
urban women who are unemployed.

ii) AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

In the past, women's contributions to agricultural activities have been seriously under-
reported as most women in rural areas were classified as "housewives", even though they per-
formed important economic tasks such as growing and processing food, and collecting essential
items for household consumption. It is important that labour force and agricultural survey tabu-
late household data by size of land holding, production of major crops, ownership and access to
modern inputs. Some major issues need to be clarified before accounting for and counting wom-
en's work in a range of activities which are almost universal and generally not recorded or regis-
tered in economic and social perceptions. In all regions of the world, women are performing
agricultural tasks which are usually not separated from household work and therefore not assigned
any economic value or recognition. This results in no rewards or low rewards for a large majority
of women in the world who are food growers or food providers. Both in developed countries,
where the work of rural women is often known as "pluriactivity", and in developing countries,
where-it relates to subsistence agriculture, they do not generally have employment status since
their work is dependent upon those who own, control and manage agricultural activity. Most
women do not own land in their own right and do not control the inputs such as water, fertilizers
and technology to monitor agricultural productivity. The number of work hours performed by
women on most agricultural activity is under-reported for various reasons including inadequacies
in: the methodology of designing household surveys, census enumeration and techniques of in-
terviewing women.

The series of questions that still need to be examined in order to estimate correctly the

1. On ILO research on the informal sector particularly concerning women, see R. Anker and C. Hein (eds.): Sex inequalities
in urban employment in the Third World (forthcoming).
2. Revision of International Standard Classification of Occupation (ISCO) will be a new major step towards reclassifying
women's activities in the unorganized and informal sectors of the economy. The completion, however, of a new classifica-
tion will take some time, and it will first be necessary to conduct in-depth inquiries regarding the specifics of women's and
men's informal sector activities to ensure that the revised classification will be reflective and be applicable the unorganised
and small sectors of the economy. See Mirjana Scott: "Classifications of occupations of women and men", in Women at
Work 1/1985 (Geneva, ILO, 1985).






work hours of women in agriculture are in part conceptual and in part methodological. The main
conceptual questions requiring further elaboration are: First, what precisely are the changes
necessary for distribution of land and other means of production? Second, how does this affect
the survival conditions of different rural households and, hence, the participation of women from
these households in agricultural work on and off the family farm? Third, does the labour process
in agriculture (the social and technical relation of production) change? Fourth, how do these
changes alter the sex-based division of labour in agriculture?

iii) HOUSEHOLD AS AN ECONOMIC UNIT

The household as an economic unit of production still remains one of the barriers of statis-
cal analysis. Apart from the definition of household in existing surveys, there are a series of
complex social and economic difficulties in considering the household as an economic unit,
quantifying its production and services and clarifying the status of the head of the household.
Despite the fact that the concept of a household has been undergoing a dynamic change during
the last three decades, household surveys have not yet reflected this changing reality.

Clearly, there are complex conceptual problems in defining household production and serv-
ices. The basic question concerns the multiple tasks undertaken in a family/household which are
considered non-productive. What are the activities which could be classified as "economic" or
"productive"? No unified criteria have as yet been agreed upon to determine which household
activities produce goods and services, which are productive or unproductive, which generate
economic value or how household activities should be measured in economic terms.

Equally, concepts of household headship and household composition should be further
examined in light of the changing economic and social reality during the last two decades. The
quantification and measuring of the incidence of households headed by women is quite relevant
for future priorities.

Similarly, the current debate on household work is complex. It rests on three propositions.
The first relates to the economic value of household tasks performed by women for which they
do not receive any economic reward in cash. The second concerns the measurement of this
economic value and the techniques used in fixing a monetary amount for the services performed.
The third, which is more complex, is the quantification of the opportunity cost of the women
working in the labour market instead of performing household tasks. The social implications of
assigning monetary value to household work is even more baffling to the researcher .

iv) THE UNPAID FAMILY WORKERS

Among the categories which include employers, own-account workers, employees, the
unpaid family worker is the category that has been particularly discriminating against women.

In this category of work, there are not only problems of definition as to what constitutes
unpaid family labour but also serious difficulties in quantifying various activities. In general, an
"unpaid family worker" is considered to be a person who works without pay, in an economic
enterprise operated by a related person living in the same household. The classification or enu-
meration of women as unpaid family labour as distinct from other members of the family such as
children is not usually undertaken. This type of enumeration, though, could provide better in-
sight to women's contribution to the national economic product and support accurate measure-
ment of labour force participation rates. Furthermore, proper classification of unpaid family
1. L. Goldschmidt-Clermont: Unpaid work in the household (Geneva, ILO, 1982), Women, Work and Development Series
No. 1.






labour would reveal the hidden unemployment of women, and would show the number of
women who would prefer to seek jobs in the labour market and accept employment if they could
find it.

While it is difficult to identify and measure accurately unpaid economic activities conducted
in the household using conventional surveys and census methodologies, this type of data could
be extremely useful as indicators of both employment patterns and unemployment rates. One of
the difficulties in investigating this area arises from the fact that the nature of work is often
seasonal and irregular and therefore bypassed in investigation as a secondary activity.

5. CONCLUSION

THE NEED FOR NEW STATISTICS

During the UN Decade for Women (1976-1985), many efforts were made to improve the
existing concepts, methods and techniques of compiling and tabulating data on the advancement
of women. However, there is a need to continue the work at international, regional and national
levels to move towards an adequate framework of analysis which would reflect the role, position
and status of women in society. Data collection and information gathering in this area of inquiry
needs to be distinguished from other subject areasassocial perceptions evolve and as the economic
contribution of women is quantified. This means that a wide variety of economic and social in-
dicators will need to be established, analyzed and monitored to take account of the multi-
dimensional nature of socio-economic development and the position of individuals in this process.

New concepts and indicators will have to be developed to underline the existing important
roles of women in development, some of which are not reflected enough, or at all, in existing
statistics, indicators and policy considerations. It is evident that as the field of statistics which
concern women covers an ever wider range of specialities, an integrated approach is essential. The
areas covered fall within the competence of the various United Nations bodies and agencies,
Department of International Economic and Social Affairs/United Nations Statistical Office
(DIESA/UNSO), Centre for Social Development and Humanitarian Affairs (CSDHA), United
Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD), International Research and Train-
ing Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW), the economic regional commissions
and specialized agencies such as Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO),
International Labour Organisation (ILO), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization (UNESCO), World Health Organization (WHO), which have all started important
and innovative work aimed at producing more statistics and data on women.

It suffices to say that international co-ordination of work on the development of statistics
and indicators concerning women has three elements: (a) co-ordination of work on concepts and
methods, to ensure consistency in international recommendations, guidelines and related tech-
nical documentation on statistics to promote the development in all socio-economic fields of
statistical concepts and methods appropriate to the situation of women; (b) maximum exchange
of programme information and experience to ensure the effective dissemination and utilization
of research findings and to prevent programme overlap and duplication; and (c) co-ordination of
international statistical collection and dissemination activities, to promote the international
collection, dissemination and use of statistics and indicators concerning women, to ensure con-
sistency in international activities in the use of statistical standards and in the series collected and
disseminated, thus preventing any overlapping and duplicative requests to countries for statistics.

Research and training in this field should concentrate on two main areas of action: the
first to build up the existing conceptual framework, classifications and definitions related to






statistics and women and second, to contribute to better compilation and analysis of statistics
and indicators on the situation of women from theexistingsources. Both areas of action represent
a long-term and complex process requiring the constant dialogue between producers and users of
statistics, analysing and testing of concepts and definitions at international, regional and national
level. It is hoped that the present survey Women in Economic Activity: A Global Statistical
Survey (1950-2000) will be an important contribution to this process.


Dunja Pastizzi-Ferencic
Director
International Research and Training
Institute for the Advancement of Women


Krishna Ahouja-Patel
I LO Office for Women Workers'
Questions
(Editor, Women at Work)













WO RKINI WOMEN














Chapter I

Profiles of Working Women


1. INCREASING PARTICIPATION RATES

In 1985, there were more than 4.800 million inhabitants of which approximately 2.400
million were women. According to ILO estimates and projections, some four out of every ten
were active, namely of a total active population of 1.920 million, 1.280 million were men and 640
million were women, which means that for every two working men there was one working
women. Also according to I LO and projections, in 1975 women formed 35 per cent of the world
labour force, estimated at 575 million women workers1. By 1980, their number had increased to
624 million. It is projected that at the turn of the century, women workers will number around
900 million2.

Female participation rates have increased substantially in most countries of the world since
1950 and these rates are generally expected to continue until the end of the century3. (Table 1
and Charts A and B).

The female labour force will show, at least up to the 2000, a higher rate of increase than the
male component in Europe, North America, South America, Australia and New Zealand. In
Japan, East Asia, and some countries of Latin America and Oceania, the participation rates of
both males and females will be approximately similar.

In Africa, on the other hand, it is the male labour force which is expected to show a slight
increase. The USSR and other centrally planned economy countries are expected to maintain the
highest activity rates and the highest female share in the labour force, compared to other regions
of the world. According to ILO estimates and projections, male participation rates for all age
groups will decline both in market economy and developing countries.

Wide variations exist among different geographical regions, within a country and different age
groups. For example, in 1985, the highest female activity rates are shown in the USRR (44.0 per
cent) and in other European centrally planned economies (44.0 per cent). The lowest are to be
found in Latin America (15.4 per cent). In the same year, female activity rates were 28.5 per cent
in European market economies, 34.3 per cent in North America, 22.9 per cent in Africa, and
27.9 per cent in Asia (see Table 1 )4

Major changes in many countries include increasing recorded female urban jabour force
participation, especially among working mothers in the age group 25 to 44 and at the same time
reflecting greater numbers in unemployment and underemployment in many regions. Significant
developments which have influenced these trends include: the changing structures of world
labour markets involving massive rural and international migration; the growth of the service and
industrial sectors in some countries; the decline of the labour force in agriculture; the relocation
of labour-intensive industries; and the spread of new technologies changing the future of work.







Table 1: Labour force participation of women by region: 1950-2000


Female Net change in labour force
Total Female labour
female Labour force (000's) LFPR share force 000's %
pop. female ofTLF distr.
Region Year (000's) Total Male Female (%) (%) (%) Male Female iviale Female

World


USSR


Europe (Soc.


1950 1251909 1100150 755824 344326 27.5
1975 1980905 1645575 1069870 575705 29.1
1980 2181500 1794445 1170431 624014 28.6
1985 2399771 1956874 1280403 676471 28.2
2000 3110903 2545857 1668028 877829 28.2

1950 665196 596224 423330 172894 26.0
1975 1106094 940859 618393 322466 29.2
1980 1233556 1030743 680658 350085 28.4
1985 1369350 1131788 749644 382144 27.9
2000 1789922 1503475 998057 505418 28.2

1950 101022 93790 45197 48593 48.1
1975 136589 126935 63877 63058 46.2
1980 142454 135296 69434 65862 46.2
1985 148326 139894 73223 66671 44.9
2000 162566 151845 80560 71285 43.8
Eco.)
1950 55594 54132 32019 22113 39.8
1975 66703 67031 37749 29282 43.9
1980 68863 69652 39227 30425 44.2
1985 70872 72575 40768 31807 44.9
2000 76309 78849 43573 35276 46.2


Europe (Mrkt. Econ.)
1950 148019 127839 89996 37843 25.6
1975 175767 143274 96432 46842 26.7
1980 179709 148607 99121 49486 27.5
1985 183716 155218 102912 52306 28.5
2000 195873 166382 108411 57971 29.6


31.3
35.0
34.8
34.6
34.5

29.0
34.3
34.0
33.8
33.6

51.8
49.7
48.7
47.7
46.9

40.9
43.7
43.7
43.8
44.7

29.6
32.7
33.3
33.7
34.8


100.0
100.0 314046 231379 41.6
100.0 100561 48309 9.4
100.0 109972 52457 9.4
100.0 387625 201358 30.3

50.2
56.0 195063 149572 46.1
56.1 62265 27619 10.1
56.5 68986 32059 10.1
57.6 248413 123274 33.1


18680 14465 41.3
5557 2804 8.7
3789 809 5.5
7337 4614 10.0


11.0
8.1
7.9
7.7
6.6


5730
1478
1541
2805


6436
2689
3791
5499


7169 17.9
1143 3.9
1382 3.9
3469 6.9


8999
2644
2820
5665


67.2
8.4
8.4
29.8


86.5
8.6
9.2
32.3


29.8
4.4
1.2
6.9


32.4
3.9
4.5
10.9


23.8
5.6
5.7
10.8







Table 1 (Cont.)


Female Net change in labour force
Total Female labour
female Labour force (000's) LFPR share force 000's %
pop. female of TLF distr.
Region Year (100's) Total Male Female (%) (%) (%) Male Female Male Female


Northern America
1950 83223 70554 50579 19975 24.0
1975 121010 104234 65224 39010 32.2
1980 127258 112645 69749 42896 33.7
1985 134127 119647 73661 45986 34.3
2000 150908 139549 83462 56087 37.2
Latin America
1950 81393 57464 47130 10334 12.7
1975 161872 102022 79269 22753 14.1
1980 185625 117065 89957 27108 14.6
1985 212558 135031 102392 32639 15.4
2000 309183 207320 150601 56719 18.3
Africa
1950 111254 94698 63533 31165 28.0
1975 202374 152142 102776 49366 24.4
1980 232472 170450 115567 54883 23.6
1985 268127 191819 130498 61321 22.9
2000 410004 284246 194068 90178 22.0
Oceania


1950 6208 5449 4039
1975 10496 9076 6147
1980 11562 998 6719
1985 12695 10902 7307
2000 16138 14192 9298


1410 22.7
2929 27.9
3269 28.3
3595 28.3
4894 30.3


28.3
37.4
38.1
38.4
40.2

18.0
22.3
23.2
24.2
27.4

32.9
32.4
32.2
32.0
31.7

25.9
32.3
32.7
33.0
34.5


14645 19035
4525 3886
3912 3090
9801 10101


32139 12419
10688 4355
12435 5531
48209 24080


39243 18201
12791 5517
14931 6438
63570 28857


2108
572
588
1991


1519
340
326
1899


Source: I LO, labour force estimates &projections 1950-2000. (2nd ed. 1977)


29.0
6.9
5.6
13.3


68.2
13.5
13.8
47.1


61.8
12.4
12.9
48.7


52.2
9.3
8.8
27.2


95.3
10.0
7.2
22.0


120.2
19.1
20.4
73.8


58.4
11.2
11.7
47.1


107.7
11.6
10.0
36.1









(PERCENT)

DEVELOPED WORLD DEVELOPING


USSR

EUROPE (SOC. ECON.)

EUROPE (MRKT. ECON.


WORLD

NORTHERN AM.


LI


LI


ASIA


OCEANIA

AFRICA


LATIN AM.


""Iiii


50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50


MALES


FEMALES


SOURCE: I LO. Labour Force Estimates & Projections 1950-2000. (21nd Ed. Geneva 1977)


Chart B REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF

FEMALE LABOUR FORCE: 1985
(PERCENT)

OCEANIA
0.53 (3.6 m)

AFRICA
I 9.06 (61 m)



LATIN AMERICA
4.86 (33 m)

ASIA ,
56.50 NORTHERN AMERICA
(382 m) 6.80 (46 m)




EUROPE (MRKT ECON)
7.73 (52 m)


EUROPE (SOC. ECON.)
4.70 (32 m)
WORLD TOTAL USSR
(676 millions) 9.86
(67 m)

SOURCE: ILO. Labour Force Estimates & Projections (2nd Ed Geneva 1977)


I


I


Chart A






Increases in the official labour force participation of women is closely linked to a complex
set of social and economic changes which have made "paid work" outside the home more and
more economically essential for thewelfare of the family. While ILO estimates reflect variations in
the distribution of "economically active" women among ditterent regions, they also reveal that
women in developing countries constitute a major part of the global female workforce. In 1975,
women workers of Asia, Africa and Latin America accounted for 68.5 per cent of the total,
showing a slight increase to 70.4 per cent in 1985 about 476 million. Asia alone accounts for
more than half of all "economically active" women (see Table 1 and Chart B).

A basic difficulty in statistical analysis of global estimates is the inadequacy of consistent
methodologies and comparable data, in particular persistent biases in the recording and reporting
of women's work at the point of collection, compilation and tabulation. It is now slowly being
recognized that official labour force statistics often underestimate women's actual and real eco-
nomic contribution, particularly in the employment structure with a substantial amount of
household and family farm-based production both in some developed countries and in the sub-
sistence sector of many developing countries5.

2. STRUCTURAL AND SECTORAL CHANGES

Changes in economic structure during the past decade have had differing impact on both
women and men workers. Table 2 presents composition of the labour force by gender and main
sector of activity over a decade (1970 to 1980) in 124 countries in three major regions of the
world. These reveal regional and global decline in agriculture for both men and women, increase
in the service sector, and a shift towards industrial employment, especially in the developing
countries for women. During the Decade, the industrial sector continued to be a major provider
of employment in all major economic regions of the world6 .

The proportion of women working in industry is constantly increasing both in industrial
market economy countries and industrialized centrally planned economy countries.

Many developing countries embarked on rapid industrialization as a key factor in their
development. As a result, in 1970, 17.9 per cent of the total global labour force was engaged in
industry and which by 1980 had increased to 20.8 per cent. In the period 1970-80, the total
number of women employment in industries rose by 37 per cent (35 million increase) outstripping
the 34 per cent increase (85 million) in the number of men in active industrial employment. In
the developing countries, the increase was more striking; the absolute number expanded by more
than 23 million or 56.5 per cent.

Providing jobs for the growing numbers of young people is becoming an increasingly salient
problem. In several countries they form half or more of the unemployed and in some countries
employment opportunities for young women are significantly less than they are for young men7.
Migration for employment during the past decade is an important issue for young women as well
as men. Comparative statistics are not available to demonstrate whether or not, during economic
crisis, more women are laid off than men and in which occupations. However, there is clear
evidence that among those seeking jobs and in employment, women are worse off economically
than men in various occupations. In spite of more employment opportunities for women in
selected developing countries, their employment rates are also increasing8.

An important feature of the global restructuring of employment affecting women workers
in all parts of the world, has been the relocation of labour-intensive industries from industrially
developed to developing countries in search of cheap labour, mostly young, unmarried and
inexperienced in industrial work9. Various multinational corporations have shifted their labour-







intensive production processes, for example, to Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines,
Singapore and Thailand. Textiles and clothing were among the first industries to be relocated,
since they require little capital and if necessary can employ simple technology, either already
available or easily transported. Other industries that followed were food processing, electronics
and, in some cases, pharmaceutical products. In this process, various forms of subcontracting
arrangements were made to relocate production, or subsidiaries set up with foreign or partly local
capital.


Table 2:


Composition of labour force by gender and main sector of activity
1970 and 19801


Major Female Male
economic
regions AGR IND SER TOTAL AGR IND SER TOTAL
('000s)
Industrialized
market 1970 11944 26696 66281 105021 23607 88029 85617 197253
economies 1980 9429 31834 81836 123099 18432 100014 99167 217613

Industrialized
centrally
planned 1970 27472 25681 33482 86635 25848 41324 26285 93457
economies 1980 20617 31719 43464 95800 20909 54281 32744 107934

Developing
countries
1970 247078 41857 46590 335525 430054 121101 133463 684618
1980 267327 65525 70170 403022 467641 181505 190273 839419

TOTAL
1970 286494 94234 146453 527181 479509 250454 245365 975328
1980 297373 129078 195470 621921 506982 335800 322184 1164966

(percent)

Industrialized
market 1970 11.4 25.4 63.2 100.0 12.0 44.6 43.4 100.0
economies 1980 7.7 25.8 66.5 100.0 8.5 45.9 45.6 100.0

Industrialized
centrally
planned 1970 31.7 29.6 38.6 100.0 27.7 44.2 28.1 100.0
economies 1980 21.5 33.1 45.4 100.0 19.4 50.3 30.3 100.0

Developing
countries
1970 73.6 12.5 13.9 100.0 62.8 17.7 19.5 100.0
1980 66.3 163 17.4 100.0 55.7 21.6 22.7 100.0

TOTAL
1970 54.3 17.9 27.8 100.0 49.2 25.7 25.1 100.0
1980 47.8 20.8 31.4 100.0 43.5 28.8 27.7 100.0

(1) 124 countries with a population of over 1 million.
Source: ILO Bureau of Statistics.







In order to examine the sectoral changes in women's labour force participation at the global
level, it is essential to place the situation in perspective, noting the differences and contrasts in
women's and men's employment opportunities and treatment in various countries and economic
regions.

2. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

The largest number of women in most parts of the developing world continue to work in
agriculture or related occupations. In some countries due to industrialization, more and more
women are moving away from family farms to wage labour, while the number of landless women
in some countries has rapidly increased. In some developing countries, there has also been a large
rural/urban migration of men competing for scarce urban jobs and pushing women out of the
labour force altogether1 These data should be further refined when more information is availa-
ble, keeping in mind that among regions and within countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America,
there are vast differences in patterns of industrialization and consequently, employment oppor-
tunities. (Table 3)11


Table 3:

Women's share in the labour force in selected
developing countries: 1975 and 1980


Women's share of the labour force in %
1975 1980


Country
(year)


(1971-72)
(16.V111.79)
(1.11-30.IV.70)
(1980)
(V111.77)
(IV.81)
(31.VIII.71)
(12.V111.81)
(1977)
(1980)
(9-24.IV.76)
(1982)
(1975)
(20-31.111.79)
(16.X.74)
(9.111.82)
(1977)
(1981)
(1976)
(V.80)


(1.111.76)
(VI-IX.80)
(1.V.75)
(X-XII.78)


OE
C

OE
C
OE
(De jure population)
C
OE
OE
C
OE
OE
C
C
C
OE
OE
OE
LFSS


LFSS
LFSS
C
HS


AFRICA
Burundi

Togo

Seychelles

Botswana

Ethiopia

Cameroon

Benin

Reunion

Zambia

Tunisia


ASIA
Thailand

Philippines


46.2


53.1

44.0

42.1

40.3

38.8

37.5

36.4

35.9

28.2

20.1



47.3

37.0


38.5

26.4







Table 3 (Cont.)

Country
(year)

Korea Rep of

Peninsular Malaysia

Singapore

Hong Kong

Indonesia

Sri Lanka

Kuwait

Bahrain


LATIN AMERICA
St. Lucia

Jamaica

Puerto Rico

Trinidad and Tobago


(1.X.75)
(1.X .80)
(1976)
(1979)
(VI.79)
(VI.82)
(2.VI11.76)
(9.111.81)
(1976)
(31.X.80)
(9.X.71)
(1980-81)
(21.IV.75)
(IV.80)
(3.IV.71)
(IV.81)


7.IV.70)
12.V.80)
1978)
X.81)
111.77)
IV.83)


C
C15%
LFSS
LFSS
LFSS
LFSS
C sample
C
LFSS
C
C
LFSS
C
C
C


38.8

35.0

33.9

35.0

38.7

35.4

11.6

5.4


C
C
LFSS
LFSS
LFSS
LFSS
(VI.74) LFSS
(I-VI.81) LFSS


Venezuela (VII-XII.77) LFSS
(I-V1.82) HS
Ecuador (8.V1.74) C sample
(VI.81) OE
Colombia (24.X.73) C sample
(1980) HS
Costa Rica (14.V.73)
(VI 1.82) HS
Peru (4.VI.72) C
(12.VII.81) C
Mexico (VI.75) OE
(VI.79) OE
Bolivia (29.IX.76) C
(V11.82) OE
Honduras (6.111.74)
(1982) OE
Guatemala (26.111.73)
(23.111.81 ) C

Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, (Geneva), 1983.1980,1979.1978, 1971, Table 1.


37.7

46.5

32.9

30.5

27.4

17.0

26.2

19.3

20.7

21.6

22.4

15.7

14.0


Africa as a region has been worst affected by the world economic crisis which has further
deteriorated the economic and social condition of the majority of workers12. More and more
job-seekers are migrating to the towns; in the past, the majority were men, but more recently,


Women's share of the labour force in %
1975 1980


36.6

36.0

35.7

35.4

33.0

28.1

12.8

11.4


55.2

46.6

33.9

31.6

26.9

26.7

26.2

26.2

25.4

24.4

23.2

16.3

14.6






there has been increasing evidence of women also migrating in search of employment. For
example in cities such as Addis Ababa and Abidjan there are more female than male migrants13 .
Of the total of 12.7 million refugees in Africa, the majority are women and children14. Em-
ployment opportunities in both the modern and traditional sectors are rapidly decreasing and
unemployment and underemployment rates in Africa are estimated to be the highest among all
the developing regions, ranging between 50 and 70 per cent, and in some cases up to 90 per cent
in rural areas15.

In Africa, over 55 million women are estimated to be engaged in some form of "economic
activity", mainly in agriculture, and in some cases in retail trade, thus accounting for about
one-third of the recorded total labour force. The percentages are probably underestimated and do
not take into account women's work in a range of tasks in food production. In the informal
sector of many countries, women work on family farms, market trading and domestic processing
and production16 There are, however, sectoral differences among countries within the region.
For example, in 1980, the female agricultural labour force increased in Ethiopia, Kenya, Tan-
zania and Zaire. In the Republic of Congo, Gabon and Nigeria, the number of women in this
sector appeared to decline.

Furthermore, there is widespread evidence of imbalance between the sexes in the modern
sector of urban employment in which higher levels of schooling and training are required. Girls
continue to have less access than boys to schooling at every level, especially the higher grades17 .
Moreover, they drop out of school more frequently, often due to economic reasons. Several
recent surveys have shown that women form only a small proportion of workers in the private
and semi-public.sectors. Even in the public sector they hold only 10 or 20 per cent of the jobs,
mainly in the lower levels as primary-schoolteachers, nurses and clerical workers18.

In Asia, in many industrialized countries, international developments have led to economic
difficulties with serious impact on the employment situation of both men and women workers19
At the same time, evidence of land concentration and population growth have increased land-
lessness and consequently, dependence on wage labour. On the other hand, self-employment of
women in agriculture has been affected by commercialization of farming, introduction of new
technologies, changes in cropping patterns and innovations in organisation. Both, the proportion
of rural poor with access to assets and the average value of such assets is falling, leading to
increasing poverty, especially affecting the majority of women working in agriculture (e.g. 70-80
per cent in Bangladesh, Nepal and Thailand). In India, where female labour force participation
rates in the organised sector appear to have been declining, more and more women are becoming
agricultural wage labourers2 because of growing landlessness in rural areas21 In Bangladesh,
despite social seclusion, and in addition to their largely invisible work behind walls in seed
selection, processing, winnowing and threshing, women are increasingly working in the fields and
road construction.

In Asia, in the industrial sector, there is a significant shift from the earlier patterns of
employment. For example, in the People's Republic of China, the total number of working
women in the modern sector has risen from 31.280,000 (32.9 per cent of the total urban
workforce) in 1978, to 40.930,000 (36.3 per cent of the total) in 1982. Women are working in
textiles and various light industries, cultural and educational services, and also in increasing
numbers in heavy industry in the newly emerging electronic industry and institutes of scientific
research. At the same time, women's participation in agricultural work and in many non-farm
activities continues to be significant quantitatively and qualitatively. With the recent shift
towards reliance on the family as a unit of production a new situation is emerging resulting in the
spread of rural responsibility systems and domestic products.






In Latin America and the Caribbean the increase in female labour force participation rates
are modest in comparison with those of other developing regions. However, they vary considera-
bly from one country to another and are changing rapidly, showing important absolute and
relative increases. The fastest growing and most dynamic part of the labour force is the urban
female population aged 25-44, which increased by more than 56 per cent. Between 1970 and
1980, young women between 15-19 have tended to maintain their participation rates at about 24
per cent, while a statistic participation rate is observed among older women 55 and over, which
has remained at 16 per cent. According to data from countries such as Brazil and Mexico, in
1980, the major increase in labour force participation is in the middle-age group. As in other
regions, women are heavily concentrated in the services sector. In most countries of the region
more than 70 per cent of women workers are at low levels, in wholesale and retail trade and in
restaurants and hotels or community, social domestic and personal services.

In 22 countries of the region for which data was examined, 16.5 per cent of women are
found in industrial activities, but there are large differences from one country to another, ranging
from 30 per cent in Trinidad and Tobago to 1.7 per cent in the Netherlands Antilles.

The agricultural sector absorbs the smallest number of women workers only 13.9 per cent -
but again, with variations between countries. In the recent past there has been a relative decline
of women in this sector.

Perhaps the most salient fact about women's employment is the low occupational status of
the majority. Moreover, despite the important increase in the proportion of economically active
females in this developing region, the numbers remain below those recorded in the rest of the
world.


2b. INDUSTRIALIZED MARKET ECONOMY COUNTRIES

Of 22 market economy countries for which data are available, of the total of more than 200
million women, about 31 per cent were reported to be economically active in 1982. During the
first half of the Decade for Women (1976-81) more women than men were among the entrants
into the labour force in most market economy countries. According to I LO projections, women's
activity rates in the industrialized market economies are expected to continue to increase during
the coming decades for age groups 20-64 years, and to decrease for those under 20 and over 65.
This should result in a slight increase in women's share of the labour force by the year 2000
(table 4).

Since 1970 increase in female labour force participation rates has been especially marked,
representing 63.2 per cent of the total labour force. By 1980, there were 136 million economi-
cally active women in the OECD countries, out of a totally active population of 351 million, that
is, 38.7 per cent. Over the past 30 years, during which the number of economically active men in
OECD countries increased by 25 per cent, the comparable rise for women was 74 per cent25.

In spite of the recession which affected most of the OECD countries during the 1970s, the
aggregate female participation rates continued to rise, growing at an average about for time faster
than the male labour force. However, this great influx of women into the labour force was
paralleled by a simultaneous increase in the number of unemployed women. While male unem-
ployment rose at 8.2 per cent a year, female unemployment grew at 9.4 per cent, that is, on
average, 15 per cent faster. But, they continue to be highly concentrated in the jobs requiring
lower skills, with lower status and lower wages.








Table 4:


Women's share in the labour force in selected industrialized
market economy countries (1975 and 1982)


Women's share of the labour force in %


Country


Finland

Sweden

Denmark

USA

Iceland

Norway

Portugal

Canada

France

UK

Japan

Austria

FRG

Australia

Belgium

Switzerland

Liechtenstein

Italy

New Zealand

Turkey

Netherlands

Greece

Luxemburg


(1976)
(1982)
(1.11.75)
(1982)
(10.76)
(5.81)
(1977)
(1982)
(12.76)
(12.82)
(1.11.1970)
(1982)
(1978)
(1981)
(1.6.1976)
(6.1982)
(1.3.75)
(1982)
(1976)
(6.80)
(1.10.75)
(1.10.80)
(12.5.75)
(1982)
(4.77)
(4.82)
(30.6.76)
(30.6.67)
(30.6.76)
(6.1980)
(1.12.70)
(2.12.80)
(1.12.79)
(2.12.80)
(1977)
(25.10.81)
(23.3.76)
(24.3.81)
(26.10.75)
(12.10.80)
(3.5.77)
(1.82)
(14.3.71)
(7.11.81)
(31.12.70)
(12.80)


LFSS
LFSS
C
LFSS
LFSS
LFSS
LFSS
LFSS


LFSS

LFSS
C
OE

LFSS

OE
C 1%
C
C LFSS
LFSS
LFSS
LFSS
C
LFSS
LFSS
OE

C
C
C
LFSS
C 2%
C sample
C


C 1%
LFSS
OE
C 25%
LFSS
C
OE


46.2

42.1

41.5

40.3


39.5

38.0

36.9

37.8

36.8

38.3

37.6

35.8

34.9

34.1

34.0

32.1

32.5

36.2


47.1

46.3

44.11

42.7

42.0

41.71

41.5'

40.6

39.3

39.12

38.72

38.6

38.5

37.61

37.22

36.32

35.52

34.31

34.21

33.72

33.4

31.91

29.33





























The major increase in female participation rates is represented by age group 20-54 (espe-
cially among women aged 35-44) in most OECD countries. Among the age group 15 to 19 (young
workers), and women above 45 (older workers) participation rates have been falling in most
countries. One-fifth to one-half of female employment in OECD countries is estimated to be in
part time work, where opportunities are increasing.

As levels of education increase, so do the numbers of women attempting to enter the labour
market. The result is that participation rates of married women and those with dependent
children have been increasing in all countries and in some cases quite rapidly (Annex I).

There have been many profound changes taking place in the sectoral distribution of employ-
ment in industrialized market economies (table 4). The proportion working in agriculture has
decreased and in some countries, industrial employment has also declined. There is a general
tendency for employment to increase in the service sector, particularly in social and personal
services, banking and insurance.26 Sectors in which there was a high proportion of female labour
in 1983 enjoyed a faster rate of employment growth than sectors with a low proportion27.

Canada and the United States are examples of several economies in which the majority of
women are employed in the service sector (Canada 73.3 per cent in 1983, and the United States
78.7 per cent in 1982). In each country, fewer than 3 per cent of women are in agriculture and
only 12.1 and 18.0 per cent, respectively, in industry28 This phenomena has occurred particu-
larly in the post industrial period.

In should be noted that job expansion has also occurred in the public sector, thus creating
new opportunities for women as well as men. Public expenditure on health, education, and social
welfare, has grown rapidly in some OECD countries in the past decade, generating considerable
employment opportunities. Thus, for example, in the United States, nearly 30 per cent of the 40
million women in the labour force worked in 1980 in services, compared to only 10 per cent of
the 54 million men in the work force29.

The proportion of part-time workers among all female employees ranges from one-fifth in






Japan, to about one-quarter in North America, an average of one-third in the European Economic
Community, 35 per cent in Australia (1980), and nearly one-half in Norway and Sweden. Part-
time workers are thus mainly female their number, on the whole, has been growing faster than
full-time employment.

There has also been a notable increase in short-term and casual employment. One-tenth of
all women employees in the ten EEC countries in the mid-1980s, had a fixed-term or temporary
appointment. Such temporary workers are particularly common among young women. Moreo-
ver, most women work in mainly "female" jobs where they largely compete with each other3 .
Another notable change in the period under review is the increasing number of mainly female
home-based workers, even though this growth is not recorded in official statistics31.

2c. INDUSTRIALIZED CENTRALLY PLANNED ECONOMIES

During the last decade, this major economic region has witnessed an active involvement of
women and men in employment32 The total female population of the USSR and other socialist
countries of Europe numbered, in 1980, over 211 million. Out of these, more than 99 million
were economically active, forming 46.2 per ceht of the labour force (see Chart B). According to
ILO projections, during the period 1985-2000, the female labour force is expected to increase,
although the situation may vary in different countries (see table 1). The growth of the national
economies, the ever-increasing demand for labour and women's strife for personal and profes-
sional recognition, have largely contributed to this change.

As a result, the percentage of women of working age participating in the labour force, is 85
per cent in Bulgaria, 77 per cent in Hungary, 82.7per cent in the German Democratic Republic,
82.5 per cent in the USSR, and 78.8 per cent in Czechoslovakia. By 1983, women formed 49.2
per cent of the labour force in Bulgaria, 44.3 per cent in Hungary, 47.3 per cent in the German
Democratic Republic, 47.8 per cent in the USSR (1979), and 45.7 per cent in Czechoslovakia.

A characteristic feature of women's employment in the socialist countries is their high
concentration in social production (60-70 per cent), the largest percentage in industry. For
example, in 1983, of all the working women in Bulgaria, 33.7 per cent participated in industry,
39.8 per cent in Hungary (1980), 34.9 per cent in the German Democratic Republic and 36.2 per
cent in Czechoslovakia. During the decade there has been a considerable increase in the number
of women working in some of the new and promising fields of production such as chemicals,
machine-building, electrical engineering and electronics, production of electric power, etc. At the
same time, in some of the fields traditionally considered female, such as textiles, clothing, and
food processing, their numbers are declining, showing equality of opportunities between men and
women in traditional and non-traditional opportunities. Certain changes have occurred in the
labour force employed in agriculture. Some of those who were working in agriculture have joined
industrial or other sectors. This process has been observed in the USSR, where in 1975 women
comprised 47 per cent of the collective farm workers, compared to 46 per cent in 1982; in
Czechoslovakia, 44.8 per cent compared to 40.8 per cent in 1983; and in Bulgaria 46.9 per cent
compared to 48.5 per cent.

The percentage of women involved in the other sectors of the economy has grown con-
siderably, especially in places where highly skilled labour is needed. In this sphere, the female
participation rate exceeds that of male. At present, one-third of working women are employed in
the service sector.

The general improvement in educational standards and professional training among the
workforce, has been accompanied by an increase in the number of women in the administrative







and technical professions. This has rapidly changed the quality of their contribution to the
economic development of their countries. In 1982, women workers comprised 53.4 per cent of
all specialists in Bulgaria, 46.5 per cent of them being university graduates and 56.8 per cent with
college or special secondary-school certificates. In Hungary, 43 per cent of the university grad-
uates were women; 60 per cent of the specialists in the German Democratic Republic had
graduated from colleges or special secondary schools and 36 per cent were university graduates.
The percentage of women specialists in the USSR is 59. At present, 52 per cent of all highly
qualified people in Czechoslovakia are women. The wide participation of women in education,
science, culture and health services, is a firmly established tendency in the socio-economic devel-
opment of these countries33 For example, in 1982, the percentage of women in the system of
health services was 82 per cent in the USSR, 74.6 per cent in Bulgaria, 83.7 per cent in the
German Democratic Republic, and 68.2 per cent in Czechoslovakia; in science, 52 per cent in the
USSR, 53.1 per cent in Bulgaria, 53.8 per cent in the German Democratic Republic, and 36.5 per
cent in Czechoslovakia.

Women play an increasingly important role in management and the decision-making process;
they assume high positions in every sector of the national economy. In the USSR, for example,
over half a million women work as plant and factory managers, construction site supervisors, and
directors of scientific departments.


NOTES

1. ILO: World Report, Vol. I, Geneva, p.7. Estimates based on replies from 61 countries to a special survey in 1980. Also
OECD: "Unemployment rates by sex for selected years", Employment Outlook, 1983, p. 145.
2. ILO: Labour force estimates and projections, 1950-2000 (Geneva, 1977), 2nd edition; also ILO: Women at Work 2/1984
(Geneva, 1984). (see Annex I on employment and unemployment in developing and developed countries) (1976-1980).
3. ILO: Womanpower: The world's female labour force in 1975 and the outlook for 2000 (Geneva. 1975); Guy Standing:
Labour force participation and development (Geneva, ILO, 1982), 2nd edition.
4. Based on recent tabulation by the ILO Bureau of Statistics (1984).
5. See ILO: World Labour Report, Vol. II (Geneva, 1985), Ch. 13; idem; World Labour Report, Vol. I (Geneva, 1984), Box
1.1; L. Beneria; "Accounting for women's work", in Women and Development (New York, Praeger, 1982); R. Dixon:
"Women in agriculture: Counting the labour force in developing countries", in Population and Development Review (New
York, Population Council), Vol. 8, No. 3, Sep. 1982.
6. For the first time consideration was given to women in a chapter on industrialization in the International Development
Strategy for the Third Development Decade, stressing that "industrialization policies should have as one of their aims
productive employment generation and the integration and equal participation of women in industrial development
programmes". See United Nations: Report of the Preparatory Committee for the New International Development Strategy
(New York, 1981), annex to p. 111, para. 77. See also ILO: Social aspects of industrialization Report VI, International
Labour Conference, 69th Session, Geneva, 1983, pp. 99-104.
7. For this and other issues related to migration, see I LO: Rural women workers in Asia (Geneva. 1982).
8. Economic and social survey of Asia and the Pacific (Bangkok. ESCAP, 1983).
9. For example, UN IDO: Women in the redeployment of manufacturing industry to developing countries (New York, 1980),
and idem: Women and industrialization in developing countries (New York, 1981).
10. E. Eisold: Young women workers in export industries: The case of the semi-conductor industry in south-east Asia (Geneva,
ILO, 1984; mimeographed World Employment Programme research working paper, restricted).
11. UNIDO: Women and industrialization in-developing countries (New York, 1981).
12. See ILO: A basic needs strategy for Africa, Report of the Director-General, Fifth African Regional Conference, Abidjan,
1977, p. 1; idem: Employment growth and basic needs, Report of the Director-General, Tripartite World Conference on
Employment, Income Distribution and Social Progress and the International Division of Labour, Geneva, 1976, p. 22;
idem: World Labour Report, Vol. I (Geneva, 1984), p. 13; and idem: Socialaspects of development in Africa: The role of
social institutions, Report of the Director-General, Sixth African Regional Conference, Tunis, 1983.
13. UN/Economic Commission for Africa (ECA). Women in Africa to the year 2000. Arusha, Tanzania, Oct. 1984, doc.
E/ECA/ATRCW/RC/WD/10.
14. ILO: World Labour Report, Vol. I, op. cit., p. 103.
15. D. Ghai and S. Radwan (eds.): Agrarian policies and ruralpoverty in Africa (Geneva, I LO, 1983), pp. 12-15.







16. I LO: Working Women in Africa: An information brief. Office for Women Workers Questions. (Geneva, 1980).

17. ILO: Application of the Declaration and Principles and Programme of Action of the World Employment Conference,
Report II, Sixth African Regional Conference, Tunis, 1983, p. 93.

18. K. Akadiri: The modern employment market in selected African countries (Geneva, I LO, 1984).

19. Drawn form material provided by ILO/ARTEP (Bangkok).

20. ILO: World Labour Report, Vol. I, op. cit.

21. See for example, M. Mies: Indian women in subsistence and agricultural labour (Geneva, I LO, forthcoming).

22. See A. Abdullah Tahrannessa. and S. Zeidenstein: Village women of Bangladesh Prospects for change (Oxford, Pergamon
Press, 1982), study prepared for the ILO World Employment Programme.

23. ILO: World Labour Report, Vol. I, op. cit.

24. E. Croll: Women in rural development: The People's Republic of China (Geneva, ILO, 1979); and Changing patterns of
rural women's employment, production and reproduction in China (Geneva, I LO, forthcoming).

25. For a fuller analysis, see Liba Paukert, o.p. cit.

26. See I LO: The effects of technological and structural changes on the employment and working conditions of non-manual
workers, Report II, Advisory Committee on Salaried Employees and Professional Workers, Eighth Session, Geneva, 1981.

27. Liba Paukert, op. cit.

28. I LO: Year Book of Labour Statistics (Geneva, 1983).

29. Liba Paukert, o.p. cit.

30. OECD: Women and employment, policies for equal opportunities (Paris, 1980).

31. See, for example, Raffaele de Grazia: "Clandestine employment: A problem of our times", in International Labour Review
(Geneva, ILO), No. 5, Sep.-Oct. 1980.

32. Data for European centrally planned economy countries has been taken from various sources, including I LO: Year Book of
Labour Statistics (Geneva, 1982), replies of governments to the UN questionnaire (employment part) for. the World
Conference to Review and Appraise the Achievements of the UN Decade for Women (Nairobi, July 1985), Women in
socialist society and the role of trade unions (Sofia, 1981), 100 questions and replies on women in Bulgaria (Sofia, 1983),
Statistical Yearbook of Hungary (Budapest, 1982) Annuaire statistique de la RDA (1983), Women and socialism: Facts,
figures and information on equality for women in the GDR (Berlin, 1976), 2nd edition, La femmeen Hongrie (Budapest,
Conseil national des femmes hongroises, 1981), Women in the USSR (Moscow, Central Statistical Board of the USSR,
1984), The equality of women in the USSR (Moscow, 1984), Soviet women: Their role in society, the economy, the trade
unions (Moscow, 1981), J. Rzhanitsina: Female labour under socialism: The socio-economic aspects (Moscow, 1983).

33. ILO: World Labour Report, Vol. I1, op. cit.










Annexrr 1

Trends in Employment and Unemployment

in Developing and Developed Countries

(1976-1980)

1. INDUSTRIALIZED MARKET ECONOMY COUNTRIES

The Decade mid-point assessment of the employment and unemployment situation among
women in developed and developing countries reveals that while women obtained more jobs than
men, there were also almost as many more jobless. Among the 15 developing countries surveyed
(1975-1980), the five-year increase in female employment (10.4 million) far outpaced that of
men (4.9 million), whereas the five-year increase in unemployment (1.25 million) almost
matched that among men (1.5 million).

During the first half of the Decade, total employment of women increased in all developed
countries except Spain, where the decrease (5.6 per cent) was equally shared between males and
females. In all countries the increase in female employment by far exceeded those for males. The
five-year increase in employment was very uneven; ranging from less than 3 per cent in the
United Kingdom to over 20 per cent in Canada. The total number of women employed also
increased substantially in Australia (10 per cent), Italy (12 per cent), Norway (13 per cent) and
the United States (18 per cent).

As a consequence of the changes, the female share of total employment at the mid-point of
the Decade amounted to 29 per cent in Spain, 32 per cent in Italy, 35 percent in Switzerland, 36
per cent in Australia and Belgium, 38 per cent in the Federal Republic of Germany, 39 per cent
in Japan, 40 per cent in Austria, the United Kingdom and Canada, 41 per cent in Norway, 42 per
cent in the United States, 44 per cent in Denmark, 45 per cent in Sweden and 47 per cent in
Finland.

In 1980, according to ILO estimates, in the developing countries, some 500 million persons
were unemployed or underemployed. The rates of unemployment in general are extremely com-
plex to quantify, due either to non-availability of statistics, or their non-comparability, and also
because definitions of unemployment and underemployment are not very clear. A large propor-
tion of workers in the developing countries are considered to be underemployed, that is, they
work only part of the year or the day and they have a low income. There is a relatively small
proportion of workers counted in one category of open "unemployment". They are usually
attached to the modern sector and their unemployment is generally recorded by government
employment agencies.

In 1981, seven out of twelve selected developing countries indicated that women's share of
unemployment was higher than their share of employment. Among twelve countries for which
data are available, five indicate that the percentage of women in the category of unemployed is
higher than men. Moreover, the absolute number of unemployed women also increased in all
selected developing countries with only one exception (Table 1).








Table 1:

Trends in employment and unemployment of women workers
in developed countries (1976-80)


Year Percentage change, 1976-80
Female
1976 1980 share of net
Country (100's) (000's) increase Male Female

EMPLOYMENT
Australia 2061.5 2275.8 61.4 3.5 10.4
Austria 1 053.4 1 116.6 61.5 2.4 6.0
Belgium 1 278.1 1 342.5 100.0 -1.3 5.0
Canada 3515.0 4225.0 60.4 7.8 20.2
Denmark 1 000.3 1 091.2 82.9 1.3 9.1
Finland 1 008.0 1 038.0 75.0 0.9 3.0
Germany (Fed. Rep.) 9276.0 9679.0 56.8 2.0 4.3
Italy 5902.0 6606.0 86.8 0.8 11.9
Japan 19760.0 21 420.0 62.4 3.0 8.4
Norway 697.0 786.0 71.8 3.2 12.8
Spain 3 672.0 3465.6 29.2 5.6 5.6
Sweden 1 751.0 1 906.0 100.0 -0.5 8.9
Switzerland 999.2 1 030.1 70.9 0.7 3.1
United Kingdom 9524.0 9773.0 n.a. -1.9 2.6
United States 35095.0 41 283.0 63.2 6.9 17.6

UNEMPLOYMENT
Australia 141.7 193.1 47.9 35.8 36.3
Austria 28.7 26.6 n a. 0.0 -7.3
Belgium 151.8 238.5 74.9 25.4 57.1
Canada 322.0 388.0 468 18.6 20.5
Denmark 51.8 88.7 uO.0 5.3 63.5
Finland 32.0 53.0 100.0 0.0 65.6
Germany (Fed. Rep.) 493.8 462.5 n.a. 24.7 -6.3
Italy 802.0 982.0 66.2 14.7 22.4
Japan 340.0 430.0 37.7 4.1 26.5
Norway 16.0 18.0 n.a. -12.5 12.5
Spain 201.9 408.1 38.4 69.1 102.1
Sweden 36.0 45.0 47.4 33.3 25.0
Switzerland 5.8 4.5 n.a. -61.1 -22.4
United Kingdom 341.7 564.2 51.9 19.7 65.1
United States 3320.0 3291.0 0.0 4.8 -0.9

n.a. = not available.

Source: I LO Year Book of Labour Statistics, 1981, tables 3A and 9A.



Another important trend is discernable, if one compares women's share of unemployment in
the category of persons who have already had a job, and their share of unemployment among
those who seek their first employment, women's share of unemployment is considerably higher in
the category of persons seeking their first job.

Table 2 compiled for illustrative purposes shows that open unemployment as a percentage







of the recorded labour force is higher among women than men in Latin America and the
Caribbean, low-income countries of Asia and middle-income countries of Africa and the Middle
East.

2. DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

In the developed countries surveyed, the increase in female employment (1.7 million) during
the five year period 1976 to 1980 was much less than that of men (4.3 million) as was the
increase in unemployment (1.2 million) as compared with that of men (5 million).




Table 2:

Estimated unemployment in developing countries
1980 Percentage of labour force


Group Total Male Female
All developing countries 6.0 1 5.2 1 7.8 1

Latin America and Caribbean (low-income countries) 8.1 7.4 10.3

Latin America and Caribbean (middle-income countries) 5.6 7.8 8.4

China

India 4.6 3.3 7.3

Asia (other low-income countries) 4.5 2.3 10.2

Asia (middle-income countries) 3.4 3.4 3.4

Africa and Middle East (low-income countries) 14.8 15.9 12.6

Africa and Middle East (middle-income countries) 7.7 4.7 8.7

Africa and Middle East (capital surplus oil producers) 5.4 6.1 4.0

= not available.

1 Excluding China.

Source: ILO Bureau of Statistics (estimated on the basis of replies from 61 countries to a special survey conducted by the
ILO in 1980); from ILO World Labour Report, Vol. I, Geneva, p. 7.


a) EMPLOYMENT

Among the 12 developing countries surveyed for the period under review, the female share
of net increase in employment was generally less than the male share, except in Tunisia and Syria,
where the female share amounted to 54 per cent and 51 per cent, respectively. In most countries
the female share ranged between 40 and 47 per cent, except in India (15 per cent), Venezuela (27
per cent), and the Republic of Korea (37 per cent). (Table 3).







Table 3:


Trends in employment and unemployment of women workers
in developing countries 1976-80


Year Percentage change,
Female 1976-80
1976 1980 share of net
Country ('000) ('000) increase Male Female
EMPLOYMENT
Colombia 868.4 1 224.6 40.3 36.4 41.0
Costa Rica 132.7 176.4 40.5 13.3 32.9
Jamaica 261.7 289.1 47.1 7.4 10.5
Panama 126.7 152.9 47.2 8.5 20.7
Puerto Rico 252.0 299.0 46.1 11.5 18.7
Venezuela 1 035.0 1 156.5 27.3 12.2 11.7
Mauritius 42.5 51.1 46.0 7.3 20.2
Tunisia 290.0 359.6 53.8 5.0 24.0
Cyprus 58.7 68.0 42.5 12.5 15.8
India 2397.0 2784.0 14.7 12.6 16.1
Korea (Rep. of) 4820.0 5243.0 36.8 9.4 8.8
Syria 161.5 329.9 50.7 10.2 104.3

UNEMPLOYMENT
Colombia 120.2 172.4 70.6 13.9 43.4
Costa Rica 11.5 13.8 20.4 47.9 20.0
Jamaica 132.8 183.0 68.7 35.3 37.8
Panama 14.7 23.8 53.5 41.6 61.9
Puerto Rico 42.0 42.0 0.0 -3.0 0.0
Venezuela 51.7 56.3 11.9 18.6 8.9
Mauritius 4.6 7.4 100.0 -9.9 60.9
Tunisia 8.2 11.7 100.0 -3.2 42.7
Cyprus 3.4 1.9 14.71 -78.4 -44.1
India 1 182.0 2115.0 16.2 57.5 78.9
Korea (Rep. of) 97.0 191.0 28.5 36.8 96.9
Syria 11.7 12.9 100.0 -32.0 10.3

Female share of net decrease.

Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, 1981, tables 3A and 9A.


During the period (1976-1980), total employment of women increased in all of the 12
developing countries. In Syria, in particular, it doubled whereas employment among men in-
creased by only 10 per cent. The increase in female employment was very uneven, ranging from
about 9 per cent in the Republic of Korea to 104 per cent in Syria. The total number of women
employed also increased substantially in Colombia (41 per cent), Costa Rica (33 per cent),
Tunisia (24 per cent), Panama (21 per cent) and Mauritius (20 per cent).

As a consequence of these changes, the female share of total employment at the mid-point
of the Decade (1980) amounted to 12 per cent in India, 16 per cent in Syria, 22 per cent in
Tunisia, 24 per cent in Costa Rica, 26 per cent in Mauritius, 28 per cent in Venezuela, 29 per
cent in Panama, 36 per cent in Puerto Rico, 37 per cent in Cyprus, 38 per cent in the Republic of
Korea and Colombia, and 39 per cent in Jamaica.






b) UNEMPLOYMENT


In some of the countries surveyed, the increase in unemployment among women was sub-
stantially greater than that of men. For example, in Mauritius, Tunisia and Syria, while male
unemployment decreased, female unemployment increased by 61 per cent, 43 per cent and 10
per cent respectively. In Cyprus both male and female unemployment decreased by about 78 per
cent and 44 per cent respectively. In Puerto Rico, on the other hand, female unemployment
remained stable, while male unemployment decreased by 3 per cent. The highest increases in
female unemployment occurred in the Republic of Korea (97 per cent) and India (79 per cent).
In these countries male unemployment increased by 37 per cent and 57 per cent, respectively.

The changes cited above also indicate that the female share of unemployment in 1980 was
generally higher than their share of employment; it amounted to 14 per cent in India, 16 per cent
in Syria, 18 per cent in Tunisia, 21 per cent in Venezuela, 24 per cent in Puerto Rico, 26 per cent
in the Republic of Korea, 33 per cent in Costa Rica, 34 per cent in Mauritus, 44 per cent in
Cyprus, 47 per cent in Panama, 49 per cent in Colombia, and 68 per cent in Jamaica.

3. UNEMPLOYMENT RATES IN OECD COUNTRIES (1982)

From information tabulated, according to estimates, in 1982 in OECD member countries,


Table 4:

Unemployment rates by sex for selected years
OECD countries)


1973 1975 1979 1981 1982
Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female
Australia 1.6 3.6 3.7 7.0 5.0 8.0 4.7 7.4 6.2 8.4
Austria 0.6 1.8 1.4 2.3 1.5 3.1 1.9 3.6 2.6 4.6
Belgium 1.8 3.1 3.1 6.3 4.1 11.6 4.3 12.8
Canada 4.9 6.7 6.1 8.1 6.6 8.7 7.0 8.3 11.0 10.8
Finland 2.4 2.2 2.3 2.1 6.4 5.6 5.2 5.2 6.1 6.0

France 1.5 4.6 2.8 6.3 4.0 8.9 5.0 10.9 5.6 11.7
Germany 0.9 1.3 3.8 4.6 2.5 4.6 3.9 6.0 6.0 7.7
Italy 4.1 11.4 3.7 10.5 4.8 13.1 5.3 14.2 6.0 14.7
Japan 1.3 1.2 2.0 1.7 2.2 2.0 2.3 2.1 2.4 2.3
New Zealand 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.3 1.7 2.3 3.2 4.6

Norway 1.0 2.4 1.9 2.9 1.6 2.4 1.5 2.8 2.3 3.0
Portugal 5.1 6.1 4.8 12.9 4.0 13.9
Spain 2.7 2.6 4.7 4.2 8.7 10.8 13.8 18.0 15.1 20.3
Sweden 2.3 2.8 1.3 2.0 1.9 2.3 2.3 2.7 3.0 3.4
Switzerland 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.4

United Kingdom 3.0 1.0 4.4 1.4 5.5 3.3 10.9 6.0 12.7 7.1
United States 4.0 6.0 7.6 9.3 5.0 6.8 7.2 7.9 9.6 9.4

Seven major countries 2.8 4.2 4.9 6.2 4.2 6.0 5.8 7.1 7.4 8.2
Source: OECD: Employment Outlook, p. 145







some 30 million people were unemployed, including 12 million women, representing an overall
unemployment rate of 8.2 per cent, ranging from 0.4 to 15.1 per cent for men and 0.4 to 20.3
per cent for women (see Table 4). In the majority of OECD countries, women's unemployment
rate was higher than that of men. While women formed 38.5 per cent of the employed labour
force, they constituted 43.3 per cent of the total recorded unemployed (see Table 4). The actual
number of unemployed women, according to some estimates, may be even higher than revealed
in official statistics.

It is significant to note that in the 1970s, the character of unemployment changed in such a
way that it affected adversely the marginalised and vulnerable groups of workers, such as the
unskilled, women and youth. In most industrial market economy countries, for example, during
the 1970s, the percentage of unemployed or those looking for work for more than a year almost
doubled. By the beginning of 1984, unemployment stood at the high level of 35 million -about
10 per cent of the total labour force- many of whom are in different categories such as
school-leavers, migrant workers, semi and unskilled workers laid off for reasons of technological
and economic change.

In 14 selected OECD countries the unemployment rates of young men up to the age of 20
varied in 1982 from 7.8 to 44.4 per cent, while in the same age group those of young women
ranged from 4.3 to 52.6 per cent. The age group 20-24 also showed a higher unemployment rate:
for men between 3.6 and 26 per cent, and for women between 4.4 and 36.5 per cent.

The significant change is that while two decades ago female and male unemployment rates
did not show a wide differential, now female rates are noticeably higher than male.













A FRIC A















Chapter II

Women in the Economic Activity in Africa


1. POPULATION AND FEMALE LABOUR FORCE

Africa is notable for its extremely low population density (16 inhabitants per square kilome-
tre) and for the fact the region has the largest number of states. In about half the countries of
this continent, there were less than 300.000 women workers in 1980; in some cases, the figures
was under 50.000. Only a few countries such as Ethiopia, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania and
Zaire had populations of over 2 million.

In 1975, according to ILO estimates, the female population of Africa was 202.4 million,
representing 10.2 per cent of the female population of the world. In the same year, 49.4 million
women were engaged in economic activities, representing 8.6 per cent of all workers. Twenty-
four out of every 100 women living in Africa belonged to the labour force. However, the gross
rate of participation of women in economic activity and :he proportion of the national labour
force which they represented, varied greatly from one country to another, reflecting, as elsewhere
in the world, the influence of demographic, social, cultural and political factors in each country.

In 1975, women accounted for nearly one-third of the total labour force of Africa, a
proportion which concealed considerable disparities from one country to another, ranging from 4
per cent in Mauritania to 52 per cent in Botswana, the only country in the world where more
women than men worked. Nearly 3.6 million girls aged 10 to 14 were economically active,
representing 16 per cent of all women workers in this age group in the world. These very young
working girls were mostly employed on family farms as unpaid help. At the other end of the
scale, about 1.3 million women aged 65 and over were still economically active, representing 2.6
per cent of the total female labour force of Africa. Their participation rate was 19.8 per cent, the
highest of any of the major geographical regions of the world.

According to I LO estimates, the female population of Africa in 1980 was 237 million, about
56 million more than that in Latin America. It represented 10.7 per cent of the world female
population and 15 per cent of that of the less developed regions. Also in 1980, about 55 million
women were engaged in some economic activity, almost 28 million more than in Latin America.

The number of women exercising an economic activity as a percentage of the total female
population varies greatly from one region to another, ranging from 4.9 per cent in Northern
Africa to 32.6 per cent in Western Africa. The latter area includes countries such as Mauritania
and Niger, where the gross participation rate is under 10 per cent, and Mali and Burkina Faso,
where over half of the population comprises the labour force.

Women workers in Africa account for 32.4 per cent of the total active population, but for
less than 3 per cent of the world total. Out of every 100 women living in Africa, 24 are







Table 1:


Economically-active population, and activity
rates in selected African countries


Men Women

Economically Economically
Total active Activity Total active Activity
population population rates population population rates
Country in thousands in % in thousands in %


Burundi
1979
Rwanda
1978
Seychelles
1981
Madagascar
1975
Ethiopia
1980
Togo
1980
Cameroon
1982
Ivory Coast
1975
Botswana
1982
Reunion
1982
Benin
1979
Somalia
1975
Zambia
1981
Mali
1976
Tunisia
1980
Egypt
1980
Algeria
1977
Mauritania
1976
Burkina Faso
1976
Burkina Faso
1975


1 946 1 110

2364 1 290

32 23

4010 2249

15685 8571

1 190 570

4429 2214

3475 1 909

443 188

253 111

1 601 708

1 567 875

2898 1 311

3124 1 883

3204 1447

21 487 10252

8336 3071

636 381

2828 1 360

2828 1 360


57.0

54.6

70.3

56.1

54.6

47.9

50.0

54.9

42.5

43.8

44.3

55.8

45.2

60.3

45.1

47.7

36.8

59.9

48.1

48.1


2082

2481

32

4151

15381

1 286

4453

3235

498

263

1 738

1 603

2971

3271

33 165

20 734

8494

648

2811

2811


1 258

1 372

17

1 928

5435

448

1 329

923

127

62

406

365

514

385

364

1 191

300

17

48

48


Note: 1. Activity rates are ratios of the economically active population to the total population.
2. Population figures are rounded for thousand.

Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, (Geneva), 1982, 1983, Table 1.


60.4

55.3

51.9

46.4

35.7

34.9

29.8

28.5

25.5

23.6

23.3

22.8

17.3

11.8

11.5

5.7

3.5

2.6

1.7

1.7







considered to be in the labour force. However, the number of women aged 15 and over in
economic activity, was 40.2 per cent, approximately the same as in Europe (40.5 per cent), and
in Oceania (39.7 per cent).

a) FEMALE PARTICIPATION RATES

Data on economically active male and female populations for 19 countries was examined
and ranked according to female activity rates, as there are divergent criteria adopted from one
country to another in counting them as economically active. (Table 1)

The average activity rates for Africa as a whole, from a sample of 19 countries, are com-
parable to other developing continents; for example, Asia (53.6 per cent). In Africa, according to
official statistics, a few countries have the lowest female activity rates in the world: Egypt (5.7
per cent), Algeria (3.5 per cent), Mauritania (2.6 per cent), and Burkina Faso (1.7 per cent).

As shown in Table 1, the lowest and highest activity rates for females are registered by
Burkina Faso (1.7 per cent), and Burundi (60.4 per cent). For males, Algeria shows the lowest
(36.8 per cent), and Seychelles (70.3 per cent), the highest. Seychelles is a small country having
in 1981 a total population of 64.000, whereas countries such as Egypt, Ethiopia, Algeria, Mali,
Madagascar, the United Republic of Cameroon, the Ivory Coast, etc., have larger populations and
geographical areas. Egypt, for example, has a female population of almost 21 million in 1980, of
which hardly 1.2 million were economically active. The situation is more or less the same in
Algeria, Mauritania, and Burkina Faso.

Out of the 19 countries included in Table 1, Burundi and Rwanda show higher activity rates
for females than for males. Female activity rates in Burundi and Rwanda were 60.4 per cent
(1979), and 55.3 per cent (1978), respectively, while those of males were 57.0 per cent and 54.6
per cent, but the situation changed slightly in 1982-1983, as indicated in Chart A where the
averages have been calculated.


AFRICA (CHART A)

Activity rates among men and women
(19 countries) 1982, 1983

Activity rates (%)
Lowest Highest Average
Male 36.8 70.3 51.3
(Algeria) (Seychelles)

Female 1.7 60.4 25.9
(Burkina Faso) (Burundi)

Source: I LO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, 1982 to 1983.


b) WOMEN WORKERS BY AGE GROUPS

The results of an analysis of participation rates among males and females, based on three
broadly classified age groups for 12 countries for different years (1976-1982) in Table 2, reveal
low participation rates among both men and women under 25 years of age, and significantly







Table 2:

Economically-active population by sex and broadly classified
age-groups in selected African countries (in thousands and in percent)

Men Women
Country Age Total Active Activity Total Active Activity
(year) group population population rates population population rates

in % in %


Cameroon
(1982)

Rwanda
(1978)

Seychelles
(1980)

Togo
(1980)

Tunisia
(1980)

Zambia
(1981)

Algeria
(1977)

Benin
(1979)

Botswana
(1981)

Burundi
(1979)

Ethiopia
(1980)

Mali
(1976)


-25
25-54
55+
-25
25-54
55+
-25
25-54
55+
-25
25-54
55+
-25
25-54
55+
-25
25-54
55+
-25
25-54
55+
-25
25-54
55+
-25
25-54
55+
-25
25-54
55+
-25
25-54
55+
-25
25-54
55+


2751
1 364
314
1 625
570
169
20
9
3
839
261
90
2026
848
330
1 947
776
175
5676
2012
649
1 047
387
167
295
104
44
286
497
163
9837
4544
1 302
1 949
902
272


658
1 311
246
594
559
137
9
8
2
242
251
77
454
819
174
414
766
131
916
1 898
257
210
374
125
61
95
32
515
486
108
3146
4400
1 025
775
880
227


23.9
96.1
78.3
36.6
28.1
81.1
45.0
88.9
66.7
28.8
96.2
85.6
22.4
96.6
52.7
21.3
98.7
74.9
16.1
94.3
39.6
20.1
96.6
74.9
20.7
91.3
72.7
40.0
97.8
66.3
32.0
96.8
78.7
39.8
97.6
83.5


2735
1 364
353
1 633
663
185
18
8
4
813
358
115
1 956
933
275
1 913
859
199
5462
2278
753
1 074
506
158
317
129
52
1 316
580
186
9604
4750
1 027
1 994
1 009
269


420
741
169
592
642
138
5
5
1
184
214
51
160
182
22
209
230
74
104
169
27
143
215
47
53
60
14
568
560
130
2222
2949
263
179
175
30


15.4
54.3
47.9
36.3
96.8
74.6
27.8
62.5
25.0
22.6
59.8
44.3
8.2
19.5
8.0
10.9
26.8
37.2
1.9
7.4
3.6
13.3
42.5
29.7
16.7
46.5
26.9
43.2
96.6
69.9
23.1
62.1
25.6
9.0
17.3
11.2


Note: Population figures are rounded for thousand.

Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, Geneva), 1983,1982, Table 1.



lower participation rates among women in this age group and much lower participation rates for
women above 55 years compared to men. Some countries which have relatively low participation
rates for both males and females below 25 years, are Algeria (Chart B), Botswana, the United
Republic of Cameroon, Tunisia, and Zambia. The participation rates for males within this age






group in Tunisia, for example, is 22.4 per cent, and for females 8.2 per cent. In Zambia, these
rates are 21.3 per cent and 10.9 per cent respectively.


AFRICA (CHART B)

Participation rates by age groups (percentages)

Participation rates Participation rates by age groups:
for total
Country population -25 25-54 55 +
Algeria 1977: M 36.8 16.1 94.3 39.6
F 3.5 1.9 7.4 3.6

Tunisia 1980: M 45.1 22.4 96.6 52.7
F 11.5 8.2 19.5 8.0

Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, 1982 and 1983. Table 1.



In Algeria, only 1.9 per cent of females below 25 years of age and 3.6 per cent above 55
years are economically active; in Tunisia the corresponding ratios are 8.2 per cent and 8.0 per cent.
The middle groups show a higher ratio for both. The overall participation rates for females are
lower than those of males, as is reflected in the ratios of the three age groups. In summary, the
analysis shows that there is a "sluggish" participation rate among females within certain age
groups, that is either relatively young or relatively old.


2. DISTRIBUTION BY ECONOMIC SECTORS

Around 34 million, or roughly 76 per cent, of the 45 million women exercising an economic
activity in Africa in 1970 were employed in the agricultural sector. Some 3 million, that is over 6
per cent, were working in the industrial sector, and approximately 8 million, or about 18 per
cent, in the services sector. The share of African women in the world female labour force was
11.8 per cent in agriculture, 3 per cent in the industrial sector, and 5.4 per cent in the services
sector.


Between 1950 and 1970, the female labour force rose by over 7 million in agriculture,
roughly 2 million in the industrial sector, and over 4 million in the services sector. Expressed in
percentages, this represents an increase of 28 per cent in agriculture, 182 per cent in industry,
and 110 per cent in services.


In 1970, the share of women in the total labour force of Africa was as follows: 34.6 per
cent in agriculture, 33.8 per cent in services, but a mere 18.3 per cent in the industrial sector.
Although the figure has risen in the industrial sector over the past 20 years, there has been
virtually no change in the two other sectors a slight drop in agriculture and a slight increase in
services. Recent data indicates that agriculture continues to be the predominant sector in which
women work. Seven countries for which data is available in Africa (Chart C) reveal the pattern of
distribution of active female population among major economic sectors in which the share of
industry and services shows relatively higher participation rates than in 1970.







AFRICA (CHART C)


Distribution of active female population by economic sectors
(Percentages)

Agriculture Industry Services Others

42.5 10.2 27.1 20.2

Note: The percentages are averages of sample countries and table 3 shows data for individual countries.
Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, 1980, 1982, 1983.



There are, however, wide differences between the individual countries of Africa as regards
the distribution of women by economic sector and their share in the total labour force. These
differences are attributable to specific national economic circumstances and reflect the low levels
of education and other social, religious, and cultural variables. For illustrative purposes, seven
countries are selected in table 3, based on data from different years to indicate distribution of
women by major branches of economic activity (Table 3).



Table 3:

Distribution of economically active women by major branches of
economic activity in selected African countries (in thousands and in percent)


Total Distribution
Country economically
(year) active women Agriculture Industry Services Others*

Algeria No. 300.3 6.5 24.8 96.7 172.3
(1977) % 100.0 2.1 8.3 32.2 57.4
Cameroon No. 1 329.0 1 160.1 32.2 66.7 70.0
(1982) % 100.0 87.3 2.4 5.0 5.3
Egypt No. 857.8 65.7 87.7 477.3 227.1
(1980) % 100.0 7.6 10.2 55.7 26.5
Malawi No. 1 056.5 996.0 17.4 29.1 14.0
(1977) % 100.0 94.3 1.6 2.8 1.3
Mali No. 384.6 283.1 11.3 58.4 31.8
(1976) % 100.0 73.6 2.9 15.2 8.3
Tunisia No. 363.5 113.2 158.0 60.7 31.7
(1980) % 100.0 31.1 43.5 16.7 8.7
Reunion No. 62.0 0.8 1.6 38.6 21.0
(1982) %. 100.0 1.3 2.6 62.3 33.8

Note: The division of economic activity from 1 -9 are regrouped into three major branches such as:
1 Agriculture
2-5 Industry
6-9 Services
Othersinclude persons not adequately defined and those seeking their first job or unemployed, etc.

Population figures are rounded to the first decimal point.

Soucce: I LO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, (Geneva), 1983,1982,1981, Table 2A.







c) THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR


Agriculture has always been the principal source of employment for women in Africa.
However, data for the period 1950 to 1970 appears to show a decline, and in some cases, the
participation rates are very low. In 1970, in almost half of the countries, nine women out of ten
considered as economically active were working in the agricultural sector. This was the situation
in the United Republic of Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, Rwanda and Zaire,
where 96 per cent of the women were employed in agriculture. In ten countries, including Kenya,
Madagascar, Tanzania, and Uganda, this sector employed between 90 and 95 per cent of the
female labour force. In others, including Burundi, the United Republic of Cameroon, Madagascar
and Mali, women represented over 40 per cent. In eight countries, including Benin, Egypt, South
Africa and Tunisia, under 40 per cent were working in the agricultural sector.

The figures for 1970 also show four countries (Botswana, the Central African Republic,
Rwanda and Zaire) in which the female labour force was larger than the male labour force in this
sector. The lowest figures, that is under 10 per cent, were recorded in a small number of
countries, mainly in northern Africa.

Recent data compiled between 1950 and 1980 showed that the female agricultural labour
force increased in Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania and Zaire, while the agricultural
labour in the Congo, Gabon and Nigeria showed a decline.

d) THE INDUSTRIAL SECTOR

In almost all countries of Africa, the industrial sector offered relatively little opportunities
for women during the 1950-70 period. In 1950, it accounted for less than 1 per cent of the
female labour force in 19 countries, compared to only seven countries 20 years later; and over 10
per cent of the female labour force was employed in this sector in 13 countries in 1970, as
against seven countries in 1950.

In some countries the share of the female labour force more than tripled and, in a dozen
others, more than doubled during this period. Although their relative share increased, the number
of women workers in this sectors in absolute figures rose only slightly, by 1.826.000 for the
whole continent over 20 years. In some 15 countries the increase was less than 5.000, in nine
others, less than 20.000; only in six countries (Ethiopia, Ghana, Nigeria, South Africa, Burkina
Faso, and Zaire) this increase signified 60.000 additional women workers.

In Africa, in some 30 countries, the share of women in this sector was about 5 per cent in
1970, and in seven countries, including Chad, the Ivory Coast and Rwanda, it was less than 1 per
cent. Only in two countries, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya and Tunisia, the total female labour
force employed in the industrial sector was over 40 per cent. Mali and Burkina Faso employed
about 72 per cent of women in this sector, showing higher rates for women than men.

e) THE SERVICES SECTOR

In almost all African countries, more and more women were employed in the services sector
in countries for which data was available. The proportion of women more than tripled in some
countries and doubled in others. For example, the percentage of working women in this sector
rose from 3 to 8.3 per cent in Senegal, 7 to 13.6 per cent in the Ivory Coast, 19.8 to 30.5 per
cent in Nigeria and 31.6 to 51.9 per cent in Mauritius. In South Africa and Morocco, despite a
sharp increase in absolute figures, the proportion declined, respectively, from 80 to 58.5 per cent
and from 48.8 to 36.4 per cent.






As in other developing regions, the services sector employs more women than the industrial
sector in most African countries. In most countries, less than 10 per cent of the working women
are in the services sector. They are mostly concentrated in community services, social and
personal services, in the wholesale and retail trade, and restaurants and hotels. Transport and
communication services provide employment for less than 5 per cent in countries for which
figures are available. The share of the female labour force in the services sector ranges from under
2 per cent in Guinea, Mali and Burkina Faso, to over 70 per cent in Benin and R6union. Only in a
few countries, such as Algeria, Egypt and South Africa, the services sector employed more than
50 per cent of the economically active women.

In most African countries, except ten, including Ethiopia, Mali and Mozambique, the pro-
portion of women in the total labour force of the services sector is greater than in the industrial
sector; in some 20 countries, the proportion is also greater than in the agricultural sector. The
share of working women in the sector's labour force varies greatly from one country to another,
ranging from under 5 per cent (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya) to 84 per cent (Benin). In addition to
the latter country, they represent a majority in the sector in Ghana, Nigeria and Togo, and a
substantial proportion (over 40 per cent) in the Congo, the Ivory Coast, Namibia, South Africa,
Swalizand, and Zambia. In eight countries, including Algeria, Mozambique and Zaire, they repre-
sent less than 10 per cent.

3. DISTRIBUTION BY EMPLOYMENT STATUS

The pattern of distribution of the female labour force by employment status is a general
guide to assess the role of women in the national economy and is also an index of their educa-
tional progress and income distribution. Despite certain statistical problems of inadequate in-
formation and limited coverage of countries, the following chart provides and overall picture of
women by occupational status in Africa. Table 4 provides data for countries for various years
showing distribution by status of employment.


AFRICA (CHART D)

Active female population by employment status
(percentages)

1. Employees and 2 Employees 3. Unpaid family 4. Not classified
own account workers by status
19.6 35.3 23.0 22.2

Note: The percentages are arithmetic averages of six sample countries with the available data for the latest years (See table 4
for individual countries).
Source: I LO: Year Book of Labour Statistics 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983.


a) FEMALE EMPLOYERS AND "OWN ACCOUNT" WORKERS

The proportion of female employers and women working on their own account account
varies considerably from country to country; for example, from 1.7 per cent in Algeria to 59 per
cent in the United Republic of Cameroon. In Tanzania, four out of every five women belong to
this category. In Ghana, over 70 per cent, and in Mozambique over 50 per cent of women work
on their own account, compared with Gabon, Mauritus and some other countries where less than
10 per cent fall in this category.







Table 4:

Distribution of economically active women by status of employment in selected African
countries (in '000 and in %)


Distribution by employment status
Employers and
Country Economically own account Unpaid family Not classified
(year) active women workers Employees workers by status
Algeria No. 300.3 5.2 126.4 1.4 167.3
(1977) % 100.0 1.7 42.1 0:5 55.7
Cameroon No. 1 329.0 779.6 46.7 434.7 68.0
(1982) % 100.0 58.7 3.5 32.7 5.1
Mali No. 384.6 51.5 10.4 286.6 36.0
(1976) % 100.0 13.4 2.7 74.5 9.4
Tunisia No. 363.5 100.5 133.5 95.6 33.9
(1980) % 100.0 27.6 36.7 26.4 9.3
Reunion No. 62.0 2.4 37.6 0.7 21.3
(1982) % 100.0 3.9 60.6 1.1 34.4
Egypt No. 857.8 102.8 566.5 23.5 165.0
(1980) % 100.0 12.0 66.0 2.8 19.2

Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, (Geneva), 1982,1983, Table 2A

In some countries in Africa, the majority of those working on their own account are found
in the agricultural sector. For example, in the United Republic of Cameroon in 19b2 out of
779.000 women, 732.000 or 94 per cent were in agriculture; in Mali in 1976, out of 51.000
women 30.000 or 59 per cent were in agricultural occupations. On the other hand, in Egypt in
1976, 34 per cent of women were in this category and in the case of Tunisia, in 1975, it was 14
per cent.

These higher percentages in agriculture in some countries are not an exclusive phenomenon
for women, but in many cases these also apply to men who are in agricultural activities; for
example in the United Republic of Cameroon, about 85 per cent (1982), and in Mali, 91 per cent
(1976) were in agriculture.

Available data from a few countries indicate that the proportion of salary and wage earners
in the total female labour force tends to be lower where the proportion in agriculture is high. In
Botswana, Gabon, Liberia, Mozambique and Tanzania, where 90 per cent or more of the female
labour force is employed in the agricultural sector, there are only 2 to 10 per cent of employees.
By contrast, in Algeria, Egypt, Mauritius, R6union and the Seychelles, where only 10 to 38 per
cent of the economically active women work in the agricultural sector, the proportion is relative-
ly higher.

b) "UNPAID FAMILY WORKERS"

Due to the size of the traditional sector in many African countries, a fairly large percentage
of women belong to this category: for example, Gabon (84 per cent), Sierra Leone (83 per cent)
and Liberia (75 per cent). In the Lybian Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco and Mozambique, one out of
three women workers is in this category, compared with less than 5 per cent in Botswana,
Mauritius, Reunion, and the Seychelles. In Egypt, 30.4 per cent of women were classified as
unpaid family workers in 1960, 15.5 per cent in 1966, and 2.8 per cent in 1980.






The proportion of the female labour force in this category in most countries is greater than
that of the male labour force: for example, 75 per cent of women and 13 per cent of men in
Liberia, and 30 per cent of women and 14 per cent of men in Morocco. In Botswana, the
situation of women in this category represents 2.1 per cent of the total female labour force, and
men 4.5 per cent of the total male labour force. Countries showing a higher percentage of women
compared to men in this category are, Gabon (55 per cent), Ghana (67 per cent), Liberia (76 per
cent), Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (60 per cent), Mozambique (62 per cent), Sierra Leone (55 per
cent), and Tunisia (55 per cent).

Most women classified as unpaid family workers are in the agricultural sector: for example,
in Algeria, Ghana, Mozambique and Tanzania, over 90 per cent work on family farms. Of all the
countries for which figures are available, Reunion and the Seychelles are examples where trade,
and hotels and restaurants, take precedence over agriculture. However, in Tunisia, almost 25 per
cent in this category work in the manufacturing industry.

4. DISTRIBUTION BY MAJOR OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS

The occupational concentration of the labour force depends mostly on the size and develop-
ment of the dominant sector of the national economy. For example, if the industrial sector is
relatively developed and larger than the other sectors, then a substantial proportion of the labour
force of such a country naturally finds employment opportunities in the industrial sector. Afri-
can economies are predominantly agricultural, and therefore, for the majority of the workers,
both male and female, agriculture would be the most prospective sector for employment. Table 5
provides a summary of the data on occupational groups for women in selected countries in
Africa.


Table 5:

Distribution of economically active women by type of occupation
in selected African countries (in '000 and in %)
Distribution by type of occupation
Prof., Agricultural,
technical Admin., and Clerical animal hubs. Production
Total and related managerial & related Sales Service & forest related
Country economically workers workers workers workers workers workers workers Others*
(year) active women (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (61 (7-9)
Cameroon No. 1 329.0 119 0.2 9.7 31.5 11.1 1 177.4 32.9 54.3
(1982) % 100.0 0.9 -0.7 2.4 0.8 88.6 2.5 4.1
Mali No. 384.9 6.2 0.1 3.2 10.4 6.1 281.5 46.9 30.5
(1976) % 100.0 1.6 0.8 2.7 1.6 73.2 12.2 7.9
Seychelles No. 9.6 1.0 0.1 0.7 0.5 4.8 1.2 0.9 0.4
(1977) % 100.0 10.4 1.0 7.3 5.2 50.0 12.5 9.5 4.2
Tunisia No. 363.5 5.7 0.6 36.1 113.0 152.7 21.6
(1980) % 100.0 1.6 0.2 9.9 31.1 42.0 5.9
Egypt No. 857.8 281.7 16.8 195.9 31.8 54.5 61.0 52.0 164.1
(1980) % 100.0 32.8 2.0 22.8 3.7 6.4 7.1 6.1 19.1

Not: Others include workers not classified by any occupation.
Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics. (Geneva). 1982, 1983, Table 2B.



As the figures in Chart E below clearly indicate, the highest percentages of the female labour
force is occupied in agriculture, and the lowest in administrative and managerial functions. In the
category of professional and technical workers, women in Africa register a relatively lower rate,
reflecting the first stages of industrialization and inadequate facilities for specialization and training.







AFRICA (CHART E)

Active female population by occupational groups
(percentages)

Prof., techn. Admn. and Clerical, Agri. animal Production
and related manag. sales and husby. and and related
workers workers service workers forestry workers workers Others
11.4 1.5 24.4 42.5 14.4 8.2

Note: The percentages are arithmetic averages of sample countries.
Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, 1981-83, table 2B.



a) AGRICULTURAL AND RELATED WORKERS

In most countries in Africa the highest percentage of female labour is found in the agricul-
tural sector. In Ghana, Liberia, Namibia and Sierra Leone, over half of the working women
belong to this group. In none of the countries considered was the proportion less than 10 per
cent, except in Egypt. Considering the dominant role of agriculture in Africa, the percentage
would be much higher if it included women working in the traditional sector producing subsist-
ence food crops.

The proportion of women in the total labour force in this occupational group is over 40 per
cent in some countries, such as Ghana, Liberia and Sierra Leone, and under 20 per cent in most
other countries.

b) PROFESSIONAL, TECHNICAL AND RELATED WORKERS

The percentages of women in this group vary from country to country, ranging from under
1 per cent in Sierra Leone to 29 per cent in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. In Egypt and Algeria,
32.8 per cent and 18 per cent respectively, belong to this group. However, in Several countries,
this group accounts for less than 10 per cent of the total active female population; they include
Ghana, Mali, the United Republic of Cameroon, Liberia, and Nigeria, where the ratios are 2 per
cent or even less. In the Seychelles, there are more women than men in this category.

There are, nevertheless, major differences from one occupation to another within the group2.
According to the 1960 census carried out in Ghana, for instance, two women and 413 men were
employed as civil engineers, 12 women and 468 men as pharmacists, and five women and 221
men as lawyers, whereas there were more female than male nurses, and over 20 per cent of
women in the teaching profession, and over 10 per cent among doctors and dentists3. In Sierra
Leone, too, over 90 per cent of the nursing staff consisted of women, but relatively few of them
were doctors. In several African Countries this group includes a large proportion of female school
teachers.

c) ADMINISTRATIVE AND MANAGERIAL WORKERS

In this group, less than 1 per cent of women are inployed in Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra
Leone, but over 10 per cent in Algeria and South Africa.

In most countries for which figures are available, there are at least 20 per cent of women in






this category. In Namibia and South Africa, they account for over 40 per cent of the total labour
force, but less than 10 per cent in Nigeria, and less than 5 per cent in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya.

d) CLERICAL AND RELATED WOR KERS

The proportion of women in the total labour force of this group varies considerably from
one country to another. It is highest in Ghana (88 per cent) and lowest in the Libyan Arab
Republic (0.6 per cent). In four other countries (Liberia. Namibia, the Seychelles, and Sierra
Leone), women account for over 30 per cent, but in half of the countries considered, they
account for less than 15 per cent.

Although, as a rule, there is a higher percentage of women employed as service workers than
as sales workers, in a few countries, such as Ghana and Nigeria, there is a larger proportion of
sales workers (25.7 per cent and 48.2 per cent, respectively) than service workers (a mere 1.5 per
cent and 6.5 per cent). In Algeria, Morocco, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, and Tunisia, there are
less than 2 per cent of women in these occupations. In Egypt and Ghana, over 80 per cent of the
women in this group work independently, almost all of them in the retail trade.

e) SERVICE WORKERS

The relative proportion of working women employed in this group of occupations ranges
from 50 per cent in the Seychelles, to under 1 per cent in Liberia and Sierra Leone. In Algeria,
Egypt and Mauritius, most women in this category are employees, whereas in Ghana, 30 per cent
of them are employers or own-account workers. In Liberia, over a third are unpaid workers
employed in family enterprises.

In several countries, including Mauritius, Namibia, the Seychelles, and South Africa where,
according to most recent statistics there are more women than men, this is the occupational
group with the highest proportion of women workers. Only in one of the countries considered
was the female labour force less than 10 per cent of the total in this group (Sierra Leone 6 per
cent).

Most African women work under difficult conditions, their work, especially in the agricul-
tural sector, is extremely arduous, their working day is excessively long and they have little, if
any, access to modern technologies. Moreover, lacking the necessary skills, they are relegated to
jobs requiring little or no education or vocational training, and are, consequently, at the bottom
of the wage scale.

The traditional responsibilities of rural women -homemaking, especially carrying water and
fuel, child care and growing food for the family- are estimated to take up sixteen hours of work
a day, which inevitable is over and above the hours spent on the production of market crops or
on paid artisan-type activities. The excessive lenght of the working day of women in rural areas is
such a serious problem that several time-budget studies have attempted to quantify their work
hours using different methodologies. In addition to their long hours of work, women often have
to make a long journey to and from their place of work which, for lack of any suitable transport,
may take over two hours every day.

In rural areas, most women are exclusively responsible for growing food crops for the family
-any surplus being sold on the local market, which may be a long way from their home- but
also share with the men the responsibility for cattle raising and the production of market crops.
It is in fact the participation of women in agricultural work that determines, in part, how much
land can be cultivated. In many African countries, women work regularly in the field with men to






grow and harvest crops such as rice, coffee, tea and cotton. In Gambia, for instance, the women
plant the rice, cotton and vegetables, harvest the cotton, pound the ice, prepare the groundnuts,
vegetables and palm oil, fetch the water and fuel, look after the chickens and bees, and sell the
agricultural craft products.

The introduction of modern machines or equipment may mean for many women loss of
their paid employment. In several African countries, for example, pounding by hand has ulti-
mately resulted in a loss of income for rural women as it is being done by machines. At the same
time, it does mean that women do not have to use their muscle power for hard jobs. The same
has happened with the introduction of oil-pressing machines. Some artisan-type activities, such as
baking and dyeing, are gradually giving way to modern enterprises. In one village in Tanzania, the
installation of a diesel pump has done away with the job of carrying water, thereby depriving
women of a substantial source of income.

Almost everywhere, women use traditional tools for agriculture tasks. In many countries,
there are women in rural areas who have unequal access to modern inputs, machinery and sophisti-
cated production methods. In one country, for instance, 100 tractors were imported, but only
one machine for weeding, which is a task that is usually done by women.

Modern techniques sometimes create new activities for women. In some parts of Togo,
women, who are the sole owners of the kaolin quarries, break rocks and stones using nothing
more than a hammer and mace to produce tons of gravel that is used for surfacing roads and
mixing concrete.

What often makes the situation of women highly precarious is that they find it extremely
difficult to obtain regular employment. Frequently they are only taken on as day workers or
casual workers and, because of their extreme poverty may well be obliged to accept an underpaid
job in extremely arduous and unhealthy conditions.

The situation of African working women in urban areas also shows longer work hours with
very low and uncertain incomes. They are employed on low status and unskilled jobs. Only a
small proportion reach managerial posts in the public sector, while even fewer in the private
sector. The largest number of working women is found in the traditional sectors, especially in the
small commercial establishments.

Statistics on the gap between female and male wages are fragmentary and not comprehen-
sive for international analysis. Such data, as is available, indicates that the average earnings of
women are lower than those of men. In some countries, the wage levels for certain occupations are
fixed at lower rates for women than for men.













c ASIA














Chapter III

Women in the Economic Activity in Asia

1. POPULATION AND FEMALE LABOUR FORCE

Between 1950 and 1980, the female population of the world increased from 957 million to
1.251 million; nearly two thirds of this growth occurred in Asia. According to ILO projections,
the world female labour force should reach around 880 million women workers by the year
2000, of which over 500 million will be in Asia. The ILO projections also suggest that between
1985-2000 the number of economically active women will rise by 302 million (52 per cent) in
the world, of which Asia will account for 183 million (57 per cent); an average respectively of
over 12 and 7 million per year. The active female population of China will reach 21 million (an
increase of 42 per cent), or almost a quarter of the female labour force of the entire world, and in
India there will be 50 million (or 64 per cent) more women workers in 2000 than in 1975. In
other Asian countries, the increase is expected to be around 100 per cent between 1975 and the
end of the century.

According to latest estimates, the female population of Asia in 1980 stood at 1.263 million
-57 per cent of the world female population and 9 per cent of that of the developing regions;
this accounts for almost 20 per cent of the world labour force. Of these, 350 million women were
economically active. These women workers represent more than half the world's active female
population and more than four-fifths of that of developing regions. Asia has a relatively higher
activity rate for women than Africa and Latin America, which ranges in Africa from nearly 2 to
60 per cent, and in Latin America from 8 to 51 per cent.

Data based on the distribution of the total and active female population in 17 Asian
countries in 1980 indicates the proportion of women workers in the total female population
(Table 1). India accounts for the highest rates in Asia; countries where the female labour force is
over 10 million are Japan, Thailand and Indonesia. In Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, the United Arab
Emirates and Democratic Yemen, the figures show less than 50.000 in the official labour force.
Comparing the male and female participation rates in the region, it is to be noted that Yemen and
Thailand register the lowest (5.6 per cent) and highest (45.7 per cent) participation rates for fe-
males, whereas for females the lowest (42.8 per cent) in Israel and highest (74.2 per cent) in the
United Arab Emirates. The average rates for the Asian region are 53.6 per cent for men and 23.2
per cent for women (Chart A).

In 1975 India and Thailand had respectively the lowest (11.3 per cent) and the highest (45.7
per cent) shares of female employment; their positions improved slightly as the figures for 1980
suggest. The averages for the region in 1975 and 1980 are not significantly different, showing
that the progress made by women in terms of their employment was slight; nevertheless, the
increase in the ratios from 31.1 per cent to 32.1 per cent implies that the number of increase in
absolute terms was substantial. (Chart B).







ASIA (CHART A)

Participation rates among men and women
(17 countries) 1983

Participation rates1 (%)
M/F Lowest Highest Average

Male 42.8 74.2 53.6
(Israel) (United Arab Emirates)

Female 5.6 45.7 23.2
(Yemen) (Thailand)

Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, 1983.




ASIA (CHART B)

Female share of employment: 1975 and 1980
(percentages)

Female share (%)
Year Lowest Highest Average

1975 11.3 45.7 31.1
(India) (Thailand)

1980 12.1 47.3 32.1
(India) (Thailand)

Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, 1983.


Table 1:

Economically-active population, and activity
rates in selected Asian countries


Men Women
Total Active Activity Total Active Activity
Country population population rates population population rates

in thousands in % in thousands in %
Thailand 23774 11 988 50.4 23508 10740 45.7
1980
Japan 58310 35220 60.4 60170 22520 37.4
1982
Maldives 75 42 56.5 68 25 37.1
1977
Hong Kong 2618 1620 61.9 2500 892 35.7
1982







Table 1 (Cont.)
Men Women

Total Active Activity Total Active Activity
Country population population rates population population rates

in thousands in % in thousands in %


Singapore
1982
Korea, Rep. of
1982
Peninsular Malaysia
1979
Philippines
1978
Israel
1982
Indonesia
1980
Sri Lanka
198-81
Bahrain
1981
Kuwait
1980
Iran
1976
Pakistan
1983
United Arab Emirates
1975
Yemen
1975


1 247

19847

5747

23 646

2011

72952

7735

205

777

17356

46 041

386

2 163


754

9292

2800

10 939

861

34 250

4109

126

422

8347

24 059

287

996


60.4

46.8

48.7

46.3

42.8

47.9

53.1

61.6

54.3

48.1

52.3

74.2

46.0


1 225


19 484

5654

23 354

2016

73 825

7582

146

581

16352

42313

171

2377


419 34.2


5788

1 575

6423

505

17 203

1 606

16

62

1 449

3348

10

132


Note: 1. Activity rates are ratios of the economically active population to the total population.
2. Population figures are rounded for thousand

Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics ,Geneva) 1983.Table 1


29.7

27.9

27.5

25.1

23.3

21.1

11.1

10.7

8.9

7.9

5.8

5.6


Table 2:

Women's share of employment: 1975-1980

Level of employment ('000) Women's share*

(1975) 1980

Country M F M F 1975 1980

Thailand 9 864.0 8318.0 11 866.0 10658.0 5.7 47.3

Hong Kong 941.41 614.31 1 206.5 70.9 39.5 39.0

Japan 32 700.0 33 940.0 21 420.0 37.4 38.7

Korea, Rep. of 7489.0 4341.0 8462.0 5243.0 36.7 38.3






































2. FEMALE SHARE OF EMPLOYMENT

The number of jobs in which women are employed, of the total number of jobs available, is
an index of their equality of opportunity in the labour market and stages of industrialization.
The following data reflects the situation of women in Asia in respect to their employment,
compared to men, in 12 selected countries in the region.

3. WOMEN WORKERS BY AGE GROUP

The activity rates by broad age groups shown in Table 3 show that in Asia, as in other
continents, the highest participation rate are in the age group 25 to 54. Similar tendencies are
shown among women below 25 years and above 55 years whose rate are invariably lower than
those recorded for males in the same age groups. Countries such as Bahrain (7.6 per cent), Kuwait
(3.5 per cent) and Pakistan (5.0 per cent), have very low activity rates for females below 25
years, due to differences in collecting and compiling data in censuses and labour force surveys.
Data from selected countries in Table 3 supports the evidence from most countries in the region,
according to which activity rates are highest among women in the age group 25 to 54.

4. DISTRIBUTION BY MAJOR ECONOMIC SECTORS

Over the past 20 to 25 years, the active female population in Asia has grown more quickly
than the active male population in the three major sectors; as a result, the proportion of women
in the total labour force of each sector has also increased, from 32 per cent in 1950 to 39 per







cent in 1970 in the agricultural sector, from 20 per cent to 38 per cent in the industrial sector,
and from 19 per cent to 25 per cent in the services sector.


Table 3:

Economically active population by gender and classified age-group in '000


Men Women
Country Age Total Active Activity Total Active Activity
(years) group population population rates (%) population population rates (%)
Bahrain, -25 101 27 26.7 92 7 7.6
1981 25-54 92 91 58.9 46 9 19.6
55+ 11 8 72.7 9 (0.2) 2.2
Hong Kong -25 1 243 412 33.1 1 143 336 29.4
1981 25-54 1 029 1 006 57.8 853 453 53.1
55+ 333 201 60.4 386 96 24.9
Israel -25 1018 120 11.8 967 103 10.7
1981 25-54 662 580 87.6 678 342 50.4
55+ 294 152 51.7 331 50 15.1
Japan -25 22300 3540 15.9 21 250 3440 16.2
1981 25-54 26360 25580 97.0 26360 15060 57.1
55+ 9280 5860 63.1 12100 3580 29.6
Kuwait -25 414 80 19.3 376 13 3.5
1980 25-54 334 324 97.0 184 48 26.1
55+ 28 18 64.3 22 2 9.1
Pakistan -25 27493 7 711 28.0 25399 1 270 5.0
1982 25-54 13026 12570 96.5 12398 1718 13.9
55+ 4225 3100 73.4 3323 266 8.0
Singapore -25 635 216 34.0 598 187 31.3
1980 25-54 455 441 96.9 452 188 41.6
55+ 121 60 49.6 130 14 10.8

Note: Population figures are rounded for thousand.
Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, (Geneva), 1982,Table 1.



In most countries of Asia, the percentage of women in the total labour force is higher in
agriculture than in industry or in the services sector. The proportion of women in the total
agricultural labour force is over 40 per cent in some countries, including China, Thailand, Turkey
and Viet Nam, but less than 5 per cent in Iraq, Jordan and Yemen.

In 1970, Asia accounted for more than three-fourths of the total world figure in agriculture
of about 300 million; Asia's share of the total female labour force in the industrial sector was 44
per cent, and in the services sector 26 percent. Of the 296 million economically active women in
Asia in 1970, 216.5 million (73 per cent) were employed in the agricultural sector, nearly 42
million (14 per cent) in the industrial sector, and about 38 million (13 per cent) in the services
sector. Both in absolute and relative terms, the increase was the largest of all the regions in the
major economic sectors.
The participation of women is higher in the industrial sector only in a small number of
countries, including Hong Kong, Japan, and India. The lowest rates are found in countries such as
Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.







The percentage of women in the service sector is generally increasing in countries such as
India, Indonesia and the Philippines. Women account for 3 per cent of the total labour force of
the services sector in Saudi Arabia, and 51 per cent in the Philippines. The proportion is also high
in Burma, Japan and Viet Nam, where it is over 40 per cent.

Between 1950 and 1970, the total female labour force increased by 123 million 68
million in agriculture, 31 million in industry and 24 million in services, respectively.

In 1980, information collected of female labour force by major economic sectors for 19
countries (Table 4) was examined to provide a perspective on the situation of women by major
economic sectors. Chart C below gives a global picture as against individual countries.


ASIA (CHART C)

Economically active female population by major
economic sectors (19 countries)

Percentage distribution

Agriculture Industry Services Others
34.9 20.4 43.2 5.7

Note: The percentages are arithmetic averages of sample countries.
Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, 1980-83, table 2A.


As the figures in Chart C show, the majority of women are working in the services sector
(43.2 per cent), while agriculture has been given a secondary place (35 per cent) in statistical
terms.



a) THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR

In most countries agriculture is the principal source of employment for women. In some
countries like India, Indonesia, Nepal, and Thailand, over 50 per cent of the economically active
women are in this sector. In Bangladesh, Nepal and Thailand, the proportion is calculated to be
between 70 and 80 per cent. In contrast, in Hong Kong, Israel and Singapore, the figure is less
than 5 per cent. In Japan, which is the most highly industrialized country of Asia, while in 1970
36.5 per cent of active women were employed in the agricultural sector, in 1982, there was a
decline to 12 per cent.

Although 68 million female agricultural workers were added to the labour force, the ratio of
women employed in agriculture to the total female labour force declined by 13 per cent between
1950 and 1970, while it rose by 8 per cent and 5 per cent in industry and services, respectively.

The proportion of the labour force employed in agriculture in most Asian countries, showed
a decline, according to data compiled by the ILO. In Japan, for example, this sector employed 62
per cent of the total female labour force in 1950, 27 per cent in 1970, and less than 20 per cent
in 1976, and their number declined from 8.7 million in 1950 to 3.3 million in 1976. During 1950
to 1970, in Burma and Lebanon, the proportion of women workers in agriculture also dropped
from 64 to 48 per cent and from 76 to 24 per cent, respectively.







Table 4:

Distribution of economically active women
by major branches of economic activity
in thousands and in %


Distribution
Country Total
(year) active women Agriculture Industry Services Others*

Bahrain No. 16.2 -0.7 13.8 1.7
1981 % 100.0 4.3 85.2 10.5
Cyprus No. 72.8 23.8 19.9 24.7 4.4
1981 % 100".0 32.7 27.3 34.0 6.0
Hong Kong No. 891.7 11.8 443.9 424.5 11.4
1982 % 100.0 1.3 49.8 47.6 1.3
Indonesia No. 17203.0 9107.4 2202.2 5486.4 406.9
1980 % 100.0 52.9 12.8 31.9 2.4
Iran No. 1 985.7 824.3 669.6 319.7 172.2
1976 % 100.0 41.5 33.7 16.1 8.7
Israel No. 504.9 15.0 74.1 392.8 22.7
1982 % 100.0 3.0 14.7 77.8 4.5
Japan No. 22 520.0 2670.0 6200.0 13080.0 570.0
1982 % 100.0 11.9 27.5 58.1 2.5
Korea, Rep. of No. 5788.0 2022.0 1 242.0 2378.0 146.0
1982 % 100.0 34.9 21.5 41.1 2.5
Kuwait No. 62.1 1.6 60.5 -
1980 % 100.0 2.6 97.4
Pakistan No. 824.2 298.5 139.6 287.8 98.2
1981 % 100.0 36.2 17.0 34.9 11.9
Singapore No. 418.9 3.6 157.8 253.9 3.5
1982 % 100.0 0.9 37.7 60.6 0.8
Sri Lanka No. 1 561.2 681.8 188.5 319.6 371.3
1980-81 % 100.0 43.7 1,2.0 20.5 23.8
Syria No. 342.9 199.8 47.0 84.7 11.3
1979 % 100.0 58.3 13.7 24.7 3.3
Thailand No. 10 740.0 7 893.9 822.1 1 939.4 82.7
1980 % 100.0 73.5 7.6 18.1 0.8
United Arab Emirates No. 9.9 0.1 0.5 8.9 0.4
1975 % 100.0 1.0 5.1 89.9 4.0
Afghanistan No. 313.4 10.7 255.0 36.3 11.5
1979 % 100.0 3.4 81.4 11.6 3.6
Nepal No. 2328.0 2162.0 9.2 156.7 -
1976 % 100.0 92.9 0.4 6.7 -
Philippines No. 6423.0 2309.0 934.0 2726.0 454.0
1978 % 100.0 36.0 14.5 42.4 7.1
Bangladesh No. 872.0 610.3 36.9 193.2 31.5
1974 % 100.0 70.0 4.2 22.2 3.6

Note: 1. The divisions of economic activity from 1 -9 are re-grouped into three major branches such as:
1: agriculture
2-5: industry
6-9: services

2. others include persons not adequately defined and most seeking their first job or unemployed, etc.
3. population figures are rounded to the first decimal point.

Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics :(Geneva), 1982, 1983, Table 2A.






In China, where 50 million women are considered to be agricultural workers, their percent-
ages dropped from 92 to 78 per cent, according to recent estimates. In the Republic of Korea,
the proportion of women employed in the agricultural sector also declined from 79 to 60 per
cent between 1950 and 1970, and further dropped to below 50 per cent in 1976.

b) THE INDUSTRIAL SECTOR

In Asia, as a whole, the industrial sector grew even faster than the service sector and, by
1970, employed 14 per cent of the female labour forceasagainst 6 per cent in 1950. In 1950, 15
countries employed less than 5 per cent of the female labour force in industry; by 1970, only
nine countries were left in this category. In India, for example, the proportion of the active
female population in this sector rose from 4 to 11 per cent, and in China from 6 to 15 per cent.
There was also a notable increase in Hong Kong, Iran, Japan and Singapore. In most Asian
countries, however, the change was less spectacular, with the industrial sector only gaining 1 to 3
per cent of the female labour force in relation to agriculture and services.

The percentage of women employed in the industrial sector in Asia is low and depends upon
the stage of industrialization of the country concerned. The highest percentage of activity rates
are in Hong Kong (50 per cent), while in many countries, such as Burma, the Democratic People's
Republic of Korea and Lebanon, the rates are around 20 per cent. The analysis of national data
shows that mining and quarrying, electricity, gas and water, and construction i.e. sectors classi-
fied under "industry" -occupy in general only a small, or even very small, proportion of the
female labour force employed in industry as a whole.

c) THE SERVICES SECTOR

Between 1950 and 1970, of the 24.4 million women workers in Asia who were employed in
the services sector, 7.5 million were in China, 6.5 million in Japan, 2.9 million in India, and 1.4
million in the Philippines. In 17 other countries, the increase in the labour force was less than
100.000 in absolute terms.

In 1950, 13 countries employed less than 10 per cent of the female labour force in the
services sector, compared to 6 countries in 1970, where 30 per cent worked in this sector. For
example, in Turkey, the proportion of active women in the sector rose from 1 to 11 per cent, in
Japan from 24 to 47 per cent, and in the Philippines from 25 to 48 per cent. In China and India,
even though the total number of women increased, the proportion employed in the sector
remained low. In 1950 it was 2 per cent in China and 6 per cent in India, compared to 1970,
when it was 6 per cent in China and 9 per cent in India. The comparative figures in 1980 and
1982 have not yet been tabulated.

In the majority of countries, more women are employed in this sector than in industry. The
great majority of women working in this sector in most of the countries, for which separate data
are not available, are employed in community, and social and private services; in some countries,
particularly in Japan, the Republic of Korea and Thailand, trade, and restaurants and hotels, have
a higher percentage than the other branches of this sector. In this sector, the relative size of the
female labour force varies considerably from country to country, ranging from less than 7 per
cent in Nepal to over 90 per cent in the United Arab Emirates and Kuwait. The proportion of
women in this sector is low in China (6.4 per cent) and India (8.5 per cent) and high in Japan
(58.1 per cent).

In the services sector, the relative size of the female labour force varies considerably, ranging
from less than 7 per cent in Nepal to over 70 per cent in Kuwait. The proportion of women in






this sector is low in India (8.5 per cent) and higher in Indonesia (31.9 per cent). In some
countries, more women are employed in the services sector than in industry, the majority in
social, community and other private services. Research findings show that the traditional
putting-out system in which women are engaged in home-based industries, where they are paid at
piece rates by private contractors who provide raw material and collect the finished product, are
expanding. In Asia, items previously produced in factories are now being subcontracted out for
home-based production, such as assembly of transistor radios and other electronic products.

5. DISTRIBUTION BY EMPLOYMENT STATUS

The following Chart (D) gives a summary of the distribution of the female workforce in
Asia, as drawn from a sample of 15 countries. There are four categories into which the labour
force is divided for the purpose of this analysis, as indicated below.


ASIA (CHART D)

Economically active female population by
status of employment (percentage)

1. Employees and 2. Employees 3. Unpaid family 4. Not classified
account workers by status
13.0 59.4 23.5 8.2

Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, 1980-83.



In examining Table 5, however, it must be borne in mind that the categories used -em-
ployers or workers on own account, unpaid family workers, and salaried employees and wage
earners- are not defined in exactly the same way in the various countries and that the definitions
may well vary from one period to another when the criteria used for classifying the labour force
are modified, as often happens in the case of unpaid family workers. Consequently, any com-
parisons based on this distribution must inevitably be very general. It shows percentage distribu-
tion by occupational status in those Asian countries for which fairly recent data have been
assembled.


a) EMPLOYERS AND WORKERS ON OWN ACCOUNT

The proportion of this category varies widely from country to country, ranging from less
than 1 per cent in Kuwait to almost 90 per cent in Nepal. In fo,,- countries (India, Indonesia,
Pakistan and the Philippines), about 30 per cent of the women are classified in this group,
whereas in most other countries examined, the number was less than 15 per cent.

Female employers and female workers on own account generally work in the agricultural
sector and, to a lesser extent, in trade and catering. About two out of every three women in this
group in Sri Lanka and the Syrian Arab Republic, and one out of two in Indonesia and Thailand,
earn their income from agriculture. More than half in Hong Kong, the Philippines and Singapore
are employed in the trade and catering sectors. The manufacturing industries provide employ-
ment for two-thirds of the women in this category in Iran and for more than a third in India. The
public and private services employ 41 per cent of the group in Israel, and 26 per cent in Japan.







Table 5:


Distribution of economically active women by status of employment ('000 and in %)


Distribution
Employers and
Country Economically own account Unpaid family
(year) active women workers Employees workers Not classified


Bahrain No. 16.2
1981 % 100.0
Hong Kong No. 891.7
1982 % 100.0
Indonesia No. 19213.1
1978 % 100.0
Iran No. 1 985.7
1976 % 100.0
Israel No. 504.9
1982 % 100.0
Japan No. 22 520.0
1982 % 100.0
Korea, Rep. of No. 5,788.0
1982 % 100.0
Kuwait No. 62.1
1980 % 100.0
Pakistan No. 824.2
1981 % 100.0
Philippines No. 6433.0
1981 % 100.0
Singapore No. 418.9
1982 % 100.0
Sri Lanka No. 1 561.2
1980-81 % 100.0
Republic Arab Syria No. 342.9
1979 % 100.0
Thailand No. 10739.8
1980 % 100.0
United Arab Emirates No. 9.9
1975 % 100.0

Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, (Geneva), 1982,


0.2
1.2
33.7
3.8
5847.6
30.4
136.0
6.8
56.2
11.1
2 960.0
13.2
1 337.0
23.1
0.2
0.3
262.3
31.8
1 736.0
27.0
24.1
5.8
183.6
11.8
34.1
9.9
1 853.7
17.2
0.2
2.0


14.3
88.3
784.3
88.0
6814.2
35.5
688.1
28.6
402.2
79.7
14180.0
63.0
2 254.0
39.0
61.9
99.7
287.8
34.9
2 729.0
42.4
365.0
87.1
838.4
53.7
142.9
41.7
1 813.5
16.9
9.2
92.9


36.9
4.1
6199.5
32.3
495.7
25.0
16.0
3.2
4 830.0
21.4
2 051.0
35.4


212.6
25.8
1 968.0
30.6
17.7
4.2
211.7
13.6
152.4
44.5
6 990.1
65.1
0.1
1.0


1.7
10.5
36.8
4.1
351.8
1.8
785.9
39.6
30.5
6.0
550.0
2.4
146.0
2.5


61.5
7.5


12.1
2.9
327.5
20.9
13.5
3.9
82.5
0.8
0.4
4.1


1983, Table 2A


b) SALARIED EMPLOYEES AND WAGE EARNERS

This category, which in the industrialized countries is the largest accounting for between 70
and 75 per cent of the active female population is over 59 per cent in Asia. Table 4 indicates that
the proportion of female salaried employees and wage earners in the total female labour force in
the Asian region was very small in 1970. In Hong Kong, Kuwait and Singapore, between 88 and
99 per cent of women workers were salaried employees and wage earners, while the percentages
were lower in Nepal (4 per cent), Thailand (10 per cent) and Turkey (20 per cent); these were
higher in Israel (80 per cent), Japan (63 per cent), Kuwait (99 per cent), and Lebanon and Sri
Lanka (54 per cent).







c) UNPAID FAMILY WORKERS


This is the largest group in some countries, such as the Syrian Arab Republic, Thailand and
Turkey, where it accounts for about 50 per cent of women workers. Unpaid family workers play
a particularly important role in the agricultural sector.

In Nepal, the Syrian Arab Republic and Thailand, for example, they are almost exclusively
employed on family farms. In several countries, such as Indonesia, the Philippines and Sri Lanka,
more than two-thirdsof this group work on family farms; in Japan, about half of those who fall in
this group work on family farms. A third of the women in this group in Hong Kong, and about
half of the group in Israel and Singapore, are engaged in trade and catering. In most countries,
only a very small proportion -less than 5 per cent- is employed in the public and private services
sector.


6. DISTRIBUTION BY OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS

As indicated in Table 6, the analysis of data for 14 countries in Asia gives the following
order for concentration of female workers by occupations: agriculture, forestry, etc. (27.5 per
cent), production related workers (16.3 per cent), professional, technical and related workers
(16.0 per cent), service workers (14.7 per cent), and clerical workers (14.1 per cent). But while
occupational distribution varies within countries, the proportion of women in managerial and
administrative positions is generally very low (0.6 per cent). This is based on seven occupational
groups and shows the proportion they represent in the total labour force of each group. The
groups are taken from the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO). However,
this classification is not used by all the countries and the figures given are therefore not always
directly comparable. The distribution of women among the various groups and the proportion
they represent of the labour force of each group differ greatly from one country to another.
What is clear, however, is that certain occupations are reserved for men, especially those classified
as administrative and managerial.



a) AGRICULTURAL AND RELATED WORKERS

This group is proportionally the largest in 11 countries. In India, Nepal, Thailand, the
Syrian Arab Republic and Turkey, it accounts for 40-70 per cent of the female labour force, as
opposed to only 37 per cent in the Philippines, 12 per cent in Japan and less than 5 per cent in a
few countries, such as Israel, Singapore, and Kuwait. In some countries listed in Table 6, women
represent 30 per cent or more of the group's total labour force. The only country with approxi-
mately as many women as men in agriculture is Japan, where the figures for 1982 were 2.820
million men and 2.620 million women, where unpaid female family workers constitute a sizeable
proportion.


b) PROFESSIONAL, TECHNICAL AND RELATED WORKERS

Here again, the proportion of the total female labour force in this group varies widely,
ranging from less than 4 per cent in the Republic of Korea and Nepal, to 40 per cent in Kuwait
and the United Arab Emirates. In only four other countries (Israel, Lebanon, the Philippines and
Singapore) is the figure over 10 per cent. Between 80 and 90 per cent of the women employed in
occupations of this group are salaried employees and wage earners.








Table 6:


Distribution of economically active women by type of occupation
in selected Asian countries (in '000)


Distribution by type of occupation
Prof.. Agricultural,
Total technical Admin and Clerical animal husb. Production
Country, economically and related managerial & related Sales Service & forestry related
(year) active women workers workers workers workers workers workers workers Others
(1) (2) (3) (41 (5) (6) (7-9)
Bahrain No. 16.2 5.0 0.1 4.4 02 4.6 0.3 1 6
1981 % 100.0 30.9 0.6 27.2 1.2 28.4 1.8 9.9
Hong Kong No. 891.7 66.6 10.0 200.1 687 136.5 12.5 386.7 11.6
1982 % 100.0 7.4 1.1 22.4 7.7 15.3 1.4 43.4 1.3
Indonesia No. 17203.0 553.9 5.5 241.7 3168.2 1 134.7 9098.5 25525 448.0
1980 % 100.0 3.2 1.4 18.4 6.6 53.0 14.8 2.6
Iran No. 1 985.7 188.2 1.4 63.5 8.4 68.3 822.7 658.9 174.3
1976 % 100.0 9.5 0.1 32 0.4 3.4 41.4 33.2 8.8

Israel No. 505.3 152.5 5.7 1490 30.4 88.3 11.1 44.3 240
1982 % 100.0 302 1.1 295 6.0 17.5 22 8.8 4.7
Japan No. 22250.0 21600 120.0 52900 32100 2630.0 26400 5920.0 560.0
1982 % 100.0 9.6 0.5 235 14.3 11.6 11 7 26.3 2.5
Korea No 5788.0 206.00 4.0 478.0 1 019.0 826.0 2016.0 1 083.0 146.0
1982 % 100.0 3.6 0.1 83 17.6 14.4 34.8 18.7 2.5
Kuwait No. 62.1 24.7 0.1 10.6 0.5 25.7 0.1 0.4
1980 % 100.0 39.8 0.2 17.0 0.8 414 0.2 0.6
Philippines No. 6433.0 689.0 46.0 340.0 1 296.0 904.0 2_382.0 775.0
1981 % 100.0 10.7 0.7 53 20.1 14.1 37.0 12.1
Singapore No. 418.9 42.5 96 121.9 48.5 623 4.5 125.3 4.3
1982 % 100.0 10.1 2.3 29.1 11.6 14.9 1.1 29.9 1.0
Sri Lanka No. 1 561.2 131.7 2.9 50.1 58.0 72.6 659.0 2591.1 327.8
1980 % 100.0 8.4 02 3.2 37 4.7 42.2 16.6 21.0
Rep. Arab Syria No. 3429 52.7 0.7 23.6 25 6.4 200.5 45.2 11.3
1979 % 100.0 15.3 0.2 6.9 0.7 1.9 58.5 13.2 3.3
Thailand No. 10740.1 263.5 52.4 167.4 11 1184 300.0 7909.0 846.0 82.5
1980 % 100.0 24 0.5 1.6 10.4 2.8 73.6 7.9 08
United Arab Emirates No. 10.0 4.3 0.1 2.0 0.1 29 0.1 0.1 0.4
1975 % 100.0 43.0 1 0 20.0 1.0 29.0 1.0 1.0 4.0

S "Others" include workers not classified by occupation and the unemployed.
Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, (Geneva). 1982, 1983, Table 2B.


In Israel and the Philippines, there are more women than men in the group. In most of the
countries for which recent data became available, women account for more than a third of the
labour force of the group, but only 18 per cent in India and 8 per cent in Nepal. The proportion
of women is generally higher among teachers, dentists and physicians, but very low among jurists
and engineers.



c) ADMINISTRATIVE AND MANAGERIAL WORKERS


This group has the lowest proportion of women. As to the proportion of women in the total
labour force of this group, they represent more than 10 per cent in only two countries (the
Philippines and Thailand). Only in one country (Singapore) do administrative and managerial
workers account for as much as 2.3 per cent of the female labour force. In Hong Kong, Japan,
Israel, the Philippines, and Singapore, they account for about 1.0 per cent. In most other Asian
countries, only one woman in a thousand holds a post classified as administrative or managerial.






d) CLERICAL AND RELATED WORKERS


In more than half of the countries, at least one out of every five workers in this group is a
woman; in Israel and Singapore, the total number of women in this category is larger than men.

The occupations covered by this group employ less than 1 per cent of the active female
population in India and 30 per cent in Israel. In this group, very few are independent or family
workers.


e) SALESWORKERS

The distribution of sales workers by status is indicative of socioeconomic conditions and the
importance of the traditional sector. The proportion of women in the total labour force of the
group is over 30 per cent in six countries of the 19 countries in Table 6, including the Philippines
and Thailand, which employ more female than male sales workers. Only 4 per cent are salaried
employees and wage earners in Thailand, and 9 per cent in the Republic of Korea, as compared
to 14 per cent in the Philippines and over 40 per cent in Japan and Singapore.

f) SERVICE WORKERS

Women account for more than a third of the labour force of this group in over half the
countries. In four countries such as Israel, Japan, the Republic of Korea and the Philippines,
more women than men are employed as service workers.

The proportion of the female labour force employed in this group, mostly as salaried
Employees and wage earners, is highest in Kuwait (41.4 per cent) and lowest in Nepal Turkey
and Thailand. The proportion is often less than 10 per cent (India and Malaysia), and the United
Arab Emirates is the only other country where it is over 20 per cent.


g) PRODUCTION AND RELATED WORKERS

The proportion of the female labour force in this group, which accounts for a large percent-
age of women workers in Asian countries, is less than 1 per cent in Kuwait and over 30 per cent
in Hong Kong and Iran. In Hong Kong, the majority of the women in this group are salaried
employees and wage earners, whereas in Iran about half of them are independent or family
workers.


7. EQUALITY OF REMUNERATION

Wage differentials are proportions of female wages or earnings, expressed in percentages, to
male wages or earnings, for the relevant period, usually based on hourly, weekly or monthly
payments. Their changes over time can be observed from the figures given for two different
periods in Table 7, in which time intervals are too short to register serious changes. The table
contains computed values of wage differentials in manufacturing and non-agricultural activities.
However, the figures make abundantly clear that the disparities in remuneration between males
and females do exist, and that in some countries female earnings are incredibly low. In Japan and
the Republic of Korea, for example, female earnings in 1982 in the manufacturing sector were 43
per cent and 45 per cent that of male earnings. The corresponding figure for Cyprus was 56
per cent, Jordan 64 per cent, Singapore 63 per cent, and Sri Lanka 82 per cent.







Table 7:

Wage differentials between men and women selected Asian countries
(percentages)


Non-agriculural
Country Year activities Manufacturing

1. Cyprus ........ .............. .................... 1975 54.9 46.9
1982 58.2 56.2

2. Japan ..................................... ...... 1975 55.8 47.9
1982 52.7 43.0

3. Jordan ............................ .............1978 85.4 54.1
1981 87.8 63.6

4. Korea, Rep. of ........................ ........... 1976 47.0 47.4
1982 45.0 45.0

5. Singapore. ................ ...................... 1980 62.9 61.4
1982 63.6 63.2

6. Sri Lanka .................................... 1980 92.0 80.8
1982 80.0 81.9

1 Wage differentials are the proportion of female wages to that of males.
2 Non-agricultural activities include mining and quarrying, manufacturing, construction, wholesale and retail
transports, storage, etc. (See ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, 1983, p. 539.)
3 Manufacturing covers all industries according to International Standard Industrial Classification.

Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, 1983, tables 16 and 17A.



The wage differentials have declined in Cyprus and Sri Lanka between 1975-76 and 1982.
Jordan and Singapore have recorded considerable improvements in relative female earnings in
both sectors. Sri Lanka shows slight progress in this respect in the manufacturing sector only.

This is an area in which questions such as skill requirements, occupational differences and
technological factors involved would have to be investigated before conclusive results can be
obtained on wage differentials.












LATIN AMERICA AND
THE CARIBBEAN













Chapter IV

Women in the Economic Activity

in Latin America and the Caribbean

The highest level of participation of women in economic activity is undoubtedly in the rural
sector, especially in areas in which the peasant economy predominates. Although their activity
does not appear in official statistics, owing to the inapplicability of the concept of labour and
employment to the agricultural sector, their economic role forms part of the division of labour
within the peasant family and is inseparable from household work.

In the city, 50 per cent of the women are employed in services, most of them as domestic
employees; some of them also work in commerce and even in industry, but in both cases the
available evidence suggest that they are employed in informal sector undertakings, which partly
explains why women obtain lower remuneration than men.

Nevertheless, in terms of the variables of occupation, age and education, incomes remain
very low so that it can be stated that there does exist discrimination against women in the labour
market. However, that is the result of the socio-cultural concept of the role of women in society
so that its modification does not depend on policies carried out exclusively in the field of
employment.


1 POPULATION AND FEMALE LABOUR FORCE

In 1980, Latin America had a female population of about 180 million, representing 8.2 per
cent of the total female population of the world. The female labour force in Latin America was
estimated to be 27 million, or 4.3 per cent of the total female labour force. The figures given in
Table 1 show variations among countries of this continent. A small group of countries (Argen-
tina, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico) account for the majority of the female population. Argentina
and Brazil have participation rates of about 20 per cent, while Colombia and Chile have slightly
lower rates, i.e. about 15 per cent, whereas Barbados, Guadeloupe, Guyana, Windward Islands,
Martinique, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago constitute only 1.3 per cent of the female
population in this region. In the Caribbean Zone, participation rates range from 45 per cent, for
example, in Haiti, Barbados, Martinique and Jamaica, to 12 per cent including Honduras,
Guatemala, Mexico and El Salvador.

The results, based on data obtained for 25 countries in Chart A also provide a perspective
on participation rates in Latin America and the Caribbean. For women, Bermuda shows the
highest activity rate of 51.3 per cent, and Guatemala the lowest, with 8.1 per cent. The average
rate for the region as a whole, is 25.2 per cent, which is about half the average recorded for
men.








CHART A


Activity rates (%)
Lowest Highest Average
Men 39.0 81.6 50.7
(Saint Lucia) (Trinidad and Tobago)

Women 8.1 51.3 25.2
(Guatemala) (Bermuda)

Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, (Geneva 1982 and 1983).


Table 1:

Economically-active population, and activity rates in Latin America


Men Women
Economically Economically
Country Total Active Activity Total Active Activity
(year) population population rates population population rates
in thousands in % in thousands in %
Bermuda 26 17 65.4 28 14 51.3
1980
Haiti 2314 1343 58.1 2483 1198 48.3
1980)
St. Lucia 56 22 39.0 63 27 43.0
1980
Jamaica 1 094 547 50.0 1 111 476 42.9
1981
Barbados 121 62 51.5 133 53 40.0
(1980
Trinidad & Tobago 362 295 81.6 364 136 37.4
1981
Martinique 145 58 39.9 166 55 33.1
1980
Bahamas 102 42 41.0 108 35 32.8
1979
Netherlands Antilles 123 58 47.1 132 38 28.9
1982
Puerto Rico 1 065 618 58.0 1 183 317 26.8
1983
El Salvador 2188 1 039 47.5 2310 554 24.0
1980
Argentina 14045 7956 56.6 14192 2860 20.1
1983
Brazil 59146 31 758 53.7 59925 12039 20.1
1980


Activity rates among men and women
(25 countries, Latin America and the Caribben)
(1982, 1983)







Table 1 (Cont.)


Economically
Total Active
population population


Country
(year)


in thousands


Costa Rica 1 166 619
1982
Chile 5630 2627
1981
PerO 9416 4270
1982
Ecuador 4356 2058
1981
Venezuela 7334 3424
1982
Panama 926 396
1980
Colombia 12504 6247
1980
Bolivia 2920 1438
1982
Paraguay 1 580 784
1980
Nicaragua 1 325 681
1980
Honduras 1 983 976
1982
Guatemala 3015 1449
1981
Note: Population figures are ro.0 ded for thousand.
Sources: ILO Year Book of Labour Statistics, (Geneva), 1982, 1983, Table


Activity


Economically
Total Active Activity


rates population population

in % in thousands


53.1

46.7

45.4

47.2

46.7

42.8


1 159


rates


219 18.0


5739 1061 18.5

9375 1 707 17.5


4288


750 17.5


7299 1 261 17.3


152 16.9


50.0 14303 2220 15.5


49.2

49.6

51.4

49.2

48.0


2996

1 588

1 379

1 972

3038


221 13.9

183 13.3

191 9.7


2 WOMEN WORKERS BY AGE GROUP

The highest participation rates for women in the age group 25 years and below is 32 per cent
in Haiti (Table 2). The participation rate in the same age group is much lower, i.e., 5.9 per cent in
a few countries, such as Honduras and Guatemala. For Jamaica, Panama, Paraguay, Pero and
Venezuela, the ratios range between 7 to 10 per cent. In order to obtain a perspective on the
participation rates in this region for the period 1982-1983, see Chart B.


CHART B
Activity rates among men and women
25 years and below, Selected Countries (1982)
Activity rates (%;
Country Males Females

Guatemala 30.6 5.9
Honduras 28.2 ).9
Jamaica 15.9 7.6
Venezuela 20.6 8.1
Peru 17.8 9.2
Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, 1982.


Men


Women







Table 2:


Economically-active population by sex and broadly classified
age-groups in Latin America (in thousands and in %)

Men Women

Country Age Total Active Activity Total Active Activity
(year) group population population rates population population rates
in % in %


Argentina
1980


Chile
1980

Ecuador
1981

El Salvador
1980

Guatemala
1980

Hait(
1980

Honduras
1981

Jamaica
1980

Netherlands Antilles
1981

Panama
1980

Paraguay
1980

Peru
1982


Puerto Rico
1982


Venezuela
1981


-25
25-54
55+
-25
25-54
55+
-25
25-54
55+
-25
25-54
55+
-25
25-54
55+
-25
25-54
55+
-25
25-54
55+
-25
25-54
55+
-25
25-54
55+
25
25-54
55+
-25
25-54
55+
-25
25-54
55+
-25
25-54
55+
-25
25-54
55+


6181
5149
2 174
3142
1 690
699
2854
1 199
303
1 425
562
201
2392
1 150
273
1 429
676
209
1 289
507
123
662
274
140
64
48
14
550
286
89
1 015
450
114
5915
2795
706
307
558
287
4521
2096
5111


1 524
4970
951
652
1 577
342
650
1 149
260
359
526
155
733
1 109
225
496
663
184
363
481
97
105
241
103
17
44
5
105
245
47
289
405
89
1 051
22699
521
132
465
84
931
2018
369


24.7
96.5
45.1
20.8
93.3
48.9
22.8
95.8
85.8
25.2
93.6
77.1
30.6
96.4
82.4
34.7
98.1
88.0
28.2
94.9
78.9
15.9
88.0
73.6
26.6
91.7
35.7
19.1
85.7
52.8
28.5
90.0
78.1
17.8
96.6
73.8
43.0
83.3
29.3
20.6
96.3
71.8


5964
5079
951
2995
1 722
826
2765
1 196
327
1 424
650
236
2309
1 123
281
1 424
838
221
1 273
503
129
649
291
161
62
52
17
535
279
85
996
461
132
5827
2799
749
313
651
319
4402
2157
543


913
1 777
289
307
673
86
306
371
73
186
309
58
137
160
27
455
614
130
75
94
12
47
176
67
13
20
1
49
95
8
97
109
15
538
1 023
146
69
269
26
355
817
71


15.3
35.0
30.4
10.3
39.1
10.4
11.1
31.0
22.3
13.1
47.5
24.6
5.9
14.2
9.6
32.0
73.3
58.8
5.9
18.7
9.3
7.6
60.5
41.6
21.0
38.5
5.9
9.2
34.1
9.4
9.7
23.6
11.4
9.2
365
19.5
22.0
41.3
8.2
8.1
37.9
13.1


Note: Population figures are rounded for thousand.

Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, (Geneva), 1982, Table 1






3. DISTRIBUTION BY ECONOMIC SECTORS


a) THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR

The latest statistics show (Table 3) that in this region the number of women workers in
agriculture is relatively lower than in Africa and Asia. During the decade 1960-70, a relative
decline occurred in the employment of women in countries such as Brazil, Mexico, Argentina and
Colombia. Some countries where women in agriculture were above the regional average are:
Brazil (14.4 per cent), El Salvador (20.9 per cent), Peru (19.4 per cent), Guyana (13.7 per cent),
Mexico (14.5 per cent), Paraguay (18.3 per cent), Bolivia (26.4 per cent).


Table 3:

Distribution of economically active population by major branches
of economic activity in Latin America (in thousands and in percent)


Distribution
Total
Country economically
(year) active women Agriculture Industry Services Others*

Barbados No. 51.1 3.6 7.8 30.5 9.2
1982 % 100.0 7.0 15.3 59.7 18.0
Brazil No. 12038.9 1 733.0 1 789.0 7830.4 686.6
1980 % 100.0 14.4 14.9 65.0 5.7
El Salvador No. 553.9 115.9 105.0 314.3 18.6
1980 % 100.0 20.9 19.0 56.7 3.4
Guatemala No. 247.0 21.8 44.3 158.8 22.1
1981 % 100.0 8.8 17.9 64.3 9.0
Jamaica No. 476.2 60.5 21.4 209.2 185.1
1981 % 100.0 12,.7 4.5 43.9 38.9
Netherlands Antilles No. 38.0 1.7 27.7 8.6
1982 % 100.0 4.5 72.9 22.6
Panama No. 152.1 5.7 14.2 109.6 22.5
1980 % 100.0 3.8 9.3 72.1 14.8
Peru No. 1 344.0 260.5 140.0 674.8 268.4
1981 % 100.0 19.4 10.4 50.2 20.0
Puerto Rico No. 371.0 4.01 82.0 223.0 8.0
1983 % 100.0 1.3 25.9 70.3 2.5
Trinidad & Tobago No. 136.2 13.1 29.6 88.8 4.8
1981 % 100.0 9.6 21.7 65.2 3.5
Venezuela No. 1 243.7 23.3 217.2 983.5 19.8
1981 % 100.0 1.9 17.4 79.1 1.6
Bermuda No. 14.2 0.5 13.1 0.6
1980 % 100.0 0.05 92.3 4.2
Guyana No. 42.3 5.8 7.0 29.5 -
1977 % 100.0 13.7 16.6 69.7 -
French Guyana No. 12.4 2.1 3.6 5.9 0.8
1977 % 100.0 16.9 29.0 47.6 6.5
Haiti No. 1 085.2 507.2 75.1 372.1 130.8
1980 % 100.0 46.7 6.9 34.3 12.1
Monsterrat No. 2.0 0.1 0.3 1.4 0.2
1980 % 100.0 5.0 15.0 70.0 10.0
Mexico No. 4807.5 697.3 1 111.3 2998.9
1979 % 100.0 14.5 23.1 62.4







Table 3 (Cont.)

Distribution

Total
Country economically
(year) active women Agriculture Industry Services Others*

Paraguay No. 317.8 58.2 79.8 179.8 -
1980 % 100.0 18.3 25.1 56.6 -
Nicaragua No. 213.7 33.3 44.2 134.3 1.9
1977 % 100.0 15.6 20.7 62.8 0.9
Honduras No. 150.1 11.3 41.8 57.0
1977 % 100.0 7.5 27.9 64.6 -
Bolivia No. 336.8 89.0 60.5 177.5 9.8
1976 % 100.0 26.4 18.0 52.7 2.9

Notes: Four thousand females in agriculture as a residual of other colums from total.
Divisions of economic activity regrouped as:
1: agriculture
2-5: industry
6-9: services
Population figures are rounded to the first decimal point.
Others include persons not adequately defined and those seeking their first job or unemployed, etec.
Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, (Geneva), 1980, 1982, 1983.


The countries which have relatively lower percentages of women in agriculture are Argen-
tina, Chile and Uruguay. In the Caribbean Zone, Haiti, Windward Islands and Guadaloupe have
higher percentages, while Puerto Rico, Cuba and the Dominican Republic have a relatively lower
proportion of women in agriculture. Haiti, with 47 per cent, has the largest, and Puerto Rico,
with 1.3 per cent, is one of the lowest.

b) THE INDUSTRIAL SECTOR

The proportion of active women employed in industry in Latin America is 16.5 per cent,
close to the world average of 17.9 per cent. As in the case of agriculture, the distribution of
female workers in industry shows wide variations from one country to another, ranging from 30
per cent in Trinidad and Tobago, to 1.7 per cent in the Netherland Antilles (Table 3).

On the other hand, data of 1980 shows that in Brazil the total number of women employed
in industry was 1,784,000, representing 14.9 per cent of the total number of active women in the
country, and in Mexico in 1979 there were 1,111,300, i.e. 23.1 per cent of its total female labour
force.

Again, the proportion of the active female population employed in industry varies from
country to country in the Caribbean Zone. They range from Puerto Rico (25.9), Cuba (22.1),
and Windward Island (21.4), to Martinique (5.6), Guadeloupe (6.7), and Haiti (6.9), respectively.
Other selected examples of differences are Panama (9.3 per cent) and El Salvador (19.0 per cent),
or Chile (20.4 per cent) and Uruguay (23 per cent).

c) THE SERVICES SECTOR

As pointed out earlier, this sector constitutes a major source of employment for women in






Latin America. In the majority of countries or territories of the region, more than 70 per cent of
the women workers are employed in the services sector. By individual countries, Bermuda has the
highest ratio of 92.3 per cent; Venezuela, 79.1 per cent; Panama, 72.1 per cent; and Puerto Rico,
70.3 per cent. Countries with the lowest female employment ratios are Jamaica (43.9 per cent),
French Guyana (47.6 per cent), and Haiti (34.3 per cent).

On important fact that emerges from these figures is that, within the services sector, there
are two occupations in which they constitute a majority: wholesale/retail trade, restaurants and
hotels; and community, social and personal services. Not only are most women employed in these
occupations, but also they are found at the lower rungs of the occupational ladder (as shown
later). Employment statistics for a few Latin American countries clearly show that 40 to 60 per
cent of women are employed in the community, social and personal services as illustrated by the
following Chart D.



CHART D

Service workers
(selected countries, Latin America)

Female employment (000's)
In community, social
Country/Year Total for the country and personal services
Chile Total 1061 513
(1981) Of which:
service workers 291 263
% 27.4 51.3

El Salvador Total 554 129
(1980) Of which:
service workers 91 83
% 16.4 64.3

Panama Total 152 73
(1980) Of which:
service workers 40 33
% 26.3 45.2

Peru Total 1,344 409
(1981) Of which:
service workers 194 178
% 14.4 43.5

Venezuela Total 1,244 610
Of which:
service workers 338 255
% 27.2 41.5

Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, 1983, table 2.C.






4. FEMALES SHARE OF EMPLOYMENT


In many countries of this region, an increasing number of women are working in different
jobs and continue to earn their own living, or earn to supplement their income to the family in
the traditional sector. Economic and technological developments have increased opportunities in
occupations from which they were formerly excluded and these changes are taking place with
unprecedent rapidity. It is against this general background that the share of employment of
women in total employment in this region should be examined. The following Chart E shows
changes in the female share of employment, based on data obtained for 12 countries in 1975
and 1980.


CHART E
Female share of employment in Latin America and the Caribbean
(12 countries)
%
Year Lowest Highest Average

1975 21.5 44.6 31.3
(Costa Rica) (Haiti)
1980 21.6 48.9 33.6
(Paraguay) (Haiti)
Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, 1983.


To obtain a more comprehensive perspective of women's share in the level of employment
during 1975 and in 1980, fourteen countries were listed in a descending order of magnitude of
their size of female share in employment (Table 4).


Table 4

Women's share of employment in selected Latin American countries: 1975 and 1980

Level of employment ('000) Women's share*
Country (%)
1975 1980
M F M F 1975 1980
Haiti 1,101.5 885.9 999.2 954.4 44.6 48.9
Barbados 53.41 37.61 56.6 44.0 41.3 43.7
Jamaica 413.6 270.7 448.2 289.1 39.7 39.2
Colombia 1 361.2 785.7 1 977.6 1 224.6 36.6 38.2
Puerto Rico 451.0 222.0 487.0 273.0 33.0 35.9
Bolivia 975.7 426.6 1 006.22 559.52 30.4 35.7
Trinidad & Tobago 241.8 90.6 270.1 117.7 27.3 30.4
Chile 2041.7 1 700.21 2297.0 959.3 25.5 29.5
Panama 336.3 124.9 374.1 152.9 27.1 29.0
Venezuela 2546.7 957.8 3061.2 1 183.9 27.3 27.9
Costa Rica 484.11 132.71 548.3 176.4 21.5 24.3
Paraguay 629.7 177.9 762.9 210.2 22.0 21.6
1
Notes: 1976
2 1979
Compiled on unrounded data
Female employment as population of total employment.
Sources: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistcs, (Geneva), 1983, Tables 3A and 3B.







In this region, the highest rate is represented by Haiti, 44.6 per cent in 1975 and 48.9 per
cent in 1980. The lowest shares are recorded by Costa Rica, 21.5 per cent in 1975, and Paraguay
21.6 per cent in 1980. The averages for this region remained at 31.3 per cent and 33.6 per cent
for 1975 and 1980. Countries such as Jamaica, Colombia, Puerto Rico, Bolivia, and Trinidad and
Tobago, were close to the regional averages in this period.

5. DISTRIBUTION BY EMPLOYMENT STATUS

The distribution of women workers in individual countries in the region by occupational
status, based on the latest available data for a sample of ten countries, is shown in Table 6.
Percentage distribution among different occupational groups is shown in Chart F.


CHART F

Distribution of economically active female population by employment status,
Latin America and the Caribbean (percentages)

% %
1) Employers and own account .... 15.1 3) Unpaid family workers ....... 5.4
2) Employees. ................. 70.4 4) Not classified by status ....... 8.9

Sources: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, 1980-83.


Table 6:

Distribution of economically active women by status of employment in Latin America
(in '000 and in %)
Distribution by employment status

Employers and
Country Economically own account Unpaid family Not classified
(year) active women workers Employees workers by status
Barbados No. 51.1 3.1 38.6 0.1 9.3
1982 % 100.0 6.1 75.5 0.2 18.2
Brazil No. 12038.9 1 954.1 8826.9 786.6 371.4
1960 % 100.0 16.2 74.2 6.5 3.1
Bermuda No. 14.2 0.5 13.1 0.1 0.5
1980 % 100.0 3.5 92.3 0.7 3.5
El Salvador No. 553.9 195.3 297.0 42.9 18.7
1980 % 100.0 35.3 53.6 7.7 3.4
Guatemala No. 247.0 57.8 163.5 8.8 16.9
1981 % 100.0 23.4 66.2 3.6 6.8
Panama No. 152.1 10.7 119.4 1.7 20.3
1980 % 100.0 7.0 78.5 1.1 13.4
Peru No. 1 344.0 371.6 454.2 297.0 221.2
1981 % 100.0 27.6 33.8 22.1 16.5
Puerto Rico No. 317.0 13.0 246.0 7.0 51.0
1983 % 100.0 4.1 77.6 2.. 16.1
Venezuela No. 1 243.7 215.1 925.3 40.7 62.7
1981 % 100.0 17.3 74.4 3.3 5.0
Trinidad & Tobago No. 136.3 15.4 106.7 9.4 4.8
1981 % 100.0 11.3 78.3 6.9 3.5
Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, (Geneva), 1982, 1983, Table 2A.






As the above figures indicate, more than 70 per cent of women workers in this region are
employees, reflecting higher percentages than in Africa (35.3 per cent) and Asia (59.4 per cent).
Women in the category of employers and own account workers constitute 15.1 per cent of the
female workforce, indicating a large rural sector in many countries, where women perform a
range of tasks, such as cultivating gardens or marketing produce, activities that do not enter in
the cash economy. In the category of unpaid family workers, the lowest percentages (5.4 per
cent) are registered in the region.

a) EMPLOYERS AND OWN ACCOUNT WORKERS

The aggregation of employers and workers on own account in a single category does not
clarify the range of jobs women prefer. In many countries there are more self-employed women
than employers, especially where the informal sector of the labour market is numerically large, as
is the case in various countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.

The data in Table 6 indicates that in some countries, such as Puerto Rico (4.1 per cent),
Bermuda (3.5 per cent), Barbados (6.1 per cent), and Panama (7.0 per cent), there are relatively
fewer women classified in such category. On the other hand, some countries such as Brazil, El
Salvador, Guatemala, Peru and Venezuela, reflect higher percentages than the regional average
(15 per cent). Brazil appears to have the largest number of self-employed women outside agri-
culture and trade. In 1980, in financing, insurance and real estate, and business services, the total
number of self-employed females was 964.000 out of 1.954.000, or about 50 per cent. Agri-
cultural operations accounted for 25 per cent of the self-employed women.


b) SALARIED EMPLOYEES AND WAGE EARNERS

The majority of women workers in this region fall in this group, while the Dominican
Republic, Haiti, Peru, Jamaica, Bolivia and Guyana have less than 50 per cent. The highest
percentage of women in this category is in Cuba, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, Bermuda, and Panama.
The figures vary from Uruguay (71.8 per cent) to Argentina (76.9 per cent). It is in the countries
of the Caribbean Zone that great variations are found, since they include countries with the
lowest (Haiti, 14.9 per cent) and the highest percentages (Cuba 98.6 per cent). In Bermuda,
women represent 92.3 per cent, Panama 78.5 per cent, and Trinidad and Tobago, 78.3 per cent as
salaried employees and wage earners.

c) UNPAID FAMILY WORKERS

Data indicates that large numbers of women in rural areas of the continent have been
exclude from the active population, but in fact, in many countries, the rural family combines the
productive role with family obligations, so much so that there are no clear differences in the
functional roles; employment and daily household tasks merged into a single activity for all
members of the family. In this region, the highest ratio for this group of workers is 22.1 per cent
in Peru, and the lowest, 0.2 per cent in Barbados, while the regional average is 5.4 per cent.

The figures shown in Table 6 in the above category are to be considered illustrative orders of
magnitude and do not reflect the number of tasks performed by women in agriculture or house-
hold.

6. DISTRIBUTION BY OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS

Employment of women by occupational groups, in general, is an indicator of educational






level, social status and an index of economic advancement. In Latin America and the Caribbean,
percentage distribution of women workers is shown by six broad occupational groups in Chart G,
based on data from ten countries.



CHART G

Distribution of economically active female population
by occupational groups, Latin America and the
Caribbean (percentages)

Occupational groups %
1) Professional, technical and related workers . . . . ... . . . . . 13.3
2) Administrative and managerial workers . . . . . . ... . . . 2.3
3) Clerical, sales and service workers .... . ...... . . . . . . . 18.2
4) Agricultural, animal husbandry and related workers . . . . . . 8.5
5) Production and related workers ......... . .......... . . . . . 12.7
6) Others . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... 9.7

Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, 1981-83, table 2.B.



It shows that the largest groups, representing 18.2 per cent of the female labour force in this
region, are clerical, sales and services workers. As pointed out earlier, service workers, as a distinct
group, constitute the highest proportion of female workers in Latin America, and individually
they represent 21.8 per cent of women workers, while the clerical group comes next with 20 per
cent. The relative size of the service workers (21.8 per cent) is higher than in other regions; for
example, Asia 14.7 per cent and Africa 13.7 per cent. Women in administrative and managerial
positions show only a slight difference with Asia and Africa, and are numerically not significant.
In the professional, technical, and related workers' group, however, the data indicates that for
women in this category, there has been some progress since 1980. Table 5 provides information
on individual countries by separate occupational groups for various years from 1980-1983.


a) PROFESSIONAL, TECHNICAL AND RELATED WORKERS

The percentage of working women in this occupational group is relatively large in com-
parison with those falling in the groups "administrative and managerial workers" and "agricul-
tural or production related workers" group. For example, selected countries show the following
ratios: Bermuda (15.5 per cent), Panama (18.3 per cent), Puerto Rico (20.8 per cent), and
Venezuela (19.2 per cent). The lowest ratios are recorded in some countries, including Costa
Rica, the Dominican Republic and El Salvador, ranging from 5 to 7 per cent (Table 5).


b) ADMINISTRATIVE AND MANAGERIAL WORKERS

This occupational group, which comprises legislative officials, government administrators
and managers, accounts for a very small percentage of the total female labour force in this region.
In a few countries it is as low as 1 per cent or less; for example in Argentina, Barbados, the
Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Paraguay and Peru. On the other hand, Bermuda
and Puerto Rico are among those countries where women in this category show about 5 per cent
or higher figures.







Table 5:


Distribution of economically active women by type of occupation
in Latin America (in '000 and in %)


Distribution by type of occupation

Prof., Agricultural,
Total technical Admin., and Clerical animal husb. Production
Country, economically and related managerial & related Sales Service & forestry related
(year) active women workers workers workers workers workers workers workers Others
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7-9)


Barbados
1982
Bermuda
1980
El Salvador
1980
Guatemala
1981
Netherlands Antilles
1982
Panama
1980
Per6
1981
Puerto Rico
1983
Trinidad & Tobago
1981
Venezuela
1981


51.1
100.0
14.2
100.0
553.9
100.0
247.0
100.0
38.1
100.0
152.1
100.0
1 344.0
100.0
317.0
100.0
136.2
100.0
1 243.7
100.0


5.2
10.2
2.2
15.5
29.8
5.4
31.6
12.8
4.5
11.8
27.9
18.3
145.7
10.9
66.0
20.8
16.1
11.8
239.2
19.2


1.1
2.2
0.8
5.6
1.4
0.3
3.2
1.3
0.3
0.8
4.9
3.2
1.9
0.1
18.0
5.7


18.7
1.5


33.3
24.4


8.4 5.2
16.4 10.2
5.1 1.2
35.9 8.5
35.9 159.9
6.5 28.9
23.5 33.0
9.5 13.4
8.9 5.1
23.3 13.4
34.7 11.5
22.8 7.6
180.0 182.4
13.4 13.6
79.0 18.0
24.9 5.7
21.3
15.6
290.7 165.4
23.4 13.3


10.5
20.5
3.7
26.1
91.4
16.5
71.8
29.1
9.3
24.4
40.1
26.4
194.2
14.4
53.0
16.7
23.4
17.2
338.4
27.2


3.3
6.5


115.2
20.8
20.6
8.3
0.1
0.3
3.6
2.4
257.0
19.1


12.2
9.0
19.5
1.6


8.2
16.0
0.5
3.5
101.7
18.3
43.3
17.5
1.3
3.4
9.9
6.5
111.8
8.3
75.0
23.7
25.0
18.4
151.8
12.2


9.2
18.0
0.7
18.6
18.6
3.3
20.0
8.1
8.6
22.6
19.5
12.8
271.0
20.2
8.0
2.5
4.9
3.6
21.0
1.6


Note: 1 Others include workers not classified by any occupation and the unemployed.

Source: I LO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, (Geneva), 1982, 1983, Table 2B.






c) CLERICAL AND RELATED WORKERS


This group accounts for a large proportion of women workers, ranging from 15 to 35 per
cent. For example, in seven out of ten countries included in the sample, the proportion of
women in this occupational group exceeds the regional average of 20 per cent: Bermuda (35.9
per cent), Netherland Antilles (23.3 per cent), Panama (22.8 per cent), Puerto Rico (24.9 per
cent), Trinidad and Tobago (24.4 per cent), and Venezuela (23.4 per cent).

d) SALESWORKERS

In most countries of the region, the number of women employed in this group ranges from
about 5 to 14 per cent. Though the proportion of active women in this group is small, the
situation throughout the region is fairly uniform. The highest percentages are shown by El
Salvador (15.6 per cent) and Trinidad and Tobago (28.9 per cent), while the lowest are Panama
(7.6 per cent) and Puerto Rico (5.7 per cent).

e) SERVICE WORKERS

This occupational group has the highest percentage of women workers in most countries.
The proportions range from 29.1 per cent in Guatemala to 16.5 per cent in El Salvador. In most
countries, women constitute 50 per cent or more of the labour force of this occupational group,
with the exception of Puerto Rico, where the figure is 49.4 per cent. In El Salvador and
Martinique, the proportion exceeds 80 per cent, and in 17 countries it exceeds 60 per cent. The
numerical size 6f employment in this occupational group appears to be increasing, if we examine
the figures from selected countries since 1980.

f) AGRICULTURAL AND OTHER RELATED WORKERS

There are vast differences as regards the percentage of women in this occupational group
among countries. In some countries, more than 20 per cent of the women are calculated in this
category, while in others, proportions are less than 5 per cent. For example, the Dominican
Republic (38.9 per cent) and Jamaica (25.1 per cent) show relatively higher participation rates.

The proportion of women in the total labour force of this occupational group is a quarter or
more in five countries of the Caribbean Zone.

g) PRODUCTION AND RELATED WORKERS

Several countries have significant numbers of women workers in this occupational group.
For example, in the descending order, Puerto Rico has (23.7 per cent), Trinidad and Tobago
(18.4 per cent), El Salvador (18.3 per cent), and Guatemala (17.5 per cent). The lowest ratios are
found for Bermuda (3.5 per cent) and Netherland Antilles (3.4 per cent).












EUROPEAN
MARKET ECONOMY
COUNTRIES
~- ~F~rR~Ik














Chapter V

Women in the Economic Activity

in European Market Economy Countries


1. POPULATION AND FEMALE LABOUR FORCE

According to the latest statistical information-the total female population of European
market economy countries was about 201 million at the beginning of the 1980s, out of which 62.8
million were registered as economically active in 1980-821. For every 100 women of all ages,
more than 31 were in the labour force (Table 1). At the same time, more than 107 million men,
that is 55.7 per cent, were economically active out of a total male population of nearly 193
million.


Table 1:

Total population, economically-active population, participation rates of men
and women, and women's share of the labour force in 1982
(in absolute numbers and %)


Men Women Women's
share
Partici- Partici- of the
Total Active pation Total Active pation labour
Country population population rates population population rates force
in absolute in % in absolute in % in %
Finland
(1982) LFSS 2335609 1 303000 55.8 2492048 1 160000 46.5 47.1
Sweden
(1982) LFSS 4118000 2342000 57.5 4182000 2015000 46.5 46.3
Denmark
(1981) LFSS 2529363 1485912 58.7 2599995 1 188480 45.7 44.4
Iceland
(1982) OE 118409 71 710 60.6 116571 51 881 44.5 42.0
Norway
(1981) LFSS 2031 000 1 150000 56.6 2069000 822000 39.7 41.7
Portugal
(1981) LFSS 4496000 2554000 56.8 5000000 1 812000 36.2 41.5
France
(1982) LFSS 26520957 14269851 53.8 27616024 9248889 33.5 39.3
United Kingdom
(1980) OE 27291 000 16034000 58.8 28719000 10315000 35.9 39.1
Austria
(1982) LFSS 3560027 2013700 56.6 3949973 1 265000 32.0 38.6






Table 1 (Cont.)


Men Women Women's
share
Partici- Partici- of the
Total Active pation Total Active pation labour
Country population population rates population population rates force

in absolute in % in absolute in % in %


Germany, Fed. Rep. of
(1982) LFSS
Belgium
(1980) OE
Switzerland
(1980) C
Liechtenstein
(1980) C
Italy
(1981) C 2%
Turkey
(1980)
Netherlands
(1982) OE
Greece
(1981) LFSS
Luxembourg
(1979) OE
Spain
(1980) LFSS
Gibraltar
(1981) C
Ireland
(1977) LFSS
Malta
(1981) OE


29495000 17421000 59.1 32166000

4820000 2606000 54.1 5 039 000

3114812 1975294 63.4 3251 148


12519


8 379 66.9 12 696


27215350 14634850 53.8 28713150

23066759 12614100 54.7 21 670198

7082000 3794000 53.6 7204000

4780570 2505100 52.4 4948780

178100 102800 57.7 185600

18 347 000 9 540 000 52.0 19040000


14469


9578 66.2 14275


1 644 300 867 000 52.7 1 628 000


155 850


90989 58.4 164086


10914000


33.9 38.5


1 546 000 30.7 37.2

1 123642 34.6 36.3

4621 36.4 35.5

7 636 850 26.6 34.3


6412 785


29.6 33.7


1 902 000 26.4 33.4

1 172700 23.7 31.9

46800 25.2 29.3


3 804 000


20.0 28.5


3713 26.0 27.9

320700 19.7 27.0

30914 18.8 25.4


192927094 107393263


55.7200 795 544


62 796 975


31.3 36.9


Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, (Geneva), 1983. 1982, Table 1.


Since 1975, women's participation rates have continued to increase, while male participa-
tion rates declined slightly. The highest female participation rates (46.5 per cent) were registered
in Finland and Sweden (1982) while Liechtenstein (1980) indicated the highest male participa-
tion rates (66.9 per cent). The lowest female participation rate was found in Malta (18.8 per
cent) where less than two out of ten women were in the labour force in 1981, while Spain (1980)
registered the lowest male participation rates (52.0 per cent). The average participation rates for
the 22 countries listed in Table 1 were 31.3 per cent for women and 55.7 per cent for men. More
than three women and six men out of ten were in the labour force. The highest and lowest rates
and averages are presented in Table 2.

A glance at the participation rates of the working age population between 1975 and 1982
reveals that among the 16 countries selected for review, 12 indicated a decrease in male participa-
tion rates, while in others, male participation rates remained stable. However, all 16 selected
countries registered an increase in the participation rates of working age women (Table 3).


Total









Table 2:


Participation rates of women and men in European market
economies 1980-82 (22 countries)


Participation rates (%)

Lowest Highest Average


W omen ............................................. 18.8
(Malta)


M en .. .... .. .. . ... .... .. .. .. .. ... ... .... .. ... .... 52 .0
(Spain)

Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, (Geneva), 1982, 1983, Table 1.


46.5
(Finland and
Sweden)

66.9
(Liechtenstein)


Table 3:

Participation rates of working-age* men and women
(16 selected countries) (1975-82)


Men Women

1975 1979 1980 1981 1982 1975 1979 1980 1981 1982

Austria 82.5 82.3 81.8 81.8 84.7 47.9 49.6 49.2 29.7 51.2
Belgium 83.9 81.2 80.2 79.7 .. 44.0 47.5 48.0 48.7
Denmark 89.8 90.0 .. 88.7 .. 63.5 70.8 .. 72.7
Finland 79.7 77.7 78.2 78.9 79.7 65.6 65.7 67.1 68.5 70.1
France 84.4 83.1 82.5 81.9 81.9 49.9 52.4 52.5 52.8 52.9
Germany 85.7 82.5 81.7 80.6 81.3 48.5 49.2 49.4 49.6 49.8
Greece 82.7 79.9 78.0 76.8 77.2 30.0 33.1 34.0 35.3 34.7
Ireland 88.6 86.5 .. 88.7 .. 35.4 32.9 .. 36.4
Italy 84.2 82.7 82.9 83.2 83.1 34.6 38.8 39.8 40.5 40.7
Netherlands 83.3 78.5 78.3 77.9 .. 32.0 34.5 35.7 36.8
Norway 85.9 87.0 87.6 87.7 87.5 53.3 61.7 63.2 64.2 65.4
Portugal 95.3 93.5 92.9 91.9 .. 51.8 55.7 55.7 57.4
Spain 92.3 82.6 81.3 80.6 79.6 32.4 32.4 31.9 31.7 33.0
Sweden 89.2 87.9 87.8 86.5 84.7 67.6 72.9 74.1 75.3 74.6
Switzerland 97.2 93.3 93.5 93.2 91.8 49.5 49.2 49.2 50.2 49.8
United Kingdom 92.2 90.7 90.4 90.0 88.4 55.3 58.2 58.5 57.3 56.9

Averages 87.3 85.0 84.1 84.3 83.6 47.6 50.3 50.6 51.7 52.6


Note: 15-64 years of age

Source: OECD: Labour Force Statistics, (Paris 1983).








2. WOMEN BY AGE GROUP


Since 1975, age specific participation rates for women reveal important changes: On the one
hand they tend to enter the labour force somewhat later; on the other, they remain economically
active in increasing numbers during child-bearing years (Table 3).


In contrast to most countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America, in European market
economies women in the age group 20-24 have the highest participation rates. The ten countries
selected in Table 3 show an average of 70.7 per cent rate of participation in that age group, an
increase of 7.0 per cent since 1975. Among those, highest participation rates for 20 to 24 age
group were registered in Denmark (85.6), Liechtenstein (83.4) and Sweden (81.7) the lowest in
Turkey (46.4), Italy (60.3) and Finland (60.7) (Table 4).



Table 4:


Participation rates of women in selected European countries age groups
(1975-82)


1975 1982
15-19 years

Denmark 37.0 47 6
(1.X.77) LFSS
(V.81) LFSS
Finland 22.9 16.2
(1.1.76) C
(1.XI.80) C
France 21.2 14.5
(1.111.75) C*
(1982) LFSS
Germany, Fed. Rep. 45.2 39.2
(XII.76) OE
(XII.82) OE
Italy 29.53 35.83
(1977) LFSS
(25.X.81) C 2%
Liechtenstein 77.3 60.1
(1.XII.70) C
(2.XI1.80) C**
Netherlands 37.9 26.7
(III-V.77) LFSS
(1.82) OE
Sweden 46.56 49.16
(III-V.77) LFSS
(1982) LFSS
Turkey 46.7 50.2
(1.XI.75) C 1%
(12.X.80) C 1%


Averages


1975 1982
20-24 years
78.7 85.6


57.5


66.0


1975 1982 1975 1982 1975 1982 1975 1982
25-44 years 45-54 years 55-64 years 65 years plus


77.51 85.7 63.42 70.5 43.7 40.3 4.9 3.4


60.7 73.1 78.5 65.3 75.3 36.7 42.5 3.1 2.4


67.6 55.1 64.5 48.4 55.2 34.1 33.7


71.3 54.4 595 49.1 51.9 26.6 27.7


5.0 2.1


3.6 7.6


60.3 41.1' 49.8 27.44 33.2 11.45 13.2 4.1 1.5


83.4 40.6 50.6 37.9 46.5 32.9 33.1 14.0 6.8


71.6 33.8 47.2 25.5 31.2 12.6 14.0


65.5


46.0


42.4 39.9 63.7


1.4 0.8


81.7 68.2 85.9 71.7 85.5 46.6 58.8 3.5 4.4


46.4 46.1 43.3 48.5 47.3 43.1 39.8 27.9 20.8


70.7 52.5 63.7 47.2 56.4 32.3 35.5


7.9 7.7


Age group 25-49.
2 Age group 50-54.
3 Age group 14-19.
4 Age group 50-59.
5 Age group 60-64.
6 Age group 16-19.
Figures based on a 20 per cent sample tabulation of census returns.
"* Provisional figures.
Source: ILO: YearBook of Labour Statistics, (Geneva), 1983. 1980.1979,1978. 1977, 1976.







Data examined above reveals that the most significant change occurred in the age group
25-44, where during a period of seven years participation rates continuously increased compared
to other age group. The ten countries under review indicate an average increase of 11.2, bringing
the participation rates of women in this age group to 63.7. The highest participation rates were
registered in Sweden and Denmark, where nearly 86 women out of 100 in this age group were in
the labour force. In contrast, less than half of women in this age group were economically active
in Italy, the Netherlands and Turkey. The analysis of participation rates of women in the age
group 45-54 also shows an important increase. The average for the ten countries mentioned above
was 56.4 in 1980-82, 9.2 per cent up from 1975.

Overall decreasing participation rates were shown in the two age groups 15-19 and 65 and
above with major variations among different countries (Table 4).

a) WOMEN'S SHARE OF THE LABOUR FORCE

At the beginning of the 1980s nearly 37 per cent of the active population consisted of
women (Table 1). Variations between the different countries are considerable, for example, in
Finland nearly half of the labour force (47.1 per cent) is composed of women, while in Malta
only one fourth (25.4 per cent) of the working population is female. In only five European
market economies women represent less than one third of the labour force (Gibraltar, Greece,
Luxemburg, Malta and Spain), in six others women's share of the labour force is above 40 per
cent (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Portugal and Sweden).

3. DISTRIBUTION BY MAJOR ECONOMIC SECTORS

The share of the female workforce in each economic sector varies, sometimes considerably,
from country to country (Table 5).



Table 5:

Distribution by major economic sectors (in %) (1980-1982)


Distribution of the active Share of women in the total
female population by labour force of each
economic sector (in %) economic sector (in %)
Agriculture Industry Services Agriculture Industry Services
Austria 11.9 24.3 63.8 47.3 23.2 49.3
(1982)
Belgium 2.3 15.6 82.1 26.5 18.9 48.5
(1982)
Denmark 3.2 17.3 79.5 20.9 24.8 57.4
(1981)
Finland 10.9 22.6 66.5 39.7 30.9 58.5
(1980)
Germany, Fed. Rep. 6.6 28.1 65.3 48.5 25.4 47.4
(1982)
Greece 40.9 18.6 40.5 42.5 19.8 31.5
(1981)
Italy 12.3 29.1 58.6 35.9 24.0 39.2
(1981)






Table 5 (Cont.)

Distribution of the active Share of women in the total
female population by labour force of each
economic sector (in %) economic sector (in %)
Agriculture Industry Services Agriculture Industry Services
Malta 3.7 54.3 42.0 13.9 30.3 28.0
(1981)
Netherlands 2.8 13.3 13.0 15.5 13.1 40.6
(1981)
Norway 5.6 13.5 80.8 29.8 19.2 54.5
(1982)
Portugal 32.5 26.5 41.0 53.3 29.4 45.8
(1981)
Spain 15.6 21.3 63.1 25.8 19.1 38.5
(1982)
Sweden 3.1 14.6 82.3 25.4 22.2 59.2
(1982)
Turkey 87.6 4.8 7.6 51.8 9.7 10.5
(1980)
United Kingdom 1.4 22.5 76.1 20.4 23.2 51.6
(1980)

Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, (Geneva), 1983, Table 2A.



Of the 62.8 million economically active women in the European market economy countries
in 1980-82, about 10 million were employed in the agriculture sector, 13.7 million in industry
and 39.1 million in the services sector. This means that out of 100 economically active women,
16 worked in agriculture, 22 in industry and 62 in the service. During the same period, the
proportion of women in the total workforce each sector was 33.1 per cent in agriculture, 22.2 in
industry and 44.0 in the services12 (Table 7).


a) IN AGRICULTURE

In 1980-82 the proportion of women working in the agriculture sector, including also
forestry, hunting and fishing, was relatively low to industry and services in all European market
economy countries with the exception of Turkey, Greece and Portugal. Out of the 15 countries
for which 1980-82 data are available (Table 5) eight indicated that less than 10 per cent of the
female labour force worked in this sector including in Belgium (2.3 per cent), the United
Kingdom (1.4 per cent), Denmark (3.2 per cent), Federal Republic of Germany (6.6 per cent),
Malta (3.7 per cent), the Netherlands (2.8 per cent), Sweden (3.1 per cent) and Norway (5.6 per
cent). In four countries (Austria, Finland, Italy and Spain) women in agriculture accounted for
10-16 per cent of all working women. Only Turkey (87.6 per cent), Greece (40.9 per cent) and
Portugal (32.5 per cent) indicated that a large proportion of their economically active women
was engaged in agriculture.

In 1980-82 the highest proportion of women in the total agricultural labour force was found
in Portugal (53.3 per cent) and Turkey (51.8 per cent). Three countries, Austria, the Federal
Republic of Germany and Greece indicated that the share of women in the agricultural labour
force exceeded 40 per cent. The lowest proportions were registered in Malta (13.9 percent) and
the Netherlands (15.5 per cent) (Table 5).






In the earlier decade, 1970-80, european market economies experienced a decline in the
agricultural labour force. Although more men than women moved from agriculture to other
economic sectors, the decline in the female agricultural labour force was quite marked.

b) IN INDUSTRY

In 1980, in the European market economy countries, the industrial sector employed more
women than the agricultural sector and considerably less than the services sector. On the basis of 15
selected countries, for which 1980-82 data are available, it appears that 21.8 per cent of the total
female labour force was employed in the industrial sector taking into account wide variations in
different countries. For example, in Malta, 54.3 per cent of all working women are engaged in
industrial production -the highest for this group of countries. In other countries less than 30 per
cent of economically active women were employed in the industrial sector. Of the 15 countries
under review while percentages in 6 of these ranged from 10 to 20, Turkey was an exception
where in industry women formed less than 5 per cent of the female labour force.

The proportion of women among industrial workers is lower than their proportion among
services sector workers in all 15 countries under review except for Malta, and lower than their
proportion among agricultural workers, excepting Denmark, Malta and the United Kingdom. On
the average, women constitute 22.2 per cent of the industrial labour force, with Finland (30.9
per cent) and Malta (30.3 per cent) just above 30 per cent, six countries above 20 per cent
(Portugal 29.4 per cent, Federal Republic of Germany 25.4 per cent, Denmark 24.8 per cent,
Italy 24 per cent, the United Kingdom 23.3 per cent and Sweden 22.2 per cent), five countries
below 20 per cent (Greece 19.8 per cent, Norway 19.2 per cent, Spain 19.1 per cent, Belgium
18.9 per cent and the Netherlands 13.1 per cent), and one below 10 per cent (Turkey 9.7 per
cent).

c) THE SERVICES SECTOR

In European market economies the vast majority of working women is engaged in the
services sector. While female participation in agriculture and industry has declined since 1975,
there was a correspondent increase in the services sector occupations. In 1980-1982 in the 15
countries under review more than 62 percent of working women were employed in that sector. In
Belgium, Netherlands, Norway and Sweden, more than 80 percent of the female labour force was
occupied in the services, while Denmark and the United Kingdom, indicated figures just below 80
per cent. There were four countries in which women in service occupations comprised less than
50 per cent of all women workers. They were Greece, Malta, Portugal and Turkey (Table 5).

Table 6:

Distribution of economically active female population by major
branches of economic activity (15 countries) (in %)
Lowest Highest Average

Agriculture 1.4 United Kingdom 87.6 Turkey 16.0

Industry 4.8 Turkey 54.3 Malta 21.8

Services 7.3 Turkey 83.9 Netherlands 62.2

Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, (Geneva), 1983, Table 2A.







Table 7:


Percentage of women in the total labour force of each economic sector (in %)


Lowest Highest Average
Agriculture 13.9 Malta 53.3 Portugal 33.1

Industry 9.7 Turkey 30.9 Finland 22.2

Services 10.5 Turkey 59.2 Sweden 44.0

Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, (Geneva), 1983. Table 2A


3. DISTRIBUTION BY EMPLOYMENT STATUS

The distribution of women workers by status reflects an important aspect of the female
labour force and the role women play in the economy. In European market economy countries,
the status of women workers reveals different economic and social realities. Some differences are
attributable to the fact that definitions and criteria classifying the labour force vary from country
to country (Tables 8 and 9).


Table 8:

Distribution of women workers in selected European market economies
by employment status (in '000 and as a percentage of the total
female labour force) 1980-82


Employers and Unpaid
Country Economically own-account family Not classified
(year) active women workers Employees workers by status
Austria 1 265.0 106.0 1 044.0 115.0
(1982) % 100 8.4 82.5 9.1 -
Belgium 1 700.6 123.8 215.0 103.4 258.4
(1982) % 100 7.3 71.4 6.1 15.2
Denmark 1 188.5 35.4 1 059.0 65.7 28.4
(1981) % 100 3.0 89.1 5.5 2.4
Finland 1 034.8 48.0 881.2 85.3 20.4
(1980) % 100 4.6 85.2 8.2 2.0
Germany, Fed. Rep. 10 540.0 492.0 9066.0 768.0 214.0
(1982) % 100 4.7 86.0 7.3 2.0
Greece 1 172.6 219.4 485.8 400.7 66.7
(1981) % 100 18.7 41.4 34.2 5.7
Malta 30.9 2.9 26.6 1.4
(1981) % 100 9.4 86.1 4.5
Netherlands 1 754.9 85.4 1 381.2 95.5 192.9
(1981) % 100 4.9 78.7 5.4 11.0
Norway 843.0 38.0 739.0 37.0 28.0
(1982) % 100 4.5 87.8 4.4 3.3
Portugal 1 799.0 169.0 1 069.0 446.0 115.0
(1981) % 100 9.4 59.4 24.8 6.4







Table 8 (Cont.)

Employers and Unpaid
Country Economically own-account family Not classified
(year) active women workers Employees workers by status

Spain 3938.0 498.9 2417.2 564.0 457.8
(1982) % 100 12.7 61.4 14.3 11.6
Sweden 2015 85 1849 14 61
(1982) % 100 4.2 91.8 0.7 3.0
Turkey 6412.7 245.9 875.5 5081.1 210.2
(1980) % 100 3.8 13.7 79.2 3.3
United Kingdom 10315 371.0 9401.0 543.0
(1980) % 100 3.6 91.1 5.3

Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, (Geneva, 1983) Table 2A



Table 9:

Distribution of economically-active women by employment status
(14 European market economy countries) (in %)


Lowest Highest Average
Employers and own account 3.0 Denmark 18.7 Greece 7.1
workers

Employees 13.7 Turkey 91.8 Sweden 73.7

Unpaid family workers 0.7 Sweden 79.2 Turkey 15.3

Not classified by status 2.0 Finland, 15.2 Belgium 5.8
Germany, Fed. Rep.

Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, (Geneva 1983), Table 2A.



a) FEMALE EMPLOYERS AND WORKERS ON OWN ACCOUNT

In 1981-82 Greece and Spain had the highest proportion of independent women workers in
the female labour force, representing 18.7 per cent and 12.7 per cent respectively. In several
countries, including Denmark, Finland, Federal Republic of Germany, Netherlands, Norway,
Sweden, Turkey and the United Kingdom, less than 5 per cent of women earned their income
independently. On the basis of available information for 4 countries on the average, 7.1 per cent
of the economically active female population of European market economies belonged to the
category of employers or own-account workers (see Tables 8 and 9).


b) SALARIED EMPLOYEES AND WAGE EARNERS

The largest number of women in the European market economy countries fall in this
category, except for Turkey where the many women work as unpaid family labourers. Of the
14 countries listed in Table 8 the majority registered more than 80 per cent of all economically






active women in this category. In only two countries (Turkey and Greece) less than 50 per cent
of working women belonged to the group of employees and wage earners.


The distribution of female salaried employees and wage earners among the major economic
sectors is quite uneven. Most women working in industry and services are salaried employees. In
agriculture, their numbers range from 2.5 per cent in Greece to 29.5 percent in Sweden (Table 10).


Table 10:
Distribution of the female labour force by major economic sector and
by employment status (as a percentage of the total female labour force)

Employers and Unpaid
Country Economic women working family Not classified
(year) sector on own account Employees workers by status


Austria
(1982)


Belgium
(1982)

Denmark
(1981)

Finland
(1980)

Germany, Fed. Rep.
(1982)

Greece
(1981)

Malta
(1981)

Netherlands
(1981)

Norway
(1982)

Portugal
(1981)

Spain
(1982)

Sweden
(1982)

Turkey
(1980)


Agriculture
Industry
Services
Agriculture
Industry
Services
Agriculture
Industry
Services
Agriculture
Industry
Services
Agriculture
Industry
Services
Agriculture
Industry
Services
Agriculture
Industry
Services
Agriculture
Industry
Services
Agriculture
Industry
Services
Agriculture
Industry
Services
Agriculture
Industry
Services
Agriculture
Industry
Services
Agriculture
Industry
Services


36.4
2.0
6.0
30.4
1.9
9.3
7.3
1.1
3.4
20.5
1.1
3.4
9.1
1.9
5.6
27.2
12.0
15.1
88.4
1.1
18.6
18.1
1.8
5.7
23.4
1.8
3.7
15.3
6.0
7.9
29.7
7.0
13.2
50.8
2.1
2.9
3.6
10.4
4.5


6.6
95.4
91.7
37.1
94.2
83.5
19.9
92.5
93.8
10.8
97.9
95.5
10.3
95.9
92.2
2.5
76.7
68.8
11.6
98.9
81.4
20.9
93.1
89.9
19.1
94.6
92.6
15.6
91.7
84.7
13.5
89.5
77.2
29.5
97.9
97.0
4.0
71.2
94.3


57
2.6
2.3
32.5
3.9
7.1
72.8
6.4
2.8
68.3
0.9
1.0
80.6
2.3
2.3
70.2
7.7
13.3




61.0
5.1
4.4
55.3
1.8
1.5
69.1
2.1
7.4
56.5
3.4
10.7
19.7

0.1
92.4
18.2
1.2


Source: ILO: Year Book of Labour Statistics, (Geneva, 1983), Table 2A.




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