• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Jamaica and region: Overall economy...
 Agriculture: Socio-economic characteristics,...
 Agriculture: Surveys, census,...
 Agriculture: Extension, education,...
 Agriculture: Land, natural resources,...
 Agriculture: Markets, marketin...
 Agriculture: Technology, techniques,...
 Agriculture: Policy and planni...
 Agriculture: Projects
 Agriculture: Commodities
 Agriculture: Nutrition
 Bibliographies and proceedings
 Back Cover














Group Title: Working document series Jamaica
Title: An annotated bibliography of agricultural development in Jamaica
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087123/00001
 Material Information
Title: An annotated bibliography of agricultural development in Jamaica
Series Title: Working document series Jamaica
Physical Description: 197 p. : ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Erickson, Frank A
Erickson, Elizabeth
United States -- Dept. of Agriculture. -- Office of International Cooperation and Development. -- Development Planning Group
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean. -- Rural Development Division
Publisher: Rural Development Division, Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean
Place of Publication: Washington D.C.?
Publication Date: 1979
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Economic aspects -- Bibliography -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Rural development -- Bibliography -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Jamaica
 Notes
Bibliography: "This bibliography constitutes reports 2 and 3 under contract no. 12-17-07-05-2198 (ERS-288-B-77)."
Statement of Responsibility: compiled by Frank A. Erickson ; with assistance from Elizabeth B. Erickson.
General Note: "Development Planning Group Organization for International Cooperation and Development, U.S. Department of Agriculture.
General Note: "January 1979."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087123
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05397681
lccn - 81601705

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Introduction 1
        Introduction 2
    Jamaica and region: Overall economy and regional agriculture
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Agriculture: Socio-economic characteristics, overviews
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
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        Page 42
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        Page 44
        Page 45
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        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Agriculture: Surveys, census, statistics
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Agriculture: Extension, education, organizations
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    Agriculture: Land, natural resources, credit
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
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        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
    Agriculture: Markets, marketing
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
    Agriculture: Technology, techniques, research
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
    Agriculture: Policy and planning
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
    Agriculture: Projects
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
    Agriculture: Commodities
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
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        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
    Agriculture: Nutrition
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
    Bibliographies and proceedings
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
    Back Cover
        Page 198
Full Text




















AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN JAMAICA


Compiled by Frank A. Erickson
with assistance from Elizabeth B. Erickson

Development Planning Group
Organization for International
Cooperation and Development
U. S. Department of Agriculture

January 1979

'A. Z fLI,.*./.' Vt WLk :

Q r&Lw.
A.M.KJ

















,C










AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN JAMAICA


Compiled by Frank A. Erickson
with assistance from Elizabeth B. Erickson

Development Planning Group
Organization for International
Cooperation and Development
U. S. Department of Agriculture


January 1979


LC-7A .JVMI) W:


Secretarial


and Editorial Assistance
Maria E. Reed
Nancy Bizier


This bibliography constitutes Reports 2 and 3 under
Contract No. 12-17-07-5-2198 (ERS-288-B-77)


























This document does not bear the approval
(nor imply such) of the U.S. Department
of Agriculture, the United States Agency
for International Development, or any of
their offices. In view of its nature as
a working paper, it should not be quoted
without permission of the originating
office. .ny comments would be appreci-
ated, and can be addressed to the author
at:

4112 Auditors Building
14th and Independence Avenue, S.W.
Washing+on, D.c. 20250




















TABLE OF CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION

JAMAICA AND REGION: OVERALL ECONOMY AND
REGIONAL AGRICULTURE........................ .....1


AGRICULTURE:
OVERVIEWS...

AGRICULTURE:

AGRICULTURE:
TIONS .......

AGRICULTURE:

AGRICULTURE:

AGPICULTUR E:

AGRICULTURE:

AGRICULTURE:

AGR ICUI TTURE:

AG" ICULTU'E:


SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARATFPISTICS,
..................................... 22

SURVEYS, CENSUSES, STATISTICS.......55

EXTENSION, EDUCATION, ORGANIZA-
.....................................73

LAND, NATURAL RESOURCES, CPEDIT.... 8

'lARKErS, MARKETING..................98

TECHNOLOGY, TECHNIQUES, RESEAPCH..119

pnLICY 3ND PLANNING................139

POJECTS..........................154

COMMODITIES ...................... ..... 159

NUTRITION.............................178


BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND PROCEEDINGS.................. 189









INTRODUCTION



This bibliography covers selected aspects of agricultural
development in Jamaica. The work involved a search of
sources available in the U.S. from October 1977 by the
senior author and visits to Jamaica in December and Feb-
ruary. Assistance was provided by Elizabeth Erickson
during the February trip and subsequent phases of the
work.

It should be pointed out that the bibliography does not
provide a complete coverage of all aspects of agriculture,
nor of all sources. Thus, most material is 1962 or later,
certainly all is post 1945. Further, only a selection of
the technical literature has been made, with those consid-
ered narrowly agronomic omitted. Lack of time and the pur-
pose of the bibliography made this decision necessary
though regretable. Also a full listing of articles from
Farmer, the publication of the Jamaican Agricultural So-
ciety could not be included, again due to time constraints.
Finally, given time and locational constraints some works
will have been inadvertently omitted. We make our sin-
cere apologies to the authors.

The form of the entries is based on guidelines provided in
the University of Chizago Manual of Style, 12th Edition;
although a number of modifications have been made. Where
circulation of material is restricted, it is so noted.
Library locations in Jamaica, where known, are listed at
the end of each entry. Only one location is usually given
although it may also be found in other libraries. Lack of
such an annotation does not indicate that the material is
not available in Jamaica, especially in the case of journals
researched in the U.S. In some cases LC call numbers and
a U.S. location are noted. The abbreviations used are:

PDS/PID/JAM Rural Development Shelves,
AID, Jamaica

PO/AID/JAM Project Office, AID, Jamaica

U.S. Embassy
Lib/JAM U.S. Embassy Library, Jamaica

MOA/JAM Ministry of Agriculture Library,
Jamaica

UNDP/JAM U.N. Development Project Library,
Jamaica

UWI/ISEP University of West Indies,
Institute of Social and Economic
Research Library












UWI/WIC University of West Indies, West
Indies Collection, Main Library
GD/UWI/JAM Seography Department, University
of the West Indies, Jamaica

The bibliography is organized according to the subject clas-
sification listed below (with the appropriate abtrevations).

J Jamaica and Region: Overall Economy and
Regional Agriculture


Agriculture:
Overviews

Agriculture:

Agriculture:
tions

Agriculture:

Agriculture:

Agriculture:

Agriculture:

Agriculture:

Agriculture:

.gr icult ure:


Socio-Economic Characteristics,


Surveys, Censuses, Statistics

Extension, Education, Organiza-


Land, Natural Resources, Credit

Markets, Marketing

Technology, Techniques, Pesearch

Policy and Planning

Projects

Commodities

Nutrition


B Bibliographies and Proceedings

Each item is entered in its major subject matter category.
To the right of each entry is the abbreviation for this
primary category, followed by other subject matter areas
to which it applies. "hus the search for material on a
particular topic requires reference to the appropriate
subject sub-division, plus material cross-classified in
other sections. within each subject category or sub-
division, entries are listed alphabetically.

Work on this bibliography was carried out under Contract
No. 12-17-07-5-2198 (EPS-288-B-77).






JVM.AICT ND REGION: OVEaLI ECONOMY AND REGIONAL AGFICULTUPF



ABDULAH, Forma. The Labour Force in the J
Commonwealth Caribbean: A Statistical
analysis. Occasional papers, Human
sourcess 1, St. Augustine, Trinidad:
Institute of Social and Economic research ,
June 1977.

Provides analysis and comparison of labour
force data from recent population censuses,
by country. Looks at participation rates,
dependency between and characteristics of
working population and unemployed. Provides
information on available non-census sources,
and assesses quality of data.

ANDIC, Fuat; ANDIC, Suphan; and DOSSEF, J,M
Douglas. A theory of Economic Integration
for Developing_Countries: Illustrated
by Caribbean Countries. London: George
Allen and Unwin Ltd., 1971. Pp. 176.

Develops a theory on benefits and costs of
trade area creation. Measures losses due
to lack of free trade for alternatives
suggested or present unions (CARIFTA, EEC
associates, CACM), and simple protection
for several Caribbean countries including
Jamaica. Price and income elasticities
were estimated for rice, flour and a number
on non-agricultural products (1959-67) and
used with export elasticities to estimate
losses from the various trade alternatives.
resultss showed present situation represents
a substantial loss of trade compared to
free trade and that alternative groupings
would do little to ameliorate this loss.

1?.L"W, Frank D. "CAVIFTA Changing to Common J,M
Market, seeking Strong Ties with EEC."
ForeiSgn agriculturee 11, No. 18, (April 30,
1973) : 8-9, 12.

BECKFOFD, George (Fditor). Caribbean J,?
Economy, Institute of Social and
Economic Pesearch, University of the
West Indies, 1975. [UWI/WIC:
HC155.BU3 1

Essays on nature of West Indian society and
economy stressing the theme of dependence.
Includes articles on rural and mineral econ-
omy, public policy, and labor, plus a reading








list on Caribbean economic problems.

---. "The Problem of Integration and J,M
CAPIFT.." Farmer 74, No. 2/3
(February/March 1969): 89-92, 94-98, 10Y.

--- and GUSCOTT, M. "Intra-Caribbean J,M
Agricultural Trade." Institute of Social
and Economic Research, University of West
Indies, 1967. [UWI/ISEP]
EEPNPAUM, Maurice M., et al. Feportof the J,P
U.S. Economic and Social Development
Commission to Jamaica. March 1971.
Pp. 52 + 8 Appendices. [CDS/AID/JAM]

Provides recommendations on needed projects
and policy changes to further development.
Includes an introductory history of the
economy and major sections on agriculture
and rural development, manpower training,
financial institutions, planning and trade
relations.

BLUMF, Helmut. The Caribbean Islands. J
London: Longman Ltd., 1974. Pp. u64
Illus. Maps.

POURNF, Compton (ed.). Inflation in the J
Caribbean. Mona, Jamaica: Institute
of Social and Economic Studies, University
of West Indies, 1977. Pp. 166. [JWI/ISE]P

Contains a series of articles on the topic
from the Seventh Annual Conference of the
Regional Programme of Monetary Studies,
October, 1975. Papers relating to Jamaica
are listed in separate entries.

--- and PEFSA UD, Wilberne. "Financial J,LC
Variables in the Inflationary Process:
Two Caribbean Cases." In Inflation in
the Caribbean, Compton BOURNE (ed.)
Mona, Jamaica: Institute for Social
and Economic Studies, 1977, pp. 1-27.
[ UWI/IS E 1

Develops a multi-eouation model for price
determination (using both aggregate demand
and cost-push framework), and uses it to
analyse Jamaican and Trinidad-~obago data.
Found for Jamaica that import prices and
the price of bank credit were the most
significant factors affecting inflation.


PoEWFTEP, H. and THOMAS, C.Y.


"Dynamics







of West Indian Economic Integration."
Institute of Social and Economic
Research, University of West Indies,
1967, Chap. 1. [UWI/ISER]

B?OWN, Adlith and BREWSTER, Havelock. "A J,P
Peview of the Study of Economics in the
English-Speaking Caribbean." Social and
Economic Studies 23, No. 1 (March 1974).
48-98. Bibliography. [MOA/JAM; UWI/ISEF]

Peviews economic research from 1940's to
end of 1960's. Official reports etc. of
19un's and early 1950's stressed
agriculture productivity, land reform,
crop diversification. In late 1950's and
1960's academic research increased, and
article reviews work on dependence, the
effect of size, the nature of the planta-
tion economy, and studies on inflation
and consumption and savings functions,
input/output work etc. Gives recommenda-
tions for empirical research. Useful
summary and analysis of hypotheses and
work on West Indies (including Jamaica).

BrCKMIPE, G.F. "Fationalization as an J
Instrument for Development of Caribbean
Agriculture." Proceeinqs _of the Eiqhth
West Indian Aricultural Economics Con-
ferencePort -of-Spa inL Trini dad. April
1-7, 1973. St. Augustine, Trinidad:
Dept. of Agricultural Economics, Uni-
versity of the West Indies, 1973.
[UWI/ISER 1

This paper discusses the current efforts
in CABIFTA to promote closer co-operation
in agricultural production and marketing
and some of the problems inherent in
developing such a strategy. Suggests
that given the common historical expe-
riences, the national aspirations, the
similarities in the physical and climatic
conditions in the region, co-operation in
agricultural activities will probably
depend in the final analysis on political
considerations and the degree of commit-
ment to regional economic integration.

CARTE?, Nicholas G. "A Macro-Economic J,M
Model of Jamaica 1959-1966." Social
and Economic Studies 19, No. 2 (June
1970): 178-201. rMOA/JAM; UWI/ISE"]


Provides a 33 equation model to







describe the structure of the economy
over that period. Author categorizes
the model as descriptive (to help
understand the economy), rather than
for use for forecasting or policy
purposes. Model shows how economy
reacts to exogenous factors such as
exports and tourism. Has elasticities
for food imports which are considered
by author to be very high (1.11)
and indicative of 'overall inadequacy'
of agricultural sector.

CHODOS, Pobert. The Caribbean Connection. J
T'oronto: J. Lorimer, 1971. Pp. 269.
(HF1480.15.C37C46]

Discussion of Canadian/Caribbean relations.

"OLEY, Basil. "A Comparative Analysis of J,-,
Some Factors Affecting Economic Growth
in Jamaica and Puerto Oico, 1957-67."
Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University
of Illinois, 1971.

Jamaica's growth was much lower than
Puerto Eico during 1957-67. Suggests
that terms of trade deteriorated for
Jamaica and not Puerto Fico, because
of high proportion of primary exports,
sugar and bananas. Estimates price
elasticities of demand for bananas,
sugar cane and citrus. results indi-
cated they were inelastic.

COOKE, Puxton W. "A Description of the Pecent J,M
Development and Trade Pattern of Jamaica."
M.A. Thesis, Howard University, Washington,
D.C., 1964.

CUMPEF, G.E. "Dependence, Development, J,?
and the Sociology of Economic Thought."
Social and Economic Studies 23, 3 (Sept.
197L) : 465-482. rlO?/JAM; WI/ISEF]

A critique of 'Development of Dependence
in Latin America and the Caribbean' by
N. Girvan, claiming that Lewis had a
more effective analysis than Girvan
suggests, that Seers has analysis of
the open-economy and that reference to
the evidence of the Cuban experience
would be relevant. Also questions
Ahiram's 1958 conclusion that Jamaica
has an unusually unequal income
distribution. 1963 study by Cumper gave







a lower coefficient than 1958, and thus
is no higher than ECLA estimates for
eight Latin American countries. Admits
that data limitations make conclusions
difficult to reach.

---. "Incomes of Upper 2.5 Percent J,
and 8.5 Percent of Income Tax
Payers in Relation to National Income,
Jamaica, 1951-65." social and Economic
Studies 20, No. 4 (1971): 362-68. [ MOA/
JAM; UWI/ISEF ]

Although there are cross-sectional
studies of income distribution, there
is no reliable published information on
how income distribution in Jamaica has
changed over time. On basis of reports
on Commissioner of Income Tax, study
looks at data on relation of incomes
at top of scale to national income.
Analysis only permits limited conclusions
but suggests that unless tax machinery
has become more efficient, no substantial
shift at the upper end of the income
distribution occurred over the time
period.

---. "Lewis' Two-Sector Model of Develop- J,S
ment and the "heory of Wages." Social
and Economic Studies 12, No. 1 (1963):
37-50. [rMO/JAM; uWI/ISEP]

Discusses the Lewis model and suggests
a modification on reservation wage,
which is related to household 'level
of propensity to share.' This is
dependent on the number supported,
the level of income guaranteed and
the proportion of income which is
redistributed.

---. "Preliminary Analysis of Population J,S
Growth and Social Characteristics in
Jamaica, 1943-60." Social and Economic
Studies 12, No. 4 (1963) : 393-431.
[MOA/JAM; UWI/IS7F ]

Looks a* Census data for 1963 and
1960; develops fertility ratio;
evaluates estimates; looks at gaps
in data.

DAVISON, P.B. West Indian Miqrants: J
Social and Economic Facts of Migration
from the West Indies. London: Institute








of Pace Pelations, Oxford University
Press, 1962.

DEMAS, William. Essays on Caribbean J,M
Integration and Development. Mona,
Jamaica: Institute of Social and
Economic research, University of West
Indies, 1976.

Contains 12 papers written between 1960
and 1975, and reprinted from elsewhere.
A number relate to trade and common
market issues within the Commonwealth
Caribbean, but also includes valuable
comments on employment, and Lewis'
analysis of Caribbean development.

--- The Economics of Development in Small J
Countries with_ Secial Reference to the
Caribbean. Montreal: McGill University
Press, 1965.

DnXEY, George V. "Survey of the Jamaican J
Economy," 1969. Pp. 5u. (Mimeo)
[MOA/JAM: 338]

DUNKLEY, D. "Role of Failways in Jamaica: J
History and Impact." Unpublished under-
graduate thesis. Dept. of Geography,
University of West Indies, Mona, 1975.
f GD/UWI/J~M ]

ECONOMIC CCMMISSICN FOP !ATIN AMEPIC4 (ECLA). J
Caribbean Community Countries: Economic
Activity 1976. Port of Spain, Trinidad
and Tobago, 1977. Economic Survey of
Latin America 1976. Santiago, Chile,
1977.

ECONOMIST INmELLIGENCE UNIT LTD. Quacterly J
Economic revieww of the West Indies ,_elize,
Bahamas. BermudaL Guyana. London. [N L1

Published quarterly giving up-to-date
statistics and summary of economic and
political events in Jamaica. Also an
annual supplement provides a more in-depth
review of economic situation and prospects.

ELVIS, Dawn. "The Monetary Sector of J,LC
Jamaica." Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation,
tUniversity of Michigan, 1972.

Attempts to evaluate to what extent the
Central Bank of Jamaica can control
banking system, given a dependent
environment. Develops an econometric








model of the monetary sector showing
interrelations to the foreign sector.
Suggests Bank of Jamaica policy 1961-
r9 had significant effect.

ENOCHIAN, Fobert Vaughn. Prospects for J
Agriculture in the Caribbean. Washington:
U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 1970. Pp. 31.
([NAT ]

GALLOWAY, Lloyd George. "Planning and Growth J
in the Jamaican Economy between 1944 and
1964." Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Howard
University, Washington, D.C., 1967.

GIPVAN, Norman P. "Foreign Investment and J
Economic Development: The Case of Jamaica
since World War II." Unpublished Ph.D.
Dissertation, University of London, 1966.

---. Foreiqn_Capital and Economic Under- J,S
development in Jamaica. Kingston:
Institute of Social and Economic Pesearch,
University of West Indies, 1971.

Contains 3 chapters on the role of bauxite
in the economy, but also has chapters on
foreign capital in the finance of develop-
ment plans, contribution and costs of
foreign loans, the role of foreign capital
in the financial system, and foreign
capital and the performance of the
Jamaican economy 1950-1963. The role of
foreign loans in agriculture is discussed
in these four later chapters, at least
briefly. The book seems valuable as a
historical study of foreign loans in
agriculture vis-a-vis other sectors, and
for setting up some theoretical hypotheses.

---. "Foreign Investment and Economic J
Development: The Case of Jamaica
since World War II." Unpublished Ph.D.
dissertation, University of London,
1966.

---. "The Development of Dependency J
Economics in the Caribbean and Latin
America: Feview and Comparison."
Social and Economic Studies 22, No. 1
(March 1973) : 1-33. [MOA/JAM; IWI/ISEF]

Reviews the views of the development
process in Caribbean and Latin America in
post war period, covering Prebisch, Lewis
arguments for industrialization; the







importance of dependency outlined by
Furtado, Best and Eeckford, plus Demas
argument for the effect of small size
requiring a greater role for exports and
more dependency. Suggests alternative of
trade between socialist countries, but
points out this has not changed nature of
exports in case of Cuba. Suggests alter-
native concepts of consumption goals are
also required.

GIRWAP, S.N. "The Common Agricultural Policy J,,C
of the EEC and the Commonwealth Caribbean."
World Agriculture 25, No. 4 (1976): 33-35.

When Britain entered the Common Market in
January, 1972, the Commonwealth Sugar
Agreement came to an end December 1974,
and the Lome Agreement was signed in
February, 1975. A comparison is made
between the provisions of the Lome
Convention regarding sugar and those of
the Commonwealth Sugar Agreement.
Author considers new system works
against the high cost production of
the Commonwealth Caribbean.

GYLES, J.P. "The 'CaPIFT.' Agreement." J, M
Farmer (Kingston) 74, No. 2/3 (February/
March 1969): 69-73. [MOA/JAM]

HALL, Marshall. "An Analysis of the J,S
Determinants of Money Wage Changes
in Jamaica 1958-64." Social and
Economic Studies 17, No. 2 (June
1968): 133-146. rMOP/JAM; UWI/ISEF]

Develops estimates of productivity,
wages, etc. over time and uses for
regression analyses. Finds strong
association money wage and productivity.

HAEWOnD, Jack (ed.). Human Tesources in the J,"
Commonwealth Caribbean. Report of the
Human Resources Seminar, University of
West Indies, IMona, Jamaica, August 1970.
St. Augustine, Trinidad: Institute of
Social and Fconomic Pesearch. University
of West Indies, 1972.

Contains a series of fairly short conference
papers with data on employment, unemployment
and skills etc. Has a useful summary article
by Cumper relating to work attitude in Jamaica.


HAP.IS, Dorald J. "lotes on the Question


J,S







of a National Minimum Wage." In Essays
on Power and Chanqe_in Jamaica, ed.
Carl STONE and Aggrey BROWN. Kingston:
Jamaica Publishing House, 1977. Pp.
106-114. [UWI/WIC]

Marxist interpretation of minimum wage
and its effects on agriculture and
industry.

---. "Savings and Foreign Trade as Constraints J,M
in Economic Growth: A Study of Jamaica."
Social and Economic Studies 19, No. 2 (June
1970): 1V7-177. [MOV/JAM; UWI/ISEP]

Peports on construction and estimation
of an aggregate macro-economic model
of the Jamaican economy (57 equations
and 63 variables) using data for the
period 1950-1965. Main purpose is to
make projections of future resource
requirements of the economy in terms
of the potential export-import and
saving-investment gaps, based on trends
of past performance in the economy.
Includes estimates of income demand
elasticities for aggregate imports
(food is 1.1) and for exports (including
bananas and sugar). Assumes Jamaica
cannot affect price, and industry
structure monopsonistic.

H"DGKINSON, E. (Editor). Development J,B
Prospects and Options in the Common-
wealth_Caribbean. Peport of the
conference jointly sponsored by the
British-North American Fesearch
Association and the Overseas Development
Institute at Ditchley Park, Oxfordshire,
February 20-22, 1976. London,
Overseas Development Institute/
British-North American Fesearch
Association, 1976. Pp. 85.

The conference brought together
representatives of the Commonwealth
Caribbean and of traditional bilateral
and multilateral donors to discuss the
current development situation in the
area. The area's prospects and its
options in the next 5 to 10 years were
also discussed and the contribution
which external agencies might make.
The report is divided into 7 main
chapters by different authors one of
which, Prospects for agricultural growth--








the Commonwealth Caribbean for the next
ten years, is referenced below.

HUBBARD, Raymond. "The Evolution of the J
Jamaican Poad Network--A Geographical
Analysis." Unpublished M.Sc. thesis.
Dept. of Geography, University of West
Indies, Mona, 1971. [GD/UWI/JAM]

INTER-AMEFICAN DEVELOPMENr BANK. Socio- J
Economic Report: Jamaica 1977. Washington,
D.C. (In Process.)

INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND J
DEVELOPMENT Economic Memorandum on
Jamaica Washington, D.C.: IBRD, May 26,1978
[-ESTPICTED ][RDS/AID/JAM]

Outlines economic developments during 1976
and 1977 and outlines public sector invest-
ment program to 1981.

INTERNATIONAL BANK FOP RErONSTFUCTION ?ND J,S
DEVELOPMENT. Latin American and the
Caribbean Regional Office. Current
Economic Situation and Prospects of
Jamaica. Report Nc. 967a-JM, March
8, 1976. Pp. 33 + 3 annexes + 9 sets
of tables. [?DS/AID/JAM]

The report of a Summer 1975 economic
mission study. Covers recent growth
and constraint analysis, income
distribution, agricultural policy.
Provides a comprehensive set of
statistical economic indicators.

INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION, J
INTEPNaTIO'AL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION
AND DEVELOPMENT. Current Economic
Position and Prospects of Jamaica (In
three volumes), Volume II: Annex I:
Population, Labor Force and Employment
in Jamaica; Annex II: Tourism Sector
Report. Pp. 41 + 34 tables. Report
No. 257a-Jm, February 21, 1974
(?ESTPICTFD). [PO/AID/JAM

An insightful discussion of each factor
as well as relevant data is provided.

JAMAICA. Economic Peport: Jamaica. J,.
(Monthly) Kingstor: Atlas Publishers
Ltd. Approx. 25 pp. [U.S. Embassy
Jam]







Contains economic analyses/newsletters
by several banks and the owner-editor.
.lso publishes major economic indicators
for all sectors of the economy.

JAMAICA. Ministry of Finance and Planning. J
Town Planning Department. United
Nations Special Fund Project. A
National Physical Plan for Jamaica,
1970-1990. October 1971. Pp. 116.
[FDS/AID/JAM]

A survey of needs and growth trends for
eleven sectors of the economy and a
mapped plan to guide investments and
development for a 20 year period.
Contains many useful tables and graphs
suggesting trends and future patterns.

---. ---. ---. National Atlas of Jamaica. J,!,C
Kingston, November 1971. Pp. 70.
[AID/LA/RD/WASH]

An excellent source of information on
agriculture. Contains intermediate
scale maps of each major crop and a
discussion of its production in Jamaica.
Also has good information on marketing
and transportation.

---. National Planning Agency. Economic J,c
and Social Survey (Annual). Pp. 262.
[rDS/AID/JAm]

Contains 19 sections of summary
statistics covering all major sectors
of the economy. Figures for basic
output, facilities and descriptions
of programs given for each economic or
social sector.

JEFFEPSON, Owen. "Is the Jamaican J,S
Economy Developing?" New World,
Vol. 5 No. 4 (1972) : L-11.

Po-st-Ware Economic lDevelopment of J,S
Jamaica. Mona, Jamaica: Institute of
Social and Economic Eesearch, University
of West Indies, 1972. [MOP/JAM; UWI/TSEP]

Has introductory chapters on
economic background and development
history, population and growth of
income. Fvaluates five principal
sectors for period 1950-1968: agri-
culture, manufacture, mining,







tourism, and foreign trade. Agri-
culture chapter has separate sections
on sugar--bananas, cocoa, coffee
and citrus. Suggests policies will
lead to stagnation, unemployment and
maldistribution of income in sector.

--- "The Economic Situation of the Common- J,'
wealth Caribbean." Caribbean Quarterly
18, No. 1 (1972): 87-99. [UWI/WIC]

Provides an overview of the area's economic
problems. Characterizes the region as
having growth without employment, and
growth which has re-inforced inequalities.
Stress has been on capital intensive manu-
facture rather than on needed structural
charge for supply increase in agriculture,
eg. land redistribution (though subsidies
paid to agriculture). Import substitution
is limited in small economy. touristt
industry becoming growth industry but
requires control to limit disruption
of economy and dislocation of society.

--- and BOYCE, Darcy. "The Effect of Inflation J
on Caribbean Economies." In Inflation in
the Caribbean, Compton BOU?NE (ed.). Mona,
Jamaica: Institute for Social and Economic
Studies, 1977, pp. 1-27. [UWI/ISEP]

Compares data on inflation in Jamaica,
Barbados and Dominica with import growth,
trade growth, tourist growth, and also
looks at likely consumption, investment,
public sector policy, income distribution
and output of each sector. Results suggest
that initial impact of imported inflation
was on the balance of payments though for
Jamaica this was somewhat offset by world
sugar prices and higher bauxite taxes.

JOEFIELD-NAPIEP, Wallace. "Intlation, J,M
Inflationary Expectations and Monetary
Behaviour in Jamaica." In Inflation in
the Caribbean, Compton BOUPNE (ed.).
Mona, Jamaica: Institute for Social and
Economic Studies, 1977, pp. 1-27. [uWI/
ISE? ]

Author estimates the actual and expected
rates of inflation with expected prices
revised in proportion to the difference
between the actual rate of change in
prices and the expected rate. Also breaks
down prices by category (with rural price
increases being more rapid than urban).







The income velocity of circulation was
determined to have fluctuated widely over
the period.

JOLLY, Desmond Ansel. "Sectorial Growth J
and Employment in the Jamaican
Economy, 1959-1968." Unpublished Ph.D.
dissertation, University of Oregon, 1973.

Develops econometric model of key
macroeconomic variables using
1959-68 data. This is used to evaluate
feasibility of alternative growth
rates. Growth is limited by savings
and foreign exchange. Takes con-
strained growth rate of 4 percent and
develops sectoral labor and capital
coefficients and sectoral growth
to reduce unemployment. This involves
emphasis on agriculture and construc-
tion.

KAPLAN, Irving; et al. Area Handbook for J
Jamaica. Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Government Printing Office, 1976.
Pp. 331. Bibliography, index.
[U.S. Embassy Lib. Jam] [F1868.A7]

An up-to-date general survey of all
aspects of national life. Extensive
bibliography.

KUPEP, Adam. Chanqin_ Jamaica. London: J
Poutledge and Kegan Paul, 1977. xi,
Pp. 163. Bibliography. [U.S. Embassy/
Jam; UWI/WIC]

Account by anthropologist based on report
to Jamaican Government on tendencies
for social change in Jamaica. Provides
a basically sociological and political
analysis but also an excellent intro-
ductory overview of population and the
economy based on a review of past studies
and his own analysis. Unemployment
figures are broken down by sex and age
group. Section on agriculture hypothesizes
economic reasons for lack of labor in
sugar cane. Provides also an overview of
a 1950's work on social structure. A rural
community near Christiana, and a slum in
W. Kingston form case studies. Does not
provide detailed economic data for these
communities, but looks at role of political
parties in local decision making. States
farmers do not divide land, so only one son








stays on land. Has a useful chapter on the
role of interest groups and political
parties in policy making.

LEVImT, Kari and GULATI, Igbal. "Income J
Effect of Tourist Spending: Mystification
Multiplied: A Critical Comment on the
Zinder Peport." Social and Economic
Studies 19, No. 3 (September 1970):
326-343. [MOA/JAM; UWI/ISEP]

Peports very critically on study done on
Eastern Caribbean, but sets out method of
ad hoc estimation of the tourist multiplier
for an open economy. Calculates it to be
1 for Eastern Caribbean rather than the 2.3
of report which assumed a closed system.
Part of a continued discussion of the
effects of tourism.

LEWAPS, 4. and PEPSkTD, W.H. The JS
Jamaican Economy: Aqriculture and
Industry. Mona, Jamaica: Extra-
mural Center, University of West Indies,
1976? Pp. 36. [UWI/WIC: HC 157.J2L381

McLEOE, Donald. "The Personal Income Tax in J
Jamaica." Social and Economic Studies 18,
No. 3 (September 1969): 254-262. fMOS/
JM; HWI/ISEF ]

Describes Jamaica's income tax structure,
notes its administrative honesty and
suggests changes for greater income
redistribution. argues that though
personal savings are low (3 to 6 percent of
income in 1959-64) changes in income will
reduce consumption as external and internal
demonstration effects are reduced.

MaNHF1mZ, Huntley G. "1n Exploratory J
Econometric Model for Jamaica."
Social and Economic Studies, 20
No. 2 (June 1971): 198-226. [MOA/JA1;
UWI/ISFP ]

Uses 1959-1967 data to fit a 42-
equation (24 stochastic) structural
model of the Jamaican economy
covering consumption, private
investment, foreign trade sector;
monetary sector, government sector,
tax functions, employment, manu-
facture production function and
retail price determination.







---. "The Price Determination Process in a J,M
Small Open Economy the Jamaican Expe-
rience." In Inflation in the Caribbean,
Compton BnUPNE (ed.). Mona, Jamaica,
Institute for Social and Economic Studies,
1977, pp. 1-27. [TIWI/ISEP]

Examines the movements of consumer prices
in Jamaica, looking at rural and urban
prices separately. Develops a mark-up-
model for empirical analysis. Due to
limited data author was unable to quantify
all appropriate variables for his equations.
Concludes that the two most important factors
affecting price determination are import
prices and the long-run normal cost of
labor. Supply variation were of minor
importance. Higher mark-ups for food
exist in rural areas, and the effect of
a change in import prices is greater.

MtTALON, A. "Agricultural Representations and J, M
'CpBIFTA '." Farmer 74, No. 2/3 (February/
Farch 1969): 74-79. [MCA/JAM]

O'LOUGHLIN, C. "Longterm Growth of the J
Economy of Jamaica." Social and
Economic Studies 12, No. 3 (1963):
246-287. fMOA/JAM; TUWI/ISEP ]

Projections based on 1958 input
output table and trend of informed
production estimates.

OrGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES. Inter- J
American Economic and Social Council
CIPF Subcommittee on Jamaica. Final
Report on Jamaica. Washington, June,
1974, nFA/Ser.H/XIV, CIAP/665, 5r pp.
[PDS/AID/JAM]

-he initial section reviews economic
performance, development strategy, and
technical assistance. Then statements
about Jamaica policy and economy are
annexed by the Ministry of Finance,
IDB, IBPD, IMF and 'ID.

OPGANIZATIC- OF AMERICAN STATES/CEPCIES. J
Situation, Principal Problems and
Perspectives for the Economic and Social
Development of Jamaica. Washington, D.C.,
May 1974.

P'LMEP, Pansford W. The Jamaican Economy. J,S
New York: Praeger, 1968. Pp. 185.








Bibliography.

description of each major sector
of the Jamaican economy. For the
agricultural sector there is a short
discussion of economic structure of the
export and domestic sector and gives brief
outline of his suggested scheme for
putting underutilized farms into large
co-operative or state farms.

PHELPS, O.W. "Rise of the Labour Movement J,S
in Jamaica." Social and Economic Studies
9, No. 4 (December 1960): 417-467. [MOA/
JAF; UWI/ISEE ]

An account of the history of trade
unionism in Jamaica and its relation
to political independence, to 1954.
Useful background to understanding
of role of unions.

PONCE, J.M. "Expansion ot Agricultural Trade J,M
in Groupings of Developing Countries." In
Current Problems of Economic Integration:
Agricultural and Industrial Co-operation
among Developing Countries. New York:
U.N. Commission on Trade and Development,
1971, viii+ 126 pp.

Existing inter-country trade groupings,
and their relevance for agricultural trade
are discussed. I chapter of this study is
devoted to the Caribbean Free Trade
Association.

PPEISWEEK, Poy. he Pelevance of Latin J
America to the Foreign Policy of Common-
wealth Caribbean States." Journal of
Inter-Pmerican studiess II, No. 2 (1969):
245-71.

Discusses possible economic trading access
with Latin America in general terms.

DFOODFOOT, Malcolm Jarvis. Population J,S
Movements in the Caribbean. New
York: Negro Universities Press,
1970. Pp. 187 + viii. [JV 7322.
P76]

3ICHAPDSON, B.C. "The Agricultural J,C
Dilemma of the Post-Plantation Carib-
bean." Inter-American Economic Affairs
26, 'To. 1 (1972) : 59-70.








The effect of British entry into EEC
on Caribbean cane growers is discussed
in the light of diversification programmes.
The main theme suggests that the planta-
tion is so deeply embedded in the culture
of the West Indies that structural changes
in the farm economy will be difficult.
Small farms for example are not farmed by
an indigenous peasantry like Central America.
However, plantation economy also results in
a greater awareness of outside world. Most
discussion is in regional terms. Refers to
a few Jamaican examples among others.

POACHE, K.T. "Prospects for Agricultural J,S
Growth in the Commonwealth Caribbean for
the Next men Years." Development Prospects
and options in the Commonwealth Caribbean.
Report of the conference jointly sponsored
by the British-North American Research
Association and the Overseas Development
Institute at Ditchley Park, Oxfordshire,
February 20-22, 1976. London: Overseas
Development Institute, 1976. Pp. 21-29.

The paper aims to isolate some of the
prospective growth areas for agriculture
in the Commonwealth Caribbean (CA ICOM)
and to discuss constraints to growth.
Suggests stress on national specialization
rather than regional specialization involving
narrow range of plantation crops which are
dependent on protective tariffs. The live-
stock sector is identified as an area of
priority. Impediments to its development
include price control, land tenure and
marketing. Suggests that growth prospects
also exist in vegetables and fruit proces-
sing ii an export market can be found.

?OBEPTS, G.W. and MILLS, D.O. "Study of J,S
External Migration Affecting Jamaica,
1953-55." Supplement to Social and
Economic Studies 7, No. 2, June 1958.


In the period skilled workers left at much
higher rate than unskilled (including
farmers). This was also true of the sugar
industry.

SCOTT, Wolf. report on a Study of the Levels J,S
of Living in Jamaica. United Nations for
Government of Jamaica, 1966.







SKEETE, C.A. "Association and the Agri- J
cultural Policies of the EEC." In
Proceedings of the Eighth West Indian
Agricultural Economics Conference,
Port-of-Spain _Trinidad: _AEr il 1-7 1973.
St. Augustine, Trinidad: University of
the West indies, 1973.

This analysis of possible association
between CAPIFTA and the EEC argues the
need for a dispassionate examination of
the barriers to access to the EEC market
rather than pre-occupation with judgements
as to the desirability or otherwise of the
various forms of Association. In the
final analysis, from an EEC point of
view, the form of Association appropriate
to CPRIFTA objectives could hinge not
necessarily on a list of products, long
or short, but on a single product.

SMITH, Michael. "he Plural Society in the J,
British West Indies. Berkeley: University
of California Press, 1965.

A collection of articles published in
1953 and 196f on aspects of societal
structure in Caribbean. Articles of
particular significance are listed
separately for original source.

SMITH, Shirley. "Industrial Growth, J,$
Employment Opportunities and Migration
within and from Jamaica, 1943 to 1970."
Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University
of Pennsylvania, 1975.

Migration estimates are derived from
duration of residence tables of
three censuses, and three decades of
vital statistics. These are related
+o parish poDulations by size and age.
Factors associated with internal
movement are explored. Estimates of
legal and illegal emigration are
made.

SPFPGUF, Howard B. "C??.ICOM regional Mission J,s
of World Bank: Back to Office Deport of
Field "our November 6-December 9, 1973."
Washington, December 1963. (Mimeo)
f DS/.ID/JAM ]

Feport has country visit section, regional
aspects of development, and crop by crop
outlook. The section on Jamaica relates
to crop potentials, agricultural education







and agricultural research initiatives taken.
Regional sections of interest are agri-
cultural research, extension and education
(which have economies of scale). There
are some ideas in crop section (which has
recommendation on specific crops).

STONF, Carl and BEOWN, ?ggrey. Eds. Essays J,S
on Power and _hanqe in Jamaica. Kingston:
Jamaica Publishing House, 1977. Pp. 207
1r Essays. (!T.S. Embassy Library Jam;
UWI/wIC ]

This collection has two parts: 1) essays
on political economy including agrarian
relations, and 2) policies for change with
tenant farming on state lands and sugar
co-ops. Discussion is within varying
types of socialist framework.

TAYLOP, Leroy. "Money, the Balance of J
Payments and Income Determination in
Jamaica (195C-1970)." Social and
Economic Studies 21, No. 2 (June
1972): 171-183. [MOA/JAM; UWI/ISEP]

Suggests that other econometric models
of economy do not look at role of
money. Estimates standard monetary
model (IMF or Polak) and simple
Keynesian 'depression' model in which
money has no effect. Both models have
similar explanatory cower.

THEAKSTON, F.H. "Caribbean Agriculture in J,C
Transition." Agriculture Institute
of Canada Peview 25, No. 3 (May/June
1970) : 27-28.

THOMAS, P.D. "Local Government Financing J,?
in Jamaica, 1944-59.1" Social and
Economic Studies 12, No. 2 (1963):
141-159. [MCA/JAM; 'TWI/ISEF ]

Provides data and discussion of parish
council revenues (and their tax and
other sources) and expenditures.

TIDFICK, Gene. "Some Aspects of Jamaican J,S
Emigration to the United Kingdom, 1953-
62." Social and Economic Studies 15,
No. 1 (March 19f6) : 22-39.

Estimates effects of emigration during
period of very rapid GDP growth. Total
population was probably 200,000 less in








1962 than it would have been without
emigration with a somewhat lower depend-
ency ratio. Author makes estimates of
balance payments, production and employ-
ment effects. Concludes that emigration
aided economic development.

UNITED STATES. Department of Agriculture. J,M
Economic Pesearch Service. AJriculture
and Trade of the Caribbean Region, PS
Foreign No. V-ay 1971. [(OA/JAM]

Covers data 1960-68, so is out of
date but may be useful for historical
change.

---. ---. ---. Foreign Pegional Analysis J,7
Division, Western Hemisphere Branch.
Indices of Agricultural Production for
the Western Hemis.here__Excludinq _the
United statess and Cuba. ERS Foreign
264. Washington, April 1971. op. 31.

---. ---. Foreign Agricultural Service. J,3
Prospects for Agriculture in the
Caribbean. FAS, No. 8, Washington,
D.C., April 1970.

WALSH, B. Thomas. "The Effects of J
Alternative Population Trends on
Economic Growth in Jamaica." Unpublished
Ph.D. dissertation, University of
Pittsburgh, 1970. Pp. 246.

WFLLEP, Robert H. "A Historical Analysis J,S
of Female Labour Force Participation
in Puerto Pico." Social and Economic
Studies 17, No. 1 (March 1968) : 6C-69.

Makes some comparison in article with
Jarraica. Unlike ,T.S. with a rising percent
of women in labor force (1870-1960)
both Puerto Pico and Jamaica have had
dropping percentages, as less opportunity
for traditional, domestic, etc. occupations.

WnRPELL, ?uoert Delisle. "Comment on Three J
Econometric Models of the Jamaican
Economy." Social and Economic Studies 22,
No. 2 (June 1973): 272-286. [MOA/J .M;
UWI/ISEF ]

Suggests models used do not incorporate
the theory of working of Caribbean econ-
omies, and that aggregates used hide some
important inter-relationships related to








income distribution, export bias, sectoral
investment bias, etc. Considers dis-
aggregated analysis of sectors more useful.

---. "The Theory of optimal Foreign Exchange J,P
Deserves in a Developing Country (with
Empirical application to the Economy of
Jamaica)." Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation,
McGill University, 1975.

Optimal reserves are assumed to depend
on the security afforded by each level,
and on the comparative costs of balance
of payments adjustment and of reserve
stocks. For Jamaica, the growth rate
foregone over planning period is
estimated for each reserve level and the
costs of a balance of payment adjustment
policy if there is short-run external
disequilibrium and insufficient reserves.
is estimated. Suggest Jamaica pursued
rather conservative reserve policies.







AGFICULTUPE:
SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHAFACTERISTICS, OVEPVIEWS



ADAMS, Nassau A. "Internal Migration in
Jamaica." Social and Economic Studies
18, No. 2 (June, 1969): 137-151.
MCOA/JAM; UWI/ISE ]

Uses 1960 census data to fit migration
function where the dependent variable
is the rate of migration (of specified
age and sex), and the independent
variable is road distance between
major population centres; average
income: proportion of population in
towns over 2,000, proportion of
acreage in farms greater than 100 acres; pro-
portion 6 or more years school;
proportion unemployed. For adult
males distance and wage income dif-
ferential are the most significant
effects. The rate of unemployment,
degree of industrialization of origin
region, level of education in
destination and average size of land
("push factors") are also significant.
For females, income was not significant;
degree of urbanization was significant.

AHIRAM, E. "Distribution of Income
in Trinidad-Tobago and Comparison
with Distribution of Income in
Jamaica." Social and Economic
Studies 15, No. 2 (June 1966):
103-120. [MOA/JAM; TWI/ISEP]

lorenz curves and Giannini coefficients
show income distribution in Jamaica
more inequal than Trinidad-Tobago.
More unequal distribution in rural than
urban in Jamaica while opposite true
in 'rinidad-Tobago.

---. "Income Distribution in Jamaica,
1958." Social and Economic Studies 13,
No. 3 (196 ) : 333-369. [MOA/JAM;
UWI/ISEP]

Makes estimates of income distribution
using Household Expenditure Survey (1958),
Labour Force Survey (1957), an establish-
ment survey and the national accounts
and reports of the Commissioner of
Income tax. Outlines methodology and


S,J


S,CC,J







use of data clearly and in detail.
Assumptions and data problems are also
reported. Index of concentration based
on Lorenz curve was estimated at 53.
Note, however, also comment by Cumper
(1964) and the author on the estimates.

AHIRAM, R. "Income Distribution in S,J
Jamaica and Trinidad-Tobago." In
The Caribbean in Transition, ed.
F.M. ANDIC and T.G. MATHEWS, Institute
of Caribbean Studies, University of
Puerto Pico, 1965, pp. 1-11.

---. "The Jamaican Family: Village and S,SC
Estate." Social and Economic Studies 7,
No. 1 (March 1958) : 1-60. [MOA/JAM;
UWI/ISEP ]

Discusses characteristics of family with
regard to labor force in Porter's Mt.
(Westmoreland) and Caymanes sugar estate,
with discussion of life cycle and role of
female in workforce. Suggests less female
participation than other studies.

AIKEN, D. "Small Farming in Avocat--A Socio/
Economic Study." Unpublished undergraduate
thesis. Dept. of Geography, UTniversity of
West Indies, Mona, 1975. [GD/UWI/JAM]

--. "Small Farming in Avocat--A Socio/
Spatial Study." Unpublished undergraduate
thesis. Dept. of Geography, University of
West Indies, Mona, 1975. [GD/UWI/JAM]

ALLEN, B. "Hillside Agriculture in Upper S,T
Yallahs." Unpublished undergraduate
thesis. Dept. of Geography, University
of West Indies, Mona, 1976. fGD/UWI/JAM]

---. "teep Hillside Farming in St. Thomas."
Unpublished undergraduate thesis. Dept.
of Geography, University of West Indies,
Mona, 1976. [GD/UWI/JAM]

APONSOM, Pobert L. "Labour Commitment S,J
among Jamaican Bauxite Workers: A
Case Study." Social and Economic
Studies 10, No. 2 (June, 1961): 156-
182.

Workers at an alumina works were surveyed
(via personnel records) and 94 inter-
viewed workers. Most workers had rural
background, but had earlier urban work








experience; turnover was no greater
than in non LDC's; lists some consump-
tion items purchased. Concludes that
no problem of labor commitment.

BARRETT, Leonard E. The Pastafarians, S,J
A Study in Messianic Cultism in Jamaica.
Caribbean Monograph Series No. 6,
Institute of Caribbean Studies,
University of Puerto rico, 1968. Pp.
238. Bibliography. [U.S. Embassy
Library/JAM]

---. The Pastafarians: Sounds of ,,J
Cultural Dissonance. Boston: Beacon
Press, 1977. Pp. 257. [BL 2530]

BAXTEP, Ann. "The Diffusion of Innovations: S
Soil Conservation Techniques in the
Yallahs Valley." Unpublished M.Sc. thesis.
Dept. of Geography, University of West
Indies, Mona, 1973. [GD/UWI/JAM]

BECKFOPD, George L. _"Peasant Movements and
Agrarian Problems in the West Indies,
Part II. Aspects of the Present
Conflict between the Plantations and
the Peasantry in the West Indies. "
Caribbean Quarterly 18, No. 1 (March
1972): "7-58. [UWI/WIC]

Presents thesis that development of
peasantry is circumscribed hy plantation
system, using Jamaica as example. Land
distribution is unequal and worst land sold
for redistribution. Unemployed labor
hired by estates and higher productivity
elsewhere is reflected in high labor wage
rates for other production. Credit is
available for plantations from metropolitan
source and other export producers also
have credit access. Government credit to
peasants is insufficient and involves
surrender of land titles, which are
confused due to joint ownership, etc.
Research is in export crops.

---. Persistent Poverty: Underdevelopment F,.
in Plantation Economies of the Third
World. New York: oxford University
Press, 1972. Pp. 303 + xxvii.
Bibliography.

P much quoted study which provides
detailed theoretical framework and
empirical data for concept of the







'plantation economy.' Provides
historical development of such an
economy pre- and post-slavery, stressing
the growth and concentration of corpo-
rate capital. Analyses metropolitan
plantation enterprise, including two
case histories (one of Tate and Lyall
in W. Indies) and their horizontal and
vertical integration. Chapters 6 F,
7 provide an important economic model
for evaluating efficiency of resource
use in the plantation economy including
social costs; and setting out structural
factors facing the small-farm sector.
Suggests a general policy to remove
development obstacles. Admits that
process of transformation envisaged will
not be easy. Essential background
reading.

---. "The Dynamics of Growth and the Nature c
of the Metropolitan Plantation Enterprise."
Social and Economic Studies 19, No. 4
(December 1970): 435-465. [MO'/JAM;
TJWI/ISFP ]

This paper forms one chapter of Beckford's
Persistent Poverty. Describes metropolitan
firms with plantation using several detailed
explanations including Tate and Lyall for
Jamaica and suggests economic and political
effects of these structures.

---. "The Economics of agricultural S
resource Use and Development in
Plantation Economics." Social and
Economic Studies 18, No. 4 (December
1969): 321-347. [MOA/JAM; UWI/ISEP]

Material later incorporated into
Persistent Poverty. Analyzes
multi-national vertically integrated
plantation firm. Suggests that though
resource allocation is efficient for
the firm, it may be inefficient for
the country. Low raw material profit
may give higher firal product profits;
resource rigidity varies with vertical
integration (non-farm investments are
large and specific); land can be
under-utilized dependent on productivity
and cost of securing it. Pisk leads
to geographical dispersion so that
an increase in price can lead to an
overall supply increase but not in all
countries; and foreign exchange earnings
are modified by unfavorable terms of








trade, high import demands and second
round consumption of imports, etc.

BEST, L.A. "Outlines of a Model of a
Pure Plantation Economy." Social
and Economic Studies 17, No. 3
(September 1968): 283-326. [MOA/JAM;
UWI/ISFF]

Develops alternative models for
hinterland production. Suggests
that for the plantation model
first phase production is efficient
but at later stages there are cuts
at the extensive margin and rising
wages as labor moves to independent
use of abandoned land. Technology
can not be effectively introduced
to raise labor productivity because
of lack of capital, hence metayage is
used to encourage labor to work on
plantations.

BINNENDIJK, a.L. and L.J. HUNTER "Implica- S,J
tions for Pural Development from a Long-
Range Planning Model", an Illustration for
Jamaica". Proceedings of the Ninth West
Indies Agricultural Economics Conference
Kingston, Jamaica _1974. St. Augustine,
Trinidad: University of the West Indies,
Department of Agricultural Economics, 1974.
pp. 166-194

Attempts to provide a model framework to
look at interaction of demographic, social
and economic variables, and provides il-
lustrative example.

BLAIR, I.A. "Some Problems of Small Farming F
in South St. Elizabeth." Unpublished
undergraduate thesis. Dept. of Geography,
University of West Indies, Mona, 1970.
[GD/UWI/JAM ]

BLAKE, Judith. Family Structure in Jamaica. 7,s7
New York: The Free Press of Glencoe, 19r1.
[HQ 584.B55]

Provides results of 1953 study of repro-
duction and family make-up in Jamaica,
based on results of survey taken in
four rural areas (sugar, bananas, small
farming)and West Kingston using 83 women
between 15 and 45 with at least one
child and 16 couples at birth control.
Does not look at economic role of single








or married women, though does provide
data on economic role of children--
considered a cost rather than benefit
by large majority because of desire for
education and non-agricultural occupation.
Ideal family size is quite low.

BLAUT, James; et al. "A Study of Culfural S,L
Determinants of Soil Erosion and Con-
servation in the Blue Mountains of Jamaica,
Progress Peport." Social and Economic
Studies 8, No. U (December 1959): 403-42n.
[MOA/JAM; UWI/ISEP ]

Field studies in Blue Mountains Community
showed attitudes towards erosion revealed
little awareness of the problem and actions
which were of a conservation nature were
generally undertaken for other reasons.
P. 411 describes higglers' marketing
partnerships not elsewhere noted. P. 412
notes that close proximity to Kingston (12
miles) eliminates the marketing middleman.
In Mt. Chester, men market the export crops
(banana, citrus) and women market domestic
crops.

BRAITHWAITE, L.F. "Social and Political S,J
Aspects of Rural Development: the
Jamaican Experience." Social and
Economic Studies 17, No. 3 (September
19F8): 264-275. [MOP/JAM; UWI/ISER]

A discussion on social and political
problems in rural development. Considers
important factors to be centralized
administration, no all inclusive village
or community concept, cultivators'
bias against agriculture. Suggests
settlements failed for a number of
reasons including no collaboration
wi+h farmers, i.e. planning from top.

BREWSTEP, Havelock. "Wage, Price and $,J
Productivity Delations in Jamaica,
1957-62." Social and Economic Studies
17, No. 2 (June 1968): 107-132.
[MOP/JAM; UWI/ISSE ]

Uses Department of Statistics data
on employment and earning in large
establishments (greater than 15 persons and
farms greater than 500 acres) to develop wage,
price, real-wage, productivity and
inter-industry wage differentials
over time period. For part of








agriculture covered: sugar had
productivity raises, while the rest of
agriculture increased at the rate of
price increases; other sectors had up
to 3 times the wage of agriculture
and the wage differential grew
over the time period.

BROOM, L. ""he Social Differentiation of s,J
Jamaica." American Socioloqical Peview
19, No. 2, 1954. 115-25.

Discusses the development and 1950
character of social differentiation in
Jamaica with respect to race and color.
Education considered a precondition for
vertical mobility. Blacks were rural and
agricultural and few blacks had more than
primary school education. However, darker
colored Jamaicans were better represented
in civil service and parliament.

BPOWN, E.J. "Settlement and Land Use in S
Rural Jamaica--A Case Study of Bamboo,
St. Ann." Unpublished undergraduate
thesis. Dept. of Geography, University
of West Indies, Mona, 1969. [GD/UWI/JAM]

---. "Settlement and Land Use in Rural S
Jamaica--A Case Study of Bamboo, St. Ann."
Unpublished undergraduate thesis. Dept.
of Geography, University of West Indies,
Mona, 1968. [GD/UWI/JAM]

town, H. ""he Impact of the Tourist !,J,M
Industries on the agricultural Sectors:
The Competition for Resources and the
Market for Food Provided by Tourism:
The Case of Jamaica." Proceedinqs of the
Ninth West Indies agriculturall Economics
Conference, Held at the Pegasus Hotel,
Mew Kin2ston April 3-6, 1974 and at the
Jamaica School of Agriculturee Twickenham
Pa rk._Aril_7-10 ._97L4. St. Augustine,
Trinidad: Dept. of Agricultural Economics,
University of West Indies, 1974. pp. 129-
142. [UWI/ISEP ]

Analyses data for the period 1965 to 1972
on tourist and agricultural sectors.
Concludes that the development of the
tourist industry: (1) has not been a
major influence on the availability of
cultivable lands on the agricultural
sector; (2) was an important factor in
the migration of population from key








agricultural areas to the urban centres;
(3) has placed agriculture at a dis-
advantage on account of low rates of
return in a number of major activities
within the sector. It is also suggested
that a market strategy which helps local
producers to sell to the tourist
industry would be important.

BUCKMIFE, George. "Emergence and Resiliance
of the Jamaican Peasantry." Proceedings
of the Fifth Annual West Indian Aqri-
cultural Economics Conference_ Roseau,
DominicaL_April 1970. St. Augustine,
mrinidad: University of West Indies,
Dept. of Agricultural economics 1970.
[MOA/JAM ]

Gives brief history of plantation and
peasant development. Concludes historical
land settlement patterns are a major source of
problems today. Attributes to these small
size of farms, fragmentation, low pro-
ductivity and relatively high cost of rural
services (e.g. irrigation, conservation,
etc.).

CALLAM, M. "Functional Study of Christiana." S
Unpublished undergraduate thesis. Dept.
of Geography, University of West Indies,
nona, 1975. [GD/UWI/JA ]

CANADIAN INTEPNATION I DEVELOPMENT AGENCY. S,J,M,LC,E
Caribbean Division. Canadian Development
Co-operation with the Commonwealth
Caribbean agriculture Sector paper 1.
Report prepared by Agricultural Economics
Council of Canada, September 1976, Pp. 198.
[PDS/AID/JIM ]

Broad ranging discussion of agricultural
development problems and programs. Pp.
1I4-198 section on Jamaica. Provides
general discussion of role of agriculture
in economy and its economic importance,
plus a statement on needs for irrigation
and its role in expanding food production.
A brief summary of the trends and situation
of each major product is provided. "here
is brief discussion of marketing of agri-
cultural produce, a note about inadequacies
of slaughter house facilities, and
favorable comment on adequacy of the road
network.


Agricultural credit is discussed, especially








role of JDB and ACE.

Institutional arrangements, rather than
land or climate are considered constraints,
although lack of irrigation and inefficient
use of water are also important. Con-
straints to effective extension for
small farmer are considered lack of
transport, poor salaries, conflict with
board agents.

Comments are made on small farmer dairying
and needs for milk marketing services.

CENSUS RESEARCH PROGrAMME. University of the S,SC,J
West Indies. Recent Population Movement
in Jamaica. Kingston, 1974.

CLAPKE, Edith. My Mother Who Fathered Me: S,SC,LC
A Study of the Family in Three Selected
Communities in Jamaica. Second Edition.
London: G. Allen and Unwin, 1966.
Pp. 229. (1st Edition 1957). CU.S.
Embassy Lib/JAM]

Study done in early 50's based on survey of
three rural communities (one sugar related,
one in citrus and one with hill farming).
Has excellent (and important) chapter on
traditional land tenure versus legal land
tenure, with a detailed description of the
concept and practice of family land (with
joint right of use) and bought land.
Provides data on single parent headed house-
holds. A little over 30 percent in each community
with one parent (usually female) about
half of these had grandparents. In hill
farming areas women who lived on family
land had some subsistence plot, and did
get some help from kin. In citrus area
women were widowed and family helped with
income. In plantation area there were few
income sources for single parents.

COHEN, Yehudi A. "Four Categories of S
Interpersonal Pelationships in the Family
and Community in a Jamaican Village."
Anthropolosical QuarEte.r 3, No. 4
(1955): 121-47.

Economic and property relations in the
highland village were considered competi-
tive and based on amount of land controlled.
Land is never lent or exchanged. Community
is composed of isolated independent nuclear
families rather than wider kin or community







groups. In a family the woman's land and
output thereof is considered hers rather
than her husband's or a joint enterprise.
Separate accounts are kept by husband
and wife.

---. "The Social Organization of a Selected S
Community in Jamaica." Social and Economic
Studies 2, No. 4 (March 1954) : 104-133.
[MOA/JAK; UWI/ISEr- ]

Describes village community of 277 in
Central Jamaica.

COMITAS, Lambros. "Occupational Multiplicity S
in Pural Jamaica," Work and Family Life:
West Indian Perspectives, Edited by
Lambros COMIT .S and David LOWENTHAL.
New York: Anchor Books, 1973.

Cites evidence of Edwards and of authors
study of fishing villages to indicate
high proportion of persons with multiple
occupations. Suggests also that multiple
jobs correlate with age.

---, and LOWENTHAL, David (eds.). Work and S,J
Family Life: West Indian Perspectives.
New York: Anchor Books, 1973. XVII Pp.
422. Bibliography.

Peprints a series of important articles
on rural labor activities: farming, cane
plantation, higglering. A very good
introduction to socio-economic aspects
of workforce. Has also a series of
articles on family organization.

COOPE, L. "1he Growth and Development of S
Central Village, St. Catherine--A
Service Centre." U!npublished under-
graduate thesis. Dept. of Geography,
University of West Indies, Mona, 197<.
[GD/UWI/JAM

CoATON, Michael and WAIVIN, James. A S,J
Jamaican Plantation, the History of
Worthy Park 167)-1971. London: W.H.
Allen, 1970. Pp. 343. [U.S. Embassy
Lib/JAM]

Index, bibliography, 2 appendices. One
chapter of twelve deals with the post-war
period.


CEISP, P.E. and POPENOE, H.


"Jamaica and








Martinique: Contrasting Aspects of Folk
Agriculture and Non-Folk Agriculture."
Etudes de geographie tropical offertes
a Pierre Gourrou. The Hague, Netherlands:
Mounton, 1972.

Authors suggest that the typical Jamaican
rural peasant farms mainly for subsistence
S with the aim of security taking precedence
over that of profit. In Martinique with
a similar physical environment but
different cultural patterns and colonial
influences, peasant farmers practice
commercial market orientated farming.
Martiniaue is sited as a model for
countries seeking to develop their
economy on an agrarian base.

CUMPER, George E. "A Modern Jamaican S,.C,
Sugar Estate." Social and Economic
Studies 3, No. 3 (September, 1954):
- 119-160. rMOA/JAM; UWI/ISEP]

Provides historical account of sugar
in the Frome area and reports settlement
and some social and economic characteristics
of Frome estates and surrounding hill farm
area, based on a 191I survey and 1943
census.

---. "Labour and Development in the S,J,M
West Indies, Part 1." Social and
Economic Studies 10, No. 3 (September
1961): 278-305. f[OA/JAM; UWI/ISEF]

Looks at form of household and its
expenditure patterns for Barbados and
Jamaica. Includes a discussion of
problems with household survey data.
Discusses also effect of class on
consumption and the social effects of
trade unionism.

---. "on-Economic Factors Influencing Pural S
Development Planning." Social and Economic
Studies 17, No. 3 (September 1968) 213-251.
[MnA/JAF; UWI/ISEF ]

Suggests questions, research directions,
and the unknowns of a shift to medium
size farms and resettlements.

---. "he Jamaican Family: Village and S,C
Estate," Social and Economic Studies 7,
No. 1 (March 1958) : 76-108. [MOA/JAM;
UWI/ISER ]








Traditional economic labor theory did
not seem to apply to West Indian laborers,
so this sociological study into atti-
tudes was made. a sugar worker's work
performance is affected by his 'location'
in the family group. This article
provides details of typical life cycles
and household social structures in a
highland village and a sugar estate.
Workers with family have more 'wants'
and will work harder to achieve them than
will the unattached.

--. "The Pelation of Certain Social S,J
Characteristics to Productivity and
to Economic Development in Jamaica
and Barbados." Unpublished Ph.D.
dissertation, University of London,
1959.

---. "Two Studies in Jamaican Productivity." S,SC,2
Social and economicc Studies 1, No. 2
(June 1953): 1-83. [MOA/JAM; UWI/ISEP]

Discusses concepts of productivity and
looks at output per work and labor as a
percentage of total cost in various
industries. Also reports results of a
survey of F60 households, of 760 sugar
workers (1 in 10 sample) at Frome estate
and 122 in Caymanes. Has detailed informa-
tior on frame, survey, etc. and data on
earnings by age, family size, ownership
of land, education, etc.

---, and LAMONT, M. "Peport on Income S,?
Distribution in Jamaica, 1963." (Unpub-
lished). Kingston: central Planning Unit,
196 .

Based on 1963-64 household expenditure data.

DENTON, Evelyn H. "The Economic Determinants S
of Fertility in Jamaica." Unpublished
Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University,
1975.

DORMA ', E.V. "Agricultural Programmes S,Pr
Undertaken by RLCAN Jamaica Limited and
Reynolds Jamaica Mines." Unpublished
undergraduate thesis. Dept. of Geography,
University of West Indies, Mona, 1971.
[GD/UWI/JAM ]


"The Political Process


DUNCAN, Neville.


S,P







and Attitudes in a Jamaican Parish
Council." Social and Economic Studies 19,
No. 1 (March 1970): 89-113. [MOA/JAM;
UWI/ISEF]

A discussion of local government in
Manchester parish. Some useful material
on working of the group, as well as
public administration technical analysis.

-. "Small Farming in Jamaica: A Social
Scientist's View." Work and Family
Life: West Indian Perspectives, edited
by L. COMITAS and D. LOWENTHAL. New
York: Anchor Books, 1973.

Article provides a general discussion.
Suggests that small farmer in Jamaica
is economically efficient given resources
and risk and uncertainty. Proposes
removal of credit risk (requiring of land
as collateral) and secure land titles.

_--. "The Development of Small-Scale
Farming: Two Cases from the Commonwealth
Caribbean." Caribbean Quarterly 18, No. 1,
(1972): 59-71. [UWI/WIC]

Compares Jamaican small-farming and market
gardening in "rinidad. Suggests Jamaican
farmer has rational (though non-optimal)
response to perceived risk and non-avail-
ability of resources. The response is to
minimize cash outlays. In Trinidad farmers
have rapidly taken on new techniques.
Suggests that difference in response not
simply explained by relative efficacy of
recommended practices, but that aggressive
entrepreneurs of Trinidad learnt by
experience that innovation is profitable.
Experience of Jamaicans has not been as
positive though some has occurred e.g.
St. Elizabeth peanut farming. Community
cultural practices have an effect, e.g.
strongly progressive in Trinidad.
Alternative strategies to innovation
suggested: education on benefits,
imposed use, creation of new farmers
and/or farms and improved environment.


DUNN, C.L. and PAPENHFIMER, E.J.
"Viability of Dairy Settlement Farms
in Jamaica." Journal of Northeast
Agricultural Economics Council 3,
No. 1 (May 197L) : 35-47. [NAL:
HD1773.?2N6]


S D
- r *


S, SC,I-C,









A study in 1971 of 3" of 57 farmers
settled on dairy farms as part of
AID funded dairy settlement project.
Few farmers had met repayment schedules;
the objective of the study was to
determine if this could be done, with
a remaining 'sufficient income.'
Regression estimates indicated that net
income depended on number of cows,
concentrate feed, and stocking rate
Estimates suggested repayment was
possible, over opportunity cost wages,
and that long run rate of return was
17-1/2 percent. Suggests that inefficiency
of irrigation system, high consump-
tion expenditures, sale on pro-
cessed rather than fluid milk, and
lower than optimal intensity of
use of resources reduce potential
income.

EBANKS, G. Edward. "Differential Internal S
Migration in Jamaica." Social and
Economic studies 17, Mo. 2 (June 19A8):
197-214. [MOA/JAM; [WI/ISEF]

Indices of differential migration are
calculated for immigrants with total
population at point of destination as
base. These are used to describe dif-
ference in pattern and intensity of
migration by parish. Five variables
considered are age, education,
training, industry category and occu-
pation. Results with respect to
these variables are reported for
data based on the 1960 census of
population. Females are more nu-
merous than males in the migrant
stream, but males were more selective
(that is, migrants had a higher
proportion of specific traits
than the base population.)
Urban in migration was much greater
than rural, but rural was more selec-
tive. ?uthor suggests that these
results reflect "push stimulus for
migration".

EHPLICH, A.S. "Ecological Perception and S,C
Economic Adaptation in Jamaica." Human
Organization 33, No. 2 (Summer 1974):
1 5-61.


East Indians employed in sugar (formerly







indentured) produced rice (195u) in
rented morass lands of Westmoreland.
The crop cycle was complimented as rice
sown in April and transplanted in June/
July at end of cane crop, and harvested
before sugar work started in November.
In 1959 lands drained for sugar expansion.
Indians no longer grow rice for food and
have lower money incomes, and no way of
utilizing their labor.

EYPE, Lawrence A. Geographic Aspectsf S
Population Dynamics in Jamaica. Boca
Paton: Florida Atlantic University
Press, 1972. PP. 172 + xiv. Biblio-
graphy.

Jamaica has experienced a high popula-
tion growth rate. This study analyses
the effect of population pressure on
resource use within Jamaica. Shows
the changes in population between 1943
and 1960 by ecological-economic zone
and 1960 fertility ratios using
aggregations of the 152 census unit.
Changes in land occupancy arid cropping
type were developed for same period
(1943 to 1960) from census data and
aerial photos. Relation between
population change and type of land
occupancy are investigated using
regression.

Four areas, from different ecologic-
economic zones were chosen for
detailed field study. Fach area is
described in detail and land use
and population data provided. Income
and cost data not collected systema-
tically though description of a small
sample of households in each area.
The author's conclusions on the popula-
tion change, resource use change
situation is summarized at the end of
each description. Although partly
impressionistic these field studies
provide a very valuable background
for understanding small-farmer
agriculture.

---. GeoraDhic Aspects of Population
Dynamics in Jamaica. Ph.D. dissertation,
University of Maryland, 1969.

0n basis of census divisions, a
typology of ecologic-economic zones







the spatial patterns of population,
population change and fertility are
analyzed. Absorptive capacity and
areal differentials in the repatterning
of population over time are shown to be
related to type and intensity of land
occupance. Intensive field surveys
are presented of four specific rural
communities in which different options
have been utilized. Study forms basis
of book (Eyre 1972).

FONAROFF, L. Schuyler. "Settlement S,N
Typology and Infant Malnutrition in
Jamaica." Tropical and Geographical
Medicine 21, No. 2 (June 1969) : 177-
18g.

looks at mortality statistics of 6
months to 4 years (mortality statistics
in Jamaica statistically reliable) in
St. James and St. Elizabeth in relation
to settlement type. Types related to
morphology of service function show
little correlation to PCM (protein calory
malnutrition). Suggests that PCM relates
to socio-economic characteristics of house-
hold rather than market-place (remoteness,
under-education, social structure, migra-
tion and employment patterns). Mapping of
PCM deaths shows correlation with spe-
cific population agglomerations. Social
structure with highest PCM is suggested
to be that with absent mother (with no
supporting male). Hypothesis that
areas close to employment sites will
have high migration rates, absentee
mothers and high PCM, and that areas
with low employment opportunities will
have high migration, absentee mothers
and probability of high PCM incidence.
May be a useful indicator of lowest
income group.

FONE?, Nancy. Status and Power in ural S
Jamaica. A Study of Educational and
Political Change. 1973. Pp. 172,
Appendix, Index, Bibliography.
[U.S. Fmbassy Library, Jamaica
LC 2)6.J27F66 ]

Analysis based on a case study of a
rural Jamaica community from 1968-69.
Deals with role of education and
political change in Coco Hill, St.
'nn's Parish, a relatively prosperous







specialty crop area.

FOOD AND PGRICULTUPE ORGANIZATION and UNITED
NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROJECT. Worker
Participation in Agricultural Development.
Report on a FAO/UNDP mission. July-
September 1974, [mimeo]. Pp. 23. [Very
limited circulation.]

This report attempts to "tell it like it is,"
mincing no words about worker attitudes and
goes on to suggest new forms of self-reliant,
labor controlled land production organization.
The relation of labor to the production
environment is characterized as "passive
endurance." This report is background to
the planning of Project Land Lease II.

HARRIS, P.N. and STEEP, P.S. "Demographic- S
resource Push in Fural Migration: A
Jamaican Case Study." Social and Economic
Studies 17, No. 4 (December 1968):
398-4L6. [MOA/JAM; UWI/ISE?]

Uses survey data for UNDP survey of Pedro
Plains to determine if migration is
affected significantly by locality,
farm size and family size. Results
suggest no effect of location (within
area) but large family sizes with large
size exhibit high migration.

HENPY, Frances and WIISON, Pamela. "The F,J
Status of Women in Caribbean Societies:
An Overview of 'heir Social, Economic
and Sexual Poles." Social and Economic
Studies 24, No. 2 (June 1975): 165-198.

Not particularly applicable to women's
role in agriculture.

HICKS, F. "Making a Living During the Dead S,J
Season in Sugar-Producing Regions of the
Caribbean." Human Organization 31, No. 1
(Spring 1972) : 73-81.

Suggests 3 patterns of dead season
subsistence: minifundia: small land-
holdings of size inadequate for year-round
income; landless proletariat: non-agri-
cultural activities; and Cuban socialist
pattern. Jamaica is considered belonging
to first category.

HILL, V.G. and WILLIAMS, S.A. "The S,J
Relationship between the Eauxite Industry
and the Agricultural Sector in Jamaica."








Proceedings of the Ninth West Indies
Agricultural Economics Conference
Held at the Pegasus Hotel New
Kingstonj_ Jamaica, April 3-6. 1974
and at the Jamaica schooll of Aqriculture,
Twickenham Park, April 3-6, 1971. St.
Augustire, Trinidad: Dept. of Agri-
cultural Economics, University of
West Indies, 1974. Kingston, 197U.
[UWI/ISE? 1

The development of mineral resources and
the bauxite alumina industry in particular
may involve competition with other
industries like agriculture for land,
labour and capital but, at the same time,
it can provide market opportunities for
agricultural products. The only real
area of competition is wage rates, since
the mineral industry pays a significantly
higher rate than does agriculture. A
bauxite laborer ranks higher in the
social strata than an agricultural
laborer and potential agricultural
workers who fail to gain employment in
the bauxite industry often go unemployed
rather than opt for agriculture.

HOROWITZ, Michael. "A Typology of Fural ?
Community Farms in the Caribbean."
Anthroplosgjic al Quarterly 33 (October
1960) : 177-87.

Discussion is not on basis of detailed
survey. Suggests that community integra-
tion is much less than in Central America.
Small farms have greater community integra-
tion, sugar estates least.

HUSTED, Joan E. "Elderslie, A Rural Jamaican F
Village--A Sociological Description."
('imeo) Pp. 38. Bibliography [Not dated].

This paper is a portion of the Cornell
University Medical College, Community
Medicine Division studies which were
conducted in 1970-71 in Elderslie, St.
Elizabeth Parish. Has useful, brief
historical, politico-economic introduction
for Jamaica and insightful comments on
psycho-social motivations of rural poor.
For example, "There are strong pressures
on individuals to accept their traditional
place in the community structure, and envy
and ill will often arise in response to an
individual's prosperity... isolation,








hostility, envy and lack of long-term
cooperation are some of the social
problems."

HJ"rCHINSON, M. "A Geographical Survey of the
Idle Land on Small Farms in St. Mary."
Unpublished undergraduate thesis. Dept.
of Geography, University of West Indies,
Mona, 1971. [GD/UWI/JAM ]

"INNIS, Donald Q. "Human Ecology in Jamaica." S
Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University
of California, Berkeley, 1959.

---. "Peasant Farming: Banana Intercropping F,(
in Jamaica." Proceedinqs of Association
of Americar Geographers, 5 (1973) : 111-117.

Details the intimate adaptation of peasant
farmers to local physical conditions. Also
demonstrates the logic of various associa-
tions of plants typically cultivated together.

---. "Peasant Farming: Banana Intercropping S,C
in Jamaica." Proceedinqs of associationn
of American Geographers. 5, (1973): 111-
117.

An analysis of banana production in Jamaica
shows the sophistication with which local
cultivators adapt plant combinations to
local conditions. Inter-cropping is the
most efficient way of production for
peasant farmers.

---. "he Ffficiency of Jamaican Peasant ,.LC
Land ITse." The Canadian Geoqrapher 5,
No. 2 (Summer 1961): 19-23.

Study carried out in highland area
of Manchpster parish in 1951 on a
sample of small farms (average size
7 acres). Maps land use, showing
plants in each field to show plant
mixing. Describes thp patterns of
intercropping and the method of
cultivation of bananas. Suggests
reasons for the greater technical
efficiency of inter-cropping. Does
not provide adequate analysis, but
a useful introductory description
of highland farming land use.

INSTITUTE INPERPAMEIICANO DE CIENCIAS
AGPICOIAS (IICA) Basic Agricultural
Information on Jamaica. Document 1,







January 1977. (Internal Document of
Work).

Basic _ricultural Informa+ion on S
Jamaica. Jan. 1977, 42 pp. + 25 tables.
[FDS/AID/JAm ]

A compendium of available crop, program
and sector characteristics available in
1977.

--- and MINISTPY OF ?GFPICULTUE, JAMAICA. S,T,LC,"
Hillside Farming Technology Intensive
Short Course, Vol. I and Vol. II. Kingston,
March 1978, 470 pp. FrDS/AID/JAM]

Contain 28 articles on all aspects of
small farms, including five on aspects
of soils, two on farming systems, 13 on
specific crops, 8 on agricultural tech-
nology and miscellaneous on sociology,
marketing and management.

INTERNLTION11 GEOUP FOP AGPICULTUFAL DEVELOPMENT S
IN LATIN AMEPICA AND -HE CARIBBEAN (GIDA/AL).
Jamaica. Situation Actual de su Agricultura.
Washington, D.C., 1976.

JACQUES, Alfonso F. "Population Redis- S,J
tributicn: An Aspect of Urbanization
and Settlement Policy in Jamaica."
Unpublished M.A, thesis, University
of British Columbia, 1965.

JAMAICA. Jamaica Agricultural Society. S,J
Agriculture in the New Jamaican Economy.
Kingston: Jamaica Agricultural Society,
1964t, PD29. [UWI/WIC: HD9G14.J2J3]

---. Ministry of Agriculture (probable S,JCLCE
author). AgLriculture Sectcr Study, (for)
Ministerial meetings, July 1973.
Approximately 80 pp. [RDS/AID/JAM]

Has sections on sugar, bananas, small
farmers, food crops, livestock, fisheries,
other crops, land use, credit, extension
and administration.

JAMAICA AGPICULTUP.L SOCIETY. Current
Problems of Jamaican Agriculturp,
Seminar No. 1. Kingston, 1967.
Pp. 107. [MOA/JAl 63:33]


"Resettlement of Small Farmers


S,L7


JOHNSON, E.F.








by Kaiser Bauxite Co., St. Ann." Unpub-
lished undergraduate thesis. Dept. of
Geography, University of West Indies,
Mona, 1976. [GD/UWI/JAM ]

JOHNSON, I. and STPACHAN, M. "Agricultural
Development in Jamaica." Proceedinas_of
the Ninth West Indies Agricultural
Economics Conference,_Pegasus Hotel, New
,instgon._Jamaica April 3-6, 1974 and at
the Jamaica School of Agriculture,
Twickenham Park, ARril 7-1 0 1974.
St. Augustine, Trinidad: Dept. of
Agricultural Economics, University of
West Indies, 197U, pp. 3-22. [UWI/ISE7]

The paper analyzes the structure of
Jamaican agriculture, examines the various
sub-sectors, including land use, land
tenure and land distribution, and assesses
where possible the problems and needs of
the sector. Jamaican agriculture is
divided between two sub-sectors, planta-
tion or export agriculture and the small
farm sector.

Land settlement efforts are discussed in
some detail. Authors recommend that
emphasis should be placed on measures
for achieving a more equitable pattern
of land distribution and that there
should be a more rational and intensive
pattern of land use.

JOHNSON, S. "Small Farming in Pepper and ,Pr
the Impact on C.A.L.A." Unpublished
undergraduate thesis. Dept. of Geography,
University of West Indies, Mona, 1973.
[GD/UWI/JAM ]

KETON, Robert B. "Labour Theory and S,J
Developing Countries: The Individual
Supply of vffori in the Caribbean." Unpub-
lished Dh.D. dissertation, Duke University,
1968.

---. ""he Unemployability Hypothesis and S,J
Effective Supply of Effort." Social and
Economic Ftudies 20, No. 2 (June 1971):
134-150. rMOA/JAI; rWI/ISF.]

An excellent article with well-developed
argument (with evidence) analyzing the concept
of labor unemployability. Unemployability
is defined as either absolute (incapable of
performing useful work) or price unemploy-
ability in which productivity is lower than








going wage rate. Suggests that this second
type is significant due to lack of training,
social habits which give a high rate of
absenteeism and effects of the time (5
years) to get job. Author carried out
survey of 73 unemployed males in Kingston
to estimate supply of effort. Forty-
nine percent had no objection to farm
employment (at assumed going wage rate).
Over 50 percent of those with objections found
pay too low, especially as work is irregular.
Author estimated MVP of labor from modified
version of 1954 Edwards data at $37 per year.
The reservation price for unemployed urban
males was $3 per week. Alternative formulation
is set up of labor surplus model with
elastic demand for modern sector and
elastic demand for sugar industry.
Author contends that market supply curve
has elastic section which is a social
consensus on reservation price (see
Maunder 1960). Suggests low productivity
as most important problem, rather than
overhigh supply prices.

KNIGHT, I. "Small Farming in Brown's Hall-- S
St. Catherine." Tnpublished undergraduate
thesis. Dept. of Geography, University of
West Indies, Mona, 1971. [GD/UWI/JAM]

KPUIJE?, G.J. Sociological exportt or the S
Christiana Area, Kingston, Ministry of
Agriculture, Agricultural Information
Service, Kingston, 1969. [MOA/JAM]

This has an original 1956 publication
date. Reports results of survey work
on various sociological items to sup-
plement another economic survey. Covers
also more general sociological description
and recommendations. .reas include social
systems, leadership, social strata, insti-
tutions, cultural change, traditional
practices, major problems of farmers,
education, communication of practices,
social welfare.

Out of date, but republished by MOA as
useful. It is a detailed description
of village life, from the point of view
of agricultural extension, and thus
provides useful background.

LAWPENCF, D. "Study of Port Maria Land S
Authority." -Unpublished undergraduate
thesis. Dept. of Geography, I!niversity







of West Indies, Mona, 1973. [GD/UWI/JAM]

LION, Donor M. Assessment of Jamaica's S
Agricultural Sector. Kingston: IUAID/
JPM, June 1976. Pp. 139. [RDS/AID/JAM]

Contains a summary analysis of 10 major
problem areas in Jamaican agriculture
and an evaluation of programs which are
implemented or proposed to deal with
them.

LOWE-CHING, F. "The Economics and Economic S
Geography of Small Farming." Unpublished
undergraduate thesis. Dept. of Geography,
University of West Indies, Mona, 1976.
[GD/UWI/JAM]

LOWENTHAL, David. West Indian Societies. S,J
1972. Pp. 385, Index, Bibliography
(u3 pp.). [U.S. Embassy Library/
Jamaica]

A review of analyses of the origins
of social and racial attitudes in the
Caribbean. A good overview, though
should not be accepted uncritically,
it has been criticized for over-
generalization.

TYTTLE, F. "Geography and Economics of
Small Farming in the Kellits Area."
Unpublished undergraduate thesis. Dept.
of Geography, University of West Indies,
Mona, 1975. [GD/UWI/JAM]

---. "Small Agriculture in Kellits Area." S
Unpublished undergraduate thesis. Dept.
of Geography, University of West Indies,
Mona, 1975. [GD/UWI/J1M ]

McCULICCH, Cedric S. "Some Ideas on the S
Sociology of Small Farming in Jamaica."
Proceedings of Fifth West Indian Agri-
cultural Economics Conference, ?oseau,
Dominica_ 1970. St. Rugustine, Trinidad:
University of West Indies, Department of
Agricultural Economics, 1970. [ M O/JAM]

A useful summary of previous work by
author and others on social and economic
characteristics of srall-scale farming
in Jamaica: poor quality land and
fragmentation, low farm income, low level
of education and dislike for agriculture,
farming considered a way of life, high








degree of tenancy, frustration and
adjustment, individualism and low levels
of co-operation. resistancee to change
is explained by need for funds for
consumption before production, planning
from above, and extension agents poorly
trained in economics and sociology.

MPSHALL, Wocdville K. "Notes on Peasant S,J
Development in the West Indies since
1838." Social and Economic Studies
17, No. 3 (September 1968): 252-263.

Looks at historical development to
19%0. Data on Jamaica the most
detailed.

---. "Peasant Movements and Agrarian
Problems in the West Indies: Part I--
Aspects of Development of the Peasantry."
Caribbean_ quarter 1y 18, No. 7 (March
1972) : 30-U6. rUWI/WIC]

Gives historical review (to 1938) of
origin of peasantry, some of welfare
and political organizations and overt
attempts at political action to change
conditions. Concentrates on Jamaica.
Useful background.

MUNDEF, W.F. Employment in an Under- ,J,S C
developed area: A Sample Survey of
Kingston, _Jamaica. New Haven, Yale
University Press, 1960.

Quoted as suggesting a reserve price
for labor supply, based on alternatives
to working: mutual aid (families),
common property resources (tree crops),
theiving and begging.

MILI', F.L. "Production relationships F,J
among Small-Scale Farmers in St. Kitts."
Social and Economic Studies 25, No. 2,
(June 1976) : 153-167. [MCA/JAM; UWI/ISF ]

A valuable article even though not on
Jamaica. It is shown that production
function analysis is appropriate in
answering questions concerned with the
optimal level of input combination and
can help planning agencies to make the
best decision in allocating scarce
resources. Constant returns, to scale,
appear +o exist among smallholders over
the range of inputs studied. If current








inputs are each increased by 1 percent while the
others are held constant, land will
contribute relatively little while
labour and capital will add more to
total output than their cost. At the
micro-regional level, production can be
increased by moving more land and labour
into the cash-tenants region, and more
labour and capital into the share-tenants
region. A progressive land-reform programme
that makes more fertile land available can
increase overall production among small-
holders, as well as increasing the
productivity of land. Secondary
industries based on animal produce could
be developed if the present stock of
animals could be increased. The small-
scale agricultural production system
is operating much more efficiently
thar is generally realized.

NO1TON, A.V. and CUMPE%, G.E.E.
"'Peasant,' 'Plantation' and 'Urban
Communities' in lural Jamaica: A
'est of the Validity of the Classifi-
cation." Social and Fconomic Studies
15, No. l (December 1966): 338-352.
["OA/JAM ] [UWI/ISF? ]

Uses 19E0 census data to test whether
the anthropological, sociological
labels above describe a significant
part of agriculture in Jamaica. Looks
at frequency of occurrence of combined
characteristics (percent male labor force ir
agriculture, population n-4 years as percent
female population 15-44 years, population
15-59 years as proportion of those 1f-l1 years,
owner occupied housing percent, males per female,
percentage with more than 10 acres. these var-
iables explain a significant part, but a large
part of variation, but leave much unexplained.

OIIVEP, I. "Portland ridge--A Regional
Study." Unpublished undergraduate
thesis. Dept. of Geography, University
of West Indies, Mona, 1973. [GD/UWI/JaM]

PARPY, Martin L. "Land Use in the 'hristiana S
?rea of Jamaica." Unpublished M.Sc. thesis.
Dept. of Geography, University of West Indies,
Mona, 19r8. [GD/'JWI/JAM]

PATTE SON, P.J. "Potential and Production S,?
Targets in Agro-Industry." Farmer
79, No. 1/2 (Jan/Feb 1974): 21-25.
197U.









PETEPSON, Hans Patrick. "Effects of Pesource S
Peallocation on Crop Income from Medium
Size Farms in Jamaica." Unpublished
M.S. Thesis, University of Florida,
1970, Pp. 77. Bibliography.

N linear programming model of medium-sized
farms in four districts of Jamaica.
Comparisons are made between rate of
return to farming with non-farm wage
opportunities. Major differences in
profitability between areas due to soil
and climatic factors were found. Excellent
descriptions of farm types and ecological
conditions given for each region. Low
technology was identified as major
productivity constraint.

PHILLIPS, I. "Some Observation on the S
Impact of C.A.L.A. on the Spaldings
Christiana Area." Unpublished under-
graduate thesis. Dept. or Geography,
University of West Indies, Mona, 1975.
r[GD/UWI/JAM]

FHILLIPS, James Joseph. "Fe Wi Land A S,C
Come: Choice and Charge on a Jamaican
Sugar Plantation." Ph.D. dissertation,
Brown University, 1976.

Chapters discuss decision-making among
workers in relation to: immigrating
to and emigrating from the district,
consumption work (strikes, alternative
work), seizing unused land around
plantation and membership in worker-
run sugar producing co-op management
for plantation.

POLLOCK, N.J. "Women and the Division of S,J,C
Labour: B Jamaican Example." American
AnthroEpEloqist 74, No. 3 (1972) : 689-692.

Women's contribution to subsistence
farming is considered. In Jamaica
farming is one of the few occupations,
but there is also a shortage of young
men in most villages. Reliance on the
production support of women is part of the
life cycle of the co-residential family,
i.e. the young woman. A male member
usually only returns to share economic
responsibility when the couple reach
middle age. .This structural adjustment
to the demographic imbalance is made







possible by the ecology and nature of
subsistence farming.

POWELL, Dorian L. "Ferrale Labour Force S,J
Participation and Fertility: An
Exploratory Study of Jamaican Women."
Social and Economic Studies 25, No. 3
(Sep. 197f): 234-258.

rses 1970 census to look at relation-
ship set out in title. Provides some
more general data also--a high labour
force participation rate (i.e. over
C percent) for unmarried women even in rural
areas. Number of children reduced
participation rate.

"ICKETTS, N.E. "Soil Development on Paised S
Peefs in the Port Maris-Oracabessa Area,
St. Mary." Unpublished undergraduate
thesis. Dept. of Geography, University of
West Indies, Mona, 1971. [GD/UWI/JAM ]

S""he Economic Geography of Small Farming
in Frankfield." Unpublished undergraduate
thesis. Dept. of Geography, University of
West Indies, Mona, 1976. [GD/UrWI/JAM

PITSON, C. "A Framework for Analysing the S,P
Contribution of the Agricultural Sector
to Economic Development." Journal of
Agricultural Economics 24, No. 1 (1973):
57-83.

Develops, a Fei/?anis type model to look
at role of agriculture in development, and
then uses Jamaican sugar industry as a pol-
icy problem example, i.e. large unemployed
unskilled labor, industry incompetitive
internationally and labor shortage.
Suggests lack of land and push of less-
than-subsistence average product, puts
unemployed in urban sector, with an
institutionally determined wage.
Suggests social welfare instead of high
wage rates.

QOBETS, 3.W. "Demographic Aspects s
of ?ural Development: the Jamaican
Experience." Social and Economic
Studies 17, Mo. 3 (September 198) :
276-282. rMCA/JkM; UWI/ISJ) ]

Looks at census data (1881-196C)
for Jamaica to determine
migration and sets up index








of education and occupation status
for parishes in 1960 census.
Considerable population growth
occurred in small towns. Not an in
depth analysis.

--- "Demographic Aspects of Pural S
Development: The Jamaican Experience."
Social and Economic Studies 17, No. 3
(Sep. 1968) : 276-282. [MOA/JAM;
UWI/ISER]

Looks at effects of external and
internal migration on growth of rural
population for intercensal periods
from 1881 to 1960. Looks also at
parish level population changes (but
not intra parish) fror 1943 and 1960 a
and compares them to an index of
education and occupational state
(percent professional, clerical and super-
visory personnel).

pnonTHAM, D. "Class Structure and Community S,J
Structure in Jamaica." Unpublished M.A.
Thesis, Dept. cf Anthropology, University
of Chicago, 1970.

SAPOOP, H. "A Geographical Appraisal of S
the Dairy Cattle Industry of Jamaica."
Unpublished undergraduate thesis. Dept.
of Geography, University of West Indies,
Mona, 1968. [GD/UWI/J4M ]

SINCLAID, Dennis. "Jamaica Wicker Works:
A Case Study of a Small Industry in
the Development of Pural Jamaica."
Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation,
University of Michigar, 1975.

Reports results of an 18-month action
project involving establishment of
Jamaica Wicker Works in Chatsford,
St. James. Author served as a
participant observer, providing the
capital and initiative to establish
the business.

FMITH, Michael G. "Community Organization S,D
in Fural Jamaica." Social and Economic
Studies 5, No. 2 (June 1956) : 295-312.

Discusses rural communities as sub-groups
of a village. There are informal ties
which are not very tight, but also are
not the same as formal organizations.








---. Labour uppy in rural Jamaica. S,C
Kingston: Government Printer, 19%6.

A report based on a 19'5 large-scale
survey and detailed analysis by
anthropologist of labour situation in
Jamaica. Frequently quoted.

---. "Patterns of Rural Labour." Work and S
Family Life: West Indian Perspectives.
Edited by I. Comitas and D. Lowenthal.
New York: anchor Books, 1973.

Describes labor force characteristics
and demand and supply (as seen at farm
level) of estates, riddle sized properties
and small farms, including labor-exchange
practices.

---, ani KPUIJEP, G.J. 4 Socioloqical 3,?
Manual for Extension Workers in the
Caribbean. Mona, Jamaica: Extramural
Department, University of West Indies,
1957, 255 pp. [MOA/JAM] [UWI/WIC:
HN 245.553]

Over 100 pages of discussion of social
attitudes and group behavior characteristics
of rural Jamaica.

SMITH, V.D. "Social and Fconomic Changes and ?,Pr
Development in Clarendon as a Result of
Alcoa Minerals of Jamaica Inc. Operation
in the Parish." Unpublished undergraduate
thesis. Dept. of Geography, University of
West Indies, Mona, 1968. [GD/UWI/J M]

STEWAT, S. "Agriculture--South Clarendon
?lains." Unpublished undergraduate thesis.
Dept. of Geography, University of West
Indies, Mona, 1977. fGD/UWI/JAM]

STONE, Carl. ". Sociological Survey of Tenant F,-:
Farmers on Project Land Lease." (Mimeo)
Jamaica, Ministry of Agriculture, Oct. 14,
197L, 39 pp. + appendix. [PDS/PID/JAM]

Report of a sociological survey of U20
farmers on land leased from the GOJ.
Profiles social character and assesses
goals and aspirations of co-operating
farmers.

---. "Class, Community and Leadership on SC
a Jamaicar Sugar Plantation." Economic








Development and Social Change 24 (July
1976) : 787-798.

This work is part of a larger field study
of sugar-estate communities in Jamaican
Clarendon sugar belt (financed by Inter-
American Foundation). Interviews were
in January 1974. Covers survey of Baldwin
Cottage and a compound on Moneymusk Estates.
Has breakdown on income (crop-time), and
occupation. Explores hypotheses linking
class solidarity with community solidarity.
Results suggest that where there is com-
munity solidarity there is more confidence
in local leadership. Also gives information
on savings association, trade union, and
co-op support and conflicts.

--. Sociopolitical Aspects of the S, C
Suaar Co-operatives. Mona, Jamaica:
Dept. cf Government, University of West
Indies, 1976. [UWI/WIC]

Provides results of questionnaire on
attitudes and looks at weaknesses and
strengths with respect to co-op activity.

TIDPICK, Gene M. "Wage Spillover and S,J
Unemployment in a Wage-Gap Economy;
the Jamaican Case." Economic Develop-
ment and Cultural Change 23, No. 2
(January 1975) : 306-324.

A model is presented of a 'wage-gap'
economy (i.e. an economy in which
the wage in one sector is set higher
than equilibrium for +hat level of
skill) which is used to analyse
employment and unemployment in
Jamaica. The model is somewhat
similar to that of Todaro. It
provides a very significant contribu-
tion to the study of labor demand and
supply. Concludes that Jamaica is
able to have higher measured unemploy-
ment rate than poorer countries (e.g.
Haiti) because there is both the
incentive and means to support
unemployment. Any reduction in the
number of unemployed, or increase in
hiring of the high wage sector raises
the probability of obtaining a high
wage job and induces supply withdrawal
from the low-wage sector. Labor
shortages in agriculture exist because
expected lifetime earnings from high








wage job are higher and because occa-
sional non-agricultural casual work
gives workers means of support while
they look for work in high wage sector.
Essential reading.

---. "Wage Fpillover and Unemployment S,J
in a Wage Gap Fconory: The Jamaican
Case." (Fesearch Memorandum, No. 47).
Williamstown: Center for Development
Economics, Williams College, June 1972
(mimeo).

---. "Wages and Unemployment in Jamaica." C,J
Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard
University, 1972.

TINGLING, V. "The Impact of aLPA"' on the S
Small Peasant--A Socio/Spatial View on
the qouth Eastern St. Elizabeth Area."
Unpublished undergraduate thesis. Dept.
of Geography, University of West Indies,
Mona, 1975. [GD/UWI/JAI ]

UNITED NATIONS. Economic Commission for
Latin America. Economic Survey of
Latin America 1969. New York: 1969.

Has a comparative analysis of income
distribution in Latin America and
the Caribbean, including Jamaica and
other Commonwealth Caribbean countries.
1963-64 data are used for Jamaica
analysis.

UNITED STATES. Agency for International S,J
Development. Jamaica agriculturall Sector
Assessment. Eural Poor Profile, Constraint
Analysis and AID Strategy. October 197r.
Bibliography, Appendix, 60pp.
[FDS/MID/JAM]

A comprehensive review of Jamaican
agricultural situation. Has two sections
on marketing.

UNIVERSITY OF WEST I;1DIrC. Department of C,E
Social and Preventive Medicine. Manual
for Community Health Workers. Mona,
Jamaica: University of the West
Indies, [No date]. [TUW/WIC]

Contains numerous insights into the
sociology of rural Jamaica and how to
succeed and what to avoid in organizing
projects to promote change.









WATTS, K.F. "The Class Conflicts in rural 3
Jamaica," UnDublished M.A. Thesis,
University of West Indies, 1974. 95 pp.
bibliography. r WI/WIC ]

WEBSTER, Aimee. "Small Farmer's Pole in S
Jamaica's Economy." New Commonwealth
London, 31, No. 1 (January 1961):
65-66.

WILLIAMS, Allan Nathaniel. "Agricultural S,P
Re-nrganization and the Economic
Development of the Working Class in
Jamaica." Unpublished Ph.D. dis-
sertation, Cornell University, 1976.

Objective is to develop guidelines
for state policy in reorganizing
the agricultural sector within a
socialist framework.

WRIGHT, U. "Agriculture in Phymesbury-- S
Vernam Field." unpublished undergraduate
thesis. Dept. of Geography, University of
West Indies, Mona, 1976. [GD/UWI/JAM]

YOUNG, Ruth C. "The Structural Context S,J
of Caribbean Agriculture: A Com-
parative Study." Journal of
Developing Areas, 10 No. 4 (July
1976) : 426-U44.

Study carried out on hypothesized
characteristics of 'plantation
agriculture.' A set of 15 char-
acteristics are defined for all
export crops of the Caribbean by
country and a principle components
analysis performed. Three components
were rotated and these explain 60 percent
of variance. These were termed
progressive peasant agriculture (which
is island specific), depending (which
is crop specific), and large-scale
speciality crop. Jamaica has some

export crops which are small farmer
produced. Crops covered in analysis
for Jamaica are cocoa, citrus, all-
spice, ginger, coffee, bananas, and
sugar. Correlation between these
components and measures of economic
and political position were carried
out. Correlations with progressive
peasant agriculture were significant





54


and related negatively to proportion
in agriculture and violent change
in government.

social costs; and setting out structural
factors facing the small-farm sector.
Suggests a general policy to remove
development obstacles. Admits that
process of transformation envisaged
will not be easy. Essential hack-
ground reading.








AGPiICULTP EP:
SURVEYS, CENSUSES, STATISTICS



aLCAN JAMAICA LTD. Agricultural Division SC,LC
R eort. (Annual) Pp. 89. Tables
[RDS/AID/JAM]

A yearly summary of agricultural
production and reseaach on bauxite
lands managed by Alcan both restored
and held for mining.

---. urvey of Aqricultural Production SC,Lr
on Holdings Farmed by Alcan Tenants.
Jamaica, 1972. Pp. 22 [MOA/JAM 333.5]

Land rented is that held for bauxite
mining or restored land. Over 4,000
tenants rent 21,800 acres. Survey of
70, one group with concentrated
extension and one without. Reports
acreage, production, value by size
group. Gross value per acre $175.6/acre
for those with extension, $92.4 for
those without.

3BLLAND, O.N. "Literacy in a ?ural SC,E,S
Area of Jamaica." Social and Economic
Studies XX, (March 1971): 28-31.
([MO/JAM; TTWT/ISEP

Surveyed 176 people (approximately 60 percent
of population) of two hillside communities
(Content Gap and St. Peters) in upper
Yallah Valley. Reports socio-economic
data on participants (size of household,
rooms per person etc.). Forty percent
percent owned 1 acre or less and 19 percent
over 5 acres. Vegetables were main crop (home
consumed), bananas (72%), and coffee
(56%) and flowers. Little contact reported
from Land Authority or Agricultural Society.
Farmer wanted help for weather damage.
Respondents were tested for literacy (ability
to read a paper and write a letter). About
25 percent could not read or write and about
10 percent more could only perform poorly.
Farmers did not perceive illiteracy as affecting
their farming (it did not affect membership
in Jamaica Agriculture Society), but con-
sidered it important for children to give
them a non-agricultural career alternative.
Assumes need for 5 years or more of
schooling and estimates from survey








that more than 50 percent of functional
illiterates are under 40.

C'ITIKSHANK, F.K. and FCX, Helen C. SC,r
Dietary _Survey of JaaFaaican Familieslower
income _Eural ani Urban. Kingston:
Nutrition Committee of Jamaica Government,
1961.

DAVISON, F.B. Labour Shortage_and SC,,
Productivityin the Jamaican Sugqar
Industry. Mona, Jamaica: Institute
of Social and Economic research,
University of West Indies, 1966.
[Mnp/JAM; UWI/ISEF: HD9100-D]

Provides a detailed discussion of labor
organization, attitudes and gives data
on productivity. 7 survey of workers
attitudes and performance is central
to this study. Covers number of days
worked, number of hours per day,
number of tons produced. An insight-
ful section on 'social' factors
affecting supply and productivity of
labor is included. Provides recom-
mendations.

- --. n Economic Study of Small Farminq SC,C;
in Jamaica. Kingston: Institute of
Social and Pconomic Fesearch, 1961.
[F DS/AID/JAM; k/JA9M

Peports 194-55, study of a sample of
small farmers across Jamaica. Has a
detailed methodology chapter discussing
non-statistical sample of 87 farmers used
for intensive data collection using
weekly records, etc. Has detailed data
on resource use and returns: Includes
life cycle earnings, community infra-
structure, farm management, land tenure,
capital investment, yields, prices,
costs, efficiency of production, income
and level of living indices. Provides
data on behavior vis-a-vis change, for
example, farmers' reaction to changes
in product or scale; reactions to changes
in intensity or method and entrepreneur-
ial behavior.

Sample has statistical problems, although
the detailed survey work should have
reduced response error. The study is
very old but is considered a classic
study. It has ideas and information








worth exploring and may also provide
a base line for comparison. Essential
reading.

EDWAPDS, D.T. "APr. economic Study of SC,S,L',P
Agriculture in the Yallahs Valley Area
of Jamaica." Social and Economic Studies
3, No. 3/4 (December 1954) : 316-341.

Yallah's valley was the first Land
Authority set up to rehabilitate a mostly
hill farm area. Data in article describes
1953 conditions based on survey taken of
area. Gives data on income (farm and
non-farm) and employment by farm size,
data, type of land, etc. Suggests develop-
ment of ruinate and high value crops.

FOOD AND AGFICULTUPAI OrGANIZATION/UNITED SC,S,T
NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROJECT. Appraisal
Report of Pedro Plains LSt. Elizabeth.
Appendix V--Agronomy. Appendix VI--
Sociological Study (Pina and McCullough).
Appendix VII Irrigation Proposal. AGL:
SF/JA,7 3 Technical Peport 1/A VV, VII.
rome, 1971. [UNDP/FAO; FDS/AID/JAM]

Agro-economic survey was of 199 farmers
(i.e. stratified random sample of 31 percent
of farms and of area). Also included
crop cutting, but drought prevented use
of data. Has area, yield, etc. by farm
size group, use of fertilizer by high,
low, average use. Describes soil, climate,
irrigation, farmer services, farmer
problems. Has recommendations for
improving farm practices and estimated
costs of production. VI: The socio-
logical questionnaire was given to sub-
sample survey (Pina and McCullough) 2;
persons (random in geographical zones).
npen-ended interview based on schedule
covers age grouping, skills, attitudes,
perception of irrigation, particular
communal action, etc.

---. Economic Studyof the Small Hillside SC,S,T
Farmers in the Lucca Cabritta Watershed
Complex. FO: SF/JAM 5 Technical Report
8, Fome, 1972. [TJNDP/JAM; FDS/AID/JM]

Survey of 194 farmers (10 percent sample)
carried out in 1968-69. Results
indicated half owned practically no
land and were paat-time, that crop








seasons resulted in periods of insuf-
ficient labor and seasonal under-
employment. Suggests new technique
for yams, and suggests that new
management schemes should be kept
simple, as present schemes are simple.

--. ForestrDevelopment and Watershed SC,S,T
Management in the Upland Reqions.
Jamaica: Proiect tor the Pehabilitation
andDevelopment of the Pindas River and
Two Meetirgs Watersheds. (FO:DP/JAM/67/
505 tech 13), Pome 1977. [RDS/AID/JAM;
UNDF/JAM]

A watershed survey as background to
rehabilitation investment. Gives legal
and historic aspects of watershed planning
in Jamaica, reviews current plans and
discusses impacts. Government financed
bench terracing of hillslopes and
afforestation are key projects. Numerous
appendices provide information on
reorganization of the Ministry of
Agriculture, soil factors in relation
to land capability, land use surveys,
climate and hychology, soil erosion,
studies, and social and economic
conditions. Appendices of survey
data are described under later MOA
entry.

-- Ground water survey in two SC,?
areas of the interiorL Jamaica.
Appraisal report of Martha Brae
Valley Trelawney. Appendices V,
VI, VII. AEL: SF/JAM 3, Technical
Report 2/AV, VI, VII. Rome, 1971.
fUNDP/JAM; PDS/AID/JAM]

Appendix V covers agro-economic
aspects, VI a sociological survey
and VII the irrigation project.
For agro-economic purposes a survey
of 217 farms in the area was made
in 1967. Has area, yield, etc. by
farm size group, use of fertilizer
by high, low, average use.
Describes soil, climate, irrigation,
farmer services, farmer problems.
Has recommendations for improving
farm practices and estimated costs
of production. In the Appendix VI,
sociological survey was a sub-
sample of 0. individuals, but given








detailed and open-ended questionnaire.

HODNETT, G.E. and NkNTON, W.P.7'. SC,S
"Definitions of a Farm and a Farmer
in Agricultural Statistics in the
West Indies." Social and Economic
Studies 8, No. 2 (March 1959): 190-
1962. [MOP/JAM; UWI/ISER]

A farm in Jamaica is all land
occupied by one operator for
agricultural purposes within one
parish, irrespective of the terms
of occupation and of the number
of parcels of which it is composed.
A farmer is the person financially
responsible for the operation of
the farm, who makes profits directly
resulting from the farming operation.

JAMAICA. Department of Statistics. S',?,LC
Census of Agriculture 1968-- 69.
Preliminary Report, Vol. 1.
Kingston: Dept. of Statistics,
Agricultural Census Unit, 1970.
[FDS/AID/JAM: HD 1846 J32] [MOA/
JAM]

Provides a discussion of organization
and design of census. Note that a
farm is defined as 1 square of cultiva-
tion, 12 economic trees, one head of
cattle, 2 head pigs, goats or sheep,
one dozen poultry, six beehives.
Landless farmers may graze animals on
roadsides, etc. Provides preliminary
results on number of farms by size
groups and parishes, Fy type of manage-
ment, and by type of holding.

------. Census of PAriculture 1968-69. SC,S,IC
Final Peport, Vol. 1, Part A; Vol. 1,
Part B. Kingston, Jan. 1973. RDS/
AID/JAM HD 1846 J32] [MOA/JPM]

Part A provides data by parish, Part
B by land authority. Provides tables
on number of farms by size group,
acreage of farms by size group,
utilization of land by farm size (pure
stand, mixed stand, food forest, grass-
land, fallow, ruinate, etc.), extent
of crops in oure stand (sugar, citrus,
yams, bananas, potatoes, coconut, cocoa,
coffee, other), livestock by farm size.









---. ---. Census of Agriculture 1968-69. C,,LC
Final report, Vol. II, Part A; Vol. II,
Part B. April 1973. [FDS/AID/JAM
HD1846 J32] [SIMO/JAM]

Part a is by parish and Part R by land
authority. Tables are provided on
farm management (single, joint owner,
farm manager) number of parcels and
acreage and by farm size. Use of
fertilizer (number of farms and weight)
and number of crops on which used
(number of farms) by farm size; sources
of communication (paper, Jamaica
Agriculture Society publication, MOA
publication, agricultural offices,
almanac) by farm size, radio and TV
(regular, seldom, never) number of
farms by farm size; number of farmers
on which crops were introduced (and
acreage) by farm size, number of farms
and acreage on which crops were
abandoned, by farm size.

---. ---. Census of Agriculture 1968-69. PC,S,LC
Final PeDort, Vol III Part a, Vol III
Part B, March 1974. [PDS/AID/JAM
HD1846 J32] [MOA/JAM1

Part a gives data by parish, Part B
by land authority. "ables for sex and
age group of farmer by farm size;
farmers' principal means of livelihood
(farming, agricultural employment,
non-agricultural employment) by farm
size; farmers' purpose of farming
(subsistence, sale, subsistence and
sale) by farm size; farmers' major source
of income (export crops, other crops,
beef, pigs, poultry) by farm size.

--. ---. Census of Agriculture 1968-69. SC,S,LC
Final report Vol IV Part A, Vol IV
Part B, March 1974. [1DS/AID/JAM
HDi846 J321 [ M"A/JaM1

Part A gives data by Darish, Part E
by land authority. Tables provided
on farmers' number of years in farming
by farm size, farmers residence on
farm (always, sometimes, never) by
farm size acreage in farms classified
by basis of occupancy (owned, rented in,
rented free, other) by farm size;
citizenship and types of operators by








farm size (individuals, companies,
government), number of farm equipment
and implement (tractors, ploughs
(tractor and non), trailers, trucks,
etc., animal vehicle, mechanical pumps,
hand pumps, mechanical reapers, loaders).

--. ---. Consumer price Indices: Bural S C,
and Urban. (Monthly or Biannually?)
[PDS/AID/JEM; MOA/JAM]

Note that methodology is set out in
February 1975 issue. Gives price changes
in groups and gives unit prices for the
current year. More detail for Kingston
than elsewhere. Base 1975, and based on
1971/72 household survey. Takes price
changes each month.

---. ---. Continuous Social and Demographic SC
Survey Unit. Continuous Social and
Demographic Survey: The Sample Design.
Kingston, 1968. [NAL: HN 29.P54]

---. Continuous Social and Demographic SC,J
Unit. P Survey of Housinq Conditions in
Delacree Pen. Kingston, January 19r9.

A survey of housing conditions in Trench
Town, Kingston, September 1967. Part of
a series of surveys taken in urban renewal
areas.

---. ---. Demographic Statistics Annual. SC,J,S
Kingston. [PDS/A ID/JAM]

Appears to be a yearly update series.
Covers various age-sex measures by parish.
All vital statistics, migration and family
planning.

-- ---. Division of Censuses and Surveys. SC,J,S
commonwealth Caribbean Population Census
1970 _Jamaica. Volume 5, .os. 1-1a.
Kingston, 1973. [?DS/ ID/JAM; MOA/JAM]

Population by parish, by sex, by five year
age group, by urban/rural areas and number
of dwellings by enumeration unit. The
special volumes include economic activity
(vol. 4), internal migration (vol. 5),
households (vol. 9) and miscellaneous (vol.
10).








--- ---. Expenditure Pattern of Working SC,M,F
Class Households 1963-64. Kingston,
196A.

---. ---. External Trade (Quarterly, SC,M
cumulative), Kingston. [254.8 J223E]

Totals for external trade by month;
imports, exports and re-exports by
generalized commodity breakdown;
imports, exports and re-exports by
value and country of origin/destination
direction of trade by countries in
currency and trading areas; detailed
breakdown of imports, exports and
re-exports by quantity and value of
items by country of origin/destination.

--. ---. Household Expenditure Survey S M
1971-72, 1975, 1977 (On data tape,
unedited as of December 1977).

A copy of the very detailed, 40 page
questionnaire is in "DS/AID/J3M library.
The Department of Statistics has the
data tapes, though they were not in a
useable form in March 1978. An editing
tape was being tested at that time with
plans to have the report readied by mid-
1978. The survey has a highly detailed
employment classification (the same as
used for published labor statistics) and
identification of rural/urban, parish
and Kingston metropolitan area is included.
The survey was applied twice within a two
week period to the same households. The
follow-up, Schedule B, is a repeat of the
first five sections of Schedule A and
deals with basic consumption and income
questions.

The 1971-72 survey covered 3,800 house-
holds (planned sample 4,000); the 1975
survey 4,300 (5,500), and the December
1977 survey 1,700 planned.

-. --. Household Expenditure Survey, FC,Mc
1958. Kingston, 1959. [MOA/JAM]

Sample survey (720 rural, 400
Kingston, 130 main towns). Covered
two weeks family expenditures.
Quantities published only for rural
home consumption, otherwise
values per week and percentage of







total expenditure on commodity.

---. ---. Household Expenditure Survey 1956. SCM,7
Kingston (date unknown).

Provides data on rural expenditure.

---. ---. Household _Exenditure Survey SC, ,
1953-1954. Kingston, 1955. [MOA/JAM]

Survey carried out on 1,500 sample from
Kingston alone. Has shillings per week
per commodity and percentage of total
expenditure on that commodity.
--- --- Population Trends and Housin SJ,
Needs. Kingston, 1974. [MOA/JAM]

--- ---. Production Statistics. Annual. SJ
(Published in April for previous year),
Kingston. [PDS/AID/JAM; MOA/JAM]

Data are based on surveys. Details of
surveys in preface of 1976 issue.
Production in agriculture (by crop) is
from Information Division of MOA.

-. ---. Quarterly Abstract of Statistics. SC,J
Quarterly. Kingston. fPDS/AID/JAM;
MOb/JAM ]

A synopsis of all data collected by the
statistics department--climate, demography,
migration, health, housing, labor, tourism,
banking, prices, production, trade.

---. ---. eort on Citrus Production Sc,C
Survey l195r/6. Kingston, 1957.

Four hundred farm sample, with returns
by interviewers every 2 weeks.
Detailed production data but no costs.

---. ---. Statistical Yearbook of Jamaica. SC,J
annual. Kingston, March 1977. [ DS/AID/
JAM; MOn/JAM]

Has useful information on the organiza-
tional structure of the Government--
various ministries, boards, authorities
which relate to agriculture. Detailed
summary of census of population, parish
level data on nutrition status. Latest
issue is for 1976 and has the following
material: p. 347 table of registered
outdoor poor by parish and p. 349 children
on poor relief, and other measures of








level and type of relief. Pp. 367-371
data on rural housing schemes by parish
and project.

A 50 page summary of agriculture,
forestry and fishing census and
programs. Pp. 553-557 imports by
sector including food. Pp. 569-595
tables of price indices.

--- ---. Survey of Aqriculture 1961-62. SC,C
Kingston, February 1966. [MOA/JAM]

Sample survey of 4C,00C farms. Includes
all farms over 100 acres, a sample of
those under 100 acres, 2 visits by
enumerator. All data on survey
methodology listed in detail. Has
size distribution, population, crops
(acreage, sales, etc.), irrigation,
no cost data.

--. ---. Surveyof Coffee Production c,C
in JamaicaL_ 1953. Kingston, 1950.
Pp. 18.

.-~-. Surveyof Costs, Output and C,
Investment: Large and Small Agriculture.
Provisional RePort for 1964. Kingston,
1971. [MOA/JAM]

This survey covered only farms over 100
acres. 'large' farms were above 500
acres (all interviewed), 'small' were
100 to 499 (20 percent sample). Part of an
economy-wide business establishment
survey. Survey carried out 1966 to
1968. Covers current expenditures,
purchases, sales by product, etc. and
capital assets. Tables presumably are
totals by parish.

---. ---. he Labour Force (Twice per C,J
year), Kingston. rFDS/AID/JAM]
[f On/J)M ]

Survey of 1 percent of households taken each
6 months. Involves 2-stage sampling
outlined in detail in Pppendix 11.
Identifies labor force (employed and
unemployed) by age, sex, training,
economic activity, education, though
not by area. Gives duration of unem-
ployment etc. Looks also at income
of workers. Income estimates for
agriculture may not be detailed enough








for accuracy, and employment data may
be inappropriate. Note that sample
was changed in Foril 1975.

---. Jamaica Development Bank. Self- SC,LC
Supporting Farmers' Development
Proqramme, Socio-Economic Evaluation
ReeRort, March 1976, 52 pp. [plus
tables and questionnaires]. [RDS/AID/JAM]

Survey of farmers in the SSFDP (farms
of 5 to 25 acres) made in September-
October 1975. Sample size about 600
(20 percent). Survey is designed to measure
the impact of the farm loans on small
farmers' assets and income. 'he SFDP
program is explained (and placed in the
context of overall rural development).
The sample design and methodology is
well described. The sample is
stratified by four combinations
of crop and livestock and results
are really disaggregated by Land
Authority region. For each land
authority, data on farm size dis-
tributions, use of inputs, annual
livestock and crop output, crop
expenses, operating capital, farm and
livestock and crop output, crop
expenses, operating capital, farm and
non-farm income (and changes from
previous period). are given. P. 28
comments on marketing problems. Note
that there is a 19%9 pre-program
survey of SSFD farmers (MOF, 1969).

Self-Supportin Farmers' SC, LC
Development Programme. Socio-
Economic Evaluation report,
December_ 1977. December 1977,
39 pp. +4 appendices. [PDS/AID/JAM]

A second evaluation of the SSFDP loan
program. A 12 percent sample (422) of
participating farms from a random
stratified sample. Data may not be
edited. Data is to evaluate loan
program impact on farmer income.
Also evaluates attitudes and socio-
demographic information. Data do
not deal with cost by commodity, but
only for total farm (not clear how
is obtained). Questionnaire included.

---. ---. Self-Supporting Farmers' C,ILC
Development Programme. Self-Supporting







Farmers' Development Programme: Socio-
Economic Evaluation Peport. Kingston,
December 1977.

Study of 422 (a 12 percent stratified sample)
from those with about 50 percent disbursement
of loans. It includes an attitudinal
section and quantitative information
about farm activities. Survey does
not cover cost by enterprise, just
overall costs per farm and post
programme. Questionnaire is attached
to document.

---. Ministry of Agriculture. Data Bank SC,S
and Evaluation Division. An Agro-
Socio-Fconomic Sample Survey,_Pindars
Piver and Two-MeetingsAreas, Kingston,
1977. 192 Tables, 4 Appendices.
[PDS/AID/JAM]

A comprehensive survey, commissioned by
MCA and USAID as a part (two-volume
descriptive analysis of area and program
is also available) of feasibility study
for an Integrated Pural Development
Programme in the area. The introduction
carefully specifies the sample design
and technique. Six hundred fifty-seven of
four thousand total farmers were surveyed
in a random stratified sample. Data
collected by 7 farm size categories
includes: number of farmers by size
of farm, age group, marital status,
family size, education, dependent
characteristics, experience in farming,
crop, conservation adoption, market
center, type of purchased input,
livestock types, credit use, value of
output, off-farm employment. Data is
available on cards.

--- --- Forecast of Production for FCS,M,C
Selected Agricultural Commodities, December
1977. Kingston, November 1977. ( DS/PID/JAM]

Presents crop forecast for the following
month based on extension agent reports.
"here is a table for each parish and an
all-island summary is given for 50 major
crops.

---. ---. Data Collection Statistics and FC,?,M
evaluation Department. Indices of
Domestic Agricultural Production and Farm
Gate Prices, 1970, 74. Kingston, 197C.
[FES/AID/JAM ]








Based or data collected monthly from
extension agents and market intelligence
officers. Weights used in overall indices
are described. Has also annual farm
gate prices by commodity for 1973-70.

---. ---. Indices of Domestic SC,S
Agricultural Production and Farm
Gate Prices 1970-1976. Kingston,
June 1977. [PDS/AID/J M, 2 copies]

The third in a series of agro-economic
indicators published annually. Data
collected monthly by extension agents
and market intelligence officers.
Estimated annual prices by commodity are
given for 1976. Contains summary evalua-
tion of trends. Data presented by
quarter and by major crop for 1976 are
not given by parish. In 1978 this survey
will report farm input prices.

---. Division of Economics and SC
Statistics. Final Peport on Sample
Survey of Registered Cane Farmers
_SuglyinSugar_ Cane Factories in
Jamaica. Kingston, 1963. [MOA/J4M]

Gives number of farms by production,
percentage of farm in cane, yield,
by parish and farm size.

-. ---. ---. Sample Surveyof Iegistered SC
Cane Farmers SuEElyinq_Cane Factories in
Jamaica: West Indian qugar Company,
Mo.ymuskL Clarendon. Kingston, 1963.
[ MOA /J.M ]

Provides the results of 1962 survey:
size distribution of farms, yield,
percentage use of particular techniques
(fertilizers, etc.) area in production, etc.

---. ---. Surveyof Cane Farmers SC
Supplying Stevens Factory, Clare2ndon.
Kingston, 1963. [ OA/JAM]

Production, yield, techniques, area
data by farm size but no costs.

---. ---. Production Tnit. "Monthly SC,?
report, Fstimate of National Crop
Production." [loose tables in file
folders].









These estimates are the result of
extension agent reports. B two
month lag in availability. On
December 16, October's report was
the most recent. Reports are given
by region (3), by crop, acreage
(panted, growing). Also mixed with
these are explanations for problems
and failures to meet targets and
reports of the Crop Lien program
which was initiated as part of the
Emergency Production Plan. This
program helps remove credit reviews
and other barriers to small farmers.
Available from J. "obinson, Production
Unit, MOA.

--- ---. elf-Supporting Loan Scheme: SC,LC
Surveyof Farms in the Pilot Areas,
Kingston, 1969. 60 pp. [MCA/JAM:
63 (729.2) ]

--. ministry of Lands and Agriculture. FC
Division of Economics and Statistics.
An Aqro-Economic Survey of Farms in
the Bushy Park Area of St. Catherine
1959-60. Kingston, 1960. [MOA/JAM]

Seventy-eight farmers were interviewed
who were members of the Bushy Park
Small Farmers Irrigation Co-operative
Society, ltd. Average size of farm
approximately 6 acres, and more than
half were part-time. Farms essentially
sugar-cane monoculture. Covers costs,
returns, estimated income. Suggests in
recommendations that sugar is acceptable
for part-time, but dairy or vegetable
needed for full-time.

---. ---. ---. "Final reportt on an SC
Agricultural Survey in Yallah's
Valley Land area." (mimeo) Kingston,
January 1961. fMCA/J M]

Interviewed all farmers five years
after (or into) the project. Provides
tables.

---. ---. ---. The Economic Oranization C,C
of Small Scale Farming: Banana, Coconut
and Cocoa, Hi hate St. Margarets 1958-'9.
Kingston, Jamaica 1960. [MOA/JAM]








Twenty-seven farmers kept farm and
consumption accounts: covers crops,
returns, use of inputs, etc.

---. ---. ---. The Fconomic Oranization SC,C
of Small Scale Farming: Citrus. Ground
Provisions and Livestock, Brokenhurst,
Manchester, 1958. [MOA/JAM]

Forty-three farmers selected by extension
personnel, with above crops (ground pro-
visions are food plots) in Brokenhurst
area of South Manchester. These farmers
were to keep records (extension checked).
The first year 41 records were kept, in
the second 20 Covers crops, returns, use
of inputs, etc.

MAYFPS, J.M. Meat Consumption Statistics SC,C
of the Commonwealth Caribbean. Department
of Agricultural Economics and Management,
University of West Indies, 1970.

Develops consumption data by island
1950-68 by type of meat. Also has prices.

O'LOUGHLIN, C. "The Measurement and C
Significance of Agriculture Sector
Statistics in National Accounting."
Social and Economic Studies 6, No. 3
(September 19-7) : 363-379. [MOA/JAM;
UWI/ISFF ]

Outlines sources of statistical data
and methodology for certain estimates.

PANKI"E, Iloyd B. Comparative Economics of SC,C
Poot Crop Production in Selected Countries
of the Commonwealth Caribbean. St. Augustine,
'rinidad: Department of Agricultural Economics,
University of West Indies, 1970. [UWI/ISEP]

Surveys were carried out in various Common-
wealth Caribbean countries. In Jamaica, 241
farms were surveyed January to March 1970
in a variety of land authorities to estimate
production costs of dasheen, and irish potatoes.
Sampling procedures outlined. Size and scatter
of root farms in survey did not allow large/
small farm breakdown. Looks at labor use,
productivity in relation to age and use of hired
labor, and impact of family labor on net returns.
Describes items of land preparation planting
dates, fertilizer use, but doesn't estimate
budgets on each, just cost averages. Does
have task breakdown on labor (average). Gets








attitudes to price change (what would you do
if price increased by 1 cent, 2 cents, etc.)
and why more root crops not planted. Has
questionnaire at back.

---. and Marlene HEE HOUNG A Preliminar_ View PC,7
of Cassava JManihot esculenta_ Production in
Jamaica. Occasional Series No. 6. St. Aug-
ustine, Trinidad: Department of Agricultural
Economics and Farm Management, December, 1971
18 pp.

Provides a summary of data on cassava in Jam-
aica and reports the results of a 19 farm
survey on costs and returns in the St. Eliza-
beth and Manchester areas.

ROBOTHAM, Hugh. Jamaica Agricultural Society SC,E
North Clarendon Fural Development Self-Help
Project Survey. Herald Ltd., Kingston,
1969. 138 pp. Bibliography. [MOA/JAM]

Gives farm project history and describes
'new' approach based on determination of
group needs and rural development using JAS.
All farms in project (2,167) are interviewed
to get overall picture of region--provides
results on education, literacy, residence,
membership organizations, housing, water,
electricity, communications, etc.,
husbandry, number of distribution of farms,
fragmentation, land use (crop yields but no
costs--sugar, trees) livestock, building,
machinery, equipment, hired labor,
fertilization, credit and attitudinal
questions.

SC.nT, A. "Problems Which Beset Cane FCc,C
Farming," Farmer 79, 1974: 92-103.
[ MOV/J? M ]

Provides a report of a Cane Farmer
Survey undertaken in August/November
1973, concerned mainly with the island-
wide problems of cane farmers. The
survey was carried out by a system of
random sampling and farmers were
categorized according to size of their
farms. The problems revealed by the
survey, essentially micro-economic
in nature, were: (1) the general
shortage of labour; (2) the complete
disorganization of the harvesting
operations; and (3) the inadequate
water supply in the Clarendon plains
area.










STONE, Carl. "A Sociological Survey of ,S,Lr
Tenant Farmers on Project Land Lease."
(mimeo) Kingston, 1974. Pp. 39.
[MOA/JAM]

Provides the results of a socio-
logical survey of 420 tenant farmers
in 1974. Describes basis of survey
and notes previous occupation, farm
size (most 1/3 to 2 acres), income before
land lease (25 percent could not answer this
question), education level, age, and
obtains feedback on scheme: 35 percent com-
plained of shortage of cash to meet land
preparation expenditures not financed
by land lease and to hire labor; others
mentioned the lack of water; or inadequate
land. Survey looked at attitudes on
benefits of program, not objective
measures because half hadn't any cash
income, i.e. only 194 gave gross sales.
Benefits were seen through dignity etc.
(28 percent), cash income (over 20 percent),
increased food (16 percent). Hostility to coop-
erative farming was noted. Not very detailed
economic information, though social
information reasonably useful.

WILLIAMS, H.D. eport.l_majorproducers SC,'
surveyL St. Catherine. Kingston:
Ministry of Agriculture, 1966. [MOA/JAi]

"Major" covers 'significant' producers
of the product.

WILLIAMS, P.1. "A Note on the Specification SC
and Estimation of a Bias in the Measure-
ment of the Size and Growth of Real GDP
in Jamaica." Social and Economic Studies
22, No. 3 (September 1973) : 384-394.

Earlier article pointed out negative bias
of price deflator of capital goods used
by Dept. of Statistics because there is no
index of construction labor costs. This paper
estimates effect of this bias on GDP giving
a mean estimate of + 5 percent. However
the null hypothesis could not be rejected.
Growth of GDP had a mean bias of .U percent
and range from -2.8 to 8.8 percent.

---. "Gross, Fixed Capital Formation in SC
Jamaica 1948-66 Constant Price





72


Series." Social and Economic Studies
20, No. u (December 1971): 369-377.

.uthor indicates three sources of
bias in available current data and
corrects for one. when estimates a
corrected price deflator for the
series.








AGBICnrU" RE:
EXTENSION, EDUCATION, ORGANIZATIONS



ALLEYNE, Egbert Patrick. "Training and E,T,
Management Policy for Agricultural
Research Scientists in the Governmental
System: Study in Two Caribbean States-
Trinidad and Tobago, and Jamaica."
Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell
University, 1975.

Study sought to determine existing
problems relating to management
policy of agricultural research.
Data were generated by interviews
with scientists and administrators
and questionnaires to extension
agents. Data relate to organization,
recruitment, support, in-service
development, internal management
procedures including rewards, project
teamwork, monitoring of performance,
etc. No discernible policy was found
on recruitment and training to ensure
that anticipated needs were met. Almost
all graduate training was received out-
side the region and evidence suggests
orientation was inadequate. Procedures
were not evident for guidance and
direction of research and rewards (if
present) did not relate to research
performance. Fxtension agents knew
little of on-going research work.

.!AJJO, Jose E. The Communal Fnterprise. E,L"
Institute Interamericano de Ciencias
Agricolas (IICA), Kingston, March 1978,
u3 pp., hibliog. (PDF/AID/JAM]

This report is the first chapter of a
larger work by Dr. Araujo. The main
theme is the advantages of collective
action as a part of the process of
agrarian reform and land redistribution.
Includes a how-to-do-it section analyzing
the stages of organization and physical
creation of a communal group.

---. he Theory Behind the Community E,J,LC
Enterprise, Seminar in Jamaica. Insti-
tuto Interamericano de Ciencias Agricolas
(IICA), Kingston, March 1978, 13 pp.
(PDS/AID/JAM]







Report is the outline of a seminar held
Feb. 1978. Dr. Araujo is the Director
General of IICA and the report is the
second in a series on this topic. This
short document summarizes IICA experience
in regard to what works and what does not
in community development and case study
experience in Latin America is cited.

CARIBBEAN AFFAIRS. Agricultural Research in F,T
Jamaica. Proceedings of a seminar held
at University of West Indies, June 19,
1965. Kingston: Extra-Mural Dept. of
University of West Indies 1965. [MOA/JAM]

Summarizes speeches of various experts on
what should be done and summarizes
critical discussion.

CHASE, R. Darwin. A Report on the E,P
Co-Operative Movement in Jamaica.
Organization of Co-Operatives of America
1971. [M0A/JAM]

In 1970 there were: 132 Credit Unions,
4 Co-ops for input distribution, 22 for
banana boxing, 2C of coffee producers,
10 of cocoa producers and 13 of fishing.
Has detailed recommendation on each phase
of operation. However, does not provide
a real evaluation, but only a description of
co-operative action.

EVANS, P.C.C. "School and Society in F
Pural Jamaica: 4 Survey of Rural
Elementary Schools in Jamaica, with
Particular Reference to the Lives
Children Lead in Their Communities
and the Occupations They Follow
When "hey Leave School." Unpublished
Ph.D. dissertation, University of
London, Institute of Fducation, 1965.

FTEDDEJOHN, Herbert C. "Recommendations F,C
relating to the Organization and
Operation of a Dairy Co-Operative in
Jamaica. Report on a survey made in
Jamaica." March 1966. Pp. 15. (Mimeo).
[ DS/AID/JAM]


FONEP, Nancy. "Competition, Conflict F
and Education in Pural Jamaica."
Human Organization 31, No. 4 (Winter
1972) : 395-402.







Describes attitudes to secondary
education in a rural community. Since
competitive access to education became
available it is considered the major
means to upward mobility. Results of
sample survey of 40 household heads
show education is regarded as key means
to success. "here are inter-personal
conflicts between those whose children
attain secondary school and those who
do not. Does not refer to role of
education to agriculture. Includes
a use breakdown of community into 5
groups wage laborers, small inde-
pendent farmers (3 to 10 acres), big
farmers, white collar workers, and
large estate owners (10-50 acres).
Characteristics provided for each
grouo indicates role of off-farm
employment and hiring in of labor.

FOOD aND 'GPICULTUFF ORGANIZATION. Report E,J
of the FAO/DANIDA Expert Consultations
on Extension "raining in the Caribbean
and Latin america. Pome, 1973, v+"5pp.

Consultations were to take a new and critical
look at extension training needs from the
farm-level point of view and to examine
the links between the various kinds of
extension people and the farmers, and
among the farmers themselves. Considera-
tion was also given to seeking means of
involving peasants more directly in the
extension endeavour through representative
peasant organizations. The emphasis
throughout was on the development of
extension training that is relevant to
farm needs.

---. ural extensionn in Latin America and F,J
the Caribbean. ?epcrt of the Technical
Conference on Agricultural Extension and
Pural Youth, Chiclayo, Peru, 29 November
12 December 197,. ome, 1971. 1l
PP.

The agenda for this Conference was
prepared on the basis of the most
relevant current aspects of agricultural
extension in Latin America and the
Caribbear. It was divided into three
sections Permitting delegates to analyze
separately background and up-to-date
anoraisal of extension work in the
region; an outline for integra-ed








extension work.

;nMES, D.I. "Agricultural Extension recent E,J
Trends in Agricultural Fducation for 'ural
Development." Journal of the Agricultural
Society of Trinidad and_ obaqo 75, No. 4
(1975): 372-380.

GOODING, E.G. "How Well Does the University E,J
of the West Indies Faculty of Agriculture
Serve the Caribbean's Farming Community?"
Caribbean Farming 3, No. 4 (1972): 23-24.

HIYE, Winston. "A model for Leadershio F
Development Component of Vocational
Agriculture Programs in Jamaica."
Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Iowa
State University, 1976.

Carried out a survey of a stratified
sample of schools with vocational
agriculture, and interviewed
administration and teachers for
qualification, and estimated atti-
tudes. Half of teachers possessed
level of education required by MrE
to +each vocational agriculture.
mhree-fourths of teachers had less
than 5 years experience (indicating
a high turnover). Author develops a
suggested 3-year vocational education
program for leadership development
using a Future Farmers of America
model.

HENDE7RON, Thomas H. "Factors Associated
with Job Performance of Agricultural
Extension Workers in Jamaica, West
Indies." Unpublished Ph.D. disserta-
tion, University of Wisconsin, 19-9.

Purpose of study was to determine
factors associated with effective job
performance among extension workers.
sample of 99 officers (.iome edu-
cational, others service and regula-
tory and Land Authority) was inter-
viewed using 2 schedules. "hese
covered pre-service background,
in-service background, subjects
evaluation of adequacy of training
and experience and personality
variables. ratings of performance
by farmers, peers and supervisors
was also made.








---. "he Fole of agriculturall Extension F,J
in Maximizing Pegional Self-Sufficiency
in Food Supplies" Proceedinqs of the
Tenth West Indies Agricultural Economics
Conference GeorEet_2ow.n,_Guana 1975. St.
Augustine, Trinidad: University of West
Indies, Department of Agricultural Econo-
mics, 1975. Pp. 122-130.

---. "The University of the West Indies E,J
and Agricultural Extension Work in
the Caribbean." Agqricultural Proqress
48, (1973) : 102-109.

HIYTE, Clyde. History_ of the Jamaica E
agriculturall Society, 1895-1960.
Pp. 54. [ DS/AID/JAM]

HUIZEP, G. Fural Extension and Peasant F,J
Motivation in Latin America and the
Caribbean. Food and Agricultural
Organization, Agricultural Education
and Training Service, Human Pesources
and Institutions Division. Occasional
Paper No. 2, 1973. op. 25.

This paper examines some of the
central structural and institutional
relationships which have a close impact
on the development of effective extension
work. Cf particular concern is the
involvement and participation of the
peasant in extension and ways and means
by which peasant organizations can become
a more effective instrument in the
extension process.

HUNTLFY, Milburn J. The Phymesfield Dairy F,"
Development Ceooperative Ltd. 1gricul-
tural Cooperative Development Inter-
national, Washington, D.C., December
1969, Fp. 30 + appendix. [(DS/?ID/JAM]

? consultant report on the progress of
UTSAID funded dairy cooperative. Defines
the program, provides an economic
evaluation, discussion of problems and
recommendation. Generally favorable
and recommends more technical assistance.

JAMAICA. Ministry of Fducation. Five Year
Plan for Education. Kingston, Jamaica,
December 1977.

Contains plans for rural education changes
and expansion.









JAMAICA AGRICULUPP SnCIFTY. "The annual
Report, April-March." Farmer (July or
somewhat earlier month). [MO /JAM]

---. The Farmer (Bi-monthly or quarterly). E",
[MOA/JAM]

Gives short reports of research results
extension advice etc.

M!UNN, K. "The Role of Farmers and Their
organizations." Farmer 79, No. 1/2
(Jan/Feb 1974) : 12-13, 15. MOA/JM]

PROSSEF, R.C. "Jamaica: Pesidential
Camps and Other Programs for Out-of-
School Youth." In Fducation for
Rural Development. AHMED, M. and
CO0MBS, P.H. (eds.), New York:
Praeger Press, 1975.

VIEW TEAM ON RUFAL c~ VICES. Agricultural E
Sector Study. Bqricultural Education.
Pp. 18 (no date, no author).
[RDS/AID/JPM]

Contains a description and analysis of
the seven agricultural training programs
(e.g. 4-H, Agricultural Society) and
recommendation of the review team. "he
date seems to be circa 1974.

7MITH, M.G. "Education and Occupational E
Choice in Jamaica." Social and Economic
Studies 9, No. 3 (19A0). [MOA/JPM;
UWI/I37)

Reports on occupational preference (3
types) preferred by school age children
and young adults in 8 areas of rural
Jamaica. Found very low percent of either
group wished for own-accorut farming
or rural labor. Adults over 25 have
more realistic preferences. author
suggests aspirations are to escape
rural situation. Schools reinforce
urban image. Problems are likely when
system reinforces aspirations and does
nct allow them to be realized.

St-EF, Edgar ?. Agricultural Extension
Education In Jamaica. Jamaica:
agricultural Planning Unit, Ministry
of Agriculture and Land, 1968.
[MCA/JAw 308:63(729.2)1









lists out number of extension agents
per agency, including MOA marketing
boards, Christiana and Yallahs Valley
Authorities as at 1968.
MOA 47
Livestock 27
Land Authority
Yallahs V. 16
Christ. 32
Watershed Protection S
Cane Farmers kssoc. 2
Banana Growers Assoc. 26
Citrus Bd. 9
Coffee Bd. q
coconut Bd. 5
173

which was an average of 918 holdings
and 9,rr" acres per extension officer.
(For MOA there were 3,00 farms per
extension officer.)

WILLIAMS, D.L. and HAYE, W. "The FFA E
Future Farmers of America--A Model for
FFJ Future Farmers of Jamaica." Ayri-
cultural Education 49, ,o. 8 (Feh 1977):
180-181.

WOOD, Aston S. Agricultural Education in E
Jamaica, a Peview and a Proposal for
Development. Institute Interamericano
de Ciencias tgricolas (IICA), Kingston,
'ctober 1977, 105 pp. + vi appendices
+ bibliog. [FDS/AIE/JAM]

Includes detail for establishment
facilities and curriculum ror agri-
cultural education at all levels.

YOUNGJOHNc, P.J. "Drimary Co-operatives E,,?
in Jamaica." Year Book of Agricultural
Co-Operation 1975. Oxford, U.K.:
Basil 1lackwell, 197<. Pp. 163-175.

There are 2L6 primary co-operatives in
Jamaica with an aggregate membership of
about 16 ,nrn. There are also 125
credit unions. apart from bananas,
coffee and cocoa the most important.
co-operative marketing organizations
are concerned with potatoes and fishing.







AGPICULTUPE: LAID, CPEDIT



AGRICUL"UFPL SECTOR STUDY. Sector Brief: LC ,
Land Use and Development. (No author,
no date, no sponsoring agency) (prob.
Jamaica, MOA) (Xerox), Pp. 14.
[FDS/AID/JAM ]

A brief survey of land use, physical
base, tenure, demography, agricultural
policy, institutions and sector per-
formance. Date seems to be 1971.
Provides table of land use capability
in acres by class for each parish.
Plso discusses tenure and related laws
and boards.

EB KFF, G.II. "Soil Survey in Jamaica." LC,T
Journal of the Scientific Research
Council of Jamaica I, (1970). [MOA/JAM]

BAFNER, Theodore P. Agricultural Credit LC,S
in Jamaica: Evaluation and Fecommenda-
tions on Accounting and Record KeeDing.
V!S/AID 1964. [MOA/JM 332.71(729.2)

Does give information on credit board
law and FPople's Co-np Boards, but
otherwise is specifically accounting.

P'XTFF, A.". "The Diffusion of Innovations: LC,
Soil Conservation Techniques in the
Yallahs Valley, Jamaica." Unpublished
M.fc. thesis. University of West Indies,
'ona, Jamaica, 1973. Pp. 194. [rwI/J ]1

BYNES, Ponald A. "The Ideal Environment L',J
for Fffective Agricultural Credit in the
Caribbean." Proceedings of mwelfth West
Indies Agricultural Fconomics Conference
tt. Johns _AntijuaL_1977. t. Augustine,
"rinidad: University of West Indies, Depart-
ment of agriculturall Economics and Farm
Management, 1978, pp. 175-180.

Comments by adviser to private bank on
reasons for the declining productivity of
agriculture, despite available agricultural
credit. Suggests that official policies
do not actively encourage agricultural ex-
pansion.







BECKFO7D, George. "Land Reform for the IC,J
Proceedings of the Seventh West Indian
Agricultural Economics Conference,
Grand Anse,_Grenada, spril_ 9-.5l_1972,
St. Augustine, Trinidad: University of
West Indies, 1973. fPDS/AID/JAM]

This article reviews some of the
theoretical issues in land reform,
some third country experience, presents
an analysis of effects of land reform
on agricultural development and looks
at land reform in the broader context.
Gives 1991 estimates of output per unit
land and output per person for large and
small farms. In Jamaica small farms
had twice the output per acre of large.
Uses this to calculate likely effects
of land reform. Suggests all land should
be leased, that farms be 5-25 acres, and
that there be provision of modern inputs.

BOUPNE, Compton. "Dynamic Utility- IC,J
Maximizing Models of the Demand for
Money in Caribbean Economics (with
an Application to Jamaica." Social
and Economic Studies 23, No. 3
(Sep 1974) : 18-445. [rOA/JAM]

Provides a summary of characteristics
of economy likely to affect monetary
behaviour and then develops a model
of the household demand for money and
business firms demand for money and
fits them using Jamaican data.
Estimates interest rate, price infla-
tion and income elasticities of money
demand. Pesults suggest relatively
unimportant roles for internal rates
and price inflation and important role
for incomes, but are very tentative.

BUCKMIFE, G.E. "Land Use and Agricultural LC,J
Development in the Commonwealth Caribbean."
Proceedings of Seventh West Indies _gri-
cultural Economics Conference, Grand Anse,
Grenada_April _9-15, 1972. St. Augustine,
Trinidad: Dept. of Agricultural Economics,
University of West Indies 1972. PD. 40-
47. [ MA/JAM]

Sets out a land use policy including no
sales to non-national. Systematic plan
for zoning, government control of prices.
Suggests flat, good agriculture land is
going into other uses.









CALLENDEP, Charles Victor. "The Development LC,T
of the Capital market Institutions of
Jamaica." Supplement to Social and
Economic Studies 1S No. 3 (September
196,), pp. 174. [MOA/JAM; UWI/ISEP1

Includes a description of Agriculture
Loan Society Board (Peoples Co-operative
Banks) to 1960 and their financing. Also
describes the Agricultural Development
Corporation at that time.

CAMPBFLL, I.G.; CPUICKSHANK, A.H.; YANKEY, L.,J
J.B. Agricultural Credit in General
nural Development and the Credit Strategy
for Small Farmers in the Less Developed
Countries of the Enqlish-Speaking
Caribbean. Pridgetown, Barbados:
Caribbean Development Bank, 1976. Pp 32.

After discussing some general institu-
tional features of Credit Agencies
serving small farmers in the less
developed countries of the English-
speaking Caribbean, this paper examines
the role of the Caribbean Development
Bank in rural development credit.
Attention is given to the volume of
credit absorved and available, the ratio
of disbursement to commitment, and the
sub-sectors which are affected most.
Finally, after identifying the
constraints to the further expansion
of small farmer credit, recommendations
are made for using agricultural credit
in a package aimed at improving rural
community life.

CHPISTIANA AREA LAND AU"HDRITY. Annual LC
FieEort,_1955. Kingston, 1955.
[ MO/JAM ]

Has number and size of holdings, form
of tenure, land use, credit use and
credit worthiness, and farm population
tenants and sugar cane producers.
Object was to collect data for organi-
zation of co-op credit group. Thirty-
eight percent of farmers had debt.

CLARKE, Edith. "Land Tenure and the LC
Family in a Selected Communities
in Jamaica." Social and Economic
Studies 1, No. 4 (august 1953):
81-117. rMOA/JAM; UWI/ISEP]









Data based on field work in fertile
farming area, short-term lease area,
and very isolated village. Two
categories 'family land' and
'bought land.' 'Family land is
inherited and is split among family
members. 'Bought' land is bought
by owner and can be sold or willed
to one person. For the next generation
it is family land.

CPEIGHTON, A. "Element of Climate in North LC
Eastern Jamaica and Kingston Area."
Unpublished undergraduate thesis. Dept.
of Geography, University of West Indies,
Mona, 1972. [GD/UWI/JAM ]

DAVIS, N. "Ground Water Besources in Jamaica." IC
Irpublished undergraduate thesis. Dept.
of Geography, University of West Indies,
Mona, 1977. GD/TUWI/J M ]

EHRHArDm, P.A. "Some Aspects of the Pelation LC
between Water and Agricultural Production
in Jamaica." Unpublished undergraduate
thesis. Dept. of Geography, University
of West Irdies, Mona, 1969. [GD/UWI/JAM]

---. "ome aspects of the Relation between. LC
Water and ?griculture--Production in
Jamaica." Unpublished undergraduate thesis.
Dept. of Geography, TUniversity of West
Indies, Mona, 1969. [GD/UWI/JAM]

EYRE, I.A. "Environment and Education." LC
Unpublished undergraduate thesis. Dept.
of Geography, University of West Indies,
Mona, 1968. [GD/UWI/JAM 1

FLOYD, Barry. "Agricultural Innovation in LCPr
Jamaica: The Yallahs Valley Land
Authority." Economic Geoqraphy U6,
No. 1 (January 1970): 63-77. [UWI/ISER]

Describes background and activities of
the Yallabs Valley rural rehabilitation
system, using an authority of type like
TU?, carried out in hill-farming area.
Provides an evaluation of the scheme.
Esentially limited success (with vege-
tables, cattle, economic practices)
operating and criticisms of returns and
costs, and an administration which tried
to work on everything 'Haste makes
waste.' Other problems were lack of








personnel, faulty plans, insufficient
thought into marketing. Costs for 17
years $36" (197") per person per year.

---. agricultural Innovation in Jamaica: iC,Dr
The Yallahs Valley land Authority.
Occasional Publication 4, Department of
Geography, University of West Indies,
(no date) 1961? [M OA/JAIM

Discusses some problems of this project,
should be supplemented by article
by same author in Economic Geography.
1970.

FOOD AND AGFICTUTUPF ORGANIZATION. IC,J
Agricultural Credit in the Caribbean
Area. Pome, 1976. Pp. 58. f MOA/JAM :
332.71 (729) ]

FOOD AND ?GPICULTURE ORGANIZATION/U.N. LC,",7
DEVELOPMENT PPonECT. Agrarian reformm
and General Agricultural Development,
Jamaica: Project Findinqs and
-ecommendations. aG: DP/JAM/74/003
'Terminal_ Peort, Fome, 1975 (restricted)
[UNDP/JM] [ EDS/A ID/JAM]

Report of three man +eam which spent
several months in Jamaica. Provides
a current situation of Jamaican
agriculture (22 pp.), analysis of
farmer situation based on census and
has a series of detailed recommendations.

---. Development and Management of Water LC,T,P,Dr
Resources, Jamaica: Pull Favanna.
AGI: DP/JAM/70/512/Tech Rep 5, Pome
1974. [UNDP/JAM]

Provides information on land and water
use (a semi-arid area), present
irrigation and future estimated demand
tor irrigation. Also provides detailed
water quality and hydrology information.

---. Development and Manjgement of Water LC, , r
Resources, Jamaica: Dry Harbour Mts.,
North Coast Basin. AGL: DP/JAM/70/512/
Tech. Pep. 3, Rome 1974. [UNDP/JAM]

land use, water demand, and government
development plans for tourist water
and irrigated agriculture.








SDevelopment and Manaqemert of Water
Resources, Jamaica: Rio Cobre Basin.
AGL.DP/JAM/70/512, Tech. 2, Pome 197U.
60 pp. + Plates. [PDS/AID/JAM]

Summarizes material in annexes, i.e.
technical data on the basin, its water
resources, water quality, land and
water use, irrigation, plus develop-
ment and investment plans.

--. Development and Management of Water
?esourcesL Jamaica: Pio Cobre Basin,
Annex I GeoloQy: Annex II Water Resource
ApDraisal. AGI: PP/JBM/70/512/i,ii,
Fome, 1971. [(INDP/JAII] [?DS/AID/JAM]

Annex II has detailed water availability
data.

Development and Mana ement of Water
Resources, Jamaica: dio Cobre Basin
Annex Ii_ Water_ uality._ nnex Iv land
and Water Use, Annex V Irrigation.
'GL: DP/JAM/70/512/iii,iv,v, Rome,
1971. [ IJ"DP/JAM] [FDS/AID/JAM]

Has detailed information on land use
by farm size. Also has section on
rice production agronomy and costs,
ar.d analysis of irrigation projects.

--. Development and Manaqement of Water
Resources, Jamaica, 'io Minho-Milk
liver Fasin. Tech. exportt No. 1,
AGL: DP/JAM/70/512, Rome, 197..
[T NDP/FF. ]I

Overall summary of annexes, including
suggestions for development of
Clarendon plains.

-. Development and Management of Water
Resources _Jamaica: -io Minho-1ilk
Piver Basing Annex I Geoloqy. TGL:
DP/JAM/70/ 12, Tech. Fep. 1/1, Pome,
197 [ INDP/JAM]

---. Development and Manaaqement of Water
Resources, Jamaica: io Minho-Milk
Piver Basi n Annex V Fconomic Studies
tabless), _Annex VI Economic Studies
Text._. AGL: DP/JAM/70/512 Tech.
Rep. I/V, VI. [UNDP/JAM] (FDS/AID/JAM~.

Covers present land use and alternative


LC,, P, r


LC,"


LC,F,Pr


LC -,


LC, -, P.P







for intensive use of Clarendon plains.
Discusses dairying, and uses ad hoc
collected cost and returns data for
analysing this and crop activities.
Calculates benefits and costs of improved
irrigation.

--. Development and Manaqement of Water LC,T,P,Pr
Resources, Jamaica: Negril Basin.
AGL: DP/JPM/70/512 Tech. Report 4,
Rome 1974. [UNDP/JAM]

Has land and water use, cropping land
class, water demand estimates, irriga-
tion data, plus a great deal of detailed
technical material.

Ground Water Surveys in Two Areas
of the InteriorL Jamaica: Appraisal
report of the Pedro Plains,_St. Elizabeth
Area. PGL: SF/JAM3/Tech Pep 1, Pome,
1971.

Overall summary of technical material
or. resources, agronomy, soil, land
use, benefits and costs of irrigation.
More details in appendices.

-- Ground Water Surveys in Two Areas LC ,
of the Interior, Jamaica: appraisall
report of the Pedro Plains_ St.
Elizabeth Area. Appendix I/11
GeoloGyi loendix II Drillinq.
AGL: SF/JAM 3/Tech Pep 1/1A/1,11,
Rome, 1971.

---. Ground Water Surveys in Two Areas I.,-
of the Interior, Jamaica: Appraisal
Report of the Pedro Plains, St.
Elizabeth Area. Appendix III Hydro-
logyj_ ?pendix IV Water Quality.
AGL: FF/J 3/rech Pep 1/III, IV,
Fome, 1971.

--. Grund Water -Surveys in wo Areas TI ,,EPr
of the Interior _Jamaica: Appraisal
reportt of the Martha Brae Valley
"relawney. AGL: SF/JM 3, Tech. Rep.
2, Pome, 1971.

Overall summary of technical material
on resources, agronomy, soil, land use,
benefits and costs of irrigation. More
details in appendices.

--. round Water Surveys in Two Areas of TC,T,P








the Interior, Jamaica: Summary of
Findings of Hydrology Pecommendations
on Moneague Area. AGL: SF/JAM 3/Tech.
rep. 4, Pome, 1972.

Area has solution channels Cost and
technical difficulties in plugging
sinkholes and capturing run off are
much too great for use to be practical.
Area has limited potential for irrigated
crops and with a sparse population,
little need for domestic water.

--. Irrigation Development, Jamaica: LC,T,P,Pr
Project Findings and Recommendations.
AG: DP/JAM/73/011 Terminal Report,
Pome 1976. [UNDP/JAM] [ DS/AID/JAM]

Gives status of UNDP related irrigation
projects and recommendations for further
work in Clarendon and Pedro Plains.

--. Jamaica Watershed Management. IC,",?,Pr
Fr: DP/JAM/67/cOc, Rome, 1975.
(Interim Feport 1973).

A discussion of soil erosion and soil
loss problem and recommendations.

--. Water Pesources Survey of TC, J
Montego Fiver Fasin. AGL: SF/JAM
3, Technical Report u.

Water resources for Montego Bay
analyzed Little agricultural
demand suggested.

FOUND, William C. "A Multivariate Analysis LC,SC,S
of Farm Output in Selected Land-Peform
Areas of Jamaica." Canadian Geographer
12, (1968). [ UWI/Ja, M

Land settlement projects have been
criticized with respect to size of
settlement properties, types of
persons selected, location of homes
with respect to land, and types of
land use encouraged.

Study analyses data from a 20 percent sample
of 6 land settlements in south-central
Jamaica. Useful data on land, gross
income, physical characteristics of
settlements, etc. are tabularly sum-
marized. Major part of article
reports a regression analysis of gross







income in each project as a function
of size of farm, land use diversity,
distance of home from farm, age,
number of dependents, non-farm income,
and acreage of land outside the
settlement. This regression was used
to analyse criticisms of the system.
:2s were not very high and standard
errors are not reported. Factors
most consistently related to output
(gross income) were acreage of farm
and distance to holding. Some
variables showed unusual signs.
Given the empirical nature of the
function, this does not seem surprising.

S"Land Use Patterns and Problems in IC
Selected Land Settlements in S-Central
Jamaica: A Study in Multiple Regres-
sion Analysis." Unpublished Ph.D.
dissertation, University of Florida,
1966, Pp. 39U.

Dissertation is a study of patterns
and problems of land use in six land
settlement program areas. Twenty
percent of farmers in areas were
interviewed. Fegression of gross
income as a dependent variable was
carried out. Analysis indicated
effects of farm size, crop diversifi-
cation, non-farm income and distance
of house from holding as affecting
land use practices. For analysis
see also Found (1968).

GAYLE, B.C.H. "The Financing of Sugar by LC,C
Commercial Banks in Jamaica." (Mimeo)
Mora: Dept. of Economics, University
of West Indies, 19r8.

GEOPGE, Vincent. "The Pnderutilization of LC
Agricultural Land in Jamaica." Unpub-
lisbed Ph.D. dissertation. Dept. of
Geography, University of West Indies,
Mona, 1977. [GD/UWI/JM ]

GEAN', V.B. "Jamaican Land Law." LC
Unpublished M.A. thesis, University
of London, 19U8.

HAPFI, Brian J.D. "Some Aspects of the LC
Pate of Erosion of Limestone in
Jamaica." Unpublished M.qc. thesis.
Dept. of Geography, University of West
Indies, Mona, 1971. GD/UWI/J1M]






HILLS, T.L.; ITON, S.; and LUNDGDEN, J. LC,S
"Farm Fragmentation in the Common-
wealth Caribbean: Some Preliminary
Observations and Analyses." Pro-
ceedings of the 7th _Aricultural
Economics Conterence grand Anse,
GrenadaL april 9-15, 1972.
University of West Indies, St.
Augustine, Trinidad. Pp. 88-102.

HOLLAND, Daniel M. "? Study of Tand LC,F
Taxation in Jamaica." In Land and
Building ~ axes: Their Effect on
Economic Development, Arthur P. BECKE?
(ed.), Madison: University of Wisconsin
Press, 1969. Pp. 239-286. [NAL:
HJ 4165.L34 ]

Jamaican property tax since 1962 has
been unimproved site value, rather
than improved value. Article
describes process and notes all land
holdings worth under 100 were not
valued. Three taxes are levied:
property, parish and service rates.
All parcels (not total holdings) of
less than 1,000 unimproved value were
exempt, the rate was then progressive.

IGPOZUPIKE, Matthias U. "An Empirical LC,S
Contribution to the Issue of Farm
Size in land Parcellization." Journal
of Geography 75, No. 5 (May 1976):
266-274.

Compares parcellization by farm size
in Christiana and Fort Antonio areas
of Jamaica with East Central Nigeria.
In Jamaica interviewed the 30 farmers
on whether they had sufficient land.
Fifty percent of small scale farmers
(less than 25 acres) indicated need for more
land. Small farms had a smaller
number of fragments per farms than
did large farmers.

---. "Fragmentation in Tropical Agri- LC
culture: Concept, Process, Pesult.
A Jamaican Study." Unpublished Ph.D.
dissertation, University of Florida,
1971.

Analysis based on case studies in
area. rield evidence tended to
back condemnation cf fragmentation







on grounds of land use inefficiency
though substantiation is less firm
than literature review suggests.
For analysis carried out see also
IGBOZUFIKE (1976).

IMPErIAL COLLEGE OF TOPICAL AGRICULTURE. LC
regional Desearch Centre. Soil and
Land Use Survey, Jamaica. Vol 1-13,
19C9. App. 21 pp. [MOA/JAM]

This series of studies covers soils,
climate, relief, drainage, land use
within each parish. There are also
estimates of soil capability recommended
by soil type. One of very few data sources
at parish level. This series is an ex-
cellent descriptive source despite its
age. It also still defines important
agricultural problems.

INTEE-AMEPICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK. Jamaica: LC,Pr
Project Report on Self-S upEprting
Farmers' Development Program Stage IV
23 August 1977. (Festricted) [PO/AID/JAM]

Has update on this project and evaluation
of earlier part of project.
INTERNATIONAL BANK FOP PrFONSTRUCTION AND IC,E,F
DEVFLOPMENT. Latin America Project
Department and Caribbean Regional
Office. Appraisal of the Fecond
agricultural Credit Project of Jamaica.
Report 350aJM, May 7, 1974. (Festricted)
[DS/AID/JAM ]

Appraisal of a continuing program for
investment in dairy, beef, citrus and
coconut on about 200 farms (not neces-
sarily small). Discusses performance
under first loans (though not in detail).
Has two short but useful descriptive
sections on agricultural credit and
useful background descriptions of
dairy and beef cattle, citrus and
other fruit tree crops.

JAMAICA. Ministry of Agriculture. Dept. LC,
of Engineering.
a) "Agricultural Sector Study
Jamaica Irrigation Authori-
ties" (mimeo)
b) "Present Situation, unpub-
lished" (mimeo) [ RDS/AID/JAM ]


Material provided by Mr. Pusey on the








role of the Irrigation Authorities in
running and operating irrigation.
The 'Present Situation' material applies
to the Pio Cobre scheme.

---. ---. Planning Unit. An Evaluation LC,F
of Project Land-Lease and Project
Food Farms from Their Inception to
Jan. 31, 1974. Kingston, 1974.
rMOA/JM: 333.51]

---. ---. Project Land Lease, Status LC,SC
Summary (monthly). Kingston.
[ MOA/JAM]

Gives data on land investment, land
leased, number of tenants under each
type of programme, land occupied,
acres planted and tons of crops
harvested (reaped) and value, by
parish and within parish. Indivi-
dual crop information on all land
together: planted in month, in ground
this month, to delivery period, crop
reaped this month and to date.

---. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands. LC
Division of Economics and Statistics.
Land Peform in Jamaica with Emphasis on
Land Settlement. October 1962. Pp. 77.
[UWI/ISFP ]

This is an evaluation of past programs
as well as a base for future policy.
Part A, a discussion of the Land
Reform program; Part P, Land Reform--
agricultural productivity and output;
effects on employment, wages and
living conditions; Part D, financing
reform and effects on the governmental
budget; Part E, Land reform and com-
munity development.

JAM;IC?. Yallahs Valley Land Authority. LC,P
Annual report. M A/J A M]

Provides acreage estimates by crop,
credit use, etc.

---. ---. Reporton a Sample Survey of I. ,C
Farms in the Yallas Improvement Area
(with Special Reference to the Problems
ofAgricultural Credit). Kingston,
(date unknown).


Quoted (McMorris) as showing that in








mid '50s of 3,000 farms, 1,400 depended
on shop credit. About 15 percent obtained
credit from Peoples Co-op 5 percent
produce dealers 25 percent commercial banks,
relatives, etc. Thirty-three percent
did not borrow. Percentages greater than
10' as more than 1 source was used.

---. --- Yallahs ValleyLand Authority LC
1951-1966 15th AnniversaryBrochure.
[1MO/JAM ]

Describes project, programs and
results. Not an unbiased evaluation,
but indicates highest estimate of
achievement.

JAMAIC? DEVELOPMENT BANK. "Self-Supporting LC
Farmers' Development Programme." Farmer
80, No. 7 (1975): 282-289.

The Self-Supporting Farmers' Develop-
ment Programme was initiated in 1969
a, a project of the (then) Ministry
of Pural Land Development, aimed at
raising the level of small-scale
farming in Jamaica, by maKing available
to farmers in the I to 25 acre group
supervised credit for medium-long term
agricultural development. The object-
ives of the Drogramme are: (1) to
improve the economic and social
standard of the beneficiary farm
family by lifting the net farm income
to at least $9f0 annually, and (2) to
provide food for the nation by proper
development of land resources. The
financing and administration of the
scheme are described and details are
presented of its operation in tabular
form.

JOHNSCO, H. "Patterns of Water Surplus LC
and Deficit in Jamaica." Unpublished
Undergraduate thesis. Dept. of
Geography, University of West Indies,
Mona, 1976. [GD/UWI/JAM ]

JOHNSON, Irving E. "Alternatives in Lr
Agricultural Land "enure, Jamaica,
West Indies." Unpublished Ph.D.
dissertation, Cornell University,
1961. Pp. 454.

---. LandLease, Vol. 1 (of 3 volumes LC
projected). Jamaica: Instituto








Interamericano de Ciencias Agricolas,
Document 6 (no date--in process?).

et al. "? Review of Land Settlement LC,P
in Jamaica." Proceedings of the 7th
West Indian Agricultural Economics
Conference, Grand Anse, Grenada_ April
9-_1, 1972. St. Augustine, Trinidad:
Dept. of Agricultural Economics,
University of West Indies, 1972. Dp.
11r-132. [MOA/JAM]

Defines land settlement as system
whereby Government subdivides land
which it either owns or subsequently
purchases for settlement of farmers
on a freehold or leasehold basis.
Discusses settlements 1949-63, of
freehold and leasehold kind. Needed
rehabilitation and land lease of 5
years was not liked. Two experiments
in co-op farming--1ucky Hill and Grove
are described and problems discussed.
In period 1963-72 few farms were
settled, though had a dairy scheme
with successes and shortcomings. A
year training was required of all
participants and infrastructure and
size were based on a target incomes.
Discusses private tenant schemes (e.g.
Alcan) with 1969-70 data. Some
analysis, though coverage patchy.

---; STPCHAN, Marie; JOHNSON, Joseph. LC
Land Settlement in Jamaica. Institute
Interamericano de Ciencias Agricolas
(IICA), Kingston, December 1977, 37 pp.
bibliog. [?DS/AID/JAM]

Contains a brief history and analysis
of early land schemes. Major emphasis
is on the land-lease scheme, its policy,
goals and performance as well as sta-
tistics on its size, scope and importance.

KEIL, F.?. "Land Use Planning in the LC,J
Caribbean Area." Soil Conservation
Society of America Proceedings 26,
(1971): 26-30. [NM L: 56.9 SC33P]

McMAHON, C. "Climatic Change in Jamaica
over the Past Century with Specific
Reference to Precipitation Patterns."
Unpublished undergraduate thesis. Dept.
of Geography, University of West Indies,
Mona, 1969. [GD/UWI/JAM]









McMOPFIS, C.S. Small-Farm Financing LC,IC
in Jamaica. Kingston, Jamaica,
Institute of Social and Economic
Research, 1957. fMOA/JAM]

Reports results of survey of
approximately 3,000 farms, with a
follow-up on 80 farms in much more
detail (8 visits). Obviously out
of date, but of some use to measure
historical change (e.g. in sources
of credit, loans and assets, etc.).

---. "Small-Farm Financing in Jamaica." LC,zC
SuEplement of Social and Economic
Studies, 6 No. 3, XIV. Pp. 128.
[ FOP/JA.F; UWI/ISEP]

Same as individually published
report. Data from 19'4 survey done
in conjunction with D. Edwards for
84 small farms, and with 8 visits
over the year. Pesults suggest
small farmers fund mostly with
savings and use little credit,
though 'aware of it.' Most require
land titles and over half did not
have adequately registered titles.
Also provides information on official
funds by source (1914) and compares
operations of credit agency.

nFGANIZATION OF AMEPICAN STATES. (Cover LC,J
page missing but an employment-
generation suggestion paper.) [ P/
AID/JIM ]

Has section on agriculture. Suggests
bringing idle land into production to
provide employment. Has table (1973)
by land class of unutilized land and
in units of over 100 acres (Land Develop-
ment and Utilization Committee). Makes
some tentative suggestions for youth
settlement on these lands. Appendix A
on Jamaica Land Development and Utili-
zation program, description as of
January 1973.

---. Program of Social Development and IC,?r,
Department of Fducational Affairs.
Pural Settlement and Youth _raininqin
Jamaica: A Pilot Project_ Oasis 1976.
Pp. 98, including appendices. [RDS/
AID/JAM]




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