• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Review of studies and data on marketing...
 An interpretation of the domestic...
 Marketing margins
 Recommendations
 Appendix. Annotated bibliography...














Group Title: Working document series Jamaica
Title: A review of agricultural marketing in Jamaica
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087121/00001
 Material Information
Title: A review of agricultural marketing in Jamaica
Series Title: Working document series Jamaica
Physical Description: 82 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Erickson, Frank Alan, 1943-
Erickson, Elizabeth Banks, 1939- ( joint author )
Publisher: Rural Development Division, Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean, Agency for International Development
Place of Publication: Washington
Publication Date: 1980
 Subjects
Subject: Farm produce -- Marketing -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Economic aspects -- Jamaica   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Jamaica
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographies.
Statement of Responsibility: Frank Erickson, Elizabeth Erickson.
General Note: "Constitutes the report under contract no. 12-77-07-5-2198."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087121
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06720250

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Review of studies and data on marketing in Jamaica
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
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        Page 34
        Page 35
    An interpretation of the domestic marketing system and its problems
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Marketing margins
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Recommendations
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
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    Appendix. Annotated bibliography on marketing
        Page 51
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Full Text











WORKING DOCUMENT SERIES


JAMAICA


JAMAICA

GENERAL WORKING DOCUMENT #2


A REVIEW OF AGRICULTURAL
MARKETING IN JAMAICA



Frank Erickson

and

Elizabeth Erickson


January 1980



RURAL DEVELOPMENT DIVISION
BUREAU FOR LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN
AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT



Rural Development Division
Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean
Agency for International Development


I



















WORKING DOCUMENT SERIES

JAMAICA


GENERAL WORKING DOCUMENT #2

A REVIEW OF AGRICULTURAL
MARKETING IN JAMAICA

Dr. Frank Erickson
Dr. Elizabeth Erickson



Development Planning Group

Office of International
Cooperation and Development

U.S. Department of Agriculture

January 1980





This document constitutes the report
under Contract No. 12-77-07-5-2198

























This document does not bear the approval
(nor imply such) of the Agency for Inter-
national Development, the U.S. Department
of Agriculture, or any of their offices.
In view of its nature as a working paper,
it should not be quoted without permission
of the originating office. Any comments
would be appreciated and can be addressed
to the authors at:

530 Park Avenue
Kent OH 44240













TABLE OF CONTENTS




1.0 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.1 Scope and Limitations . . . . . . . . . .

1.2 Agricultural Situation . . . . . . . . . . .

2.0 Review of Studies and Data on Marketing in Jamaica . . . .

2.1 Food Demand Studies and Aggregate Economic Analysis. . . .

2.1.1 Domestic Price and Income Elasticities and Forecasting Models.


2.1.2 Export and Single Crop Analysis. .


. . . . . . . .9


2.1.3 Studies of Marketing Channels for Domestic Crops .

2.1.3.1 Data and Objectives . . . . . . . .

2.1.3.2 Issues and Evidence . . . . . . . .

2.1.3.3 Overall View . . . . . . . . . . .

2.1.3.4 Recommendations . . . . . . . . .

3.0 An Interpretation of the Domestic Marketing System and
its Problems . . . . . . . . . . .

4.0 Marketing Margins . . . . . . . . . .

5.0 Recommendations for Marketing Changes . . . . .

5.1 Supperhiggler and Institutional Rationalization . . .

5.2 Market Information . . . . . . . . .

5.3 Facilities and Procedures . . . . . . . .


. . 13

. . 15

. . 20

.. 28

. . 29



. . .36

. . .40

. . .43

. . .44

. . .46

. . .48


5.4 Co-operative Marketing and Input Supply . . . . .... .48










1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS

Agricultural marketing is a broad and complex topic and in Jamaica it

has been studied in some depth. Therefore, this paper is to be limited in

scope to those areas with which the author has direct experience and potential

insights. The reader will be referred to other studies for detailed descriptions

and discussions. This report endeavors to point out the major issues and

problems of agricultural marketing, especially as they relate to the income

and livelihood of small farmers and marketers. The study is not directly

concerned with the sociology of the fascinating small trader of Jamaica -

the higgler about whom so much has been written. A further limitation is

the focus on problems of domestic food marketing with little concern for the

situation of export crops, although reference will be made to the literature

in this area.

The first section of this paper will introduce the marketing system in

the perspective of the Jamaican agricultural economy. The second section is

a review of the major recent studies of marketing in Jamaica and a related

appendix provides an annotated bibliography of all studies encountered in this

investigation. The third section comprises the authors interpretation and

analysis of major problem areas in domestic food marketing. Section four is

an analysis of the question of whether marketing margins in Jamaica are

excessive. The last section deals with the author's recommendations for

constructive changes in the marketing system.

1.2 AGRICULTURAL SITUATION

Jamaican agriculture is in a chronic situation of insufficient production,

both to meet domestic demands and export commitments. In addition most

domestic food production comes from small farms, produced at high costs on

generally poor lands with steep slopes and thin soils. The large farm










population, beset by low incomes, poor services and lack of general opportunity

has little incentive to produce more or to stay in agriculture. The drift

of rural people to the cities, high food costs and low rural incomes combine

to create a problem situation in agriculture and to give it a high priority

for development.

In recent years production of export crops has generally decreased and

there has been a significant increase in domestic food production. However,

demand for quality foods (e.g. improved rice, meats, dairy) has expanded

demands for food at a much more rapid rate and thus food imports have dramat-

ically increased while exports have fallen, aggravating an already critical

balance of payments crisis. This situation has focused governmental and

societal attention on agricultural problems.

The Government of Jamaica (GOJ) has a policy of promoting high

prices at the farm gate and low prices to the consumer. There is some

obvious conflict in this policy and it brings emphasis to the marketing

function, the costs of which largely determine the difference in prices

between farm gate and consumer. It is often asserted that marketing costs

are high in Jamaica and much of the blame for this is attributed to the in-

efficiences of the higgler system which handles about 80 percent of the

internally produced domestic food. The question of marketing margins as a

measure of efficiency will be investigated in a later section.

The Government of Jamaica established in 1963 an Agricultural Marketing

Corporation (AMC) in an attempt to 'modernize' the internal marketing system.

The AMC was to simultaneously support farm prices, provide low-cost food for

the poor, operate facilities for transport, storage, washing, packaging, and

retailing of food and to provide market information, establish grading systems,

import and export food, etc. The AMC has only partially fulfilled its charter,

has lost money and has never controlled more than 20 percent of the overall










food disbritution. Many questions and controversies surround its broad role

in agriculture and marketing.

Relatively low-cost food and high farm prices can only be achieved

through subsidy to either or both farmers and consumers or by reduction of

the marketing costs. Subsidy is expense to the public purse and an undesirable

though often necessary policy. To the extent possible an increase in marketing

efficiency is a better option.

2.0 REVIEW OF STUDIES AND DATA ON MARKETING IN JAMAICA

This review does not attempt to provide a summary report of information

on the present situation of agricultural marketing in Jamaica. Numerous

recent reports of this type already exist. Instead, the section has two

purposes. First it provides a guide to the literature and data on marketing

in Jamaica. This will hopefully bridge an information gap. A great deal has

been written in areas related to marketing, but there are many disparate sources,

which means that useful studies can be easily overlooked. Second, it attempts

to identify some of the areas in which further study seems needed. References

to marketing studies discussed are to be found in the partially annotated

bibliography at the end of this paper, which is abstracted from a larger

bibliography of agricultural development literature on Jamaica (Erickson:1979).

Studies on marketing topics in Jamaica can be divided into four groups.

First there are studies of food demand in the context of more aggregate

economic analysis or macro models studies which include estimates of price

and income elasticities of demand for food-groups or specific foods, and

look at import/export policy, export multipliers etc. Second, there are

descriptions and analyses of specific crops or products, mostly export

crops bananas, coffee, sugar etc. These analyses often include fairly

sophisticated demand and marketing sections. Third, there is an extensive








literature on marketing channels for domestic crops. 'Higglers' in Jamaica

have been studied by anthropologists and others since the early 1950's. Since

its inception there have also been descriptive and analytical studies of AMC,

and its role in the total system.

Fourth, there are numerous reports and evaluations of the total

marketing system, listing problems and making recommendations for change.

These may be based on secondary sources, conventional wisdom or involve primary

data search.

2.1 FOOD DEMAND STUDIES AND AGGREGATE ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

2.1.1 DOMESTIC PRICE AND INCOME ELASTICITIES AND FORECASTING MODELS

Several recent reports (Kutish:1978, Zenny:1978) have suggested that

in Jamaica there has been no estimation of price and income elasticities of

demand, or any other information needed for significant demand forecasting.

In fact there are estimates, perhaps not perfectly adapted for the specific

purposes the report writers have in mind, but certainly of a depth and

quality unusual for many LDC's. Much of this work has been carried out by

academic economists and published by the University of the West Indies. It

perhaps then insufficient interaction between economists at tne Ministry of

Agriculture (MOA) and at UWI which has led to lack of consideration of at

least three major studies (Adams:1968, Cumper:1966, Harris:1964). Certainly

these analyses are not very recent, but they are still a significant source.

Adams (1968) as part of an analysis of food consumption and food import

trends in Jamaica for 1950-63, used national accounts data and retail price

data developed for the Consumer Price Index to estimate income and price

elasticities for various food groups. He used 1958 Household Survey weights

to develop price indices for major groups of food products: bread and cereals,

meat, fish, oils and fats, fruits and vegetables, root crops. The equations

used were consumption expenditures per capital of each group as a function










of per capital disposable income and price indices. Prices of substitutes

were not included, but for commodity groups it could be reasonable to

assume independence of demand between groups. For rootcrops and fruits,

vegetables and pulses the income elasticities were negative, an unusual

result. Adams suggests that because of the provision by purely local supply

the data are simultaneous and the demand function is not appropriately

specified by a simple single equation.

The results of Adams estimates are shown in Table 1, and technically

apply specifically to the income levels of the period of estimation. Given

overall income and price elasticities, Adams went on to estimate import

price and income elasticities for the period (1950-63) for specific items.

Use of these for forecasting assumes continuation of the overall domestic

supply situation which occurred over the time period studies, an assumption

with little validity. However, at least one of his findings is of interest;

that import demand for food was price elastic over the overall time period.

Given that overall demand elasticities are not greater than 1, the results

suggest a fairly elastic domestic supply response that is that at higher

prices, consumers reduce demand somewhat, but that the greater drop in

imports come from increased domestic production.

An earlier study by Harris (1964) used the 1958 Consumption Expenditure

survey data to estimate income elasticities. Mean consumption per capital

and estimated per capital income for ten income groups were used as variables

for estimates of rural, urban, and main town areas. This settlement breakdown

allowed for differences in behaviour and alternative response to income changes.

Harris also suggested that the semi-log Engel curve provided the 'best'

theoretical description of behaviour for each group; that is, that elasticity

of consumption declines with income. The elasticities are reasonably similar

to those of Adams (though commodity groupings are not exactly the same),








except in the case of root crops and vegetables in which negative elasticities

were not found. The data are shown in Table 1. It is not clear from the

article the nature of the sample used for estimation. A stratified random

sample would require consideration of weighting.

This problem is considered by Cumper (1966) in an article discussing

alternative methods of computing income elasticities. He used the same data

as Harris and compared estimates in log and semi-log form, using weighted

and unweighted consumption group means plus a non-regression method. The

estimates, which differed as would be expected, but those which were the most

acceptable statistically (weighted semi-log and log) gave similar results.

Again the estimates are listed in Table 1.

Potential data sources exist for new estimation efforts. Unpublished

consumer survey data exist in the Department of Statistics for 1971-2, 1975,

and 1977 1 from which income and expenditure elasticities could be calculated.

The data are sufficiently detailed to allow separate estimates for rural,

urban and town groups an important requirement. These same data could be

used for indirect estimation of price elasticities using Ragnar Frisch's

method (Frisch 1959). Despite the limitations of this method, World Bank

economists have used it where no time series data were available (e.g. Le Si

and Pomerada, 1976) Given that the consumer survey data are available for

several years it is possible to use these data to get a direct estimate of

some group price elasticities, sufficient at least to allow a direct calcu-

lation of money flexibility (0) a value needed for the Frisch estimation

(Pinstrup-Anderson, de Londono, Hoover (1976)).


1 I
See Appendix in Annotated Bibliography, under Jamaica, Dept. of Statistics
and Jamaica, Ministry of Agriculture for data sources for this and other
quantitative analysis.










For direct price elasticity determination clearly time series data

are needed. Direct intra-year data on crop prices is only of recent

origin (MOA 1976), but some inter-year series (of varying quality) do

exist. It is even possible to use Adams national account series. Quantity

estimates are also limited, although survey data are now being obtained

for production estimates, previously estimated by MOA technicians (MOA 1976).

Consumption estimates can be made if storage, export and import data are

reasonably accurate.

For forecasting, data on economic growth on supply response and on

elasticities of substitution are needed at minimum. In fact demand, supply

and price determination in essence occur in a simultaneous system. Although

there are not detailed dissaggregate models of multiple agriculture products,

and as we shall see, few individual product supply estimates there are a

number of economy-wide models in which agriculture is taken as a single-sector,

or where there is a breakdown within agriculture.

For demand and marketing studies knowledge of interaction with the rest

of the economy is important. There are at least four multi-equation econometric

models on the Jamaican economy (Carter:1970, Harris:1970, Jolly:1973, Manhertz:

1970) with which to determine interaction between agriculture and other sectors

and to measure effects of import substitution and export policies. Few countries

have such a wealth of models for intersectoral analysis.

Harris (1970) develops a two-gap model with 57 equations to test the

importance of foreign exchange compared to lack of domestic savings as constraints

on growth in Jamaica for the period 1950-1965, and to determine aggregate resource

requirements. An aggregate import demand elasticity for food (1.1) is estimated

directly for the period. Among exports, sugar and bananas are included

separately. It is assumed that exports are limited by demand conditions in










developed countries. In fact Harris admits that non-responsiveness could be

due to supply problems. Hence the income elasticities of 1.15 and 1.49 for

sugar and bananas respectively are not really relevant. Overall results of

the model suggested that the import-export gap has been the significant

constraint over most of the time period.

Carter's (1970) model is build to evaluate the effect of exports and

tourism a 33 equation model using 1959-66 data. Again aggregate import

demand for food is estimated, with similar elasticity estimates to those

of Harris. Exports are considered exogenous in this model. Import demand

for food is considered a critical variable.

Jolly (1973) develops a model using 1959-1968 data to determine the

feasibility of alternative growth rates. Total food demand and supply

equations are included. With an assumed 4% growth rate for the economy,

sectoral labor and capital coefficients are developed which suggest that

agricultural growth can reduce unemployment. Manhertz (1971) uses data

from 1959-1967 to build a even more aggregate model, but which includes the

monetary sector.

None of these studies have a detailed breakdown of agriculture

beyond examination of exports and imports, and as intersectoral studies they

do not specifically study that one sector. Worrell (1973) suggests that break-

down to look at consumption and imports by income group, an examination of

export destinations, and a more detailed specification of sectoral links

would improve their usefulness for policy purposes, and that applies certainly

for analyses of marketing strategy and demand in agriculture. However, the

stress on exports and import substitution and determination of growth rates

are important, and the models provide information into which a more detailed

analysis of the agricultural sector could be fitted.









A part of such an analysis would be a more dissaggregate examination of

intersectoral links, using for example input-output analysis. There is no

such 1/0 study, but there has been work done on aspects of employment potential

in agro-industry. Gurley (1974) in a Ph.D dissertation surveys 26 presently

operating firms on techniques, research and development, labor use, and source

of imputs. Results suggested that local firms rather than multinationals

were more likely to re-invest and obtain resources from local sources. In a

1977 article using census and labor force statistics to examine choice of

technique, Gurley suggests that mechanization rather than labor-intensive

production is increasing over time.

Overall questions of agricultural export trade have been addressed by

a number of development exports. Important statements have been made at

various times by Demas (1976) and Buckmire (1971, 1973) on the need for

intra-Caribbean trade and the political problems in its achievement. Roache

(1976) in a review paper looks favorably at the potential for development and

trade of specific crops within CARICOM and McIntosh (1975) looks at CARICOM

marketing constraints which affect trade development, although in fairly

general terms.

For a somewhat different view of the prospects of intra-Caribbean

trade, there is the study, Andic et al (1971) which developed a model which

incorporates regional price and income elasticities for major agricultural

products used in the region, plus export elasticities, to estimate losses

from lack of trade. Their results indicate there were losses due to lack of

free trade, but also that CARIFTA, association with the EEC, and CARICOM

institutional alternatives did not bring about much improvement.

2.1.2 EXPORT AND SINGLE CROP ANALYSES

The second group of articles and studies are again mostly academic in

origin though not exclusively, but have in comment their stress on a particular





10


crop, mostly those for export, though some specific import substitutes are

considered. Not all material relates to demand or to specific marketing

estimations or problems. In a number of cases, supply conditions are also

analyzed an obvious requirement for the determinations of import substitute

or export potential. The crops covered are: a) for exports sugar, bananas,

coffee, vegetables, citrus, mangoes, ginger, pimentos; b) for import-substitute.-

meat, vegetables, fish. Some of the studies are descriptive, other analytical,

and they range from old to recent.

For most export crops in Jamaica there are marketing boards which publish

forecasts and make internal studies. As the major emphasis of the paper

is on domestic market crops, material of this kind on export crops has not

been studied in detail. All boards have a series of annual reports with

production and consumption data. Anyone analyzing thede export crops would

be provided with this internal material by the agency it is the other relevant

but external studies which require to be noted.

The most important agricultural export of Jamaica is sugar. The most

recent detailed study is by Hagelberg (1974) in which costs, productivity,

and potential for technological change are evaluated. Data for Jamaica are

considered, along with others in the Commonwealth Caribbean. Unlike Murphy

(1972) who considers that the industry has some potential, Hagelberg concludes

that there are higher costs in this area than among its competitors, with

limited potential change likely. Lawson (1971) provides a further detailed

survey.

More recent cost data have been developed by the World Bank (1978).

The problem of marketing sugar under rising costs with loss of Commonwealth

preference as Britian joined the EEC, are reviewed by Girwar (1973). One

suggested additional market is more emphasis on sugar by product utilization.

Uses for pulp and paper, cattle feed and anyhydrous alcohol have been evaluated










in detail in a recent OAS study (OAS 1978). The recommendations of this

study suggest that opportunities are limited. It should be noted that

problems in the sugar industry are not new. Detailed information on difficulties

in the industry can be found in Commission of Inquiry held in 1960 and 1966

(GOJ; 1960, 1966).

A second major export crop is bananas. This crop is produced in

the main on small farms, and has been declining in production, both of which

make it significant for analysis. Early studies were made by Rodriquez (1955)

who included a long historical series on supply going back to the early

part of the century, and by McFarlane (1964), who made farily simple supply

and demand forecasts for all of the West Indies including Jamaica for 1965

and 1975.

One marketing area in which studies have been made is that of market

structure. Arthur et al (1968) looked at concentration in the international

banana market which included a discussion of its effects on Jamaica. High

concentration in the marketing of Jamaican bananas, is determined a

problem in a later (1971) study (North London and Haselmere Group), with a

recommendation for nationalization. These studies relate to problems of the

whole industry rather than to additional problems of the small farmer.

Issues of export demand for bananas have been analyzed by Coley (1971)

who estimated a low price elasticity of demand for exports for the whole

Commonwealth Caribbean. Phillips (1973) provides some addition to this

analysis for the Commonwealth Caribbean by comparing costs with those of

alternative suppliers to the EEC. His results suggest that the Caribbean

has cost disadvantages.

For coffee several descriptive studies for Jamaica have been published

(Rodriguez (1955) and Thomas (1964)). These both include discussion of

1954-5 survey results on production practices. No later detailed survey










seems to have been carried out. These studies are useful for their historical

analysis and the documentation of problems over time. However the most

important recent work, for overall industry analysis and for marketing and

policy analysis is the Ph.D study by Williams (1972, 1973, 1975) in which he

develops a model of coffee supply, as a function of lagged prices, wage rates

and the prices of substitutes and complements (bananas, cocoa, etc.), which

is fitted using time-series data. The long run supply elasticity estimate

is .82 and the crops elasticity with respect to the price of cocoa is .28.

This shows some quite significant effect of price on production. The second

part of the study attempts to estimate the long-run average cost curve for

coffee processing, using data from plants administered by the Jamaican Coffee

Board. These estimates indicate economics of scale in processing which

might justify the Board's investment in facilities, although at present

these remain under-utilized and the economics therefore not exploited.

There has been recent interest in the potential for vegetables in

Jamaica both for export and to substitute for imports. Several recent

studies try specifically to analyze export potential for these crops.

Sarfaty (1978) looks at potential demand and comparative cost data for

exports to the U.S. from Jamaica and includes a discussion of specific

marketing problems like contacts with brokerage firms, quality requirements,

etc. He uses as one source a shorter study by Baldwin et al (1975). Due

and Gehring (1973) look at import substitution potential. Data from the

1960's is used in a discussion of the potential for increased production of

vegetables which are in part imported. Cost comparisons are not made.

Descriptive studies of not very recent data exist for smaller export

crops citrus (McFarlene 1964), pimento (Rodriguez) and ginger (Rodriguez).

In meat excellent work on developing demand data has been done by

Mayers of the UWI Department of Agricultural Economics (Mayers 1970). A









series of statistics has been developed by island by meat type for the period

1950-1968. In a later study Mayers (1973) evaluates marketing and demand

for meat in the West Indies, and using income elasticity estimates, projects

demand for 1980. At the micro-processing level the construction of a meat

marketing slaughter-house for Kingston has been evaluated in a recent IDB

study (Guerrero et al 1977).

2.1.3 MARKETING CHANNELS FOR DOMESTIC CROPS

In Jamaica there are now two major channels available to the producer

for the sale of domestic crops a) the traditional system of small trader

intermediaries (usually women) called 'higglers' and b) the Agricultural

Marketing Corporation, the Government buying and selling agency. This

second channel has only been in existence since 1963.

The 'higgler' system has been the object of considerable anthropological

and sociological research. Mintz (e.g. 1974) has outlined its historical

development from the time of slavery and (1954, 1955) has compared it to

similar systems in the Caribbean which he suggests are efficient in the

context of the small peasant farmer.

Katzin (1959, 1960) has described the Jamaican system of the late 1950's

in impressive detail, based on field study. She defined higglers in Kingston's

Coronation Market into eight categories, which are still the basis of present

classification. The study remains the basic source against which changes

over time are measured. The categories defined were country people, who sell

their own farm produce; country and town weekend higglers, who buy whole-

sale at Kingston markets and sell at retail at the end of the week; country

higglers, who buy produce from growers and sell at wholesale or retail; town

higglers who rent market stalls and sell from them; tray girls, who sell

from trays outside markets and vendors who rent several stores and specialize

in only one item. Katzin detailed the activities undertaken by each type










of higgler; and estimated, (on a case study basis), costs and

returns for both country and town higglers. She concluded that the system

provided sufficient information to producer and consumer, consisted of

many buyers and sellers, and could be characterized as perfectly competitive

and efficient.

Norvell and Thompson (1959) challenged the market characterization but

not necessarily its efficiency. They contended that Katzin's statements

indicate cost plus pricing, reservation pricing, non-price competition,

indivisibility and returns to scale, none of which are part of the perfectly

competitive model, They suggested spatial market operating under uncertainty

with an 'unorganized oligopoly'. Arguments would seem to be possible on

both sides, but in both studies the conclusion is that the result roughly

meets efficiency criteria.

However, not all those who evaluated the system reached that conclusion.

As a result of a 1960 FAO study, the AMC was set up to provide an alternative

marketing channel, to operate at prices above costs, but with only a minimal

or 'fair' margin, and to provide modern storage, quality control, access to

institutional buyers etc. The arguments in that study and in a MOA report

by Johnston and Coley (1966) were stated as high markups by higglers,

excessive losses through waste, lack of economies of scale, etc.

At the present time AMC controls the marketing of only about

20% of production and has had an increasing deficit over recent years.

Studies of various aspects of AMC's operations have been carried out, and

also studies and surveys on the higglers as they operate in the 1970's, in

order to determine the problems of the total system and to suggest improvements.

In this recent literature there are numerous reports commenting on

higglers and suggesting changes in the marketing system, but less primary

studies or reviews of such studies.









Among this latter group, two of the most important are a large survey of

higglers carried out by the Planning Unit of the MOA (Smikle and Taylor

(1977)) (S&T) and a less-extensive more case-oriented study but one which

reviews other research, done by Locher and LaGra for IICA (1977) (L&L).

These two national investigations are supplemented by work in particular

areas and/or particular issues. Farquarson (1977) and later investigators

have data on Allsides and Kutish (1978) on Portland Parish. Norton and

Symansky (1973) review Ministry of Planning and unpublished UWI Geography

Department data to look at periodicity of parish markets; Brodsky (1978)

evaluates spatial price differential in markets using MOA collected data

while Wilson (1971) has done some work on mark-ups and market loss.


The two national studies require closer review, both because of thier

data relative to various issues and because their overall conclusions about

the market system are so different.

This review looks first at the objectives and data of each study;

then at the issues which are addressed and evidence provided; the overall

view presented and finally the recommendations. The two studies will be

compared and critiqued. Evidence from the other studies will be introduced

when appropriate. Hopefully this should help determine where questions

(and therefore further research needs) remain.

2.1.3.1 DATA AND OBJECTIVES

The survey of higglers carried out in October-November 1976 by the

Planning Units of the MOA is the first real survey of this sector. Data

was collected from a stratified random sample of 960 taken from a population

frame of higglers using parochial markets. The authors note that there

were problems with accurate population identification because of changes









in those using the market, but they feel it was a reasonable close count.

Population enumeration is likely to be a problem in any such survey. Clear

documentation is provided for review. This survey was supplemented by another

of curbside higglers in January 1977. However, this was carried out for the

corporate area of Kingston only, not elsewhere, although a country-wide estimate

is made. The S&T report does not give data on survey size or methods of

identifying the population frame.

In addition 100 farmers were interviewed on a case-study basis and market

clerks and officials were also sources of information.

On the other hand the L&L study used much more limited data, but from

multiple sources: (1) the existing literature (2) case study observations of

market transactions and semi-structured interviews with higglers and farmers

in different situations (3) case study inspection of buying stations observation

of transactions and interviews with AMC officials. Transactions data were

limited to those involving yams and tomatoes.

The authors' literature search is extensive and includes unpublished

primary data from markets, and from UWI undergraduate geography classes,

as well as published studies from numerous sources. L&L in fact stress the

value of such search and evaluation of previous work before new research is

done a point well taken.

To turn to the objectives of the two studies: S&T were required to

investigate the current activities of higglers, more specifically "to make

distinction between different types of higglers," - "to investigate margins

and mark-ups" and to make an "examination of higglers as customers of the AMC."

L&L are interested also in characterizing the present system, but more in

terms of the changes which have occurred, especially the effect of the AMC.

Given the fact that the AMC only handles 20% of the produce, one goal was

to determine why the higglers have been so successful in maintaining such

a high share.









An examination of the data indicates the importance of the S&T report

with its results from the higgler survey the first real statistical descrip-

tion of the higgler population. In many areas there is no other comparable

data, and it is therefore immensely valuable. However, as in all first attempts,

there are limitations. Mention needs to be made of these, not as criticism

of the survey, but for improvement in any further effort.

A look at the major descriptive areas indicates both results and remaining

questions. From the population data collected S&T estimated that there

were 11,000 traders in rural and urban government owned markets and 2,000

in leased outside and free markets throughout the island. This estimate

does not include those dealing exclusively in meat, fish and dry goods.

This omission is one reason given for a total which is lower than the con-

ventional wisdom.

Locher and LaGra also make an estimate of higgler numbers, though only

for Kingston. Their estimates for parish-market higglers, based on fee

records and UWI survey data with modifications for weekend volume, error

etc. are very similar to those of the S&T report. It is for higglers outside

parish markets that the two estimates differ. For curbside higglers S&T

report estimates 1,400 higglers (in 210 locations). L&L report 1,600 from

a 1975 Town Clerk "illicit vendor" study. To these L&L added their own

estimate of 1,000 "tray girls", who move from place to place rather than

selling at one location, giving a total of 2,600. Both authors indicate

that there has been rapid expansion in selling outside parish markets. It

would seem that more data are needed for a reliable estimate of the present

size of this group to be made. The number of higglers is important to

determine the effect of marketing changes on employment.

The majority of data in S&T are those collected in the sample survey

through its questionnaire. Data include description of age, personnel









characteristics, residence, markets used, days/week at market, source of

produce etc; plus attitudinal questions; and economic questions related to

prices received and paid, transport costs, income etc. In the Appendices of

the study are 43 tables mostly cross tabluating, frequency of characteristics

by parish market used by higgler. These tables, and even more the original

data, are an enormous potential source for analysis.

It should be noted that the data do have limitations. The major one

is noted by the authors. A study over 2 months cannot identify crops sold

and their prices nor even intra-year differences in margins or income. The

time of the crop year can also affect such things as sources of produce for example

a higgler may buy from the AMC in off-season more than in mid-season. Another

limitation refers in part to the same information. Higglers, knowing that

the AMC does not want to be used as a wholesale source by higglers, have

some incentive to lie about their buying sources. AMC data on this question

suffers from the same potential bias. The authors mention that higglers

were sometimes unwilling (as well as in some cases unable) to give net

income data or data from which it could be calculated. This reflects a

similar problem. Finally, there are the limitations caused by the nature

of the questions. This last problem is better discussed under analysis of

particular issues but for example attitudinal questions like those on

problems and on reasons for entering the profession, may reflect tho=p v!'-

wrote the questionnaire unless they are open ended enough. Also the tabular

analysis leaves out important cross-classification. Data that indicate

only 15% of higglers operate purely at wholesale does not indicate the volume

of produce going through these sellers nor their size distribution.

However, for those sellers in parish markets, important characteristics

are identified. 88% resided outside Kingston/St. Andrews and of those almost









80% sell in rural areas (exclusively? it is not clear from the report).

Essentially, all those residing in Kingston sell in Kingston. The majority

of these higglers are middle aged (60% over 45) and women (83% of the total)

and only 22% have entered the business within the last 4 years.

The pattern for curbside higglers is somewhat different, at least for

the estimated 80% who operate in Kingston and St. Andrews. Most of them

are women (88%) but 50% of them live in the urban area (plus 36% more in

adjoining parishes). Fifty-five percent were less than 44 and 20 percent

were in the 25-34 year age group. Supporting the idea of the recent growth

in this market group 45% had been in higglering less than 4 years.

Further, the study updates the classifications of higgler and other

sellers in the market breaking down rural and urban higglers by source

of purchase and whether sales are wholesale or retail; plus farmer/vendor

or/higglers and supper higglers (discussed later). Unfortunately the tables

only show the number of higglers by source, rather than source and

volume, and only characterize by a single source, while admitting that multiple

sources are used by each higgler. With these limitations they report 50

percent of higglers buy directly from the farmgate.

Locher and LaGra do not have data to provide detailed descriptions

of higgler characteristics. However, they do discuss the higgler classification

in fairly similar terms, but stress the change in function brought about by

the AMC. Town or country higglers with difficulty in finding produce can buy

through the AMC. L&L consider these sales important again raising the

question can the AMC or survey figures identify all higgler buying? Some

higgler buying may be in AMC retail figures.

They also stress the growth of the curbside and private markets but

suggest that there is close proximity to other sellers in these markets -

up to 30 in one place. S&T suggest that there are less sellers in a location

and less price competition with'the growth of street sellers.










One final major descriptive part of the L&L report is an attempt to

summarize the linkages from producers to retailers through and between the

various intermediaries. These linkages are important to the study of

efficiency, for identifying AMC influence and for employment effects. L&L

did not have the data to identify volume of produce or numbers of people

associated with each linkage and unfortunately the Higgler survey was not

structured to try to obtain this data either.

2.1.3.2 ISSUES AND EVIDENCE

Rather than cover all the data in the two studies, it would seem more

relevant to discuss several issues addressed in the reports both in terms

of data and interpretation.

The first of these is employment alternatives open to higglers. Any

proposed change to the marketing system must be evaluated in terms of its

effects on employment given present 25% urban unemployment rates. Both

reports recognize the employment dilemma if there are potential efficiencies

in further changes in the system, such changes may reduce the number of

higglers needed, and what are the employment options open to women in Jamaica

with only higgler skills? The potential options are different for urban and

rural women. Several hypotheses exist for urban higglers: a) domestic, or

factories/industrial employment b) non-employment that increases in job

opportunities for males could mean more jobs for other family members and

women leaving the labor force; for rural: a) increased work on family farm,

with increased production b) increased hiring for women on farms with

increased production c) increased hiring of rural women for new marketing

practices (e.g. grading etc.) d) farm wives becoming non employed with higher

family income e) non-farm higglers becoming non employed as other family

members increase income. The likelihood of any of these options actually

occurring is not examined in any organized way in either report, and unfortunately

the S&T study has ldiited data with which to examine these issues.










The major question in the survey relating directly to employment is that

on reasons for entering higglering. However, there are only three options given:

"lack of availability of alternatives, preference for self-employment,

feeling of lack of skills," which do not necessarily get at underlying

issues affecting entry, like previous family income status, loss of family

employment, higher incomes than alternatives etc. "Family" is underlined

because only 20% of higglers are single and a large percentage have families

with up to 6 members. Lack of family questions relates to other relevant

data. Only 15% of higglers have other occupations (chiefly farm) but do

rural higglers come from farms or from the rural-non farm? And are they

chief or major earners for family as suggested in earlier sociological

literature? It is interesting to note that only a small percentage of

higglers are listed as farmer/vendors or farmer/higglers that is, big enough

for sales of their own produce to be a significant portion of total sales.

S&T indicate that the highest incidence of this group is in yams and green

bananas. Studies including that by Farquarson (1978) in the Allsides area,

indicate a high percentage of higglers in this category, but this is a major yam

growing area, so the conclusions should not be generalized to an island

level.

L&L suggest that country higglers have less options than urban, but

without statistical data. Given that many surveys show farmers are short

of labor and while there is high urban unemployment, the alternative

hypothesis is also possible. However, would women who are now higglers ,

be absorbed into jobs in an expanded agriculture is one important unanswered

question. Equally, in the urban scene, would expansion of urban employment

directly or indirectly (through increased family income) absorb curbside

higglers? These remain important unanswered questions requiring further










research. One point should be noted. Higglers who reap and package crops

in the field are at present providing agricultural labor, and at probably much

less than the current wage rate.1 Given the labor shortages in rural areas it

is not clear where substitute labor would be found (see later) if the higgler

system were reduced.

A related area is that of higgler income. Both L&L and S&T point out

that the volume per higgler (and hence even gross income) is low. S&T

try to use their data to estimate net weekly income. They admit the

difficulty in making such an estimate from 2 months data, and where higglers'

estimates of costs may need to be used. However, it is a useful attempt which

can be used as a basis for improved estimates. One item which is not

included is loss in transit gross income is based on higgler purchases.

Given estimates of 10-30% loss, S&T calculated incomes are likely to be over-

estimated. On the other hand, there is also reason to suggest that the

income figures are under-estimated. The estimates are for purely higgler

income, rather than family income. Certainly a higgler head of household

with $20 per week or less would be in the lowest income bracket, but the

data do not indicate what percentage are in that category. Neither are

data collected on the income of other family members. For any real estimate

of income a survey would need to be carried out for this specific purpose -

using quantity data collected from higglers and price data at least checked

against other sources. Even a range of cash studies to indicate the variables

would be a useful step.

A third major area at issue is the reason or reasons for locational

and intraseasonal prices and quantity variability. It is clear from

It is unlikely to be 'free'- a reaped crop probably is paid a higher price.










S&T survey data, and that of the MOA Planning Unit that such variability

exists. On a locational level it means that at one market a product may

be in surplus while another market has a storage. Price and quantity

variability between season is also stressed by L&L as a major characteristic

of Jamaican domestic crops. Brodsky (1978) has analyzed price data to determine

whether price differences between markets are significant and has shown in

a number of cases that they are greater than could be expected under competitive

conditions.

It is the reasons given for such variability that differ in the two national

reports. S&T state that price differences exist because of lack of centralized

co-ordination, caused by there being a large number of higglers, each operating

independently for self-interest. This would seem to indicate a lack of

understanding of the working of the competitive market in which price

differentials would be eliminated as higglers seeking profit would move

to markets in which shortages occurred and prices would become close to

equal, given differences in demand and in transport cost. L&l suggest the

problems are with inadequate storage and transportation. Added to this

could be lack of information with all three preventing movement of produce

from surplus to shortage areas. S&T report that higglers themselves stress

that insufficient storage and transportation are major problems. No questions

were asked concerning price information sources. L&L suggest that higglers

have an informal communication network but provide no details. Certainly MOA

does not provide any daily or weekly data.

Unfortunately also, little direct transportation data has been collected.

S&T report only range in miles travelled, and estimated weekly cost, rather than

data on type, or on particular problems as viewed by the higgler. Neither do

L&L report such data, although they indicate the need for improved containers

and methods of transport to reduce loss.










There are several further interesting findings in Brodsky's reports.

Prices in market fairly close to each other are highly correlated, indicating

access over short-distances. He recommends therefore that transport improvement

be selective. Farquarson (1978) suggests that trains could be utilized for

marketing if handling could be improved. He discusses problems of yam handling.

Clearly more information and study is needed on transportation alternatives.

The ability of well-operating competitive market to do away with

price fluctuations, especially intra-seasonal ones, should not be taken

too far. Production of perishable crops can be modified to try to get

harvest at times of higher prices, but climate may prevent much change. In

this case, without central intervention, price variability will remain given

that variability, small farmers must diversify and it is only the small higgler,

also dealing with risk by diversifying, who can profitably pick up ths small

amounts of each crop that are produced.

The fourth issue to which data in the studies refer is that of margins.

It is asserted in numerous reports that the marketing margin in Jamaica is

'too high', and is an indication of the inefficiency of the system. However,

there has been little detailed study of this margin either measurement

and comparison by products and country; or analysis of its components: transport,

marketing and processing costs and profit margins, and including post-harvest

loss estimates.

Unfortunately neither of the major recent studies address this issue.

S&T include a section on margins but there seems to be some confusion in

the report on its definition. 'Margin' variously described as the difference

between selling price and purchase price (Table 33) (with no differentiation

between farm-gate and wholesale purchase or wholesale and retail sale prices);

as higgler net weekly income; and as rate of return on outlay. This confusion










is unfortunate because the survey data should be able to help determine

the range of margins, and whether transport or waste or profits vary, and

what are the factors involved. For example it should be possible to

examine what costs increase, decrease or remain constant with scale of

operation. Certainly there are data problems: a 2-month survey provides

limited data; and it is difficult to sort out the operation of higglers who

sell both wholesale and retail. Nevertheless, the tables in the report

are disappointing because they are in a form which adds very little indeed

to knowledge of margins. The only cost breakdown is into components of

weekly costs for an average higgler by parish. This does not allocate costs

to the products traded, nor does it try to divide data into wholesale and

retail components. Extra data are tabulated for transport, but again it is

in a form which has limited significance a frequency distribution for

higglers of overall costs/week and miles travelled.

The authors do try an 'average' profit margin estimate by commodity

based on allocating costs of average mix of products sold in the two months.

Implicitly this is an estimate of the joint wholesale and retail profit

markup. These data are shown in Table 39. Unfortunately, a major cost

has not been included post harvest loss, variously estimated at 10 to 30%

so 'profits' are likely to be overestimated.

The L&L study only gives two case study estimates of overall margins one

for a rural higgler insufficient for reasonable estimation. They also

state (without references) that studies have shown markups are 20-25%. Only

two further studies were found in our literature search one a list of farm-

gate and retail prices from MOA (Zenny 1978) and the other a 1971 study by

Wilson. This last study has several problems. First, the author looks


These happen to be a farm-gate price which are 60 and 50 percent of retail
respectively.









at an 'average' margin over all crops and all sources, when in fact

this margin will vary over these variables. Further, although post-

harvest losses are included; 10% is the highest estimate, which seems

very low. Thirdly, the sample on which the study is based is unspecified.

A fifth area important to marketing problems has been referred to

already in this section both measurements of and reasons for post-harvest

loss. This was not an objective of the higgler survey and is therefore not

referred to in S&T. Inclusion of even higgler estimates of losses

would have been useful, as regressions of losses against variables like

distance travelled, type of transport, availability of storage, would have allowed

some hypotheses to be explored a little further. L&L do not examine this

problem either, except by referring to studies indicating little difference

in post-harvest losses between higglers and the AMC. Farquarson on the

other hand does look at this question fairly technically for yams at

Allsides, and has useful suggestions for improvements in storage, transport

and retail marketing which would reduce losses. An even more technical report

reduction of loss is provided by Bennet (1977) for AMC cooling and large scale

storage facilities. This study complements that of Smith (1977), which gives

detailed cost,'analyses of AMC losses.

Finally, both S&T and L&L provide in may ways similar descriptions

of the reasons farmers choose higglers or the AMC for their sales. First

the AMC provides, or tries to provide higher 'guaranteed' prices in a glut,

while the higgler pays higher prices during shortages. Second the higgler

may provide reaping processing or transport services, which can be important

to the small farmer faced with labor shortages. Thirdly, where the farmer

needs frequent pickup of small amounts of various crops, the higgler has

the advantage where quantities are larger and more specialized the AMC

has the capacity. Fourthly, the higgler may provide small amounts of credit

for inputs (e.g. fertilizer) which they now also provide. The AMC provides










inputs, but for cash. The two sources differ on the role of quality: S&T

state that the AMC uses standards and higglers accept all, L&L suggest that

it is the poor quality that the AMC must accept in a glut.

L&L have an excellent summary table (p. 66) of the relationship

between the small farmer and each of the marketing instutitions: AMC, export

boards and higglers. Both reports indicate that small farmers use higglers,

the AMC and export boards in selling their produce. L&L add that larger

farmers have more characteristics favoring use of the AMC.

There is one controversial area in this analysis. S&T assert that as

only small amounts can be collected by a single higgler, and few higglers

will be seen in a given week, so farmers may limit their production increases

(despite higher prices) because of lack of marketing facilities. L&L assume

causality in the opposite direction small farmers must diversify

and therefore produce small amounts which can only be collected

efficiently (at low cost) by the higgler. Neither study provides enough

evidence to really test these hypotheses. Further research is necessary

to compare the cost and capability of higglers to deal with more production,

compared with the AMC or any other alternative systems. Complementary work

is needed on the nature of production constraints for example it may be that

lack of harvest labor (potentially or actually provided by higglers) is a greater

constraint than inadequate collection for market. Again, credit and its cost

may or may not constrain production increases. Also would farmers increase

specialization or continue to diversify?

The farmer relation to AMC and to higglers leaders to one related issue

addressed by both studies the role and problems of the AMC. Both studies

describe its functions as buying from farms at guaranteed, contract, or monthly

price, and with standard weights and measures; selling at wholesale

to institutional buyers and selling retail at outlets at lower than market










prices. Further there is agreement on the description of the reality AMC as

buyer of surpluses because of its pricing policy; frequent failure to

buy all at guaranteed minimum; very large deficits; poor operation of

storage; inefficiency in management, and labor unrest; seller at retail

to higglers, with little effect on consumer prices. The reasons for

and solution of AMC problems as discussed by the authors are best seen in

their overall evaluation of domestic marketing.

2.1.3.3 OVERALL VIEW

The previous sections have set out much of the data and issues

examined in the two studies. It is interesting that such agreements as

to specific issues and problems should also lead to very different conclusions.

S&T conclude the higgler system has not been subject to processes of

planning and organization; that is is disorganized; has lacked flexibility

and has failed to function efficiently. Further "there is little or no

hope for evolutionary improvement - because of the low levels of skills

and education" and because of the advanced age group in which 75% of the

higglers fall". They state as its principal weaknesses, mostly attributable

to the decentralized, unplanned nature of its system, as a) small purchases

preventing increased farm production b) margins which are too high c) surpluses

and shortages which exist at the same time. S&T also criticize the AMC in

terms similar to those set out in the previous section. They conclude that

only a strong centralized approach will improve the system:, although

necessarily it will have to accommodate the higglers.

On the other hand L&L conclude that "higglers on the whole are efficient

and perform essential functions in the agricultural sector, Policies should

start from this premise". They suggest that the higgler system has characteristic:

which are often needed by the small farmer and not duplicated by AMC. Needing


1S&T, page 2.
S&T, page 2.










to diversify to reduce risk, the amounts of each crop he produces are

small. He also needs small amounts of accessible credit or inputs, often

provided by the higgler. They assert that the higgler system has shown great

flexibility in adapting to the AMC, by buying from its outlets, by modifying

its pricing, by reproducing its extra services (like fertilizer), and by

developing its own credit system to handle larger volumes. This adaptive

capacity should be regarded as an asset. Further the higgler system is

essentially competitive with low mark-up and is socially efficient because

for small-scale trading it is the only source of abundant cheap labor. AMC

personnel would not accept such low returns. The AMC on the other hand has

advantages in grading, transport, storage and wholesaling.

Most of the reasons for these differences in opinion have been already

discussed. It is worth re-iterating however that it is essentially a difference

in perhpas understanding, and certainly in judgement, of the classic competitive

market with many small buyers and sellers and its role compared to that

of a large centralized government agency. It relates too to a difference in

faith in the potential of the small peasant farmer and trader, and what

he and she can achieve. Despite these differences, both author's recognize

the likelihood for the continued existence of both higglers and AMC though

with differing enthusiasm.

2.1.3.4 RECOMMENDATION

In some areas specific recommendations are shared by both studies, as

constraints to efficient operation and improved storage facilities at parish

markets; and that transport and packaging be improved to reduce losses

and that better crop and price forecasting be instituted.

However, S&T wish the higgler role to be confined to the retail level,

with AMC working more aggressively in both price and reliability to capture










the major share of the market. Higglers would then buy from the AMC at

parish markets. AMC low-income retail stores would remain, and the AMC

power to apply temporary price controls at the retail level.

On the other hand L&L recommend concentration of the AMC at the

wholesale level grading, storage and transport (where they feel it could

exploit economies of scale). The AMC or marketing co-ops should run

regional collection centers to which higglers or individual farmers would

bring produce. The AMC should also get out of retail selling, allowing

higglers this level of marketing also, making limited areas of Kingston

centers for street marketing.

These suggestions, other modifications of the two approaches and

this author's recommendations will be discussed in a later section.

2.1.4 REPORTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON THE MARKETING SYSTEM

There have been numerous reports written over time on domestic marketing

and/or export marketing. A number of them are listed in the bibliography

for Jamaican agricultural development. Of the more recent overall studies

a few seem worthy of reference in a review of literature: two FAO/IDB

studies (1976, 1977); a study of the Agricultural Sector, prepared for the

1973 Green Paper on agriculture (Wood et. al 1973); the agricultural Five

Year Plan (1978-1982)(MOA 1978) and a report prepared by Kutish for the

AID Agricultural Sector Assessment (Kutish 1978). These are in most cases

reports rather than research studies, and only short comments will be made

here on any but the Kutish study, which is the most recent.

More technical reports or studies exist for particular topics, like

that by Barrett (1978) which discusses in detail applications of refrigeration

for AMC storage of perishable crops; or those by Smith (1977) which has a

detailed management analysis of the AMC sales of its retail shop operations.









The FAO/IDB study, (1976) which uses the Higgler survey data agrees

with the L&L appraoch i.e. that the higgler is "probably the only national

system capable of handling the dispersed, mixed and fragmented production"

of Jamaica. The authors suggest that the AMC should only act as a stabilizing

wholesaler, buying perhaps 5 percent of crops, in order to provide the

kind of guaranteed mininimum price which reduces price fluctuation in glut

periods. The retail and farmgate collections should be by higglers. The

AMC could contract groups of higglers for its purchasing, and should lease

storage and perhaps provide credit for improved assembly and transport by

higglers. On the production side they suggest production zoning to

supplement subsidy prices to take into account comparative advantage in

production in particular areas.

The 1977 FAO/IDB report is on provision of new parish market buildings.

The 1973 Sector study is a succinct locally produced report covering

major channels of both domestic and export trade. There is a familiar

description of the structure and problems of domestic marketing, again

suggesting the competitive nature of the higgler system. Changes in AMC

organization are suggested, with concentration on effective wholesaling

recommended, but without specific discussion of how this would be achieved.

Specific higgler changes are not discussed but the authors unlike L&L feel

that there is a lack of evolutionary change in the higgler system due to

low education.

The MOA 5 Year Plan lists as objectives a) food at the cheapest

possible price to consumer in form and time when needed b) generation of

employment c) catalyze production d) reduce gluts and shortages e) ensure

structural safety of market buildings f) reduce shortage g) raise standards

of hygiene. The AMC strategy suggested stresses retail competition by the









AMC to reduce higgler retail and farmer prices. This implicitly accepts the

S&T model of the marketing system, with 'too high' margins. At the wholesale

level it is felt that AMC growth will come from efforts to expand production,

(with higher prices and credit for example) and that higglers will be absorbed

into other employment with economic growth (specifics are not provided). The

major improvement for the higgler system is the improved parish markets discussed

by FAO/IDB.

That there are two overall alternative strategies resulting from different

models of the system is a valuable observation by Kutish at the beginning of his

report (1) to dismantle the present system and replace it (2) to stay within the

present framework as much as possible, and to overcome its shortcomings in an

evolutionary way. The S&T study recommends a version of (1), while L&L favor

(2). Kutish favors (2) adding that (1) has negative political and social

implications, plus an impossible financial cost, a point well made.

Before looking at specific constraints Kutish describes and evaluates the

institutions. The discussion of the AMC is succinct and consistent and echoes

the list of problems found elsewhere: from the problem that the AMC has

conflicting goals in assisting producers and consumers, to its problems with

management andbureaucracy. Like the FAO/IDB study he recommends that the AMC

should concentrate on price stabilization and turn retail operations for low

incomes areas over to a new agency. Further, that the AMC should not try to

compete with higglers for supplies but stand by to buy at a minimum in glut,

and where possible store and sell to reduce later shortages. These supplies

would be sold to lower income stores or to private sector. These seem a rational

and consistent set of suggestions, based on the-general evidence available. He

also makes a set of consistent suggestions on supermarkets improved storage,

education, and encouragement of direct contacts.










The discussion and recommendations on the higgler sector are less

and somewhat confusing. He describes the system as "disorganized

and uncoordinated" a very questionable criticism as this would describe

in many senses the economist's ideal of the perfectly competitive market. A

statement like this suggests that the number of higglers and lack of central

co-ordination is the problem, whereas it may be that it is the constraints

to the effective working of the system that need to be stressed. Kutish

certainly goes on to list these constraints, such as lack of consistent grading,

marketing loss, unnecessary and costly movement of' products to and from Kingston and

high markups (a controversial point) and he goes on to make general recommend-

ations which are consistent with acceptance of the institution that is changes

to make the system more efficient and to provide conditions to increase each

higgler volume.

In fact Kutish identifies some 29 constraints which act to impede

the marketing system andincrease cost. It is one of the most complete

summaries of the problems of the marketing system.

Policies are then suggested to overcome these constraints. In some cases

these proposals raise questions which have not yet been addressed by present

research. First there is the suggested use of local assembly points to which

small farmers would bring their products, as a way of reducing the assembly

costs involved in higgler pickup. Both S&T and L&L suggest that in many

cases small farmers face time and labor constraints. They value the services

of the higgler in harvest assistance and pickup for this reason. Would these

farmers have time and labor to take produce to the assembly points? If not

they would use the higgler as at present. The unanswered question then is

how many farmers might be in this situation and what are their characteristics?

Certainly Blue-Mountains Coffee Co-op farmers whom Kutish studied do their

own harvesting are their time constraints similar or different from









other farmers? Unfortunately there are no recent detailed studies of small

farmers and their specific constraints. Again, farmers may be prepared to

take their produce some distance but not long distances as they perceive

them. How many assembly points would be necessary to take into account this

factor? This is not to say that the suggestion has no merit, just that

some questions remain on its likelihood of success given farm labor problems.

Kutish argues that assembly points would need to be combined with

producer co-ops to be effective. This assertion also raises several questions.

First, what would be the estimated savings with and without co-ops i.e.

what would the specific budgeted cost savings be, based on realistic assumptions

on volume, transport cost and efficiency of operation? On alternative to be

costed is that of the higgler renting AMC storage and transport. Evidence

on this point is needed. Second, what is the likelihood of effective co-ops?

The Jamaican experience is very mixed ranging from the difficulties in the

sugar co-ops to the excellent Blue Mountain co-ops, but certainly success

cannot be assumed. Co-operation must clearly be shown to have tangible benefit.

Given these questions the Kutish recommendation that the Blue Mountain area

be used for a pilot assembly point scheme seems eminently reasonable perhaps

augmented by a trial elsewhere with assembly points being available both to

higglers and the co-op.

The second set of Kutish proposals relate to reduction of post-harvest

loss by better storage, and quality premiums. These seem eminently reasonable,

as long as changes are monitored to determine what losses remain after improvements

are inaugurated.

Equally, the third set of recommendations detailed advice on improving

grades and standards also seems unexceptional, especially the need to determine

whether quality can be improved as a necessary first step. The workshops

suggested for farmers could be useful, but they would also be applicable to


higglers who also need to know the qualities worth a premium.












Fourthly, the role of increased volume in reducing per unit selling costs

is clearly important. More credit is one way of increasing the volume of the

individual higgler. However, unless there is increased production, increased

volume for some higglers means less for others and problems of income and

alternative employment become important. These problems are not mentioned

directly by Kutish. He does suggest increased production may reduce the

number of farm wives who wish to be higglers, but at this stage it is not

clear how important this reduction would be to the total higgler employment

picture.

Fifthly, recommendations for market intelligence and data for production

planning are clearly essential and Kutish also makes useful suggestions for

MOA and Universtiy of WI co-operation on demand forecasts. Again, publicizing

of all information should clearly include higglers as well as farmers.

3.0 AN INTERPRETATION OF THE DOMESTIC MARKETING SYSTEM AND ITS PROBLEMS

Given the data in all studies and reports in 2.1.3 and 2.1.4, what

are the basic structures and problems of domestic agricultural marketing

in Jamaica? We can at this stage, given all the gaps in data only present

a working hypothesis. Certainly it can be criticized but we feel that the

burden of proof should be on the critics.

The private sector of marketing consists of many buyers and many sellers,

interacting in such a way that is it unlikely that any one can influence price.

It therefore has the basic characteristics of the 'perfectly competitive'

market, in which buyers and sellers acting in their own self-interest

interact to cause demand to be met at least cost.











In this we agree basically with Mintz et al., and Locher and LaGra that the basic

structure of the higgler system is competitive and efficient. However in the

real world there are constraints and imperfections which reduce efficiency

and which need to be modified for the market to operate more effectively. Thus

the Government, working through the AMC can reduce the problems of intra-

seasonal price variation, with its associated gluts and shortages, by providing

a minimum price in gluts, and buying the surpluses. Where possible these supplies

can be stored to reduce later shortages, although this is not possible for

perishable crops.

Other important problems and constraints on the efficiency of the higgler

system include: 1) a lack of marketing information for farmers and marketers.

This is discussed in more detail in a later section. 2) High costs of farm

gate collections and curbside sales which are due to long distances travelled

and large labor inputs per unit of throughput. 3) A lack of grading standards

and packaging leading to multiple handling and lack of quality incentives. 4)

Lack of storage, transfer handling and transport facilities and services with

major damage and spoilage losses. 5) Unavailability of supply to large buyers -
2
exporters, institutions and food processors.

The relatively high costs of higgler collection of small and mixed

purchases at the farm gate of many scattered farms are undeniable. However,

as many investigators have pointed out to the AMC and other policy makers

who would advocate displacing them from this role, who else or what institution

could provide this service at a competitive rate? The farmer himself generally

lacks the labor time or the sales skills to market his own produce and when

It is possible to characterize the system as disordered oligopoly, but the
efficiency of the outcome is still achieved.
2Kutish, op.cit.
Kutish, op.cit.










volumes of sales per farm are low, a single seller could not spread the overhead

of his costs as the farmer-wife-higgler can over several farms. The very low

returns for her labor time that the higgler accepts are in fact a form of subsidy

to farmers and food consumers and a rational labor use in an oversupplied labor

market, not an undue cost as is often assumed. Likewise the retail higgler

who spends many hours to sell her goods and who transports produce from the

central market to a residential neighborhood is providing a convenience service

to the consumer at a low hourly wage rate. Other options exist for the consumer

who prefers travelling longer distances or restricting his purchases to the

limit of market hours.

Other activities of higglers, such as repeatedly hand sorting purchases

(in the absence of standard grading, sorting and packaging), or transporting

herself and her purchases long distances and suffering loss from poor packing,

rough handling and improper storage, are not appropriate or efficient higgler

functions. It is precisely these storage, transport, handling, grading, washing,

packaging, etc. functions which better organized and capitalized middle men and

public agencies such as AMC and Parish Markets can handle more efficiently.

Higgler marketing represents a true service and the group of persons who

practice it are low income individuals who need to have their way of life

and livelihood maintained as much as any other group.

Produce which is not graded, as in Jamaica, generally fails to

provide incentives to the farmer or marketers to provide a quality product.

It is possible that a part of the reported high waste is due to this factor.

As previously noted the lack of grading and sorting forces each buyer to handle

and evaluate individually each piece of produce each time it is brought or sold.

One study estimated that oranges were handled seven times in this way between

farm and consumer.

Storage, transfer, handling and transport facilities and procedures are

cited by most studies as deficient. Each of these contributes to a high










spoilage and wastage rate as well as a more subtle but equally great problem

of sub-critical quality decline of goods in transit. Bennett (1977) in his

report points out the problems of current storage and the needs for specialized

facilities to meet the needs of many types of commodities. The problem of

seasonal surpluses and shortages and accompanying price fluctuations could be

greatly aided by better controlled storage. In the public market, no cold or

other controlled or even secure, sanitary storage exists for goods which are

being wholesaled or transferred to be kept for subsequent local marketing.

Better designed facilities and crates for packing, storage and transport

would simplify handling and reduce costs and damage. Reduction in seasonality

and losses could also be achieved by more agricultural processing. Small,

local-scale, multiple function and mobile processing would help this industry

adapt to the vagaries of unavailable supplies.

Higglers report in the S&T study that transport costs are a major factor

in their operations. Rationalization of transport facilities would be accomplished

by more efficient marketers outbidding the higgler for her produce at the local

market, so that she need not continue on with her goods to a more distant and

hopefully higher priced market.

The availability of supplies to large buyers has been noted as a problem.

Farmers and higglers will generally sell in the higgler priced market despite

any contracts or obligations they may have previously made. The basic causes

of this situation may be found in chronic underproduction, lack of information

for farmers to plan planting decisions, and dependence on many small, scattered

producers with irregularly occurring and small surpluses. There are no easy,

direct solutions to these problems as they are a part of the fundamental

agricultural structure.

In this section we have reviewed assertions that the inefficiencies and

resulting high costs of marketing (marketing margins) in Jamaica are so









reat that the system needs to be greatly altered. In the view of many of

the Jamaican-oriented studies the role of the higgler should be greatly

reduced or eliminated. The following section makes a critical investigation

and comparison of the relative costs of these marketing margins.

4.0 MARKETING MARGINS

Almost every writer on Jamaican agriculture has asserted that the costs

of agricultural marketing are high. 'High' is a comparative term, so we may

ask, high compared to other agricultural costs?, to the costs of marketing

other goods? or high compared to international standards for produce marketing?

The most common way of measuring marketing costs is relative to farmgate prices

and to final consumer prices. Absolute costs are difficult to use for crop-to-

crop or country-to-country comparisons. It will be shown that when compared

with other national systems the Jamaica marketing proportional mark-ups are

not relatively high, but the absolute costs may be high. It is perhaps this

aspect that people refer to when they declare that marketing costs are large

in Jamaica.

Comparisons between crops and countries are also difficult because of

the different storage and handling requirements for different crops and because

of differing transport distances and costs, road conditions and size of loads.

In addition, the degree of services, such as grading, sorting, washing, bagging,

boxing, trimming, and quality of product may vary from crop to crop and country

to country. Nonetheless, some comparisons are possible and meaningful. Table

1 allows comparison with nearby islands which have at least grossly comparable

agricultural situations and with Bolivia's Cochabamba area. Figures for Tanzania,

which as a markedly less developed transport system, show the effects of these

costs for even a non-perishable like corn. Some other data from Africa in areas

with a better transport system, are provided from studies by Stanford Food Research

Institute (Jones 1972) for Nigeria and Kenya. Figures for the U.S. are included

and they reflect the costs of long distance transport, long storage times, higher










TABLE 1

Marketing Margins iq Selected Countries


Country Commodity


Percent of Retail Price
To Producer


Percent of Retail
Price to Marketer
Transport, Processing, etc.


Jamaica


Red Pea
Peanut
Carrot
Cucumber
Pumpkin
String Bean
Tomato
Onion
Pineapple
Plantain
Potato
Sweet Potato
/ Negro Yam
Yellow Yam
White Yam
Cassava
Sweet pepper

Haiti2

Potato
Onions
Banana
Mango
Oranges

Dominican Republic3

Plantain
Potato
Tomato
Onion
Green beans
Pineapple
Grapes
Red Pea
Cassava


From 1976 Farm Gate and Retail Prices
Jamaican Ministry of Agriculture
2Doreville, 1975 from Roe, Terry L. An
of the Haitian Agricultural Marketing


published by the


Economic Evaluation
System


'Secretaria de Estado de Agricultura, Diagnostico Del Sistema
Mercadeo Agricola en Republica Dominicana,Santo Domingo,
1977











Bolivia


Onion
Tomato
Carrot
Banana
Potato (Local)

Tanzania
Corn
Sembe

Nigeria
Rice
Corn
6
Kenya
Corn
Corn
Yams
Potatoes

United States
Sweet Corn
Cucumber
Lettece
Green Peppers
Onions
Carrots


4. Zuvekas, Clarence, A Survey of
SIAG/FDS/ERS/USDA, September, 1977.


Crop and Livestock


Marketing in Bolivia.


5. Kriesal, Herbert; et. al. Agricultural
June, 1970.


Marketing


in Tanzania (USAID)


6. Jones, William D. Marketing Staple Food Crops in
University Press, 1972.


Tropical Africa. Cornell


7. ERS/USDA. U.S. Fresh Market Vegetable Statistics, 1949-75. Washington,
1976.


V










labor costs plus full services to the degree of domestic dyeing and waxing

and individual wrapping of fruit.


Analysis of Table 1 does not support any coclusions that marketing costs

in Jamaica are high compared to the countries mentioned. In only 3 of 18

cases do Jamaica producers receive less than 50 percent of the final retail

price. By that rough measure, this is the 'best' performance for any country

surveyed. According to Riley, (1970), 50 percent is the general level of

marketing costs reported in a study of four major markets in South America.

The very high producer shares noted in the cases of sweet potato,

cassava and white yam are likely due to AMC pricing subsidy actions which

have depressed retail sales prices.

Anyone who asserts that Jamaica marketing margins are too high must in

the future carefully specify and justify their claims. Because prices change

from year to year at both the farmgate and in the retail market, these margins

are subject to constant variation. However, the general comparisons would not

likely change.

5.0 RECOMMENDATIONS

The analysis just presented in the previous section should not be considered

a statement that all is well with the higgler dominated marketing system. There

is evidence that considerable improvement in costs is possible. Four major

areas of desirable change are evident to this writer. The first of these is relat,

to the emergence of a new style of higgler and a parallel opportunity for

rationalization of the roles of the major marketing institutions. The second

set of improvements cluster around market information and its effects. The

third area is a matter of facilities and procedures and the fourth is producer

oriented provision of co-operatively controlled marketing of output and supply

of agricultural inputs.








5.1 SUPPERHIGGLER AND INSTITUTIONAL RATIONALIZATION

Wilson (1971) has shown in his analysis that the most efficient marketers

in Jamaica belong to an emerging medium-scale middle-man higgler whose forte

is high prices to the farmer, fast handling of produce with a minimum of fixed

costs in inventory, minimum wastage, minimum equipment or fixed labor force

and reliable service to buyers. The 'superhiggler' deals in information,

an adequate flow of product to spread overhead, and great flexibility in place,

time and conditions of sales. Wilson presents the following Table which compares

the operations of a Supperhiggler, a Mrs. Cowan, to operations of the AMC

and small higglers.



TABLE 2*

Mrs. Cowan Small Higgler AMC

Average Purchase price/lb. 8.9C 7.9 5.8C

Average Selling Price 11.5C 11.5C 8.1C

Average Mark-up 2.6C 4.2c 2.3c

Mark-up as a % of
Market Price 22.6% 36.5% 28.4%

% Waste 2% 10% 12%

*Wilson, W.L., The Marketing Costs of Fresh Fruits, Vegetables and
Tubers., The Jamaica Industrial Development Centre, 'The Productivity
Center, Kingston, June 1971, p. 14





Table 2 shows that the superhiggler, Mrs. Cowan, paid a significantly

higher price to the farmer and sold at the prevailing market rate (A.M.C.

retail prices are subsidized). The supperhiggler, who makes a fair return
(*
on her time and investment, gets by with an absolute margin approximately

the same as the heavily subsidized AMC and of course the percentage margin










is better. To some degree the superhiggler is skiming-the-cream from the

market, leaving the small higgler to deal with the high cost collections from

small farmers who are remotely located and produce small amounts of mixed type,

low quality produce. The AMC is likewise left to deal with the surpluses; the

low quality and the untimely producer. This is as it should be. Each marketing

group should specialize in what it does best.

The superhiggler is destined to handle the bulk of the trade and they

do handle this better, i.e. with lower costs, less waste, faster and more

reliably than small higglers or the AMC. Governmental policy should reflect

this desirable efficiency and near inevitability of the growing role of the

superhiggler.

The small higgler is the best at collecting odd lot commodities from the

small and remote areas. They should be aided and revered for this role. Policy

and organization should help them to interface efficiently with the superhiggle6

and AMC for all the intermediary services of storage, sorting, grading,

washing-packaging and bulk transport which small higglers are not well equipped

to do. Convenience marketing is the other great service provided by higglers

and public investments and controls could significantly aid this function also.

More reports done by outside agencies (see section of reviews) and some

by Jamaican sources, recommend reducing and redirecting the AMC role to allow

it to function appropriately and avoid its current charge to make a profit while

subsidizing farmers and consumers. Policy should explicitly recognize these

functions and should concentrate on delivering its services as a buyer of

last resort and seller to the poor in the most effective way. If the AMC is

capable of a non-subsidy role in the market it is likely to be as a storage,

transport and wholesaling agent and as an importer/exporter. AMC should

concentrate on these areas and integrate its services with those of the higgler

and public markets. The minimization of geographic and seasonal price differences

would be an important and appropriate function for the AMC.









5.2 MARKET INFORMATION

Farmers in Jamaica operate with a highly unsatisfactory, primitive and

unreliable information system. The major source of farmer price information

appears to be higglers, who have a vested interest in the transaction. Surveys

of farmers show that they feel at a disadvantage to higglers in trading and

that they long ago called for the dissemination of unbiased marketing information

(Jamaica Agricultural Society Development Program 1963) via radio. The Daily

Gleaner does irregularly publish prices for a dozen major commodities for four

major markets.

Higglers also have information problems. Several studies have attempted,

without success, to define how higglers gather and disseminate price information.

Even more difficult to determine and completely unknown is the quality of the

information they do have in relation to its timeliness and its specificity as

to variety of crop, quality, time of day, which market, and at what point in the

distribution chain.

Country higglers are likely at a information disadvantage to those who

function nearer to the retail point where prices are ultimately determined.

There is persuasive evidence from the market prices published in the

Daily Gleaner that price information that higglers utilize either is badly

flawed or that they do not react major price incentives. Price differences

of 30-80% may exist between markets in Kingston and other cities for major

commodities and they may persist for several days. These differences are much

greater than can be explained by transport costs. Indeed, Coronation market

in Kingston performs major wholesaling services for the entire island and much

cross and backhauling is evident. This is itself evidence for underdeveloped

wholesale functions and lack of market information at regional markets.

Through the pattern of difference in prices is ever changing the

persistence of major price differences between markets one to three hours










apart is prima facie evidence of a lack of timely, reliable price information

to the marketers.

Information about future prices is even more scarce and unreliable

for all participants in the market than are current prices. The governmental

agencies such as AMC, the Ministry of Agriculture and the Commodity Import

Board do collect some information on inventories, import policy and plans and

crop production estimates as well as data on supply and price elasticities.

However, it is not evident that this information is of sufficient quality (crop

estimates are relatively poor) or is brought together in a timely way to make

useful future price estimates. Current policy is to collect and use data for

internal governmental purposes, but it does not seem to have occurred to anyone

that farmers and private marketers need such information for rational decision

making about production. The decision a farmer makes today about what to plant

is his best guess about what the market prices will be in six months in the

future. For lack of knowledge about the actions of others and of governmental

policy, collectively the farmers often guess wrong. This results in surpluses

and shortages, great price fluctuations and huge social-economic waste.

The solution to this marketing problem is simple, cheap, uncontroversial

and has been conventional wisdom for several decades. Daily (or even twice

daily as in Paraguay) market prices for major commodities and major regional

markets need to be collected in a reliable, consistent way and broadcast by

radio that same day to all who care to listen. Thus the farmer, the country

higgler, the city higgler all would share the same information base. This

would remove a source of great irritation and unfairness which plagues the

current system. Secondly, regional price variations should be greatly reduced

and much better regional wholesaling situations should be possible. No one

is served by St. Elizabeth tomatoes moving past Mandeville market to Kingston

only to be shipped back to Mandeville the next day.










Future price information and news of planting decisions, stocks and policy

on imports and price supports could be periodically interpreted and discussed

with farmers via the same radio show which broadcasts daily price information.

The lessening of gluts and shortages would do much to reduce waste

and spoilage, AMC budgetary deficits, would provide opportunity for better

future planning and enhance food processing development. It would in fact

contribute somewhat to the cure of both the immediate and the longer-term

structural problems that currently beset agriculture in Jamaica.

5.3 FACILITIES AND PROCEDURES

The studies reviewed earlier in this report do a better and more detailed

job of analyzing the deficiencies of the public markets in Jamaica. The IDB/FAO

felt that they were a bottleneck in the overall distribution system which

required remedy before other improvements could have an effect. Based on those

reports, most of the major markets of the island seem to be in some state of

reconstruction or planning.

Procedures and technicalities of market layout, systemic boxing standards,

grading standards, weights and measures, location and size of controlled storage

environments, etc., all need improvement. Collectively these types of changes

should contribute substantially to lowering marketing costs, reducing spoilage

and improving quality. Improved conditions in this part of the system is likely

to be a necessity but not in itself sufficient condition for overall marketing

success.

5.4 CO-OPERATIVE MARKETING AND INPUT SUPPLY

From the point of view of the very small farmers, with small and

mixed type surpluses for sale, even the aforementioned changes will not solve

all his problems of information access, credit and transport. Perhaps the

best access for small farmers would be through participation in local co-

operatives. Ideally such a co-operative, serving all farmers in a given










area would provide access to quality marketing services, credit; information

and inputs. There are currently functioning examples of marketing co-ops in

Jamaica and these could be studies for ideas and practices which work in the

Jamaican context. Hopefully, this procedure would allow the avoidance of

the pitfalls as noted earlier in the critique of Kutish's study.

A key element in the success potential of a makreting co-op would

be the provision of a full-time professional manager with the freedom of

action to emulate the methods of the Supperhiggler, the most efficient

marketers in Jamaica. The marketing agent and the co-op's physical facilities

would be located in the most accessible place. Necessary facilities would

include a small office, a small storage-handling area with truck access and

importantly a telephone for access to marketing information and contracts.

The marketing agent would maintain a position to exercise any and all

marketing options, ranging from contracts with institutions to direct transport

to any market on the island to utilizing hired storage. The marketing agent,

like the Supperhiggler and unlike the AMC, would minimize fixed overheads in

facilities, equipment and permanent labor force. The agent should also be

paid in part or totally on a proportion of the net returns which he realized for

the co-op. Every effort must be made to structure this operation to give

the agent incentives to make the best deals possible and to keep costs to a

minimum.

The co-op would benefit from a large throughput of produce over which

its fixed overhead costs could be spread. Normally, the co-op would buy from_

all comers, not just farmer members. In times of glut, co-op members should

have preference for sales to the group, but would receive any price subsidy

other than that which might be subsequently realized by sales to AMC. In times

of normal markets however small higglers should find advantage in selling to co-

op and the co-op should find advantage in buying from the. Presumably the co-op










can store, transport, sell and collect information more efficiently than small

rural higglers can. In this system then the higgler would continue to earn

her small income and to provide the valuable service of collection of small

irregular qauntities at the farm gate. No other system can match the higgler

in this portion of the marketing system. Likewise no organization or business

would be able to or want to compete with the higglers in street corner sales in

the city market.

Produce received from members and non-members would be accepted on a

consignment or partial payment basis. Full payment would not be made until

after sales were made. This would reduce risks to the co-op organization. If

the marketing co-op were integrated with the proposed inputs system, then

withheld payments for crops can be sued to pay for purchased inputs. This is

currently the practice of the Blue Mountain Coffee Co-op.











APPENDIX

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON
MARKETING



Apart from containing the bibliographic references to work cited in

this paper this Appendix includes material from several subject categories

of F.A. Erickson, An Annotated Bibliography of Agricultural Development

in Jamaica. Working Document, Jamaica #1, Agency for International Development,

Bureau for Latin America and the Caribbean, Rural Development Division, January

1979. The 'Marketing' subject section (M) is included in toto as Part I entries

under 'Statistical Series' (SC) which refer to marketing and items from other

categories which are cited in the Report are listed in a following section

(Part II). Actual citations are marked with an asterisk *. Entries are

listed alphabetically in each section.






PART I


AGRICULTURE: MAKE'S, MPFKETING



*ADAMS, Nassau A. "An Analysis of Food M,J,?
Consumption and Food Import Trends in
Jamaica, 1950-1963." Social and
Economic Studies 17, No. 1 (March
1968): 1-22. [MOP/JAM; UWI/ISE0]

Uses 19r0-1963 data from National Accounts,
plus weighted price elasticities to
estimate overall income and price elas-
ticities (.45 for food and .67 for food
drink and tobacco). Food prices rose
faster than non-food and the substitution
coefficient was .35. Derives import
demand and estimates that the function
has a higher income elasticity and price
elasticity greater than 1. Derives income
and price elasticities for major groups
(bread and cereals, meat, fish, dairy,
oils and fats, fruits and vegetables,
root crops). Data again from national
Accounts and price indexes from 1958
Household Survey weights. Compares
results with Harris' cross-sectional
estimates. Finds some differences
with root crops and fruits and vege-
tables. Also estimates import demand
elasticities by food groups and fore-
casts higher imports in future. (Note
that for period covered food imports
remained at 20 percent of total imports.)

---. "Import Structure and Economic Growth M,J
in Jamaica, 1954-1967." Social and
Economic Studies 20, No. 3 (Sep. 1971):
235-266. [MOA/JAM; UWI/ISEF]

Looks at import structure changes over
the period designated. In order to
measure imports at constant prices,
develops price and quantum series by
commodity group. Uses this information
with income elasticities of importation.
resultss suggest imports underwent
limited changes.

ALI, D.A. ",'he Scope for the Utilisation Y,
of Industrial and Agricultural By-Prod-
ucts. Proceedings of the Ninth West
Indies A~ricultur~l Economics Conference
Held at the Pegasus Hotel, New Kingston,
Jamaical, RApil 3-6--1_974 -and at the
Jamaica school of Aqriculturej Twickenham








Park_ AEril 7-1 0 197. St. Augustine,
Trinidad, Department of Agricultural
Economics and Farm Management, University
of the West Indies. Pp. 71-80. [UWI/ISEP]

Examples of by-product utilization are
found in the sugar industry, e.g. rum.
More recent examples of industrial spin-
offs are the production of particle-board
from bagasse, the production of wheat
middlings for animal feeds from wheat
milling operations, the manufacture of
citrus meal from citrus juice operations
and the production of spent brewer's grain
from the brewery industry as an input into
animal feed formulations. In general,
however, there is a lack of examples of
successful commercial spin-offs. The
potential for by-product utilization is
examined, first in the traditional agri-
cultural sector and then in the new
sectors. It is concluded that there is
scope to develop and expand the ways in
which raw materials and their by-prod-
ucts are utilized in the Caribbean but
that an urgent problem to be tackled is
the need for much more indigenous
research and development.

ANDEPCnN, A.M. "The Marketing Situation for M,J
Fish and Fish Products in the Caribbean."
Cajanus 3, No. 1 (Feb. 1970) : 17-31.
rAL PA78U.AiC3] [MOA/JAM]

---. "The Marketing Situation for Fish and M,J,C
Fish Products in the Caribbean." Cajanus
3, No. 1 (1970) : 17-31. [MOA/JAM]

Gives per capital consumption
estimate for 1967, and discusses
supply, demand and possible
marketing changes.

*DENNETT, A.H. "Report to the AMC and the M
EDO/AID, Kingston, Jamaica. September
1977, 11 pp.

Contains useful specific and technical
recommendations concerning needs for
controlled temperature storage at AMC
to reduce crop loss and deterioration.

*BOLTON, William E. Untitled report on M
agricultural export opportunities from
Jamaica to the U.S. (Typed, letter
form, bound looseleaf) Alexander and
I








Baldwin Agribusiness Corporation,
Jan. 12, 1978. 9 pp. + 4 exhibits.
[PDS/AID/JAM]

A report on the feasibility of organ-
izing production and marketing of
Jamaican agricultural produce in the
U.S. Contains an evaluation of existing
marketing channels. Deports favorably
on export potential.

*BUCKMIPE, George. "Pationalization as an M,J
Instrument for the Development of
Caribbean Agriculture." Proceedins_ of
the 8th West Indian agriculturall Economics
Conference, Held at St. Augustine. Trinidad
1-7 April, 1973. St. Augustine, Trinidad:
Dept. of Pgricultural Economics, 1973.

---. "The Future Possibilities of Caribbean M,J
Export Crops in the Metropolitan Markets."
Proceedings of the th h West Indian Agri-
cultural Economics Conference Held at
Georgetown Guyana 28 March-2 April, 1971.
St. Augustine, Trinidad: Dept. of Agri-
cultural Economics, 1971.

BUPTON, C.L. "The Emergence and Growth of M
the Bowden Whare, St. Thomas." Unpub-
lished undergraduate thesis. Dept. of
Geography, University of West Indies,
Mona, 1968. [GD/UVI/JAM]

*CALLAM, M. "Functional Study of a Small M
Town--Brown's Town." Unpublished under-
graduate thesis. Pept. of Geography,
University of West Indies, Mona, 1975.
[GD/UWI/JAM]

*CLARKE, E.G. "'he Role of a Central Pro- M,P
curement Agency in Stabilizing the Price
of Food with Special Peference to Jamaica
Nutrition Holdings." Proceedings of the
Tenth West Indies Asricultural Economics
Conference Georgetown, Guyana_.197.. St.
Augustine; Trinidad: University of West
Indies, Department of Agricultural Econo-
mics, 1975. pp. 180-185.

Describes the activities of Jamaica Nutri-
tion Holdihgs and its attempts to stabilize
prices.

CLARKE, S. St. A. The Competitive M
Position of Jamaica's Aqri-
cultural Exports. Kingston:








Institute of Social and Economic
Studies, 1962. [MOA/JAM]

COLLINS, E.C. and CLCSE, E.C. "Caribbean M
Islands Offer Farm Export Opportunities."
Foreign Agriculture 13, No. 42 (Oct. 20,
1975): 8-9, 16.

CPIPPS, M.H. "Spice Oleoresins: MT,C
The Process, the Market and the
Future." In Proceedings of the
Conference on_ Sices 10-14_th
_pril, 1972. London: Foreign and
Commonwealth Office, 1973.

* CUMPER, G.E. "3n Experimental Comparison
of Some Alternative Methods of Computing
Demand Elasticities." Social and Economic
Studies 15, No. 2 (June 1966): 92-102.
(MOA/JAM; UWI/ISE ]

Gives alternative estimates of income
elasticities using 1958 Household survey
and different (and clearly described)
estimation methods.

DIXON, J. "Structure Functional Importance M
and Field of Influence of Black Piver
and Santa Cruz--St. Elizabeth." Unpub-
lished undergraduate thesis. Deot. of
Geography, University of West Indies,
Mona, 1975. [GD/UWI/JAM]

DUANT-GO!ZALFZ, Victoria. "Pole and M
Status of Rural Jamaican Women:
Higglering and Mothering." Unpublished
Ph.D. dissertation, university of California,
Berkeley, 1976.

Examines the participation of women
in social organization in a Jamaican
rural area, including a description
of recruitment into higglering.
Status of higglering is high in
local community, low in national.

EINNE?, W.G. The Marketing of Domestic Food M
Crops of Jamaica. Food and Agriculture
Organization, 1961. [?DS/AID/JM 1

EOPOPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY. Bulletin of M
the European Communities 8, No. 1 (1975):
pp. 6-10.

The Lome Convention concluded on 28
February 1975 between the European








Community and 46 African, Caribbean and
Pacific (ACP) countries focuses on four
main areas (1) trade co-operation; (2)
stabilization of export earnings
(including sugar); (3) industrial
co-operation; and (4) financial and
technical co-operation. In respect of
agricultural products exported by the
aCP which come under CAP, the Community
offers similar advantages with most
products enjoying free access and the
rest covered by a preferential scheme.
A major feature of the trade co-opera-
tion agreement is that the EEC
relinquishes a reciprocal requirement in
trade concessions, though the ACP states
must guarantee the EEC treatment as good
as the most favoured nation in their
trading and must not discriminate between
member states.

*FAPOQHAPSON, "eville. The Production and Market-
ing of Yams From rllsides and the Christiana
krea of Jamaica, Instituto Internactional de
Ciencias Agricolas, Kingston, 1978, 96 pp.

An intensive study of all aspects of producing
and marketing a major crop from a specialty
production area. Provides figures and insights
relevant to marketing problems in general.

FOOD AND AGPICULTUrE OPGANIZATIOF. Jamaica, M
Food Crops Development and Marketing
Feasibility S urv^ey. ESF: SF/JAM 6
Terminal Feport, Pome, September 1970.
50 pp. + 3 appendices, bibliography.
[9DS/AID/JAM

Contains brief discussions of each
commodity group, the sector demands for
agricultural commodities, nutrition and
the internal marketing system. Further
description of market potential in North
Atlantic markets and the functioning of
the food processing industry is provided.

* FOOD AND ?GRICUL-UrE 0=GAYIZATION/I1-EF- M
A~MEIC.N DEVELOPMENT BANK COOPERATIVE
PROGPAMME. Jamaica Agricultural
Marketing. Report 4/76 Jamaica-2, June
1976, Washington, D.C. (Circulation
restricted), 62 pp., bibliog. appendices
A-G. [FDS/AID/JAM 1


The most important current source on








Jamaican marketing. Presents a compre-
hensive plan for consolidating and
reorganizing the A.M.C., changing its
role to complement the efforts of the
traditional sector. This paper was
done partially as background to the IDB
investments in 33 Cornwall parish markets.

nOD AND bGPICULTUPE OPGANIZATION/U.N.
DEVELOPMENT PROJECT. Food Crop
Development and Marketiin Survey,
Jamaica: Agronomic Consideration.
Technical Report 1, ES : SF/JAM6,
Rome, 1971. [UNDP/JAM]

Looks at soil and climatic limita-
tions for crops, and then evaluates
crops: sugar, cocoa, coconut,
pimento, ginger, maize, sorghum,
rice, roots, pulses, fruits, vege-
tables, tobacco pasture and livestock.
Information provided on cultural
practices, fertilization, yield,
site needs, research, etc. Very good
introduction to agronomic feasibility
and research needs.

---. Food Crops Development and
Marketing Feasibility Study,
Jamaica: Jamaica's Food Pro-
cessina Industry _A seriess of
Economic ?nalyses. rE : SF/JAM6
Tech. report 2. [ UNDP/JAM], 1971

Covers domestic raw produce use-s in
local canning by product and
structure of industry. Also looks
at markets and potential for citrus,
cocoa and coffee, as well as oil-
seeds, cereals, meat ind dairy.
Includes discussion of refrigerated
storage.

*GIRIING, Dobert K. "Education, Technology
and Development/Underdevelopment:
A Case Study of 1gro-Industry in
Jamaica." U'npu',lished Ph.D.
dissertation, Stanford University,
1974.

Focus of empirical sections is
on survey of 26 firms in the
Jamaican food processing industry.
Each was questioned in regard to
policy affecting choice of technol-
ogy as well as general nature of







their operations. Fesults are
analysed in terms of production,
employment, research training,
technological choice and contribu-
tion to national development.
locally-owned firms showed different
results than multi-national firms. For
example they were more likely to be involved
in research and development of indigenous
resources, to reinvest their
earnings and to obtain a larger
proportion of their raw materials
from local sources.

*---. "Technology and Dependent Development M,P
in Jamaica: A Case Study." Social and
Economic Studies 26, No. 2 (June 1977):
169-189.

Looks at employment performance (using
census and labor force statistics) of
the food processing industry, local
research work, earnings re-invested and
capacity utilization by ownership.
Concludes that trend is towards more
mechanization, critiques present policies
and presents a radical alternative.

GRUHN, I.V. "The Lome Convention: M,J
Inching towards Interdependence."
International Orqanization 30, No. 2
(1976) : 2 1-262.

The trade agreement between EEC and
forty odd African, Caribbean and
Pacific States in 1971 is discussed.
Innovative techniques such as STABEX,
sugar indexing and rural development
are analyzed.

GUJEFE'O, Pablo, et al. Pilot Study MJ
on nationall -ccountinq_ parameters:
Their Estimation and Use in Chile,
Costa rica and Jamaica. Vol. 2,
Country and Project Case Studies.
Project Methodology Unit, Country
Studies Division, Economic and
Social Development Department, Inter-
American Development Bank, Draft 6.
Oct. 1977, Washington, D.C. [PDS/AID/JAM]

Derives a series of measures for
efficiency accounting ratios and
social accounting prices for inputs,
experts and domestic production.








"Jamaica Meat Processing Plant,"
pp. 249-284. Analysis of a proposed
up-to-date slaughter house for Kingston
area. Analysed at efficiency prices,
market prices and social prices.

HAMILTON, J. Marketing Surve_ Peport. M
Jamaica, Ministry of Finance and
Planning, Town Planning Department,
Kingston, 1970. (Mimeo) (RDS/AID/JAM]

*HAPPIS, Donald J. "Econometric Analysis M',
of Household Consumption in Jamaica."
Social and Economic Studies 13, No. 4
(Dec. 1964) : 171-487. [MOA/JAM; UWI/ISER ]

Estimates income elasticities of
demand for major food groups from 1958
Household Survey for urban, rural, and
main town groups.

HAWTHOPNE, P. "The Hierarchy of Small M
"owns in Westmoreland." Unpublished
undergraduate thesis. Dept. of Geography,
University of West Indies, Mona, 1974.
SGD/UWI/JAM]

HUBBARD, Faymond. "A Note of Factors M,
Influencing the Present Distribution
of the Jamaican Road Network." Caribbean
Studies 12, No. 4 (January 1973): 36-55.

Uses 1960 Population census, data and
road mileage for multiple regression
in which road mileage is determined by
population distribution and areal
extent of reporting units. Found that
only areal extent was significant.
Looks at forecast and actual values of
road mileage (plus and minus) and
suggests more actual roads than predicted
reflects geographical distribution of
sugar and fruits. Less than predicted
depends on adverse terrain. Uses a
basic gravity model to predict future
road improvements. Priority determined
was Kingston to Spanish town and extensions
Old Harbour, May Pen, instead.

---, and FPMCN, John. "landslides on ,
Jamaican ?oads. An Appraisal of
Causes." Geoyraphical Survey 1, No.
3 (July 1972) : 16-30.

Authors suggest slides are result of
poor road route selection, poor road








construction, and slope gradient cuts.
Clides costly to farmers who cannot
transport perishable crops to market.

JAMAICA. Panana Roard. annuall ,
Report. Kingston.

Gives export amounts, and a few
items on finance, changes in price
etc.

---. Jamaica Nutrition Holdings. M
Grain Bulletin. Kingston.
[(!OP/JAM]

Has mostly world data but also a
page or so of information on
Jamaica on inventories, etc.,
collected from manufacturers,
especially on whea+ and feed
grains.

* ---.Preparation of Parish Markets ProjectL_Vol__ M,Pr
FAO/IDE cooperative programme, Final Report
No. U/77 Jamaica 4, Washington, D.C., (1977)
69 pp. and annex.

Contains a review of agricultural marketing
policy and description ot the distribution
system. The major content deals with the
program to design new parish markets and a
consideration of the functioning of the system
of markets. The project will replace 16 parish
markets and construct one completely new
market. A major change includes providing the
AMC space in the parish markets for whole-
saling -.ctivities and developing facilities
for small processing equipment. Includes list
of 14 public agencies involved in agricultural
marketing and estimates of food waste in mar-
keting. This is one of the best and most up
to date sources available.









---. Ministry of Industry and Tourism.
Development of the Food Process;in
Industry in Jamaica. A Preliminary
Appraisal. (Mimeo) May 1972. 38 pp.
and appendix. [PDS/AID/JPM]

Details the situation and problems of
food processing, e.g. unreliable supply,
inadequate capital. Deals with industry
sectors by commodity group. Appendix has
a list of all food processors and crops
handled by each.

JENNEI, G.K. Comments and Pecommendations I
Concerning Wholesale Terminal Market
Buildings in the Agricultural Marketing
Copooration of the Ministry of ri-
culture and Lands. Sept. 1965. 3^ pp.
[AID/LA/WPSH JM 380.1L1 J5]

Includes much technical information and
recommendations but also has general
insight into technical marketing problems.

JOHNSOn, I.E. "Some Aspects of the Food Pro- M
cessing Industry in Jamaica" Proceedinqs of
the Sixth West Indian Agricultural Economics
Conf erenceGeoetown,_ Guyana 1971. St.
Augustine, Trinidad: University of West Indies,
Department of Agricultural Economics, 1971.

* ----. and COLEY, p.G. Marketing.qof
Agricultural Commodities Produced
for Domestic Consumption in Jamaica.
Division of Economics and Statistics,
Ministry of Agriculture and Lands,
Kingston, March 1966.

* ---. "Marketing of Agricultural Commodities
Produced for Domestic Consumption in
Jamaica." Proceedings of the First West
Indian Pgricultural Economics Conference,
University of the West Indies _St.
AugustineLTrinidadL. arch 28-A2il 2,
196f. St. Augustine, Trinidad, Dept. of
Agricultural Economics, 1966. on. 274-
30n. I

Most domestic food plus a substantial
proportion of export commodities are
produced by small farmers on low
quality soils in hill slope lands.
Estimates are the 70 to 75 percent of all food
produced internally. Major weaknesses








of the higgler system are identified:
1. 'he small quantities increase
costs of marketing,
2. in times of surplus large
quantities are unmarketed,
3. poor transport methods result
in'spoilage and damage,
4. traveling costs for groups of
higglers are higher than for
bulk handling.
5. Higglers do not package.
Provides a consideration of establish-
ment, functions and problems of the
A.M.C.

JOHNSON, Paul E.; SCHOENHFPR, William H.; M
and WILBUP, Donald P. Jr. seminar in
Food Storage and Handling Practices,
Kingston JamaicaL June 19-21_ 1973.
(Mimeo) 15 pp. and 2 appendices.
[RDS/AID/JAM]

Major concern is storage and handling of
U.S. grain exports after arrival in
Jamaica to avoid contamination losses.
Contains an inspection checklist (exhibit
C-2) which would be useful for any
storage facility and procedure that might
be part of a domestic food marketing
program.

JONES, A. The Market for Mango Products with M
Particular Peterence to the United Kingdom.
London: Tropical Products Institute, No.
G74, 1973. 51 pp. and v.

The mango is available in more processed
forms than any other minor tropical fruit.
Products derived from it include mango
slices in brine, canned mangoes in syrup,
mango juice, pulp, nectar, flour, jam,
dried slices and an assortment of
various mango based pickles, chutneys
and sauces. India is by far the world's
most important producer and exporter of
mango products, followed by Jamaica and
South Africa. "either total world
production nor trade figures are avail-
able for any of the products considered
in this report due to the dearth of
related national statistics.

*KATZIN, Margaret Fisher. "The Business of M
Higglering in Jamaica." Focial and
Economic Studies IX, (september 1960):
297-331. rMOA/JAM; UWI/ISE?1









"Most country higglers take their loads
to markets at some distance from their
homes because they could be undersold
in the local market by country people
selling their own crops." This article
otfers a classification system of tyoes
of traders and describes how the system
functions.

-.--. "'he Jamaican Country Higgler." M
Social and Fconomic Studies 8, No. 4
(Dec. 1959): 421- 40. MOA/JAM;
IWI/ISEFP]

Micro-level case study--one week in the
life of a farm family, including higgling.
The higgler-farmwife bought from farms on
two days, each requiring a full day's walk
over rough trails carry the accumulated
load. Most in this district use a mule
to collect produce and carry it to a
motorable road where a truck picks them
up. Normal market days are Thursday,
Friday, and Saturday. Price information
is carried daily by returning higglers
and truckers back to rural areas. In the
market, thievery is a major problem.

* KUTISH, Francis A. "Assessment of Agricul- M
tural Marketing in Jamaica with Special
Reference to Small Farmers in Portland
Parish." 1978 83 pp. (Unpublished
internal report of the USDA/U3AID Agri-
cultural Sector Assessment Team.)

Provides an insightful discussion of mar-
ket structure and list of marketing con-
straints. Favors a declining role for .MC
and predicts dominance of 'superhigglers'.

*LOCHEP, Uli. The Marketing of A.ricultural
Produce in Jamaica. Institute Inter-
americano de Ciencias Agricolas (IICA),
Kingston, Jamaica, 1977, 78 pp.
[vDS/AID/JAM]

An excellent overview of marketing and
insightful field work by sociologist
Locher in the Kingston markets.
Details the functioning and problems
of the city distribution part of the
marketing system. Major recommendation
is to support the higgler marketer and
to co-ordinate government services
(transport, credit, physical market








facilities) to improve traditional
system.

LUMSDEN, F. "The Agricultural Marketing
Corporation: Its Location and
Distribution Networks." Unpublished
undergraduate thesis. Dept. of
Geography, University of West Indies,
Mona, 1970. [UWI/WIC]

T.UNDGFEN, J.O. "Agricultural Marketing and M
Distribution Arrangements with Pespect to
the Resort Hotel in the Caribbean." Pro-
ceedinqs of the Sixth West Indian_Agricul-
tural Economics Conference _GeorgetownL
Guyana_.1971. St. Augustine, Trinidad:
University of West Indies, Department of
Agricultural Economics, 1971. pp. 158-175.

looks at the supply sources of a sample of
hotels on North Coast of Jamaica. Data in
article relate to one hotel.

McDONNAD, Vincent. "Innovation: The Basis M,C,J
for a Program of Fationalization of
Caribbean Agriculture (with Special
Reference to the Livestock Sector)."
Proceedings of the 8th West Indian Agri-
Cultural Fconomics Conference, Held at
St. Augustine, Trinidad 1-7 April 1973.
St. Augustine, Trinidad: Dept. of
Agricultural Economics, 1973.

McFAPLANE, J. "Linear Development in a M
Rural .rea--Savanna-la-mar to Petersfield
Westmoreland." Unpublished undergraduate
thesis. Dept. of Geograpny, University
of West Indies, Mona, 1975. [GD/UWI/JAM]

McINTOSH, Curtis E. "Food Marketing M,J
in the Commonwealth Caribbean."
PAG Bulletin 4, No. U (Dec 1975):
pp. 22-25.

*---. "Marketing Constraints to Agricultutal M,J
rationalisation in the Caribbean."
Cajanus 8, No. 4 (1975): 237-244.
[ MA/JtM]

This paper attempts to (a) identify
constraints originating in the
marketing of agricultural products,
which militate against the achieve-
ments of a rationalized agricultural
sector in the Caribbean Area, and (b)
offer some suggestions for removing
these constraints.









----. and LIM CHOY, M. The Performance of M,J
Selected Marketinq Agencies in the Carib-
bean. St. Augustine, Trinidad: Occasional
Series No. 11 Department of Agricultural
Economics and Farm Management. University
of West Indies, 1975.

An evaluation of marketing agencies in Bar-
bados, Jamaica, St. Vincent, and Trinidad
and Tobago. Compares economic environment
and provides a short evaluation of procure-
ment policies, distribution practices, and
performance criteria. Concludes that per-
formance is poor generally. Useful for com-
paritive purposes.

MkGNUS, V. "Spatial Patterns of Food M
Purchasing by North Coast Hotels."
Unpublished undergraduate thesis. Dept.
of Geography, University of West Indies,
Mona, 1971. [GD/UWI/JPM]

1AYEP., J.!. "The Marketing and Demand M,J,
for Meat in the Commonwealth Caribbean."
In Proceedings of the 7th West Indian
Agricultural Economics Conference,
Georgetown _Guyana, March 28-.pril 2,
1971. lt. Augustine, Trinidad:
University of West Indies, Dept. of
Agricultural Economics, 1971.
[MOT/JAM ]

This paper examines the consump-
tion of meats, discusses current
marketing structures and suggests
a likely demand pattern over the
next decade. Gives comparative
estimates of per capital consumption
of meats by type for 1956 and 1957
by country. Suggests with rising
income F6 lbs per head will be demand by
1980 with beef expected the major
item, followed by pork, and meat
preparations. Demand is expected
to be more elastic in the long-run
than the short-run. Goat meat is
not analysed.

MINTZ, Sidney W. Caribbean Transformation. M,J
Chiciago: Aldine Press, 1974. 35F pp.
xii, bibliography. [UWI/WIC]

Includes a chapter on the historic
development of marketing in Jamaica.
Discusses basis of role of women in








marketing. Has very little post 1900
mat erial.

---. "The Jamaican Internal Marketing M
Pattern." Social and Economic Studies,
No. 1 (March 195 )) : 95-103. [M')A/JAM;
UWI/ISEF ]

Generally attributes Jamaica marketing
pattern to African origins, noting the
prevalence of women as marketing agents
in both areas. Barter is reported rare,
all transactions use money. An important
characteristic of the higgler system is
that the trader always accompanies his
goods. A characteristic feature is the
handling of a variety of goods to spread
risk and dealing in small quantities.

* --- "The Role of the Middleman in M
the Internal Distribution System of
a Caribbean Peasant Economy. Human
Organization XV, No. 2 (Summer 1956):
18-23.

MOPROW, Felicia. U.S. Produce Market. M
(Mimeo) April 1978, ISDA Working Document,
60 pp. [FDS/AID/JAM ]

This report reviews the U.S. as market
potential for Jamaican exports of fresh
produce. Also problems of market informa-
tion, transportation and brokerage are
discussed. Finally specific commodity
situations are reviewed: garlic, tomatoes,
cucumbers, felons, okra, broccoli and
peanuts.

NOBLE, M. "Food Canning in Kingston." M
Unpublished undergraduate thesis. Dept.
of Geography, University of West Indies,
Mona, 1974. [GD/UWI/JAM]

* NOPTCN, A. and SYMANFKI, I. "The Internal M
Marketing Systems of Jamaica." Geograph-
ical Peview 65, No. L (1975) : 461-47,.

agricultural marketing and marketing
reform in Jamaica is discussed, drawing
on general comparisons with other parts
of the region. Traditional, periodic
markets are first described and integra-
tion of the entire system is suggested.
The work of the AGricultural Marketing
Corporation (AMC) is examined.








*NOPVELL, Douglass G. and THOMPSON, Marian M
Kay. "Higglering in Jamaica, and the
Mystique of Pure Cornm .- cion." Social
and Economic Studies.

A not too convincing attempt to show
that Katzin was incorrect in assuming
that many sellers in the Jamaica
traditional market fulfilled classic
requirements for perfect competition.

ORGANIZATION OF AMFPICAN STATES. Inter- 1,J
American Institute of Agricultural
Sciences. Hemishperic- Agicultural
Marketirng_Program. 1974. 15 pp.

IICA headquarters are in San Jose,
Costa Rica. Since 1972 there has been
a permanent program on Agricultural
Marketing--with services relating to
training, research and program service.

PETEEKIN, 0. "Spatial Organisation and
Operation of the Small Town Market
and Supoly Area--Falmouth." Unpublished
undergraduate thesis. Dept. of Geography,
University of West Indies, Mona, 1975.
[ GD/UWI/JAM]

PPITCHALD, Norris T.; HUTH, W.P.; and M
HAVNS, Nick. Prospects for U.S.
Iqricultural ExDorts to Jamaica.
Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
29, 1.p., 1969.

PArKINE, lloyd B. Extra and Intra-Carihbean MC,J
Trade in Foot CropE. Occasional Series No. 9.
St. Augustine, Trinidad: Department of Agri-
cultural Economics and Farm Management, Univer-
sity of West Indies, 1973.

Examines market institutions and marketing
processes in 4 countries, including Jamaica.
The crops studied in Jamaica are yams, sweet
potatoes, dasheen, and Irish potatoes. For
root crops as a whole, the export trend in the
region was slightly downward, especially for
intra-Caribbean trade.

----. Some Features of the Market for Root Crops M,C,J
Produced in the Commonwealth Caribbean. Pro-
ceedinqs of the 10th Annual Meetin _of the
Caribbean Food Crops Society, 1972:103-112.

PnGEFS, Claudia. "Illegal Entrepeneur- M
ship and Social Networks in Pural








Jamaica." Unpublished Ph.D. disserta-
tion, Columbia University, 1976.

Provides a case study of one village
and one town in Jamaica. Covers use
of cannabis and case studies of two
major dealers in the study sites.

SAMMY, G.M. "The Scope for the Develop-
ment of Food Processing." Proceedings
of the Ninth West Indies P.ricultural
Economics Conference Held at the
Pegasus Hotel _New_ ingston _Jamaica,
_pril 3-6L_1974 and at the Jamaica
School of Agriculture, Twickenham Park,
ril 7-10.L 1971. St. Augustine,
"rinidad, Department of Agricultural
Economics and Farm Management, University
of the West Indies, 1974. Pp. f1-70.
[UWI/ISER 1

Suggests the lack of processing tech-
nology is due to the colonial past as
producers of raw materials and consumers
of processed goods. Indicates scope for
food processing development, the main
objective being a high degree of self-
sufficiency in food production, linked
with social improvement for the lower
income section of society.

*SAPFATY, David. "Feasibility of a Caribbean M
Export Program for Fresh Market Vegetables:
Aspects of Demand and Supply Potential."
USDA/IDS/LA/SAIG Working Document, March
1978. Approx. 80 pp., tables, appendices,
bibliog. rPDS/?ID/JAM]

Includes an analysis for 6 crops of the
supply and demand situation in Jamaica and
the U.S. Considerations of seasonality,
transport costs, regional competition and
regulatory constraints are considered.

SAWYE7, W. "A Study of the Constant Spring M
Market." Unpublished undergraduate
thesis, Dept. of Geography, University
of West Indies, Mona, Jamaica, 1968.

* SHILLINGFCPD, J.D. and H.W. PLPDES "Prospective M,J
Demand for Food in the Commonwealth Caribbean,"
Proceedings of the_ enth West Indian Aaricul-
tural Fconomics conferencee Georgeto2wnD_ Guyana
1975. St. Augustine, Trinidad: University of
West Indies, Department of Agricultural Econo-
mics, 1975, op. 40-53.









Develops estimates of demand for each country
from population projections, income projections,
and income elasticities. Includes base level
per capital consumption and nutrition estimates.

SINCLAIF, M. "The Cocoa Industry and M,C
Chocolate Manufacturing in Highgate."
Unpublished undergraduate thesis. Dept.
of Geography, University of West Indies,
Mona, 1975. [GD/UWI/JAM]

*SMIKLF, C. and TAYLCF, H. Higa1ler_Survey, Agri-
cultural Planning Unit, Ministry of Agriculture
May 1977, Kingston, 1" pp. and 47 appendices.

An analysis of a large field survey of higglers
in all parts of the Island. Includes a careful
description of the marketing system and a great
deal of data on many aspects of higgerling.
Does not consider higgler transport problems or
information systems. Includes an analysis of
the economics of the higgler operation. This
survey provides an extremely valuable body of
data. Some of the analysis and conclusions
drawn from it are questionable and should not
be used by readers unable to make their own
inferences from thp data provided. Many serious
errors of interpretation are evident.

* SMITH, D.F. and GPPVIS, C.A. Ministry
of Marketing and Commerce. Pqricultural
Marketing_ Corporat ion: Orqaniziation and
Management Functions. Management
Services Division, Ministry of the
Public Service. May 1976. 113 pp.
appendices A-P. [ DS/AID/JAM]

This is a critical evaluation of the
A.M.r. with detailed recommendation
for changes in plant, operation and
personnel. It also clearly spells
out the structure, functions and
objectives of each part of the
organization.

* --; WALWYN, F.; and TPACfY, J. M
Ministry of Industry and Commerce.
agricultural MarketingCorporat.ion:
Basic Shops and Mobiles Denartment
Review of Orqanization_ Sy stems and
Procedures. (Confidential) Manage-
ment Services Division, Ministry of
Public Service, November 1977.
100 pp., appendices 1-7. [FDS/AID
JAM ]









Detail of organizational structure,
facilities, operational costs and
problems. Gives recommendations.

SUTHEPLAND, C. "Spatial structure of
Brown's Town, St. Ann." Unpublished
undergraduate thesis. Dept. of
Geography, University of West Indies,
Mona, 1971. [GD/UWI/JAM

SYMANSKI, ?ichard. "God, Food, and 1
Periodic Market Systems." Proceedings,
Association of American Geo.raphers,
Vol. <, 1973. Pp. 262-266.

Jamaica, in contrast to Colombia, has
almost no Sunday markets and few mid-
week market days. Most periodic markets
occur on Friday and/or Saturday. In
larger, continuous markets, Friday and
Saturday experience much greater volumes
of trade.

TAYTIC-, Leroy. "A Study of Consumer's M
Expenditures in Jamaica, 1832 to
the Present Day." TUnpublished Ph.D.
dissertation, University of London,
1963.

Consumer's Expenditures in Jamaica. M,J
Kingston: Institute of Social and
Economic research, 19'u. [MOE/JAM]

-HOMaS, P.D. (Editor). "The ?ole of M,E
Marketing in Caribbean Agricultural
Development." Proceedings of the Sixth
West Indian agriculturall Economics
Conference Held at Georetown Guyana,
March 28-ZAril 2, 1971. St. .ugustine,
Trinidad: University of the West Indies,
Department of Agricultural Economics and
Farm Management, 1971. Pp. 220 + x.

Several papers on Guyana were followed
by contributions on individual islands,
and on such aspects of marketing as:
the marketing and demand for meat in
the Caribbean; the Jamaica dairy indus-
try; transport; tourism and hotels;
export crop s; food processing. The
workshop reports, linked with the main
theme of the Conference, discussed:
(1) agricultural co-operative marketing
arrangements; (2) (a) the role of
Marketing Boards; (b) extra-regional








marketing arrangements: (3) priorities
for marketing research.

THOMPSON, A.K. "Marketing and Handling M
Practices in the 'ropics. 5. West
Indies: Handling of Some tropicall
Crops." In Postharvest Physioloqy,
Handling and Utility of Tropical _and
Subtropical Fruits and Vegetables,
E. B. Pantastico, ed., 1975. Pp.
542-545.

TUTTIE, Winn; and SEEBORG, Edward F. M
"The Caribbean: A Promising Market
for U.S. Wheat Exports." Foreign
Agriculture 9, No. 4 (Jan. 25, 1971):
6-7.

UNITED STATES. Dept. of Agriculture.
Economic Fesearch Service. Prospects
for U.S. agriculturall Exports to
Jamaica. USDA Foreign Agr. Econ.
Fep. 56, (Dec. 1969) : 30pp.

---. ---. Foreign Agricultural Service. M
"Demand for U.S. Wheat Expanding in
Caribbean Area." Foreign lAriculture,
T.S. Foreign Agric. Ferv. 13, No. %O
(Dec. 15, 1975): 16 pp.

---. ---. ---. "U.S. Food Products Find
Wide acceptance in Three Caribbean
Markets." For eiqn Aqriculture 11,
No. 9 (Feb. 26, 1973): 9-107 16.

WENDS, S.P. "The .mericarn pice Market, MC
1972." Tn Proceedinqs_of the
Conference on Spiceg_ 10-1Lth April,
1972. London: Foreign and Common-
wealth Office, 1973.

WHImELrCKF, M.B. "The Agricultural M
Marketing Corporation in Jamaica--
A Geographical Appraisal." 'Unpublished
undergraduate thesis. Dept. of Geography,
University of West Indies, Mona, 1970.
[GD/UWI/JAM]

*WILSON, W.I. "The Marketing Costs of Fresh
Fruits, Vegetables and Tubers"; The Prod-
uctivity Centre, Jamaica Industrial Develop-
ment Corporation, Kingston. June, 1971. 2'pp.
and 4 appendices. [PDS/AID/JAM]

Fased on an islandwide sample survey of mar-
keting outlets to investigate marketing mar-





72


gins and cost services. Major finding demon-
strates the better farm prices and lower mar-
keting costs of small group of 'superhigglers'
over D4C and small higglers. An excellent
course.

*WOOD, A., et al. Marketingq_Agricultural
Sector Study. 1 973--Peport of the
Services to Agriculture. Mimeo,
1973. ~1 pp. [rDS/AID/JAM.

The origins of this report are obscure.
It was conducted by a six-man team, but
who they represent and to whom they were
reporting is not specified. This is the
most complete compilation available of
the organization, role and functions of
the various commodity boards. Addi-
tionally, there is a good discussion of
the problems of the parish council
markets; their history, organization and
function. An insightful discussion of
the Higgler System is provided and an
identification of 11 specific problems.
An evaluation of the AMC is provided,
including specific problem areas reported
in a survey of users.











PART II



ABBOTT, George C. "Stabilization Policies in the West Indies Sugar
Industry." Caribbean Quarterly 9, No. 1/2 (1963): 53-66. (UWI/ISER)

Describes Commonwealth sugar agreement and effect on pricing and production.

"The West Indian Sugar Industry with Some Long-Term Projections
of Supply." Social and Economic Studies 13, No. 1 (March 1964): 1-37.
(MOA/JAM; UWI/ISER)

Describes acreage changes, yields, factory efficiency of each island.
Projects output from past trends and from likely acreage, yield,
efficiency changes and gets 'technically feasible' production. Does
not include detailed cost and has optimistic attitude to export market
and comparative costs.

*ALL ISLAND JAMAICA CANE FARMERS' ASSOCIATION. Annual Report. Kingston,
Jamaica. (MOA/JAM)

Gives cane deliveries per factory, basis for final payments (estates
versus farmers), factory time accounts and efficiency. Gives a graph
of production but no tables or data sources.

*ANDIC, Faut; ANDIC, Suphan; and DOSSER, Douglas. A Theory of Economic
Integration for Developing Countries: Illustrated by Caribbean Countries.
London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd., 1971. Pp. 176.

Develops a theory on benefits and costs of trade area creation. Measures
losses due to lack of free trade for alternatives suggested or present
unions (CARIFTA, EEC associates, CACM), and simple protection for
several Caribbean countries including Jamaica. Price and income elasticities
were estimated for rice, flour and a number on non-agricultural products
(1959-67) and used with export elasticities to estimates losses from
the various trade alternatives. Results showed present situation represents
a substantial loss of trade compared to free trade and that alternative
groupings would do little to ameliorate this loss.

* ARTHUR, Henry B.; HOUEK, James P.; and BECKFORD, George L. Tropical Agri-
business Structures and Adjustments--Bananas. Boston: Division of Research,
Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University, 1968, XI.
210 pp. (NAL: HD 9259.B2A7) (MOA/JAM)

A descriptive analysis of factors that affect performance of international
banana industry. Has sections describing Jamaican industry. Some of
comparative data useful, but no real cost data.

BRODSKY, Harols. "Role of Jamaican Urban Centers in Marketing", Kingston,
1978. (Unpublished internal report of the USDA/USAID Agricultural Sector
Assessment Team)

Examines price fluctuations for seven commodities (bananas, coconuts,
peas, cucumbers, pumpkins, yams and sweet potatoes). Variation between










parishes is much greater then variation between commodities. Using
'greater than 20% variation' as a measure of poor performance indicates
that the total system does not work efficiently., Western towns have
lower prices than Eastern. Port Antonio has the highest coefficient
of variation. Correlation between neighboring towns in high and positive,
in this case prices are similar and the market efficient.

*CARTER, Nicholas G. "A Macro-Economic Model of Jamaica 1959-1966."
Social and Economic Studies 19, No. 2 (June 1970): 178-201. (MOA/
JAM; UWI/ISER)

Provides a 33 equation model to describe the structure of the
economy over that period. Author categorizes the model as descrip-
tive (to help understand the economy), rather than for use for fore-
casting or policy purposes. Model shows how economy reacts to exogenous
factors such as exports and tourism. Has elasticities for food imports
which are considered by author to be very high (1.11) and indicative
of 'overall inadequacy' of agricultural sector.

FRISCH, R. "A Complete Scheme for Computing All Direct and Cross Demand
Elasticities in a Model with Many Sectors; Econometrica, 27 (1959).

*GIRWAP, S.N. "The Role and Future of Sugar in the Commonwealth Caribbean
in the Light of Britain's Entry into the EEC." Proceedings of Eighth
West Indian Agricultural Economics Conference, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad,
April 1-7, 1973. St. Augustine, Trinidad: University of West Indies,
1973.

Analysis is made of the world sugar situation affecting the Caribbean
producers. Sugar markets are analyzed: (a) negotiated price quota,
(b) U.S. quota. The UK and EEC systems are discussed and compared.
The Assurances offered to the Caribbean producers are examined (Brussels
formula, to Lancaster House declaration, Protocol 22), and anxieties
arising out of Britain's entry into EEC discussed. Examination of the
alternatives open to the Caribbean sugar industry indicates that at
present the Commonwealth Caribbean countries are so heavily committed
to sugar production, in terms of both men and materials, that any
disruption of market outlets can cause severe economic and social
dislocation.

*HAGELBERG, G.B. The Caribbean Sugar Industries: Constraints and
Opportunities. Occasional Papers No. 3. New Haven, Connecticut:
Antilles Research Program, Yale University, 1974. 173 pp.

This study discusses the changing character of the plantation, the
possibilities of further intensification of land use with sugar
versus other food crops in the Commonwealth Caribbean. Potential
for technological change in processing is also covered. Sugar
statistics are reviewed, and trends in costs of production, factor
use and productivity analyzed. Commonwealth Caribbean does not now
have lower costs than competitors.











*HARRIS, Donald J. "Savings and Foreign Trade as Constraints in Economic
Growth: A Study of Jamaica." Social and Economic Studies 19, No. 2
(June 1970): 147-177. (MOA/JAM; UWI/ISER)

Reports on construction and estimation of an aggregate macro-economic
model of the Jamaican economy (57 equations and 63 variables) using
data for the period 1950-1965. Main purpose is to make projections
of future resource requirements of the economy in terms of the potential
export-import and saving-investment gaps, based on trends of past
performance in the economy. Includes estimates of income demand
elasticities for aggregate imports (food is 1.1) and for exports
(including bananas and sugar). Assumes Jamaica cannot affect price,
and industry structure monopsonistic.

*JAMAICA, Government of. Report of the Commission of Enquiry on the
Sugar Industry of Jamaica. Kingston, January 1960. 93 pp. (MOA/JAM:
664.1 (729.2))

Covers production marketing quotas and constraints, the sugar law,
organization, labor (conditions, productivity, etc.), unions, etc.
Has financial results for 1954-58. The report describes industry at
that point in time, and includes a great deal of data (of historical
value). There is some evaluation, mostly on wage stability.

*----. Report of the Sugar Industry Enquiry Commission (1966). Kingston,
October 1967. 229 -p. (MOA/JAM)

As for previous report, has a lot of information on structure of industry,
breakdown by size, costs, problems, at that point in time. General
tenor is worry over 'high cost' Jamaican production and the factors
affecting it.

----, and Department of Statistics. Consumer Price Indices: Rural and Urban.
(Monthly or Biannually?) (RDS/AID/JAM; MOA/JAM)

Note that methodology is set out in February 1975 issue. Gives price
changes in groups and gives unit prices for the current year. More
detail for Kingston than elsewhere. Base 1975, and based on 1971/72
household survey. Takes price changes each month.

-. Expenditure Pattern of Working Class Households 1963-64. Kingston,
1966.

--, --. External Trade (Quarterly, Cumulative), Kingston (254.8 J223E)

Totals for external trade by month; imports, exports and re-exports by
generalized commodity breakdown; imports, exports and re-exports by
value and country of origin/destination direction of trade by countries
in currency and trading areas; detailed breakdown of imports, exports
and re-exports by quantity and value of items by country of origin/
destination.

Household Expenditure Survey 1971-72, 1975, 1977 (On data tape,
unedited as of December 1977).











A copy of the very detailed, 40 page questionnaire is in RDS/AID/JAM
library. The Department of Statistics has the data tapes, though they
were not in a useable form in March 1978. An editing tape was being
tested at that time with plans to have the report readied by mid-1978.
The survey has a highly detailed employment classification (the same as
used for published labor statistics) and identification of rural/urban,
parish and Kingston metropolitan area is included. The survey was
applied twice within a two week period to the same households. The
follow-up, Schedule B, is a repeat of the first five sections of Schedule
A and deals with basic consumption and income questions.

The 1971-72 survey covered 3,800 households (planned sample 4,000);
the 1975 survey 4,300 (5,500), and the December 1977 survey 1,700
planned.

-, --. Household Expenditure SurveyI 1958. Kingston, 1959. (MOA/JAM

Sample survey (720 rural, 400 Kingston, 130 Main towns). Covered
two weeks family expenditures. Quantities published only for rural
home consumption, otherwise values per week and percentage of total
expenditure on commodity.

--, --. Household Expenditure Survey 1956. Kingston (data unknown).

Provides data on rural expenditure,

Household Expenditure Survey 1953-1954. Kingston, 1955.
(MOA/JAM)

Survey carried out on 1,500 sample from Kingston alone. Has shillings
per week per commodity and percent ge of total expenditure on that
commodity.

JAMAICA. Ministry of Agriculture. [he Agricultural Sector Five-Year
Plan, 1978-1982. Kingston, 1978.

Has section on domestic agricultural marketing. Present performance
is critiqued for spoilage, artificial shortages and surpluses,
structural deficiencies in the AMC (low prices unsatisfactory grades,
and not purchasing all quantities made available). List objectives
for system (see Report). Recommends expanded role for AMC retailing;
imporved parish markets; updating minimum prices; provision of market
information; decentralization of AMC.

-, -. Forecast of Production for Selected Agricultural Commodities,
December 1977. Kingston, November 1977. RDS /AID/JAM)

Presents crop forecast for the following month based on extension
agent reports. There is a table for each parish and an all-island
summary is given for 50 major crop .

--, ---. Data Collection Statistics ahd Evaluation Department. Indices
of Domestic Agricultural Production and Farm Gate Prices, 1970, 74.
Kingston, 1975. RDS /AIDfJAM)










---, ----. Agricultural Planning Unit. "Agricultural Subsidies." 1955-
1972. (Unpublished) 1973 (?). Pp. 17 + Tables. (MOA/JAM)

Report lists subsidies, amounts used, administrative expenditures,
etc. and a critique and recommendations. This is historical, but
provides a useful though not detailed analysis and discussion of
problems for present and future programs.

---, --. Farm Subsidies. June 1975 (Printed, looseleaf folder) Pp. 8
(RDS/AID/JAM)

This folder contains a series of brochures which show the level and
type of various types of subsidy programs, mostly crop specific.

--, Indices of Domestic Agricultural Production and FarmGate
Prices 1970-1976. Kingston, June 1977. (PDS/AID/JAM, 2 copies)

The third in a series of agro-economic indicators published annually.
Data collected monthly by extension agents and market intelligence
officers. Estimated annual prices by commodity are given for 1976.
Contains summary evaluation of trends. Data presented by quarter
and major crop for 1976 are not given by parish. In 1978 this
survey will report input prices.

*JOLLY, Desmond Ansel. "Sectorial Growth and Employment in the Jamaican
Economy, 1959-1968." Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of
Oregon, 1973.

Develops econometric model of key macroeconomic variables using 1959-
68 data. This is used to evaluate feasibility of alternative growth
rates. Growth is limited by savings and foreign exchange. Takes
constrained growth rate of 4 percent and develops sectoral labor and
capital coefficients and sectoral growth to reduce unemployment. This
involves emphasis on agriculture and construction.

JONES, Edwin. "The Role of Statutory Boards in the Political Process in
Jamaica." Social and Economic Studies 19, No. 1 (March 1970): 114-134.
(MOA/JAM)

Discusses political processes in formulation and administrative efficiency
of such boards, etc.).

JONES, William 0. Marketing Staple Food Crops in Tropical Africa. Ithica:
Cornell University Press, 1972.

KRIESEL, Herbert; et al. Agricultural Marketing in Tanzania. U.S. Agency
for International Development. June, 1970.

KUNDU, A. "Rice in the British Caribbean Islands and British Guiana, 1950-
1975." Social and Economic Studies 13, No. 2 (June 1i64): 243-281.
(MOA/JAM)

Provides a short description of rice industry in each territory,
including the 4,000 acres in 1960 in Jamaica. British Guiana at
that time had monopoly on exports to other islands. Fough demand and
supply projections are made.










*LAWSON, Stanley. "Jamaica's Sugar Industry: An Inquiry into the Social
and Economic Repercussions of a Declining Industry." Unpublished M.Sc.
Thesis. New York University, 1971. Xerox. (UWI/WIC: HD 9114.J3L3)

LE-SI, Vihn and Carlos POMAREDA. "Direct and Cross-Price Elasticities from
Expenditure Elasticities: Some Estimates for Food in Zambia: Washington,
DC:, World Bank, Development Research Center, 1976.

McCALMON, J.C.E. "Prospects for Intra-regional Trade in Fish and Fish
Products" Proceedings of the Tenth West Indies Agricultural Economics
Conference Georgetown, Guyana, 19751 St. Augustine, Trinidad:
University of West Indies, Department of Agricultural Economics, 1975.
Pp. 112-123.

McFARLENE, Dennis. "The Future of the Banana Industry in the West Indies:
An Assessment of Supply Prospects for 1965 and 1975." Social and
Economic Studies 13, No. 1 (March 1964): 38-93. (MOA/JAM; UWI/ISER)

Has sections on resource allocation and distribution; disposal and prices;
institutional framework; technical problems and practices; the internal
and international markets. Available data by country (including Jamaica)
is described. Supply projections tb 1965 and 1975 are made.

. "The Foundation for Future Production and Export of West Indian Citrus."
Social and Economic Studies 13, No. 1 (March 1964): 118-156. (MOA/JAM:
UWI/ISER)

Has sections on resource allocation'and distribution, capital availability
and economic structure, institutional framework: disposal and prices
and the international market, using available to 1964 for dach country
including Jamaica.

*MANHERTZ, Huntley G. "An Exploratory Econometric Model for Jamaica."
Social and Economic Studies, 20 No. 2 (June 1971): 198-226. (MOA/JAM;
UWI/ISER)

Uses 1959-1967 data to fit a 42-equation (24 stochastic) structural
model of the Jamaican economy covering consumption, private investment,
foreign trade sector; monetary sector, government sector, tax functions,
employment, manufacture production function and retail price determination.

--. "The Price Determination Process in a Small Open Economy the Jamaican
Experience." In Inflation in the Caribbean, Compton Bourne (ed.). Mona,
Jamaica, Institute for Social and Economic Studies, 1977, pp. 1-27.
(UWI/ISER)

Examines the movements of consumer prices in Jamaica, looking at
rural and urban prices separately. iDevelops a mark-up-model for
empirical analysis. Due to limited data author was unable to quantify
all appropriate variables for his equations. Concludes that the two
most important factors affecting price determination are import prices
and the long-run normal cost of labor. Supply variation were of minor
importance. Higher mark-ups for food exist in rural areas, and the
effect of a change in import prices is greater.









MAYERS, J.M. "Some Aspects of the Rationalization and Livestock
Development in the Commonwealth Caribbean" Proceedings of the
Eigth West Indies Agricultural Economics Conference, Port-of-
Spain, Trinidad, 1973. Pp. 71-77.

MAYERS, J.M. Meat Consumption Statistics of the Commonwealth Caribbean.
Department of Agricultural Economics and Management, University of
West Indies, 1970.

Develops consumption data by island 1950-68 by type of meat. Also has
prices.

ORGANIZATION OF AMERICAN STATES. Sugar By-Product Utilization in Jamaica.
Vol. I: Pulp and Paper, and Animal Feeds; Vol. 11; Alcohol 1977 and
1978 (RDS/AID/JAM)

Provides an assessment of the techno-economic potential for utilization
of sugar by-products to produce useable products. A detailed and
specific analysis of projected benefits and costs of each alternative
is set out.

PERSUAD, B. "Market Prospects for Commonwealth Caribbean Sugar in the
EEC" Proceedings of the Eighth West Indies Agricultural Economics
Conference, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, 1973. St. Augustine, Trinidad.
Department of Agricultural Economics, 1973.

PHILLIPS, W.J. "Some Interpretations of Banana Statistics Relating to the
EEC Markets and the Commonwealth Caribbean Industry." In Proceedings
of Eighth West Indian Agricultural Economics Conference. Port-of-
Spain, Trinidad, April 1-7, 1973. St. Augustine, Trinidad: University
of the West Indies, 1973. (UWI/ISER)

The study has some comments on, and interpretation of, the available
data in relation to Commonwealth Caribbean bananas. Tables cover
such aspects as: production conditions and structure and productive
capacity; costs and cost competitiveness and possible repercussions on
the Commonwealth Caribbean industry of factors such as market shares
and market structure within the EEC, given an assumed relatively
more open situation than than which prevailed in the UK.

PINSTRUP-ANDERSON, Per, RUIZ de LONDONO, and Edward HOOVER. "Impact
of Food Supply on Nutrition." American Journal of Agricultural Economics
58, No. 2 (May 1976): 131-142.

RILEY, Harold M. Imroving Internal Marketing Systems as Part of National
Development Systems. Occasional Paper #3, Latin American Studies Center,
Michigan State University, 1970.

REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA, SECRETARIA DE ESTADO DE AGRICULTURE. Diagnostico
de Sistema Mercadeo Agricola en RepGblica Dominicana. Santo Domingo,
1977.

ROACHE, K.L. "Prospects for Agricultural Growth in the Commonwealth
Caribbean for the Next.Ten Years." Development Prospects and Options
in the Commonwealth Caribbean. Report of the conference jointly
sponsored by the British-North American Research Association and the











Overseas Development Institute at Ditchley Park, Oxfordshire, February
20-22, 1976. London: Overseas Development Institute, 1976. Pp. 21-29.

The paper aims to isolate some of the prospective growth areas for
agriculture in the Commonwealth Caribbean (CARICOM) and to discuss
constraints to growth. Suggests stress on national specialization
rather than regional specilization involving narrow range of plantation
crops which are dependent on protective tariffs. The livestock
sector is identified as an area of priority. Impediments to its
development include price control, land tenure and marketing. Suggests
that growth prospects also exist in vegetables and fruit processing
if an export market can be found.

RODRIGUEZ, D.W. Bananas: An Outline of the Economic History of Production
and Trade with Special Reference to Jamaica. Kingston: Dept. of
Agriculture, Jamaica. Commodity Bulletin No. 1, 1955. 69pp. (MOA/JAM)

Historical account of bananas--production, marketing, exports to 1954.

*----. Coffee: A Short Economic History with Special Reference to Jamaica.
Kingston, Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, 1960, Commodity
Bulletin 2. 77 pp. (MOA/JAM)

Covers history of coffee production in Jamaica, some discussion of
facotrs affecting the industry, a summary of results of 1953 coffee
farm survey, prices and exports to 1959.

*----. Pimento: A Short Economic History. Kingston: Ministry of Agriculture
and Fisheries, 1969, Commodity Bulletin 3. 52 pp. (MOA/JAM)

Describes plant and its method of production, pests, etc. acreage and
number of farms, marketing, production, prices and exports (estimates
from 1691).

*----. Ginger. A Short Economic History. Jamaica: Commodity Bulletin, Ministry
of Agriculture and Fisheries, 1971. No. 4 36 pp. (MOA/JAM)

Ginger is the oldest crop in continuous production in Jamaica and is also
an export crop of some importance. In the group of spices produced
locally it ranks second to pimento, and provides an important source
of income for the small farmers who are engaged in its production. Much
of the crop is grown in areas of the Christiana Area Land Authority which
have suitable soil sna climatic conditions.

ROE, Terry. "An Economic Evaluation qf the Haitian Agricultural Marketing
System". (Unpublished report for Haitian Agricultural Sector Assessment,
USAID, 1978)

THOMAS, Clive Y. "Coffee Production in Jamaica." Social and Economic
Studies 13, No. 1 (March 1964: 188-217. (MOA/JAM; UWI/ISER)

Provides a history of production in Jamaica, a description of current
production practices and trends in plantings. Provides information
by parish on coffee acreage Trom 1953 survey. Estimates productivity
and yields at farm in processing.











WALKER, Carol. "The Why's and Wherefores of Food Shortages." Cajanus
10, No. 5 (1977): 256-259.

Statement by an information officer of Agency for Public Information.
Asserts higglers and consumers are hoarding, and that higglers are
buying at controlled price and reselling.

UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, Economic Research Service.
U.S. Fresh Market Vegetable Statistics, 1949-75. Washington, DC:
1976.

WILLIAMS, Randolph L. "Jamaican Coffee Supply, 1953-1968. An Explanatory
Study." Social and Economic Studies 21, No. 1 (March 1972): 90-103.
Bibliography. (MOA/JAM; UWI/ISER)

Provides summarized description of industry, but major portion develops
supply model and estimates using time series data. Coffee output in
one year is considered a function of potential to produce in the year
(flow of capital services or number of bearing coffee trees) and the
intensity of production (measured in labor time applied). This results
in a formulation of supply as a function of coffee price (lagged),
wage rates, and prices of substitutes and complements. Estimates gave
significant positive response to own price lagged and cocoa price lagged,
and a negative effect of banana prices. Wages were significant with
expected negative sign.

*--. The Coffee Industry of Jamaica. Institute of Social and Economic
Research, University of West Indies, 1975. (RDS/AID/JAM) (MOA/JAM)

Research carried out in 1970-72 for dissertation at Columbia. Covers
development and structure of production and marketing since World
War II. (Note that there is no recent survey on coffee). Estimates
a supply function for Jamaican coffee with elasticity of .82 on quantity
supplied and crossprice elasticity for cacao of .28. Discusses processing
of coffee, looks at question of economics of scale and evaluates
performance of the Coffee Board and the industry.

*----. "The Growth, Structure and Performance of the Coffee Industry in
Jamaica." Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1973.

Study includes all growers registered with Coffee Industry Board, and
all processing plants administered by Board. Excludes growers of Blue
Mountain coffee who account for a negligible proportion of output, and
manufacturers of instant coffee. Analysis in study reported in Williams
(1972) and (1975). Conclusions are: a) coffee growers are consistent
profit maximizers, b) quality responds positively to price differentials,
c) long run average cost estimates for processing suggest rational resource
allocate on and economics of scale, d) investment in plant etc. by Board
consistent with long-run average cost minimization, d) policy has contributed
to national savings, to extent that constrained income and foreign
exchange objectives.

WOOD, A. et. al. "Agricultural Sector Study, Report of the Services to
Agriculture". Kingston, 1973.










A succinct, locally produced report, covering export and domestic marketing -
major channels; producer/marketing arrangements and listing problems.
For export crops: does not deal with sugar, for bananas looks at marketing
and transport cost (from plant) as percentage of gross revenues and also
discusses cocoa, citrus (problems), pimento, tobacco (problems) and
coffee, and an evaluation of a boxing plant. Includes some interesting
and less usual comments on domestic marketing. "Abhorrence of the
middle class for associating with the local market operated by poor
uneducated people, has to pre-occupation of the AMC with the export market
to the deterinent of domestic distribution". Authors suggest it is
unreliability which leads to periods of oversupply and shortages as
farmers cannot phase production. The neglected studies of parish
markets is attributed to their relegation to local government levels.

*WORLD BANK. Sugar Rehabilitation Project, Jamaica, Staff Appraisal
Report. Report No. 1732-Jm, Jan. 19, 1978, 79 pp. + 2 annexes.

Contains an overview of the agriculture sector performance, policy
and program. The sugar industry is reported in detail physical,
historical, political, technical and social aspects.

*WORRELL, Puppet Delisle. "Comment on Three Econometric Models of the
Jamaican Economy." Social and Economic Studies 22, No. 2 (June 1973):
272-286. (MOA/JAM; UWI/ISER)

Suggests models used do not incorporate the theory of working of Caribbean
economies, and that aggregated used hide some important inter-relationships
related to income distribution, export bias, sectoral investment bias,
etc. Considers disaggregated analysis of sectors more useful.

YOUNGJOHNS, B.J. "Primacy Co-operatives in Jamaica." Year Book of
Agricultural Co-operation 1975. Oxford, U.K.: Basil Blackwell, 1975.
Pp. 163-175.

There are 246 primary co-operatives in Jamaica with an aggregate membership
of about 160,000. There are also 125 credit unions. Apart from bananas,
coffee and cocoa the most important co-operative market organizations
are concerned with potatoes and fishing.

ZENNY, F. Memorandum on Five Year Agricultural Sector Plan, (Internal
Document, Ministry of Agriculture) March 1978, 115 pp.

This document is an analysis and critique of the 1978-1982 Five Year
Development Plan. Carefully done, detailed and specific. It provides
an alternate view concerning nearly every aspect of agricultural policy,
structure, plans and potential. Must reading as a companion to the 5-year
Plan. Points out clearly problems with the Plan's expanded role in
AMC in marketing.

ZUVEKAS, Clarence. A Survey of Crop and Livestock Marketing in Bolivia,
Working Document #3, U.S. Agency for International Development, Bureau
for Latin America and the Caribbean, Rural Development Division,
September 1977.




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