• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Scope
 Sources
 Acknowledgement
 Form of entries
 Demographic studies
 Economic studies
 Brain drain studies
 Policy studies
 Appendix. Data bases searched on...














Title: Immigration literature
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087119/00001
 Material Information
Title: Immigration literature abstracts of demographic, economic, and policy studies
Series Title: Immigration literature
Physical Description: viii, 89 p. : ; 26 cm.
Language: English
Creator: North, Jeannette H
Grodsky, Susan J. ( joint author )
United States -- Immigration and Naturalization Service. -- Office of Planning, Evaluation, and Budgeting
Publisher: The Office :
For sale by Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off.
Place of Publication: Washington
Publication Date: 1979
 Subjects
Subject: Emigration and immigration -- Abstracts -- United States   ( lcsh )
Emigration and immigration -- Economic aspects -- Abstracts -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
abstract or summary   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Abstracts   ( lcsh )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: United States Department of Justice, Immigration and Naturalization Service, Office of Planning, Evaluation, and Budgeting ; compiled by Jeannette H. North, Susan J. Grodsky.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087119
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 06279628
lccn - 79604155

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Introduction
        Page v
    Scope
        Page v
    Sources
        Page vi
    Acknowledgement
        Page vi
    Form of entries
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Demographic studies
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Economic studies
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Brain drain studies
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Policy studies
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Appendix. Data bases searched on the Lockheed dialog system
        Page 89
        Page 90
Full Text
IMMIGRATION
LITERATURE:
ABSTRACTS OF
DEMOGRAPHIC,
ECONOMIC,
AND POLICY
STUDIES


U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE
IMMIGRATION & NATURALIZATION SERVICE


~~B~ii~~ex


























U.S. DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE
Griffin Bell, Attorney General


IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION SERVICE
Leonel Castillo, Commissioner

Office of Planning, Evaluation and Budgeting
John Nahan, Acting Associate Deputy Commissioner

Evaluation and Policy Analysis Branch
Robert A. Andersen, Director


SUGGESTED CITATION

U.S. Department of Justice, Immigration and Naturalization Service. Immigration Literature: Ab-
stracts of Demographic, Economic, and Policy Studies. Washington, D.C. 1979.













IMMIGRATION LITERATURE:


Abstracts of Demographic, Economic, and Policy Studies
















United States Department of Justice
Immigration and Naturalization Service
Office of Planning, Evaluation, and Budgeting









Compiled by:
Jeannette H. North
Susan J. Grodsky






JUNE, 1979


























Copyrighted bibliographical material is reproduced with the permission of the following organizations:

Abstracts from America: History and Life reprinted by permission of the Publisher, ABC-Clio,
Inc.

The dissertation titles and abstracts contained here are published with permission of University
Microfilms International, publishers of Dissertation Abstracts International (copyright 1969,
1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976, 1977, 1978 by University Microfilms Interna-
tional), and may not be reproduced without their prior permission.

Abstracts from Excerpta Medica reprinted by permission of the Publisher, Excerpta Medica.

Abstracts from Management Contents reprinted by permission of the Publisher, Management
Contents, Inc.

Abstracts from PAIS reprinted by permission of the Publisher, Public Affairs Information
Service, Inc.

Abstracts from Psychological Abstracts, reprinted by permission of the Publisher, the American
Psychological Association.

Citations marked with an asterisk (*) were obtained from the NTIS data base. An (@) before the
Library of Congress call number indicates that the report is available from NTIS. A report not
so marked may be obtained from the organization responsible for its production.

The front cover is a reproduction of M. C. Escher's work, "Liberation." Reproduction rights were
made available by the "Escher Foundation-Haags Gemeentemuseum-The Hague."


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402
Stock Number 027-002-00214-8








TABLE OF CONTENTS


Introduction ........

Scope .. ... ... ... .

Sources .. .........

Arrangement ....


Form of Entries .......

Demographic Studies ..

General .......
Methodologies . .
Descriptive Statistics
Migration Theory ..

Economic Studies . . .

General ........
Employment and Labor
Undocumented Aliens
Hispanics .......
Asians ...

Brain Drain Studies . . .

Policy Studies . . . .

General . . ...
Refugees . ....
General .....
Indo-Chinese ..
Other Groups
Undocumented Aliens
The Immigration and Na
Citizenship and Naturali
Enforcement .....

APPENDIX .........


. . . . . . . . . .




. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . .












Market ...............

S . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . .o .. . . . .


....................















ttionality Act Amendments of 1965 .
nation . . . . . . . .








INTRODUCTION


The flow of migrants between the United States and other nations has received an increasing
amount of attention in recent years. This renewed interest is largely the result of a growing
awareness of changing patterns in international migration. Some of these changing patterns reflect
changes in the United States immigration policy. For instance, following the passage of the
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, the annual number of immigrants admitted from
Europe dropped sharply while immigration from Asia and Latin America increased substantially.
Other changes reflect broader developments in worldwide economic and social circumstances.
Current evidence indicates that although the United States continues to admit more immigrants
than any other nation, a considerable number of them later return to their home countries. Also
recently noted is the phenomenon of seasonal migration: a sizable component of the migration
flow are people who migrate to and from the United States on a fairly regular basis. In recent
years, there has also been a large increase in the number of refugees seeking and obtaining political
asylum in this country. However, the trend which has probably received the greatest amount of
attention, and also stimulated a great deal of concern, is undocumented migration. In fact, the
uncertainty regarding the size and rate of growth of this population has underscored the need for
more accessible information on many aspects of international migration.

This bibliography has been prepared in response to the widespread interest in these issues. It is a
collection of annotations focusing primarily on the demographic, economic and policy aspects of
migration to and from the United States. By making this information more readily accessible, the
report will hopefully increase general knowledge of immigration as well as stimulate further
research in the field.

SCOPE

The documents in this bibliography are generally concerned with immigration to the United States
from 1965 to the present.' The subject matter falls primarily within the following categories:
(1) demographic studies of recent immigration, including methodological studies, descriptive
statistical reports, and essays on migration theory, (2) economic studies pertaining to recent
immigration, including works on both the economic impacts and the economic experiences of
aliens in the United States, (3) "Brain Drain" studies, including the descriptive and analytic studies
of the migration of foreign students and professionals, and (4) immigration policy studies,
including sections on political refugees, undocumented aliens, and the enforcement and
administration of the 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act.

The following general selection criteria were employed in compiling this bibliography: First of all,
only published documents appearing in English were considered. The period of coverage begins in
1970 for all dissertations and periodical articles; the period of coverage for all other documents
begins in 1965. The bibliography contains a variety of types of literature including books,
pamphlets, reports, periodical articles, and government publications. The latter category
encompasses Federal, State, and local government publications; Congressional Hearings and
Committee prints as well as executive Branch reports are included. In general, the articles and


tWithin this bibliography the term "immigration" is often used in its generic sense, thereby connoting concepts
relating to international migration outside the legalistic definition of immigration. In the strict sense, the term
immigration relates to the inflow of those individuals legally admitted for permanent residence to the United
States. The generic term may encompass such broad concepts as emigration, temporary migration, and
undocumented migration.








INTRODUCTION


The flow of migrants between the United States and other nations has received an increasing
amount of attention in recent years. This renewed interest is largely the result of a growing
awareness of changing patterns in international migration. Some of these changing patterns reflect
changes in the United States immigration policy. For instance, following the passage of the
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, the annual number of immigrants admitted from
Europe dropped sharply while immigration from Asia and Latin America increased substantially.
Other changes reflect broader developments in worldwide economic and social circumstances.
Current evidence indicates that although the United States continues to admit more immigrants
than any other nation, a considerable number of them later return to their home countries. Also
recently noted is the phenomenon of seasonal migration: a sizable component of the migration
flow are people who migrate to and from the United States on a fairly regular basis. In recent
years, there has also been a large increase in the number of refugees seeking and obtaining political
asylum in this country. However, the trend which has probably received the greatest amount of
attention, and also stimulated a great deal of concern, is undocumented migration. In fact, the
uncertainty regarding the size and rate of growth of this population has underscored the need for
more accessible information on many aspects of international migration.

This bibliography has been prepared in response to the widespread interest in these issues. It is a
collection of annotations focusing primarily on the demographic, economic and policy aspects of
migration to and from the United States. By making this information more readily accessible, the
report will hopefully increase general knowledge of immigration as well as stimulate further
research in the field.

SCOPE

The documents in this bibliography are generally concerned with immigration to the United States
from 1965 to the present.' The subject matter falls primarily within the following categories:
(1) demographic studies of recent immigration, including methodological studies, descriptive
statistical reports, and essays on migration theory, (2) economic studies pertaining to recent
immigration, including works on both the economic impacts and the economic experiences of
aliens in the United States, (3) "Brain Drain" studies, including the descriptive and analytic studies
of the migration of foreign students and professionals, and (4) immigration policy studies,
including sections on political refugees, undocumented aliens, and the enforcement and
administration of the 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act.

The following general selection criteria were employed in compiling this bibliography: First of all,
only published documents appearing in English were considered. The period of coverage begins in
1970 for all dissertations and periodical articles; the period of coverage for all other documents
begins in 1965. The bibliography contains a variety of types of literature including books,
pamphlets, reports, periodical articles, and government publications. The latter category
encompasses Federal, State, and local government publications; Congressional Hearings and
Committee prints as well as executive Branch reports are included. In general, the articles and


tWithin this bibliography the term "immigration" is often used in its generic sense, thereby connoting concepts
relating to international migration outside the legalistic definition of immigration. In the strict sense, the term
immigration relates to the inflow of those individuals legally admitted for permanent residence to the United
States. The generic term may encompass such broad concepts as emigration, temporary migration, and
undocumented migration.






essays compiled in this bibliography were selected from the following types of documents:
monographs, proceedings of conferences, professional journals, and semi-popular periodicals
appealing to a specialized audience, such as Forbes. Finally, we have specifically excluded all
non-print materials such as recordings or motion pictures. Also excluded are machine readable
fileslvertical files, unpublished papers, reports of research in progress, newspaper articles and
editorials, and articles appearing in popular and semi-popular periodicals.

Please note that some important exceptions to the above criteria were made. Unpublished doctoral
dissertations are included in this compilation. This basic departure from the selection criteria was
made because (1) the documents are easily available from University Microfilms International (See
Appendix for the address), and (2) the documents are likely to represent much of the high-level
research taking place in the field of immigration. Another exception concerns date of publication.
Although, for the most part, the date of coverage begins at 1970 for periodical articles and
dissertations and at 1965 for all other documents, earlier documents appear in the bibliography
when the importance of the work or subject matter warrants inclusion.

This bibliography is not all-inclusive. Time and resource constraints precluded completion of the
following search areas: Roughly eight percent of the books for which references were found are
omitted because they could not be readily located for annotation. Also, it is unlikely that all
relevant periodical articles are included because most of the articles were retrieved from a large set
of files in the Lockheed computer system. For the most part, articles not included in the
Lockheed system will not be found in this compilation. For example, the period of coverage of
some Lockheed files does not extend back as early as 1970. Also, budgetary constraints would not
permit searches in all possible files; only files which seemed most relevant were chosen and
searched.

Research for this bibliography began in January 1978 and was completed in October 1978. The
Lockheed DIALOG system was searched during September 1978.

SOURCES

The following sources provided most of the citations for this bibliography:

(1) The Library of Congress Computerized Catalog (LCCC) provided books, reports, and some
government documents for the period 1968 to the present.

(2) The Library of Congress Catalog-Books: Subjects 1965-1969 provided books, reports, and
some government documents.

(3) The CRS Bibliographic Data Base, maintained by the Library Services Division, Congressional
Research Service, Library of Congress provided many periodical articles.

(4) Sixteen data bases of the Lockheed DIALOG system provided additional periodical and
monograph articles, government documents, and books. These bases, the dates covered by
each, and the address of each data base producer are listed in the Appendix.

ARRANGEMENT

The following subject areas form the major divisions of this bibliography: demographic studies of
recent immigration, economic aspects of recent immigration, studies relating to the "Brain Drain"
and policy studies. The demographic, economic, and policy divisions are further divided into
several topical sections. Within all sections, citations are arranged by form: books, government
documents, articles, dissertations, and bibliographies. It should be noted that the delineation






essays compiled in this bibliography were selected from the following types of documents:
monographs, proceedings of conferences, professional journals, and semi-popular periodicals
appealing to a specialized audience, such as Forbes. Finally, we have specifically excluded all
non-print materials such as recordings or motion pictures. Also excluded are machine readable
fileslvertical files, unpublished papers, reports of research in progress, newspaper articles and
editorials, and articles appearing in popular and semi-popular periodicals.

Please note that some important exceptions to the above criteria were made. Unpublished doctoral
dissertations are included in this compilation. This basic departure from the selection criteria was
made because (1) the documents are easily available from University Microfilms International (See
Appendix for the address), and (2) the documents are likely to represent much of the high-level
research taking place in the field of immigration. Another exception concerns date of publication.
Although, for the most part, the date of coverage begins at 1970 for periodical articles and
dissertations and at 1965 for all other documents, earlier documents appear in the bibliography
when the importance of the work or subject matter warrants inclusion.

This bibliography is not all-inclusive. Time and resource constraints precluded completion of the
following search areas: Roughly eight percent of the books for which references were found are
omitted because they could not be readily located for annotation. Also, it is unlikely that all
relevant periodical articles are included because most of the articles were retrieved from a large set
of files in the Lockheed computer system. For the most part, articles not included in the
Lockheed system will not be found in this compilation. For example, the period of coverage of
some Lockheed files does not extend back as early as 1970. Also, budgetary constraints would not
permit searches in all possible files; only files which seemed most relevant were chosen and
searched.

Research for this bibliography began in January 1978 and was completed in October 1978. The
Lockheed DIALOG system was searched during September 1978.

SOURCES

The following sources provided most of the citations for this bibliography:

(1) The Library of Congress Computerized Catalog (LCCC) provided books, reports, and some
government documents for the period 1968 to the present.

(2) The Library of Congress Catalog-Books: Subjects 1965-1969 provided books, reports, and
some government documents.

(3) The CRS Bibliographic Data Base, maintained by the Library Services Division, Congressional
Research Service, Library of Congress provided many periodical articles.

(4) Sixteen data bases of the Lockheed DIALOG system provided additional periodical and
monograph articles, government documents, and books. These bases, the dates covered by
each, and the address of each data base producer are listed in the Appendix.

ARRANGEMENT

The following subject areas form the major divisions of this bibliography: demographic studies of
recent immigration, economic aspects of recent immigration, studies relating to the "Brain Drain"
and policy studies. The demographic, economic, and policy divisions are further divided into
several topical sections. Within all sections, citations are arranged by form: books, government
documents, articles, dissertations, and bibliographies. It should be noted that the delineation






between these categories was not always straightforward. Thus, documents produced by
quasi-public organizations of the United States government are generally found in the book
section; documents published by Federal, State, and local governments (whether prepared by the
agency or a private contractor) are generally found in the government section; essays and articles
appearing in monographs as well as articles appearing in series are found in the articles section.

FORM OF ENTRIES

Citation formats vary according to the type of document cited, i.e., books, government
documents, articles or dissertations. The style for books and government documents follows the
recommendations given in Bibliographical Procedures and Style. (U.S., Library of Congress,
General Reference and Bibliography Division. Bibliographical Procedures and Style, a Manual for
Bibliographers in the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 1954.) In the case of books, the
author's name is followed by the title of the work, the place of publication, name of the publisher,
date of publication, number of pages and a retrieval number.

Bogue, Donald Joseph.
Principles of Demography. New York, Wiley, 1969. 917 p.
LC: HB 881/.B564

The style for government documents is similar to the book format. However, the name of the
author follows the hierarchical layout of department, division, then subdivision. In addition, the
publisher's name is omitted when the publisher is also the author. The publisher follows the same
hierarchical ordering as the author when the department is the publisher. In instances where the
division is the publisher, the division precedes the department.

U.S. Department of State. Council on International Educational and Cultural Affairs. Some
Facts and Figures on the Migration of Talent and Skills. Washington, D.C. 1967,
113 p.
LC: A148/.U53

The name of agencies may be changed over time. Therefore, the current name of the agency or
committee is cited, with the previous name noted in the annotation.

Congressional Hearings have a specialized format within government documents. The author is
cited as U.S. Congress, House or Senate, name of the Committee, and name of the Subcommittee.
The title of the Hearing is followed by the number of the Congress, the session, the date of the
hearing, the number of the bill under consideration, Washington, D.C., date, number of pages and
the retrieval number.

U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee on Immigration,
Citizenship, and International Law.

Review of the Administration of the Immigration and Nationality Act. Hearings, 93rd
Cong., 1st sess., on legislative oversight of the Immigration and Nationality Act. July
26-Sept. 20, 1973. Washington, D.C., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1973. 296 p. ("Serial
no. 22")
LC: KF27.J864 1973b

There are various types of retrieval numbers. The one most frequently cited is the Library of
Congress call number, whose format is "LC: HB 881/.B564". In some cases the "LC" is followed
by "N.A.", meaning "not available". This notation indicates that no call number was given in the





source from which the citation was taken. Documents from the National Technical Information
Service (NTIS), Department of Commerce, data base have a retrieval number which begins with
"PB", "AD", "COM", "HRP" or "NAL".

The following format is the style followed for citations for articles: Author, title of article, title of
publication, the volume number, the serial number, the page number, and the date of registration,
which is in parentheses.

Portes, Alejandro.
Determinants of the Brain Drain. International Migration Review, 10:4, 489-508,
(1976).

In some instances no serial number is given; therefore, the page number follows the volume
number. A few citations have no volume number, only a serial number, followed by page numbers.

The format for dissertations is unique. Author and title are followed by degree awarded, date,
university, page numbers and the accession number, which begins with "UMI."

Rogg, Eleanor H.
The Occupational Adjustment of Cuban Refugees in the New York, New Jersey Area.
Ph.D., 1970, Fordham University, 464 p.
UMI: 70-20132
The annotations which appear in this bibliography are taken from various sources. Annotations for
books and government documents are generally the original work of the compilers of this
bibliography or are from other Federal bibliographies. Annotations to articles have been provided
by the data base in which the citation was located.






DEMOGRAPHIC STUDIES


General


BOOKS


1. Bogue, Donald Joseph.
Principles of Demography. New York, Wiley,
1969. 917 p.
LC: HB881/.B564

A basic textbook and reference work on de-
mography which seeks to present demography
as a systematic discipline, to assemble and
formulate generalizations and principles, to
promote an international approach, and to
integrate demography with other social
sciences. A chapter discussing both internal and
international migration presents the "push-
pull" model as well as Brinley Thomas' model
of a single trans-Atlantic economic system. The
work is based on 1960 census data.

2. Scott, Franklin Daniel, compiler.
World Migration in Modem Times. Englewood,
N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1968. 177 p.
LC: JV6021/.S35

Here are 29 essays on migration, European
emigration, American immigration, and Latin
American, African, and Asian migration. The
essays on mass migrations, refugee migration,
and global migration give a historical context to
contemporary migration. Also included in the
work is Crevecour's essay, "What is an Ameri-
can?".

3. Westoff, Charles F. and Robert Parke, Jr., editors.
Demographic and Social Aspects of Population
Growth. Washington, D.C., U.S. Commission on
Population Growth and the American Future,
1972. 674 p.
LC: HB3505/.A5254/vol. 1

This volume presents several essays on immi-
gration. "Demographic Aspects of American
Immigration," by Richard Irwin and Robert
Warren, discusses age, sex, and occupation of
immigrants, net arrivals from Puerto Rico-
net arrivals of civilian citizens, parolees, emi-
gration, and the role of immigrants in popu-
lation growth. "Immigration: Considerations
on Trends, Prospects, and Policy," by Charles


Keely, "briefly outlines the historical, po-
litical, and social contexts of immigration
policy ... reviews data under current law...
[and] reviews problems with current immi-
gration and relates them where possible to
their impact on population policy." "Immigra-
tion Into the United States With Special Refer-
ence to Professional and Technical Workers,"
by Judith Fortney, is a demographic analysis
and discussion of goals of immigration policy.


GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS

4. Mazie, Sara Mills, editor.
Population, Distribution, and Policy. Washing-
ton, D.C., U.S. Commission on Population
Growth and the American Future, 1973. 719 p.
LC: HB3505/.A5254/vol. 5

This volume, one of seven produced by the
Commission, contains several general essays on
international migration, and other essays on
more general demographic topics.

5. U.S. Commission on Population Growth and the
American Future.
Population and the American Future; the Re-
port. Washington, D.C., 1972. 186 p.
LC: HB3505/.A525

"Chapter 13 is concerned with legal and illegal
immigration. The Commission recommends
civil and criminal sanctions for the employment
of aliens in illegal status and increased resources
for the appropriate agencies."

6. U.S. Commission on Population Growth and the
American Future.
Research Reports. Washington, D.C., 1972. 7 v.
LC: HB3505/.A5254

Five of the seven volumes of the Commission's
research reports (volumes 3 and 4 are omitted)
are found under the individual editors' names.
The reports are:

Volume 1: Demographic and Social Aspects
of Population Growth, edited by
Charles F. Westoff and Robert
Parke, Jr.


297-200 0 79 2





IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


Volume 2: Economic Aspects of Population
Growth, edited by Elliott R.
Morss and Ritchie H. Reed

Volume 3: Population, Resources, and the
Environment, edited by
Ronald G. Ridker

Volume 4: Governance and Population,
edited by A. E. Keir Nash

Volume 5: Population Distribution and
Policy, edited by Sara Mills
Mazie

Volume 6: Aspects of Population Growth
Policy, edited by Robert Parke,
Jr. and Charles F. Westoff

Volume 7: Statements Presented at Public
Hearings, edited by the U.S.
Commission on Population
Growth and the American Fu-
ture.

7. U.S. Commission of Population Growth and the
American Future.
Statements at Public Hearings of the Commis-
sion on Population Growth and the American
Future. Washington, D.C., 1974. 230 p.
LC: HB3505/.A5254/vol. 7

The work contains statements made during the
Commission's public hearings in Washington,
D.C., Los Angeles, Ca., Little Rock, Ark.,
Chicago, Dl., and New York, N.Y., in the spring
and fall of 1971. A wide variety of viewpoints
is represented. Donald Rumsfield, Stewart
Udall, S.I. Hayakawa, Kingsley Davis, and
Winthrop Rockefeller are a few of the well
known persons presenting their views, but the
Commission also heard from "Frank Frebus,
student, New York Institute of Photography,"
"Judith Ayala, Registered Nurse," and "Henry
Gibson, Television Entertainer."

8. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Post Office
and Civil Service. Subcommittee on Census and
Population.
Discussion Sessions on Issues Related to Popu-
lation: Hearings, 94th Cong., 2d sess, July 28-


September 24, 1976. Washington, D.C., 1976.
63 p.
LC: N.A.

These hearings include statements on food and
the population issue, by G. Borgstrom, popula-
tion growth in the sunbelt states, by T. Evans,
teenage pregnancies, by E. Roberts, and Span-
ish origin population issues, by L. Estrada.


ARTICLES

9. Bouvier, Leon F., Henry S. Shryock, and Harry W.
Henderson.
International Migration: Yesterday, Today,
and Tomorrow. Population Reference Bureau
Bulletin, 32:4, whole issue, (September 1977).
42 p.

This paper "opens with a description of
international migration from its beginnings to
the present day, [and] then examines the
nature of these movements, whether in groups
or individually, voluntary or forced. Subse-
quent sections discuss the immigration policies
of principal "receiving" countries, the dilemma
of illegal immigration-especially for the United
States today-the factors which "push" or
"pull" people to migrate, the characteristics
which distinguish them from nonimmigrants,
and the effects of migration on countries of
origin and those of destination."

10. Bryce-LaPorte, Roy S.
Visibility of the New Immigrants. Society,
14:18-22, (September-October 1977).

The Director of the Smithsonian Institution's
Research Institute on Immigration and Ethnic
Studies discusses the influence of immigration
and immigrants, both legal and illegal, on
American society, the statutes regulating immi-
gration, and the effect of the immigrant popula-
tion on American ethnicity.

11. Gibson, Campbell.
The Contribution of Immigration to United
States Population Growth: (1790-1970).
International Migration Review, 9:2, 157-177,
(Summer 1975).





DEMOGRAPHIC STUDIES


The primary purpose of this paper is to present
estimates of the contribution of immigration to
population growth in the U.S. for the 180-year
period between 1790 and 1970: The secondary
purpose is to indicate the relevance of these
findings to the contribution of future immigra-
tion to U.S. population growth.

12. Hawaii: Growing Pains in Paradise. Population
Bulletin, 29:3, whole issue, (1973).

Articles on the U-curve of population growth,
economic influences on population growth,
migration and distribution, a policy towards
economic growth, and the quality of life make
up this special issue.

13. Keely, Charles B.
The Estimation of the Immigration Component
of Population Growth. International Migration
Review, 8:3,431435, (Fall 1974).

,This article criticizes the traditional approach to
measuring the relative contribution of immigra-
tion to population growth and poses some
alternative techniques which have stronger the-
oretical bases. The main problem with the
traditional approach (which decomposes popu-
lation growth into natural increase and net
migration) is that it does not relate immigration
to fertility and thus does not yield measures for
the relative contributions of the positive inputs
to population growth.

14. Keely, Charles B. and Ellen Percy Kraly.
Recent Net Alien Immigration to the United
States: Its Impact on Population Growth and
Native Fertility. Demography, 15:267-283,
(August 1978).

The authors examine the impact of immigration
on future population growth, the effects of
immigration on a stationary population, and
the characteristics of such a population. These
questions are considered in the context of
estimates of recent net alien migration to the
United States.

15. Maselli, G.
World Population Movements. International Mi-
gration, 9:34, 117-125, (1971).


Unassisted and unorganized world migration is
a source of many human frustrations. Serious
structural problems could be solved by intensi-
fied international cooperation and by multi-
laterally assisted and organized migration,
rather than by denying the basic human right to
move.

16. Seminar on Adaptation and Integration of Perma-
nent Immigrants, Second Geneva, 1975.
Proceedings. International Migration, 14: 1-2,
whole issue, (1976).

The papers treat migration of family units,
problems confronting return migrants, social
welfare measures needed to facilitate a better
integration, views of nongovernmental organi-
zations on family migration, placement, re-
ception, and assistance to return migrants,
reception, and accommodation, vocational
training courses for return migrants, migra-
tion policy and economic development.

17. Watson, Barbara M.
Immigration Today. International Migration
Review, 4:3,47-51, (1970).

The Administrator of the Bureau of Security
and Consular Affairs, Department of State,
summarizes trends in immigration in the second
year of implementation of the 1965 Act.
Several characteristics were apparent: a signifi-
cant increase in immigration from Asia, greater
ease in identifying immediate relatives of resi-
dents, and over 50 percent of immigrants are
wives and children.


BIBLIOGRAPHIES

18. Beijer, G.
International and National Migratory Move-
ments. International Migration, 8:3, 93-106,
(1970).

A review of some recent publications.

19. Corwin, Arthur F.
Mexican Emigration History, 1900-1970: Liter-
ature and Research. Latin American Research
Review, 8:3-24, (Summer 1973).





IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


This bibliographic essay explores studies by
U.S. historians and social scientists, Mexican
emigration literature, and research opportuni-
ties in Mexican emigration studies. It provides
bibliographic aids and cites other bibliogra-
phies on the subject.


20. Meadows, Paul, and others.
Recent Immigration to the United States: The
Literature of the Social Sciences. Washington,
D.C., Research Institute on Immigration and
Ethnic Studies, Smithsonian Institution, 1976.
112 p.
LC: Z7164/.13R38 JV6455

This bibliography covers literature on American
immigration since World War II, including
general migration theory, world immigration
trends, the impact of immigration on the
country of origin, impact of immigration on the
U.S., the politics of migration in countries of
origin and settlement, the settlement process,
and comparisons of "old" and "new" immi-
grants. An informative introduction and con-
clusion are included. The selections are not
annotated. Most are journal articles, but books,
dissertations, and essays from collections are
also included.

Methodologies

BOOKS

21. Conference on Social Statistics and the City,
Washington, D.C., 1967.
Social Statistics and the City: Report. David M.
Heer, editor. Cambridge, Mass., Joint Center for
Urban Studies of the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology and Harvard University, 1968.
186 p.
LC: HA40/.86C6/1967

Six papers and an appendix by Jacob Siegel and
Melvin Zelnick discuss census data collection on
minorities, including an analysis of the com-
pleteness of the 1960 census, procedural diffi-
culties in counting Negro, Puerto Rican, and
Mexican areas, needed improvements in collec-


tion procedures, and needed statistics for
minority groups in metropolitan areas. The
forward is by Daniel P. Moynihan, then Direc-
tor of the Joint Center for Urban Studies.

22. Tomasi, Silvano M., and Charles B. Keely.
Whom Have We Welcomed?: the Adequacy
and Quality of United States Immigration Data
for Policy Analysis and Evaluation. 1st ed.
Staten Island, N.Y., Center for Migration
Studies, 1975. 96 p.
LC: JV6507/.T65

"The original purpose of the project on which
this report is based was to develop a method-
ology to estimate the effects of legislative
changes on the demographic characteristics of
future immigrants... the task proved to be an
impossible one. The major difficulties revolve
around the availability and quality of data. This
report, then, focused on legislative analysis and
the data problem."

23. United Nations. Secretary-General, 1972. (Wald-
heim).
Action by the United Nations to Implement the
Recommendations of the World Population
Conference, 1974: Concise Report on Monitor-
ing of Population Trends: Report. New York,
1976.49 p.
LC: N.A.

Immigration and emigration were among the
topics discussed at the World Population Con-
ference, Bucharest, 1974.

GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS

24. U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.
To Know or Not to Know: Collection and Use
of Racial and Ethnic Data in Federal Assistance
Programs: A Report. Washington, D.C., 1973.
90 p.
LC: HC110/.P63A453/1973

The study was intended "to determine the
most effective way to collect and use racial and
ethnic data in the context of Federal responsi-
bility to prevent discrimination. Six Federal





DEMOGRAPHIC STUDIES


Agencies administering domestic assistance pro-
grams were selected for this study: the Depart-
ments of Agriculture (USDA), Health, Educa-
tion, and Welfare (HEW), Housing and Urban
Development (HUD), Labor (DOL), Transpor-
tation (DOT), and the Veteran's Administration
(VA)...

"As the need for racial and ethnic data becomes
more apparent and as the technical factors
involved in the creation of a system for the
collection and use of such data are given more
consideration, the issues ... become increas-
ingly controversial." Chapters discuss the uses
of racial and ethnic data, methods of collection
(data required, racial and ethnic categories,
method of identification, frequency of collec-
tion, safeguards in collection), responsibility for
use, and legal issues. Recommendations place
responsibility for leadership in policy develop-
ment on the Office of Management and Budget.

25. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Post Office
and Civil Service.
Economic and Social Statistics Relating to
Americans of Spanish Origin or Descent:
Report Together With Supplemental Views to
Accompany H.J. Res. 92, 94th Cong., 1st sess.
Washington, D.C., 1975. 12 p.
LC: N.A.

House Joint Resolution 92 developed methods
for improving social statistics concerning Span-
ish origin Americans collected by Federal agen-
cies, including the Bureau of the Census, the
Bureau of Labor Statistics, and the Office of
Management and Budget.


26. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Post Office
and Civil Service. Subcommittee on Census and
Population.
Economics and Social Statistics for Americans
of Spanish Origin: Hearing, 94th Cong., 1st
sess. on H.J. Res. 92, March 21, 1975. Washing-
ton, D.C., 1975. 64 p.
LC: KF27/.P632/1975

The hearing focuses on the accuracy and scope
of social and economic statistics on Americans
of Spanish origin or descent. Part of the


problem, which is treated here, is the terminol-
ogy used to describe Spanish-Origin/Spanish-
Surnamed/Hispanic persons. Accurate statistics,
of course, are essential for full representation in
Federal programs.

27. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Post Office
and Civil Service. Subcommittee on Census and
Population.
1980 Census. Hearings, 94th Cong., 2d sess.,
June 1-2, 1976. Washington, D.C., 1976. 103 p.
LC: N.A.

These hearings considered the problem of
undercounting of certain minority groups, and
sought ways to prevent that in the 1980
Census. One idea considered was to use postal
service personnel as collectors.

28. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Post Office
and Civil Service.
Improvement of Economic and Social Statistics
Relating to Americans of Spanish Origin or
Descent: Report to Accompany H.J. Res. 92,
94th Cong., 2d sess. Washington, D.C., 1976.
6 p.
LC: N.A.

This is the companion Senate report on H.J. 92.

29. U.S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of the
Census.
Comparison of Persons of Spanish Surname and
Persons of Spanish Origin in the United States.
Prepared by Edward W. Fernandez. Washing-
ton, D.C., Social and Economic Statistics
Administration, 1975. 18 p.
LC: E184/.S75U5/1975.

"This report presents comparative data on the
characteristics of the population classified as
having a Spanish surname and on the popula-
tion identified as of Spanish origin in the U.S.
based on [the] March 1971 Current Population
Survey (CPS). The primary purpose of the
report is to illustrate the relationship between
these two identifiers of the population of
Spanish ancestry in the U.S. and to determine
the extent to which Spanish surname can be
used as a proxy for identifying persons of
Spanish origin."






IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


30. U.S. Interagency Committee on Uniform Civil
Rights Policies and Practices. Subcommittee on
Racial Data Collection.
The Racial Data Policies and Capabilities of the
Federal Government: A Report. Washington,
D.C., 1971. 100 leaves.
LC: HC110/.P63A5428/1971

"... we have concluded that the major cause of
unequal service to those of minority race, apart
from any intentional discrimination that may
exist, is the absence of a means that would
enable program managers, on a continuing basis
to identify eligible minority beneficiaries
among the clientele they serve; to know
whether these eligibles are in fact participating
in the program; and to assess the degree to
which service to this group of beneficiaries is
achieving the results intended by the program."
The Departments of Agriculture, Commerce,
Health, Education, and Welfare, Housing and
Urban Development, Interior, and Labor are
reviewed to determine their present data capa-
bilities for minority beneficiaries.

31. U.S. Interagency Racial Data Committee.
Establishing a Federal Racial/Ethnic Data
System: A Report. Morton H. Sklar and
Margaret A. Cotter, co-chairpersons. Washing-
ton, D.C., 1972. 2 v.
LC: HC110/.P63A5429/1972

This Committee is a product of what was
essentially the Interagency Committee on Uni-
form Civil Rights Policies and Practices. The
present volume is basically a collection of
documents relating to the results of the Com-
mittee's previous report; it contains letters of
transmittal, legal memoranda on the collection
of racial information, agency policy statements,
and so on.


ARTICLES

32. Hernandez, Jose., Leo Estrada, and David Alvirez.
Census Data and the Problem of Conceptually
Defining the Mexican American Population.
Social Science Quarterly, 53:4, 671-687,
(1973).


"Definitions used by the U.S. Bureau of the
Census in the 1970 and previous enumerations
are evaluated for effectiveness in measuring the
Mexican American population. Recommenda-
tions regarding the use of published data in
social science research are drawn, with special
emphasis on comparability. Preliminary figures
for 1970 are analyzed to illustrate methodologi-
cal problems, and observations are made con-
cerning the improvement of demographic con-
cepts and sources of information."

33. Lopata, Helena Znaniecki.
Polish Immigration to the United States of
America: Problems of Estimation and Parame-
ters. Polish Review, 21:4, 85-107, (1976).

This work is an attempt to determine the
parameters of the highest and the lowest
possible number of Polish immigrants entering
and remaining in the United States.

34. Nelson, K. P.
Public Data Files For Socioeconomic Research:
Problems and Opportunities With Social Secu-
rity Sample Data. American Statistical Asso-
ciation, Proceedings of the Business And
Economics Statistics Section, 1974, pp. 66-68.

Social Security Administration data base
samples are useful for geographical detail to
study migration and labor force dynamics.
Possible shortcomings and improvements are
given.

35. Redden, Charlotte A.
Identification of Spanish Heritage Persons in
Public Data. Review of Public Data Use, 4:3-11,
(May 1976).

"It is the purpose of this report to both outline
the parameters of the Spanish identification
problem and also to illustrate the conceptual
and practical ramifications of the present
chaotic situation. The primary conclusion
reached is that the purpose for Spanish identifi-
cation in a given application and the specific
group towards which the application is in-
tended ought to condition the means by which
identification is ascribed."





DEMOGRAPHIC STUDIES


36. Rosenthal, Erich.
The Equivalence of United States Census Data
for Persons of Russian Stock or Descent with
American Jews: An Evaluation. Demography,
12:275-290, (May 1975).

"Evidence will be presented ... to show that an
overwhelming proportion of the Jewish popula-
tion has been enumerated in population
censuses and sample surveys in the guise of
Russian stock or persons of Russian descent."

37. Vourkas, Argyrios.
The Sociology of Migration. International
Behavioural Scientist, 4:2, 21-34, (June 1972).

This article reviews and evaluates the sources of
statistics on international and internal migra-
tion and discusses possible uses of such sta-
tistics. Also discussed is the importance of
migration in terms of its effects on the eco-
nomic and social structure of sending and
receiving regions.

38. Warren, Robert.
Recent Immigration and Current Data Collec-
tion. Monthly Labor Review, 100:10, 36-41,
(October 1977).

"... this article highlights recent trends in
immigration and emigration, and briefly exam-
ines some of the demographic characteristics of
recent immigrants." Data are sparse for two
major categories of information-undocu-
mented aliens and emigration from the United
States: "a comprehensive review of our entire
system of collecting immigration data is crucial
to a meaningful evaluation of the ... social and
economic impact of immigration."


Descriptive Statistics

BOOKS

39. Crow, John E.
Mexican Americans in Contemporary Arizona:
A Social and Demographic View. San Fran-
cisco, Calif., R and E Research Associates,
1975. 84 p.
LC: F820/.M5C76


This work draws together data collected on the
(estimated) 333,349 Mexican Americans of
Arizona in the 1970 census. Tables and brief
discussions treat social and demographic charac-
teristics (ethnicity, spatial distribution, mobil-
ity, urbanism, fertility), the world of work
(employment indicator, educational oppor-
tunity, occupational groupings), and income
indicators (income inequality, income concen-
tration, poverty, urbanism and the escape from
poverty, housing and income in Tucson and
Phoenix).

40. Grebler, Leo, with Phillip Newman and Ronald
Wyse.
Mexican Immigration to the United States: The
Record and Its Implication. Los Angeles, Calif.,
Mexican-American Study Project, University of
California at Los Angeles, 1968.
LC: E184/.M5C3

This preliminary report describes the immigra-
tion process of Mexicans to the U.S. Statistics
are presented concerning the volume of immi-
gration over the years, the socioeconomic
characteristics of immigrating Mexicans, the
geographic distribution of migrants after immi-
gration, the reasons for their migration, the
differences between permanent and temporary
migrating Mexicans, and comparable aspects of
Mexican and Canadian immigration. Distinctive
features of Mexican immigration are delineated:
Mexico's attitude towards immigration, the
selective processes involved in Mexican immi-
gration, the economic forces influencing
immigration, and the future of immigration. An
appendix includes charts and an explanation of
current immigration and naturalization laws.
Some discussion of illegal immigration is
included.

41. Hernandez Alvarez, Jose.
Return Migration to Puerto Rico. Berkeley,
Calif., Institute of International Studies, Uni-
versity of California at Berkeley, 1967. 153 p.
LC: JV7382/.H4/no. 1

This publication is the final product of a
three-year research project sponsored by the
Social Science Research Center of the Univer-
sity of Puerto Rico. The study was limited to





IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


persons born in Puerto Rico, residing in the
U.S. by 1955, and returning to the Island by
1960. Data from census records, and interviews
at San Juan airport, indicated age, residence,
and residence in Puerto Rico of returnees. The
family patterns, fertility, and employment pat-
terns of returnees are examined through statisti-
cal analysis. Brief case studies and copious
statistical comparisons are included.

42. Jaffe, Abram J., Ruth Cullen, and Thomas
Boswell.
Spanish Americans in the United States: Chang-
ing Demographic Characteristics. New York,
Research Institute for the Study of Man, 1976.
431 p.
LC: E184/.S75J33

This work is a compilation of useful compara-
tive data on five subgroups of the minority
described as "Spanish-Americans." The groups
are: Hispanos descendentss of the first Spanish
to settle in New Mexico; this is the group
Nancie Gonzalez called "the Spanish-Americans
of New Mexico"), Mexican-Americans, Puerto
Ricans, Cuban-Americans, and the Central and
South American-origin population. Tables illus-
trate statistics on population growth, geo-
graphic distribution, education, labor force
participation, family income, fertility, and
related characteristics for each group. The text
gives a history of the groups' Western Hemi-
sphere experience and discusses implications of
the statistics. Appendices give similar data for
the Spanish-American and non-Spanish White
populations. Most data are from the 1970
Census.

43. Mexican-American Population Commission of Cali-
fornia.
Mexican-American Population in California as
of April, 1973 with Projections to 1980; A
Biannual Census Report. San Francisco, Calif.,
1973. 31 leaves.
LC: HB3525/.C2M48/1973

"The present biannual report... is derived
from the United States Census Bureau's files
since 1960, surveys and documents secured in
the federal district court lawsuit of Confedera-
cion de la Raza Unida, et.al., v. George H.


Brown, Director, United States Bureau of the
Census, et.al., recent State Department of
Education school statistics, and Labor Depart-
ment Spanish-American participation statis-
tics." The report charges that the 1970 Census
grossly undercounted the Spanish-American
population; by its own count the Commission
estimates 3.7 million Spanish-Americans as of
April, 1973, and predicts almost 5 million by
1980. The report also details the Commission's
protests to and lawsuit against the Bureau of
the Census.

44. Miranda, Edward J. and Ino J. Rossi.
New York City's Italians: Census Characteris-
tics at a Glance. New York, Italian-American
Center for Urban Affairs, 1976. 173 p.
LC: F128.9/.I8M57

"In this study we have [estimated] the total
number of Italians of all generations living in
New York City, and have examined in detail
the residential patterns of this significant popu-
lation, its occupational distribution, its educa-
tional achievements, its income distribution,
and its poverty level structure. Moreover, to
obtain a relative idea of status, we have
compared the results with those of two of the
larger ethnic groups and with the remaining
all-white group as a whole. We have drawn some
obvious inferences and indicate patterns and
relationships which might help us explain and
understand where Italians are today and where
they are going." Based on 1970 census data, the
analysis is limited to residents of the five
boroughs of New York City, and includes
foreign born, second generation Americans, and
later generations who "still maintain links with
their Italian heritage."

*45. Sung, Betty Lee.
Statistical Profile of the Chinese in the United
States. 1970 Census. New York, Department of
Asian Studies, City College of New York, 1975.
138 p.
@LC: N.A., PB-256 799/8ST

The document (supported by the Office of
Research and Development, Employment and
Training Administration, Department of Labor)
presents statistical tables based upon a special






DEMOGRAPHIC STUDIES


tabulation of the 1970 census on the demo-
graphic, social, economic, and housing charac-
teristics of the Chinese in the United States for
the fifty states and twelve selected Standard
Metropolitan Statistical Areas.

46. Weaver, Thomas, and Theodore E. Downing,
editors.
Mexican Migration. Tucson, Ariz., Bureau of
Ethnic Research, University of Arizona, 1976.
241 p.
LC: HB1991/.M49

"This report represents the United States'
portion of a bi-national project... to establish
a comprehensive view of migration of Mexicans.
We investigated the patterns of movement of
migrants within Mexico (between states and
regions) and between Mexico and the United
States and the social and economic factors
correlated with these movements which might
assist in predicting future migrations." Theories
of migration are discussed, as well as internal
Mexican migration, Mexican-U.S. migration,
economic factors, and the use of indicators in
Mexican population estimation. A computer
simulation model is presented. Copious eco-
nomic and demographic statistics for the states
of Mexico are presented.


GO VERNMENT DOCUMENTS

47. Chicago. Department of Development and Plan-
ning.
Chicago's Spanish-Speaking Population:
Selected Statistics. Chicago, 1973.
LC: F548.9/.S75C45/1973

This is a source of general demographic data on
the Spanish-Speaking (Mexican, Puerto Rican,
Cuban) population of the city of Chicago.
Comparisons are made to the surrounding
suburban area (comprising eight counties), to
other cities with large Spanish-Speaking popula-
tions, to national totals, in some cases to
Chicago's non-Spanish Speaking population,
and to 1960 census data. Distribution maps and
photographs are interspersed with charts and
tables showing general population characteris-
tics, age and family data, income, labor force


characteristics, and education, and housing
data.

48. California. Department of Industrial Relations.
Division of Labor Statistics and Research.
Negroes and Mexican-Americans in South and
East Los Angeles; Changes Between 1960 and
1965 in Population, Employment, Income, and
Family Status. An Analysis of a U.S. Census
Survey of November 1965. San Francisco,
Calif., Division of Fair Employment Practices,
1966.
LC: F869/.L8A35

East Los Angeles (Boyle Heights, City Terrace,
and East Los Angeles) is the home of 166,630
"persons of Spanish surname", 27 percent of
that ethnic group's population in the Los
Angeles-Long Beach statistical area. This work
gives statistics on racial composition, residence,
age, marital status, female heads of families,
children in a two-parent home, housing, labor
force and unemployment, occupations, and
income of families. Data gathered in the 1960
census and that of a special census conducted in
1965 are compared. Data on Negroes in South
Los Angeles are also included.

49. Samuel, T.J.
The Migration of Canadian-Born Between
Canada and United States of America, 1955 to
1968. Ottawa, Canada, Research Branch, Pro-
gram Development Service, Dept. of Manpower
and Immigration, 1969. 46 p.
LC: JV7216/.S35/1969

The paper provides "a general examination of
the emigration to, and return migration from
the U.S.A. of Canadian-born since 1955, with
particular attention to the return migration of
emigrants who left Canada between January
1955 and March 1960." Characteristics of
emigrants-age, sex, earnings, education, occu-
pation, geographic distribution, and linguistic
composition-are charted and discussed. Eco-
nomic and non-economic push-pull factors are
examined. The phenomena of return migration
and Brain Drain are considered; it is found that,
in the case of the U.S. and Canada, "brain
trade" may be a more accurate descriptive
term.


297-200 0 79 3






IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


50. Smith, Leslie Whitener.
Social and Economic Characteristics of Spanish-
Origin Hired Farmworkers in 1973. Washing-
ton, D.C., Economic Research Service, U.S.
Dept. of Agriculture, 1976. 19 p.
LC: HD1751/.A91854/no. 349

This is a revised version of a paper presented to
the annual meeting of the Rural Sociological
Society, San Francisco, Calif., August 1975.

"Spanish-origin and other ethnic groups of farm
wageworkers are compared by age, sex, educa-
tion, migratory status, employment, and earn-
ings. Spanish-origin farmworkers appeared to
have few viable alternatives to farmwork. Their
farm earnings were generally higher than those
of other ethnic groups working in agriculture;
however, large household size, high dependency
rates, and greater reliance upon agriculture for
income may have reduced this economic
advantage."

*51. Urban Associates, Inc.
A Study of Selected Socio-Economic Charac-
teristics of Ethnic Minorities Based on the 1970
Census. Prepared for the Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare. Washington, D.C.,
Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning
and Evaluation, Dept. of Health, Education,
and Welfare, 1974. 4 v.
@LC: E184/.S75U72/1974

The first three volumes analyze selected data
from the U.S. Census of 1970 on persons of
Spanish origin, Asian Americans, and American
Indians. National and local data are included on
the following socioeconomic characteristics of
each ethnic group: recent immigration, popula-
tion, family structure, education, employment,
income, and poverty.

The fourth volume is a "backup resource
document for the [first] three volume studies."
It presents the socioeconomic data on the three
ethnic minorities in each of the ten HEW
regions and compares the data on the charac-
teristics of the total population, Blacks, and
Spanish-Speaking population in that region.
The report is available from NTIS as PB 245
334/SST.


*52. U.S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of the
Census.
Census of Population: 1970. Subject Reports.
Mobility for Metropolitan Areas. Washington,
D.C., 1973. 462 p.
@LC: N.A., COM-71-80017-2C

The statistics in this report provide information
on the movement of persons five years old and
over to, from, and within the Standard Metro-
politan Statistical Areas (SMSA's) of the United
States during the period 1965 to 1970. The
data were obtained from a question as to
residence on April 1, 1965, asked in the 1970
Census of Population. The tables in the report
cover: characteristics of movers between,
within, and to SMSA's from nonmetropolitan
areas (these data are shown by various size
classes of SMSA's and nonmetropolitan places);
and characteristics of movers to nonmetropoli-
tan areas from SMSA's of each size class and
from other nonmetropolitan areas. Also
included are characteristics for the various
classes of mover, by sex and age, years of
school completed, employment status, major
occupation group, income in 1969, and chil-
dren ever born; and immigrants and movers
within individual metropolitan areas of 500,000
or more.

*53. U.S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of the
Census.
Census of Population: 1970. Subject Reports:
National Origin and Language. Washington,
D.C., 1973. 540 p.
@LC: N.A.

The report provides statistics for the United
States, regions, and selected Standard Metro-
politan Statistical Areas (SMSA's) on the social
and economic characteristics of immigrants and
their children for selected countries of origin.
The statistics are based on the 1970 Census of
Population. Detailed tables in the report pro-
vide data on the native population of native
parentage, native population of foreign or
mixed parentage, and the foreign stock popula-
tion, cross-classified by one or more of the
following categories: age, sex, race, nativity,
parentage, relationship to head of household,
marital status, fertility, residence in 1965,






DEMOGRAPHIC STUDIES


educational attainment, mother tongue, em-
ployment status and occupation, income in
1969 and class of worker, country of origin,
year of immigration, country of birth, and
citizenship.

54. U.S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of the
Census.
Characteristics of the Spanish-Surname Popula-
tion by Census Tract, for SMSA's in Five
Southwestern States: 1970. Social and Eco-
nomic Statistics Administration, Washington,
D.C., 1974. 5 v. 939 p.
LC: F790/.S75U54/1974

This is a "group of five reports presenting data
for persons of Spanish surname in the SMSA's
of the five Southwestern states: Arizona, Cali-
fornia, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas...
Table 1 [in each report] shows data on age,
sex, relationship to head of household, type of
household, school enrollment, years of school
completed, and residence in 1965. Employment
status, family income, and poverty status are
given in table 2. Table 3 presents housing char-
acteristics for households with Spanish-surname
heads."

55. U.S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of the
Census.
Persons of Spanish Origin in the United States,
March 1976. Prepared by Edward Fernandez.
Washington, D.C., 1977. 63 p.
LC: HA195/.A53/no. 310

"... a statistical description of the social, eco-
nomic, and demographic characteristics of
persons of Spanish origin in the United
States ... [based on] data collected in the
March 1976 Current Population Survey.
Persons of Spanish origin were identified by a
question asking for self-identification of the
person's origin or descent.

"Specifically, this report includes information
on the total population of the United States
and the population of Spanish origin and its
subcategories (Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban,
Central or South American, and other Spanish
origin). Age, marital and family status, educa-


tion, employment, occupation, income, and
other characteristics [are shown] in the various
tables and graphs."

Similar reports are available based on the 1973,
1974, and 1975 CPS surveys.

*56. U.S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of the
Census. Washington, D.C. Data User Services Divi-
sion.
Pocket Data Book, U.S.A. 1976. Bicentennial
Issue. Washington, D.C., 1976. 446 p.
LC: N.A., PB-271 444/2ST

The fifth edition of a biennial series of this
reference book commemorates the Nation's
bicentennial celebration. It presents a compact
selection of statistics on all major facets of the
social, economic, and political structures of the
United States. A summary section provides
statistics in charts and graphs and a brief
narrative text, followed by more detailed statis-
tical tables and additional charts in 25 subject
matter sections. Among these are population,
vital statistics, immigration, labor, health, edu-
cation, welfare, income, foreign commerce, and
bicentennial statistics.

57. U.S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of the
Census.
Selected Characteristics of Persons and Families
of Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Other Spanish
Origin: March 1971: Population Size, Income,
Employment, Education, Family. Prepared by
Larry E. Suter. Washington, D.C., 1971. 19 p.
LC: HA195/.A53/no. 224

"This report presents data on a variety of social
and economic characteristics for persons and
families of Mexican, Puerto Rican, and other
Spanish origin covered in the March 1971
Current Population Survey."

58. U.S. Department of Justice. Immigration and
Naturalization Service.
Aliens in the United States. Prepared for the
Subcommittee on Immigration and Naturaliza-
tion of the Committee on the Judiciary, United
States Senate. Washington, D.C., 1965. 1014 p.
LC: HB3015/.A5





IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


"The tables show the number of aliens in the
United States by States, countries of origin,
and nationalities, based on the alien address
cards submitted during January 1965."

59. U.S. Department of Justice. Immigration and
Naturalization Service.
Annual Report. Washington, D.C. Annual.
LC: N.A.

This report contains descriptive statistics on
immigrants and nonimmigrants admitted to the
United States each year. Data are presented
for such categories as alien status, country
of birth, age, sex, occupation, and state of
intended residence. Also included are statistics
on deportable aliens located, aliens reporting
under the Alien Address Program, and persons
naturalized. The data have been published
under the existing format since 1943. In 1942
no report on immigration statistics was pub-
lished. Prior to that time immigration statistics
in a format similar to the existing format were
published in the following sources: Annual
Report of the Attorney General (1941), Annual
Report of the Secretary of Labor (1933 to
1940), and reports issued by the Bureau of
Immigration (1892 to 1932).

60. U.S. Department of Labor. Women's Bureau.
Women of Spanish Origin in the United States.
Washington, D.C., Employment Standards
Administration, 1976. 17 p.
LC: E184/.S75U54/1976

This report presents population and economic
statistics on women of Spanish origin in the
United States. "Some of the characteristics
portrayed for this population are age, residence,
marital and family status, education, labor
force participation, and income."

61. U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commis-
sion.
Job Patterns for Minorities and Women in
Private Industry. Washington, D.C., 1967.
707 p. 2 vol.
LC: N.A.

From a survey of 45,000 employers, this report
presents data on the employment of women,


Negroes, Orientals, American Indians, and
Spanish Americans. For each ethnic group,
statistics on 1967 employment are provided by
state, occupation, and sex. For selected states,
the statistics are also divided into industries.
Findings show continuing discrimination in
employment of women and minority groups,
with slight improvement in some categories of
data. Volume 2 presents data for Standard
Metropolitan Statistical Areas.


ARTICLES

62. Characteristics of Persons of Spanish Origin.
Family Economic Review, no volume or serial
number, p. 9, (June 1972).

This article presents demographic data on citi-
zens of Spanish origin according to (1) their
occurrence in the total population, (2) their
income, (3) their employment, and (4) their
education.

63. Hess, Gary R.
The Forgotten Asian Americans: The East
Indian Community in the United States. Pacific
History Review, 43:4, 576-596, (1974).

Although immigrants from India have never
been as numerous as the Chinese and Japanese,
there has been a significant increase in their
numbers since the 1965 immigration law. The
new wave has been largely professionals in
contrast to the earlier unskilled agricultural
workers. In the early decades of this century
Indian migrants were met by marked hostility,
but there have been changes in American
attitudes. "The 'Hindu invasion' feared 60 years
ago is occurring in the 1970's without any
perceptible public concern."

64. Kim, Hyung-chan.
Some Aspects of Social Demography of Korean
Americans. International Migration Review,
8:23-42, (Spring 1974).

This article analyzes historical trends of immi-
gration from Korea to the U.S. and examines
the characteristics of the more recent Korean
immigrants.





DEMOGRAPHIC STUDIES


65. Portes, Alejandro, Juan M. Clark, and Robert L.
Bach.
The New Wave: a Statistical Profile of Recent
Cuban Exiles to the United States. Cuban
Studies, 7:1-32, (January 1977).

"This paper presents a preliminary statistical
profile of a sample of recently arrived Cuban
emigres to the United States.... Results
presented represent an attempt to assess back-
ground dimensions deemed relevant for deter-
mining the future situation of newly-arrived
immigrants."


Migration Theory

BOOKS

66. DaVanzo, Julie.
A Family Choice Model of U.S. Interregional
Migration Based on the Human Capital Ap-
proach. Santa Monica, Calif., Rand, 1972. 57 p.
LC: AS36/.R28/no. 4815

First presented at the annual meeting of the
Population Association of America, 1972, the
paper presents a model for studying the migra-
tion behavior of individuals and families. Using
data from the 1960 census, an econometric
model is estimated. A unique feature of the
model is that it looks at migration as a matter
of family choice and explicitly considers the
migration of women.

67. Hamberg, Eva M.
Studier in Internationell Migration. Stockholm,
Almquist and Wiksell International, 1976,
118 p.
LC: JV6744/.H35

Most of the work is in Swedish, but the 10-page
summary is in English. The econometric model
of Swedish immigration to the U.S. 1871-1900,
presented on pages 95-99, will be informative.

68. Institute of Economic Affairs.
Economic Issues in Immigration, An Explora-
tion of the Liberal Approach to Public Policy
on Immigration. With an introduction by Sir


Arnold Plant. Surrey, England, Institute of
Economic Affairs, 1970. 155 p.

A discussion by six authors on the history,
costs, and benefits of primarily British immigra-
tion. Essays by Charles Wilson, W.H. Hutt,
Sudha Shenoy, David Collard, E.J. Mishan, and
Graham Hallett discuss the immigrant in
English history, immigration and economic
freedom, the movement of human capital,
immigration and discrimination, economic
benefits to the host country, and the political
economy of immigration control.

69. Isaac, Julius E.
Economics of Migration. With an introduction
by Alexander Carr-Saunders. London, K. Paul,
Trench, Trubner, 1947. 283 p.
LC: JV6035/.I7

Although intended to examine "the causes and
effects of the great international migrations
which have taken place during the last hundred
years", the study is sufficiently theoretical to
be useful for researchers interested in later
migration movements. Chapters define migra-
tion, give a history of migration movements,
and discuss factors determining volume and
direction of migration. The work is also con-
cerned with migration as a means of adjusting
population distribution, the control and effects
of migration, and migration and international
trade. The human capital value of the migrant is
treated very briefly.

70. Jackson, J.A., editor.
Migration. London, England, Cambridge Uni-
versity Press, 1969. 304 p.
LC: JV6035/.M54

Ten essays by American, English, Canadian,
Dutch, and Australian social scientists focus
chiefly on sociological aspects of migration and
assimilation; case studies, when given, are not
of U.S. experiences. A work on the theory of
migration.

71. Lowry, Ira S.
Migration and Metropolitan Growth: Two Ana-
lytical Models. San Francisco, Calif., Chandler,
1966. 118 p.
LC: HB1965/.L6






IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


"This monograph [written while the author was
a part-time consultant with the Institute of
Government and Public Affairs, University of
California at Los Angeles] describes two
models of migration for metropolitan areas of
the United States. The first . deals with
specific directional flows of migrants (e.g., from
New York to Chicago). It illuminates the
behavioral factors underlying these migratory
movements. The second model deals with net
migration into particular metropolitan areas.
Because it reveals less about migratory behavior
than the first model, it is less useful as a tool
for forecasting the migration component of
population change in specific areas."

72. McCall, Grant.
Basque-Americans and a Sequential Theory of
Migration and Adaptation. San Francisco,
Calif., R and E Research Associates, 1973.
86 p.
LC: E184/.B15M32/1973

"The aim ... is to explore the regularities and
common patterns to be found in the related
phenomena of acculturation, urbanization, and
immigration, and to place Basques living in the
United States within the context of this data."
This anthropo-sociological study evaluates pres-
sure to succeed, kin and home based associ-
ativeties, tokoro-mon, ethnic taverns, and other
institutions and processes as tools in the
adaptation process. The work contains two
bibliographies; the second, of materials relating
to Basque-Americans, is especially useful.

73. Newman, Jeremiah.
Race: Migration and Integration. Baltimore,
Md., Helicon, 1968. 234 p.
LC: HT1521/.N48

This discussion is of the concept of race, British
and American racial theories and racial preju-
dices, and finally, race and immigration policy
in the U.S., Great Britain, and Australia. The
final chapter and two appendices present Chris-
tian, and specifically Catholic, analyses of
racism and migration.


ARTICLES

74. Brown, Daniel J.
A Simple Markovian Model for General Mobil-
ity: Some Preliminary Considerations. Quality
and Quantity, 9:2, 145-169, (June 1975).

A Markovian model uses statistical procedures
to estimate the probability of events. Such
models can be applied to the study of migra-
tion. Alternative assumptions affect the ex-
planatory value of the model.

75. Cebula, R.J.
An Analysis of the Impact of Property Taxa-
tion On Human Migration in the United States.
Review of Business and Economics Research,
13:2, 85-94, (Winter 1977-78).

An econometric model of migration indicates
the substantial impact of property tax differen-
tials. The need for considering property tax
differentials in public policy formulation is
noted.

76. Cebula, R.J.
Public Welfare and Nonwhite Migration: A
Note. Review of Business and Economics
Research, 11:1, 97-101, (Fall 1975).

This article presents a simultaneous-equation
approach to the study of determinants which
affect the in-migration of non-whites to a
standard metropolitan statistical area.

77. Cerase, Francesco P.
Expectations and Reality: A Case Study of
Return Migration From the United States to
Southern Italy. International Migration Review,
8:245-262, (Summer 1974).

"It is suggested that the emigration and the
return represented an individual act through
which individual misery was to be resolved or
some old dream recaptured. In other words, the
resolution to return and the problems of
re-adaptation should be considered in relation
to the stage the emigrant has reached in his





DEMOGRAPHIC STUDIES


new, albeit temporary society, in our case the
United States."

78. Frisbie, W. Parker, and Lisa Neidert.
Inequality and the Relative Size of Minority
Populations: A Comparative Analysis. Ameri-
can Journal of Sociology, 82:1007-1030,
(March 1977).

The authors examine "the relationship between
socioeconomic inequality and the proportion of
Mexican Americans and Blacks in the popula-
tion of (Southwestern) metropolitan areas...
through path-analytic techniques. Analysis of a
model incorporating the impact of the size of
both minorities indicate that minority income
levels are inversely related to minority size and
that disparities between majority and minority
income and occupation tend to grow as relative
minority size increases."

79. Fuller, Gary, and Murray Chapman.
On the Role of Mental Maps in Migration
Research. International Migration Review, 8,4,
491-506, (Winter 1974).

This article is based upon a survey of graduate
scholarship holders conducted in Honolulu in
November, 1970. It attempted to measure the
relationship between place perception and mi-
gration.

80. Ginsberg, Ralph B.
Incorporating Causal Structure and Exogenous
Information With Probabilistic Models: With
Special Reference to Choice, Gravity, Migra-
tion, and Markov Chains. Journal ofMathemati-
cal Sociology, 2:1, 83-103, (January 1972).

This article examines several methods of analyz-
ing the parameters of the Semi-Markov model.
Applications to the study of migration are
discussed.

81. Kaups, Matti.
Patterns of Finnish Settlement in the Lake
Superior Region. Michigan Academician, 3:3,
77-91, (Winter 1971).


In the field of location theories, the environ-
mentalist argument holds that immigr-nts delib-
erately settled in certain geographical areas
because of the regions' similarities to the
country of origin. The geographical theory is
critically re-examined with regard to Finnish
settlement of the Lake Superior region of
Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan.

82. Martin, Philip L.
Noneconomic Determinants of Nonmigration:
A Comment. Rural Sociology, 40:3, 353-359,
(Fall 1975).

The article examines the desirability of viewing
migration solely in terms of economic factors.
The major conclusion is that sociological
factors affect the costs and benefits associated
with migration and incorporation of these
factors could increase the explanatory nature of
the models.

83. Navratil, Frank J., and James J. Doyle.
The Socioeconomic Determinants of Migration
and the Level of Aggregation. Southern Eco-
nomic Journal, 43:1547-1559, (April 1977).

U.S. migration data for 1965 to 1970 is
analyzed in terms of personal characteristics of
migrants and labor market characteristics of the
destination area. One conclusion is that "per-
sonal characteristics play a much more impor-
tant role in the migration decision than do the
characteristics of destination areas."

84. Rogers, Andrei.
The Multiregional Life Table. Journal ofMathe-
matical Sociology, 3:1, 127-137, (1973).

The study of migration would be improved if it
were integrated into demographic theory. This
article poses a methodology for such integra-
tion by constructing life tables and computing
migration and death probabilities among two or
more regions.

85. Shaw, R. Paul.
A Note on Cost-Return Calculations and Deci-
sions to Migrate. Population Studies, 28:1,
167-169, (March 1974).






IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


Many scholars view migration as the result of
economically rational decisions: Migrants com-
pute the costs and benefits of relocation. This
view assumes that prospective migrants are
willing and able to obtain the information
necessary to make such decisions and that they
are primarily influenced by cost/benefit factors.
Survey results presented in this article challenge
this view for some migrant groups.


86. Stone, Leroy O.
Research Note: On the Interaction of Mobility
Dimensions in Theory on Migration Decisions.
La Revue Canadienne de Sociologie et
d 'Anthropologie/The Canadian Review of
Sociology and Anthropology, 12:1, 95-100,
(February 1975).


This work emphasizes the role of prospective
status changes in migration behavior.


87. Williamson, Jeffrey G.
Migration to the New World: Long Term
Influences and Impact. Explorations in Eco-
nomic History, 11:4, 357-389, (Summer 1974).

This work contains econometric analyses focus-
ing on immigration and economic growth. Also
examined are the historical push and pull
factors underlying European migration to the
U.S.

88. Zell, Steven P.
Analyzing Puerto Rican Migration: Problems
With the Data and the Model. Monthly Labor
Review, 100:29-35, (August 1977).

The author argues that RitaM. Maldonado
(Monthly Labor Review, vol. 99, 1976) did not
achieve her goal of determining the reasons for
Puerto Rican migration to the U.S. because of
the problems with the available data and the
model.





ECONOMIC STUDIES


General


BOOKS


1. Bittker, Boris I., and Lawrence F. Ebb, with the
collaboration of Kenneth M. Davidson.
United States Taxation of Foreign Income
and Foreign Persons. Branford, Conn., Fed-
eral Tax Press, 1968. 591 p.
LC: KF6419/.B5

This work covers bases for taxing foreign in-
come and foreign persons, the "source" of
income, competing methods of engaging in
foreign business and investment, income tax
treaties, foreign currency problems, and en-
forcement problems.

2. Briggs, Vernon M., Jr.
The Mexico-United States Border: Public
Policy and Chicano Economic Welfare. Austin,
Tex., Center for the Study of Human Re-
sources, University of Texas at Austin, 1974.
28 p.
LC: HD1527/.A165B74

"This study ... shows how the economi-
cally depressed status of the low-income and
particularly the Chicano population on the
U.S. side of the Mexican border results in
part from present U.S. border labor and im-
migration policies."

*3. Chaplin, David.
Upward Mobility for Private Household
Workers. Kalamazoo, Mich., Department of
Sociology, Western Michigan University, 1974.
20 p.
@LC: N.A., PB-257 583/5ST

The work deals primarily with the economic
status of private household workers, the cur-
rent structure of private household employ-
ment, immigration policy, employment agen-
cies, and organizations trying to upgrade
the socioeconomic status of private house-
hold workers.

4. Guerra, Roberto S. and Sam Schulman.
Occupational Education in Texas: An Eth-
nic Comparison. Houston, Tex., Center for


Human Resources, Houston University, 1974.
93 p.
LC: N.A.

Focusing on high school youth, this research
study analyzes students in 15 Texas high
schools in the largest urban areas of the state.
Responses in interviews with 1,605 Mexican
American, Black, and Anglo students are
compared in three ways-among ethnic groups,
within ethnic groups by vocational educational
and nonvocational educational programs, and
by ethnic group and program. Characteristics,
attitudes, aspirations, and problems of the
students constitute the subject matter of the
interviews. Although all three ethnic groups of
students stressed the importance of educational
achievement, the educational aspirations of
Blacks appear to be the highest, of Mexican
Americans, the lowest. Implications include
the need to make vocational education more
attractive in the secondary setting and the
suggestion is offered that career education
be used as a vehicle to assure students and
parents that a person enrolling in vocational
programs can also take college preparatory
courses.

5. Hill, Peter Jensen.
The Economic Impact of Immigration into the
United States. New York, Arno, 1975. 130 p.
LC: JV6471/.H54/1975

Originally presented as the author's thesis, Uni-
versity of Chicago, 1970, this is an economic
analysis of immigration 1870-1920. The image
of the immigrant as presented in the historical
literature is one concern, others are immigra-
tion and growth, immigration and human capi-
tal, immigrant funds and remittances, the ef-
fect of differences in age structure on savings,
economies of scale, and immigration and in-
ternal migration.

*6. Johnson, Thomas.
Manpower Research at Southern Methodist
University Under Institutional Grant 31-46-70-
66, Status Report, Fiscal Year 1972. Dallas,
Tex., Department of Economics, Southern
Methodist University, 1972. 14 p.
@LC: N.A., PB-210 997


297-200 0 79 4






IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


Research under the institutional grant is geared
toward generating new information on educa-
tion and productivity, on data analysis tech-
niques, and on manpower issues related to the
U.S.-Mexico border.

7. Kalish, Richard H., and Walter F. O'Connor.
United States Tax Guides for Foreign Investors;
Changing Concepts in the Taxation of Foreign
Corporations and Aliens. New York, Peat, Mar-
wick, Mitchell, 1967. 88 p.
LC: KF6441/.Z9K3

The first half of the book is a paraphrasing and
explanation of the Foreign Investors Tax Act
of 1966, including the "effectively connected
with" concept, income from U.S. and foreign
sources, deductible expenses, withholding of
tax, and other provisions. The section on tax-
ation of aliens treats both resident and non-
resident aliens; both parts include historical
background. Several appendices give rates of
U.S. tax to be withheld at the source for non-
resident aliens, and other such technical infor-
mation.

*8. North, David S.
The Border Crossers: People who Live in Mex-
ico and Work in the United States. Washington,
D.C., Transcentury Corp., 1970. 335 p.
LC: N.A.

The document is concerned with a western
manpower problem that has received scant at-
tention, the daily influx of Mexican residents
who come to work in the border areas of Texas,
New Mexico, Arizona and California. The study
is concerned with the impact that the commut-
ing workers have on the resident American
work force in an area where wages are generally
low and unemployment is generally high.

9. Roberts, Sidney I., and William C. Warren.
U.S. Income Taxation of Foreign Corporations
and Nonresident Aliens. New York, Practicing
Law Institute, n.d. No pages given.
LC: KF6441/.A6R6

The work discusses general principles, tax pat-
terns of foreign taxpayers, definitions of terms,
citizenship and residence of individuals, the


concept of "engaged in trade or business in the
United States," effectively connected income
from sources within the United States, effec-
tively connected income from foreign sources,
source of income, fixed or determinable annual
or periodical income, withholding of tax at
source, treaties, use of corporations to avoid in-
come tax on shareholders, and returns. Supple-
ments are issued as needed.


GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS

10. Kourvetaris, George A.
First and Second Generation Greeks in Chi-
cago: an Inquiry Into their Stratification and
Mobility Patterns. Athens, Greece, National
Centre of Social Research, 1971. 111 p.
LC: F548.9/.G7K6

This sociological study is concerned with the
status giving properties of the ethnic group, and
the relationship between assimilation and social
mobility. A careful analysis of the economic
"push" factors that sent Greeks to this country
is included, as well as description of the changes
in occupation that occurred in the Greek com-
munity over time.

11. Morss, Elliott R., and Ritchie H. Reed, editors.
Economic Aspects ofPopulation Change. Wash-
ington, D.C., U.S. Commission on Population
Growth and the American Future, 1972. 379 p.
LC: HB3505/.A5254/vol. 2

A collection of eleven essays on various aspects
of the theme expressed in the title; most rele-
vant to researchers concerned with immigration
are Harvey Leibenstein's "The Impact of Pop-
ulation Growth on the American Economy,"
Denis Johnston's "Illustrative Projections of the
Labor Force of the United States to 2040," and
Elliott Morss and Susan McIntosh Ralph's
"Family Life Styles, the Childbearing Decision,
and the Influence of Federal Activities: A
Quantitative Approach." Selected national data
on economic growth are also included.

12. Nathan, Robert R. Associates.
Industrial and Employment Potential of the
United States-Mexico Border. Prepared for the






ECONOMIC STUDIES


Economic Development Administration. Wash-
ington, D.C., Economic Development Adminis-
tration, Dept. of Commerce, 1968. 286 p.
LC: H107/.A165N3

The work is useful primarily as a comprehen-
sive and relatively recent analysis of the eco-
nomic condition of the border counties and
states. A major conclusion of the report is that
"the large inflow of legal and illegal Mexican
immigrants, together with commuters who live
in Mexico but work in the United States, un-
doubtedly contributes to disruption of the
labor market and to poverty problems on the
U.S. side of the border." Recommendations de-
scribe strategies to create new employment op-
portunities, and appendices detail Federal ex-
penditures along the border, give profiles of
border counties, and describe U.S.-Mexico trade
and border development.

13. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Ways and
Means. Subcommittee on Trade.
Compulsory Foreign Nonresident Automobile
Insurance and Registration. Hearing, 94th
Cong., 2d sess., on H.R. 15357, September 20,
1976. Washington, D.C., 1976. 68 p.
LC: KF27/.W348/1976d

Hampton Davis, Assistant Chief of Protocol,
State Department, Edward Koch, Democratic
Member of Congress from New York, and
others discuss the advisability of implementing
a law requiring all car-owning nonresidents to
have liability insurance and to register their
cars in the state of primary residence.

14. U.S. Congress. Joint Economic Committee. Sub-
committee on Inter-American Economic Rela-
tions.
Recent Developments in Mexico and Their
Economic Implications for the United States.
Hearings, 95th Cong., 1st sess., January 17 and
24, 1977. Washington, D.C., 1977. 401 p.
LC: KF25/.E245/1977

These hearings, which include statements by
Raul Castro, Governor of Arizona, A. R.
Wichtrich, President, American Chamber of


Commerce of Mexico, and various economic
experts, discuss the economic, political, and
social conditions of Mexico and their implica-
tions for U.S.-Mexico trade, the economies of
border states, migrant labor, tourism, anti-
smuggling, and jobs. Trade relations between
the two countries are especially emphasized.

15. U.S. Congress. Senate. Select Committee on Small
Business.
Economic Problems of Small Business in the
Northeast United States. Hearing, 94th Cong.,
1st sess. Washington, D.C., 1976. 80 p.
LC: KF26/.5/.J6/1976

The hearing, held in Presque Isle, Maine, fo-
cused on the economic problems of farmers,
lumber contractors, and fishermen, and their
relations with the Federal government. A par-
ticular issue was the "injustice" of applying
child labor laws to the Maine potato harvest,
and employee problems of woodsmen, lum-
bermen and farmers.

16. U.S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of the
Census.
Minority-Owned Businesses-Blacks, Spanish
Origin, Asian Americans, American Indians,
and Others. Washington, D.C., 1975. 4v.
(1972 Survey of Minority-Owned Business
Enterprises)
LC: HD2346/.U5U48/1975

The survey "provides basic economic data on
businesses owned by Blacks, persons of Span-
ish origin, and persons of Asian-American,
American Indian, or other ancestry. Data pub-
lished from the Survey cover number of
firms, gross receipts, and number of paid em-
ployees distributed geographically by industry,
size of firm ... "The 1972 Survey is the second
study in a series initiated in 1969."

17. U.S. Department of Justice. Immigration and Nat-
uralization Service.
Annual Indicator of the In-Migration into the
United States of Aliens in Professional and Re-
lated Occupations. Washington, D.C. Annual.
LC: JV6415.5/.A34






IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


"The Annual Indicator is a continuation and
expansion of the series of charts originally in-
cluded in Some Facts and Figures on the Migra-
tion of Talent and Skills published by the De-
partment of State in March 1967." Facts and
Figures focused on the emigration of talent and
skills from developing countries and the extent
to which admissions of students, exchange visi-
tors, and temporary workers relinquished their
temporary status and became permanent resi-
dents of this country."

18. U.S. Select Commission on Western Hemisphere
Immigration.
Impact of Commuter Aliens Along the Mexican
and Canadian Borders; Hearings. Washington,
D.C., 1968.
LC: JV6415/.A4/1968b

"The purpose of these ... hearings... is to in-
quire into and to gather evidence, material, in-
formation, and facts, with respect to the so-
called commuter question ... "Hearings on
"green card" aliens were held in El Paso, Tex.,
San Diego, Calif., Brownsville, Tex., and De-
troit, Mich., January through March 1968. The
Commission basically recommended termina-
tion of the "green card" program: all visas
would be granted with the understanding that
immigrants intend to settle permanently. At
the same time, a new kind of border cross-
ing authorization would be established so resi-
dents of one side of an essentially binational
urban area (Detroit-Windsor, for example)
could continue to work across the border.

ARTICLES

19. Baums, S.; and S. Ress.
Payroll Taxes and Controls. CPA Journal,
46:12, 63-72, (December 1976).

This review of aspects of payroll tax law in-
cludes comments on withholding tax on non-
resident aliens.

20. Bissell, Thomas St. G.
Aliens and the U.S. Social Security Tax: Some
Planning Opportunities. Tax Management
International Journal, no volume or number.
pp. 3-19, (May 1976).


Concentrating on two groups of aliens, tempo-
rary business visitors and resident aliens, the
article outlines opportunities for qualifying for
social security benefits.

21. Ericson, Anna-Stina.
The Impact of Commuters on the Mexican-
American Border Area.
Monthly Labor Review, 93:18-27, (August
1970).

"A study of the commuter system examines
the problems attributed to 'green carders' and
offers some solutions."

22. Frank, Mitchell Alan.
Alien Inheritance Statutes: An Examination
of the Constitutionality of State Laws Restrict-
ing the Rights of Nonresident Aliens to Inherit
From American Decedents. Syracuse Law Re-
view, 25:597-622, (Spring 1974).

"The time has come for the Supreme Court to
reevaluate its position in the area of state alien
inheritance statutes. To say that it is possible
for a state to pass statutes which directly affect
the citizens of foreign countries, but that these
statutes do not constitute an invasion of the
foreign relations power, is no longer tenable."

23. Griffin, Keith.
On the Emigration of the Peasantry. World
Development, 4:353-361, (May 1976).

"[T] he disadvantages of mass emigration [of
'country folk' from developing countries] are
unclear and almost certainly exaggerated,
while the advantages are obvious to the emi-
grants and their homelands.

24. Jacoby, Susan.
The Roots of Immigration. New York Affairs,
3:54-67, (Winter 1976).

"Unemployment and lack of opportunity at
home force many young Italians to emigrate to
the United States. More realistic and educated
than their predecessors, these newcomers are
providing New York City's neighborhoods with
a steady flow of solid citizens."





ECONOMIC STUDIES


25. Katzman, Martin T.
Urban Racial Minorities and Immigrant Groups:
Some Economic Comparisons. American Jour-
nal of Economics and Sociology, 30:15-26,
(January 1971).

A model previously developed to account for
differences in occupation, income, unemploy-
ment, and labor force participation among im-
migrant groups is tested on the performance of
six racial groups with "relatively severe eco-
nomic problems": Negroes, Mexicans, Puerto
Ricans, Chinese, Filipinos, and Japanese.

26. Langer, Marshall J.
When Does a Nonresident Alien Become a
Resident for U.S. Tax Purposes? Journal of
Taxation, 44:220-224, (April 1976).

"When a nonresident alien becomes a resident
he and his estate are probably subjected to
substantially greater taxes than he would be
paying in his home country." The critical dis-
tinctions between residency and nonresidency
are explored; guidelines for practitioners are
given.

27. Mexico-New Duty-Free Zones That Aid U.S.
Industry. Business Week, no. 2420:42, (Febru-
ary 23, 1976).

Mexico is trying to revive industrial develop-
ment in the duty-free areas along the U.S.-
Mexican border abandoned by U.S. industry
because of the economy. To attract investors,
new rulings will streamline shipping, facili-
tate immigration, and lower social security
taxes.

28. Pusey, J.M.
Joint Return Elections by Nonresident Aliens.
The Tax Advisor, 9:2, 98, (February 1978).

Tax law does not permit husband and wife to
file a joint tax return if either one is a non-
resident alien during the taxable year. However,
the Reform Act of 1976 has modified this
stance as it enables a nonresident alien to be
considered a resident for the entire year.


29. Sarkisian, Barry P., and James J. Sullivan.
Rights of Alien Beneficiaries in the Post-
Zschernig Era. New York Law Forum, 16:4,
889-933, (1970).

This article analyzes "the states' interests in the
various regulatory statutes in light of the
Zschernig decision and [discusses] the constitu-
tional questions which arise in their imple-
mentation."

30. Schwartz, Teresa M.
State Discrimination Against Mexican Aliens.
George Washington Law Review, 38:1091-
1113, (July 1970).

"The general subject of this note is statutory
discrimination against aliens, particularly as it
affects Mexican aliens, the largest alien group
living in the United States as permanent resi-
dents. The focus is on the Southwest, [where]
approximately 87 percent of the resident Mexi-
can nationals have migrated... [The note]
[outlines] the general problems posed by this
discrimination [in licensing, public employ-
ment, and state welfare programs] and...
[suggests] a legal approach for its resolution."

31. Seghers, Paul D.
How To Determine When Aliens Are Subject to
U.S. Tax, and the Extent of Their Liability.
Taxation for Accountants, 10-292-295, (May
1973).

"In determining an alien's liability to U.S. tax,
the critical factor is his residency. If he is a
resident all income is taxed; if not, only his
U.S. income is. This article explains how this
basic factor is applied in practice to tax the
alien and his estate."

32. Short, David E.
The Tax Treatment of Income Resulting from
the Writing of Call Options by Nonresidents.
Taxes, 54:100-109 (February 1976).

"The author addresses himself to the problems
associated with the taxation of profits result-
ing from the writing of option contracts in the






IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


United States by nonresidents, and offers a
solution."

33. Steinike, G.C.
Specification and Estimation of a Regional
Econometric Forecasting Model. In Ameri-
can Statistical Association, Proceedings of the
American Statistical Association, (August
1975), pp. 554-559.

An attempt is made to generate continuing
quarterly forecasts over a one-year horizon of
the principal variables determining the base of
economic growth in each of six counties. To-
gether the counties form a cohesive economic
region around Tampa Bay. The effects of im-
migrant population, tourism, employment,
residential construction, and personal income
on the economic growth of the region are ex-
amined.

34. Taylor, Paul S.
Mexican Migration and the 160-Acre Water
Limitation. California Law Review, 63:732-
750, (May 1975).

The article describes the history and the plight
of Mexican immigrants in the U.S. who are
legally entitled to land under the 1902 National
Reclamation Act. The author feels that the law
has not been observed or enforced.

35. Van der Speck, Peter G.
Mexico's Booming Border Zone: A Magnet For
Labor-Intensive American Plants. Inter-
American Economic Affairs, 29:1, 3347,
(1975).

This work is a discussion of the advantages and
disadvantages of locating U.S. plants along the
Mexican border to take advantage of low wages
in Mexico.

36. Villegas, Daniel Cosio.
Border Troubles in Mexican-United States
Relations. Southwestern History Quarterly,
72:1,34-39, (1968).

Border frictions are one of the major deter-
minants of Mexican-American relations. Six


themes dominate the subject: the westward
movement as it affected the international
border before 1848, the establishment of the
official borderline between the two countries,
American concern for the border when France
dominated Mexico in 1864-65, problems caused
by Indians and cattle thieves' raids and the
flight of fugitive criminals over the border,
American-based Mexican subversive or revolu-
tionary movements, and confrontation of the
two cultures throughout Mexico, especially in
the border zone. Some bibliographical data is
included for each theme.



37. Warren, W.B.
Personal Trusts For Nonresident Aliens. Trusts
and Estates, 115:10, 660-694, (October 1976).

The author discusses the management of trusts
for nonresident aliens in regards to taxation of
the trust.

DISSERTATIONS

38. El-Banyan, Abdullah S.
Cross-Cultural Education and Attitude Change:
a Study of Saudi Arabian Students in the
United States. no degree, n.d., North Carolina
State University. 128 p.
UMI:75-5359

The study was undertaken to explore the im-
pact of the experience of studying in the
United States on the attitudes of Saudi Arabian
students toward their traditional cultural values
in the areas of traditional attitudes toward the
position of woman, family relations, and occu-
pational values (risk versus security of occupa-
tional choice and job satisfaction).

For the analysis of the concept of cross-
cultural education, three variables-length of
stay in the United States, exposure to the
American way of life, and adjustment during
the stay in the United States-were selected
and three hypotheses were proposed to specify
the relationship of these variables to attitude'
changes.





ECONOMIC STUDIES


Analysis of the data indicated that neither ex-
posure nor adjustment had much effect on
students' attitudes toward their traditional
cultural values. On the other hand, some rela-
tionship was revealed between length of stay
(length of exposure) and change in students' at-
titudes. Changes were most pronounced in the
area of traditional attitudes toward the position
of women.

As for the relationship between selected back-
ground variables and cross-cultural educational
variables, exposure was found to be positively
related to marital status and level of education,
and negatively related to previous foreign
travel. Age was not significantly related to ex-
posure. None of the background variables were
found to be significantly related to adjustment.


Employment and Labor Market

BOOKS

39. Copp, Nelson Gage.
"Wetbacks" and Braceros: Mexican Migrant
Laborers and American Immigration Policy,
1930-1960. San Francisco, Calif., R and E
Research Associates, 1971. 123 p.
LC: HD1525/.C63/1971

Originally presented as the author's thesis,
Boston University, 1963.

40. Fisher, D.U.
Apple Harvest Labor Productivity in the
Champlain Valley: 1970-1975. Ithaca, N.Y.,
Department of Agricultural Economics, New
York State College of Agriculture and Life
Sciences, 1977. 8 p.
LC: HD1407/.C6

The report was presented at a public hearing
conducted by the United States Department
of Labor on the Regulations Governing the
Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agri-
culture.

41. Gavett, Thomas William.
Migration and Changes in the Quality of the
Labor Force. Morgantown, W.Va., Bureau of


Business Research, West Virginia University,
1967. 53 p.
LC: HB1965/.G3

The purpose of this study was to determine the
effect, if any, of migration rates on the average
quality of the labor force in an area. Two ap-
proaches were used. "The first... was to ana-
lyze Census data on educational attainment.
The data were adjusted for age, sex, and gross
population change attributable to migration to
determine whether, after these adjustments,
there were any shifts in the average educational
attainment attributable to migration. The sec-
ond approach was to survey employers in nine
states to gain their evaluation of changes in the
quality of job applicants over the course of the
past five years."

42. Kentucky University. Social Welfare Research In-
stitute.
Metropolitan and Regional Inequalities Among
Minorities in the Labor Market. George L.
Wilber and Robert J. Hagan. Lexington, Ky.,
University of Kentucky, 1975. unpaged.
LC: HD8081/.A5K45/1975/vol. III

"... attention continues to be concentrated on
labor force participation, employment, occu-
pational achievement, mobility, and earnings of
minorities [but] detailed information is pro-
vided via the tabulations for regions and metro-
politan areas. Too few Koreans were in the
sample files for these purposes and they have
not been included. Information on American
Indians is confined to the major regions since
relatively few Indians were resident in metro-
politan areas in 1970." Data on Mexicans,
Puerto Ricans, Cubans, American Indians,
Japanese, Chinese, Filipinos, and Blacks show
their economic status for the relevant SMSA'S
(Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas) and
regions for each group.

43. Kirstein, Peter N.
Anglo Over Bracero: A History of the Mexi-
can Worker in the United States From Roose-
velt to Nixon. San Francisco, Calif., R and E
Research Associates, 1977. 113 p.
LC: HD8081/.M6K52





IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


"My thesis is that American importation of
Mexican labor was not necessary to satisfy
domestic labor requirements except during the
Second World War. Domestic shortages were
a product of horrendous working conditions,
incredibly low wages, and a determined agri-
business conspiracy to keep the native worker
off the farm. Big farmers wanted cheap Mexi-
can labor who submitted to arduous work with
little compensation.

"There were several binational labor agree-
ments which are examined in detail... there
was a spate of agencies and bureaus in-
volved ... The study analyzes the roles of the
bureaus and traces their involvement in the rag-
ing pressure group controversy between unions
which adamantly opposed the importation of
alien farm labor and big business interests who
averred that bracero labor was vital to national
security . ."

The bulk of the study covers the Roosevelt and
Truman years.

*44. North, David S. and William G. Weissert.
Immigrants and the American Labor Market.
Phases land II. Washington, D.C., Transcentury
Corp., 1973. 224 p.
@LC: N.A.

The study is based primarily on an examina-
tion of documents filed by 5,000 working age
immigrants who entered the nation during fis-
cal year 1970. The visa applications, filed prior
to entry, and the alien address reports, filed in
January 1972, were tabulated and compared.
In addition, interviews were conducted with
some of the immigrants, with employers of im-
migrants, and with other knowledgeable people.
The principal findings of the study relate to a
substantial, but uneven impact on the labor
market. The study also examines the adjust-
ments made by immigrants as they come to
terms with the U.S. labor market.

GOVERNMENTDOCUMENTS

45. Adams, John F., and others.
Labor Markets in the Rural South: Study
Based on Four Rural Southern Counties.


Washington, D.C., Employment and Training
Administration, Dept. of Labor, 1977. 529 p.
LC: N.A.

"The study is an integrated and comprehen-
sive approach to an analysis of economic and
social problems facing southern rural areas and
populations (including Chicanos and migrants).
Its findings are based on surveys of random
samples of households, businesses, govern-
ments, labor, community action and other pub-
lic groups in four counties of the rural South
(one each in Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi,
and Texas). Policy and program recommenda-
tions to stimulate long-term change and those
needed to deal with specific short-term prob-
lems are detailed."

46. Hirsch, Hans George.
Effects of Changes in Use of Seasonal Workers
on U.S.-Mexican Agricultural Trade and Bal-
ance of Payments. Washington, D.C., Economic
Research Service, Dept. of Agriculture, 1967.
51 p.
LC: HD9004/.H56

What effect did expiration of the bracero labor
law have on agriculture? Although the author
hesitates to make definite causal connections,
the decline in white asparagus production and
increased imports of frozen strawberries and
pickled vegetables from Mexico seem directly
related. Effects on the balance of payments
cannot easily be traced to termination of the
program; too many other variables intervene.

47. McElroy, Robert Cecil and Earle E. Gavett.
Termination of the Bracero Program: Some
Effects on Farm Labor and Migrant Housing
Needs. Washington, D.C., Economic Research
Service, Dept. of Agriculture, 1965. 29 p.
LC: HD1751/.A91854

This study was made at the request of the
Farmers Home Administration, which wanted
to know how expiration of the Mexican na-
tional (bracero) program would affect the
need for rural housing. It had as its objectives
"to determine the cause of and requirements
for supplemental farm labor, to estimate the
extent to which braceros can be replaced by





ECONOMIC STUDIES


greater mechanization and use of other labor
saving innovations... to estimate the number
of replacement workers that would be needed
to prevent disruption of the present pattern of
production after allowing for maximum re-
placement of braceros by technology, to deter-
mine how migrant housing is provided for the
segment of supplemental labor which requires
it, [and] to estimate additional numbers of
workers, if any, for which housing will be re-
quired as a result of the expiration of Public
Law 78 [the law enabling the bracero pro-
gram] ."

48. North, David S.-
Alien Workers: A Study of the Labor Certifi-
cation Program. Prepared for the Department
of Labor by the Transcentury Corporation.
Washington, D.C., Transcentury Corp., 1971.
198 p.

The work is an analysis of a particular kind of
immigrant-the worker who attempts to find a
job before arrival, or who has a job waiting for
him on arrival-and the labor certification proc-
ess, which screens these persons. The process
has only a limited effect on micro labor mar-
kets, and no impact on the macro labor market.
Effect is limited because the program does not
control the worker after he arrives, because
only 59 percent of the certifications are utili-
zed, and because about 45 percent of the cer-
tifications issued simply legalize the presence of
persons already here. Further, because the proc-
ess is so drawn out, workers are allowed entry a
year after the need for them has been estab-
lished; by then the need may have disappeared.

49. Rowe, Gene A. and Leslie Whitener Smith.
The Hired Farm Working Force of 1975. Wash-
ington, D.C., Economic Research Service, Dept.
of Agriculture, 1976. 30 p.
LC: N.A.

The report describes "the demographic, social,
and economic characteristics of persons 14
years of age and over who did hired farmwork
during 1975. The narrative highlights important
characteristics of these hired farmworkers and
summarizes some of the more pertinent changes


and trends in the size, composition, earnings,
and employment patterns of the hired farm
working force."

50. Rowe, Gene A. and Leslie Whitener Smith.
The Hired Farm Working Force of 1976: a
Statistical Report. Washington, D.C., Economic
Research Service, Department of Agriculture,
1976. 29 p.
LC: N.A.

The 1976 Hired Farm Working Force Survey,
conducted by the Bureau of the Census in
December 1976, indicates that 2.8 million per-
sons 14 years of age and over did hired farm-
work sometime during the year. The workers
were predominately young (60 percent under
25 years) and male (75 percent). The ma-
jority (75 percent) were White, 11 percent were
Hispanic, and 14 percent were Blacks and
others. The median education of workers 25
years and older was 10.1 years. Annual earn-
ings in 1976 of all hired farmworkers averaged
$2,860; $1,651 was earned for an average 86
days of hired farmwork; the remainder came
from nonfarm employment. Approximately
213,000 persons (8 percent of the work force)
were migrants in 1976.

51. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Education
and Labor. Special Committee on Labor.
Employment of "Green Card" Aliens During
Labor Disputes: Hearings, 91st Cong., 1st sess.,
on H.R. 12667. Washington, D.C., 1969.
250 p.
LC: KF27/.E336/1969a

"There is ample evidence ... to show that so-
called green carders have for many years been
recruited as strikebreakers in labor disputes...
This practice has seriously undermined labor-
union organization, orderly collective bargain-
ing, and legitimate economic strikes... The
subcommittee also explores briefly a broader
aspect of the problem-the so-called border
industrialization program under which run-
away industry from the United States has es-
tablished twin plants south of the border to
take advantage of cheap labor, tax, and tariff
concessions. It is important to know the ef-
fect of this program on unemployment, wage,


297-200 0 79 5






IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


and labor conditions in American border com-
munities..."

Statements by Dolores Huerta, director of
negotiations, United Farm Workers Organiz-
ing Committee, Richard Scammon, former
chairman, Select Commission on Western Hemi-
sphere Immigration, and Jack Wasserman,
Board of Governors, Association of Immigra-
tion and Nationality Lawyers, are included,
among others.

52. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Education
and Labor. Subcommittee on Agricultural Labor.
Oversight Hearing on Department of Labor
Certification of the Use of Offshore Labor:
Hearing, 94th Cong., 1st sess., March 20, 1975.
Washington, D.C., 1975. 460 p.
LC: KF27/.E332/1975a

"Hearings ... to review the laws, regulations,
and procedures for the Labor Department's
certification of the use of foreign labor for the
harvesting of certain crops in this country."

53. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judici-
ary. Special Study Committee.
Alien Labor Program in Guam. Hearing, 93rd
Cong., 1st sess., on H.R. 981, August 9, 1973.
Washington, D.C., 1973. 210 p.
LC: N.A.

The hearing attempted to ascertain the effect of
Federal immigration, wage, and employment
policies on Guam business and industry, and
the probable effect of H.R. 981, which would
revise those policies. Appendices relate to
Guam's economic status and employment
needs.

54. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judici-
ary. Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship,
and International Law.
Alien Labor Problems in the U.S. Virgin Is-
lands, Hearings, 94th Cong., 2d sess., on H.R.
11261, March 11 and 31, 1976. Washington,
D.C., 1976. 111 p.
LC: KF27/.J864/1976a

H.R. 11261 would have established a Virgin
Islands Immigration Commission and set cri-


teria for granting permanent resident status to
certain alien workers.

55. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship,
and International Law.
Nonimmigrant Alien Labor Program on the
Virgin Islands of the United States: A Special
Study. 94th Cong., 1st sess., October 1975.
Washington, D.C., 1975.77 p.
LC: N.A.

Historical analysis and recommendations on the
problem are contained in a report to what was
formerly Subcommittee No. 1. The policies of
I&NS, the Labor Department, and the General
Accounting Office are analyzed.

56. U.S. Congress. Senate. Select Committee on Small
Business.
The Effects of Proposed Legislation Prohibiting
the Employment of Illegal Aliens on Small
Business. Hearings, 94th Cong., 2d sess.,
Nov. 22-23, 1976. Washington, D.C. 1977.
380 p.
LC: N.A.

The volume includes testimony by the follow-
ing individuals: Leonard Chapman, Commis-
sioner of the Immigration and Naturalization
Service, Abner Sibal, General Counsel of the
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission,
and David Voight, legislative representative,
National Federation of Independent Businesses.
Also included are the following documents:
papers by Catherine McHugh and Joyce Vialet,
Congressional Research Service Analysts, the
GAO's "Immigration: Need to Reassess U.S.
Policy," and John Karkashian's "Illegal Alien"
case study.


ARTICLES

57. Alien Labor Certification. Minnesota Law Review,
60:1034-1060, (May 1976).

This comment reviews alien labor certification
by the Department of Labor under the Immi-
gration and Nationality Act. The author ob-
serves that "decisions regarding whether to





ECONOMIC STUDIES


certify an alien laborer for immigration are
presently a plethora of ad hoc and often in-
consistent resolutions based on imprecise
data."

58. Aliens and the Civil Service: a Closed Door?
Georgetown Law Journal, 61:207-222, (October
1972).

The article is a "sketch [of] the statutory and
case law basis for the exclusion of aliens from
the Federal civil service in an attempt to as-
sess the validity of the opposing positions."

59. Andolsek, L.J.
No Matter What Boat. Civil Service Journal,
13:14-19, (January-March 1973).

The article describes the experiences of various
groups of immigrants and the challenge pre-
sented to the civil service system to assure
equal opportunity.

60. Babby, Lon S.
Aliens' Right to Teach: Political Socialization
and the Public Schools. Yale Law Journal,
85:90-111, (November 1975).

The argument is that, because of first amend-
ment considerations and the imprecision of
certification laws in their present form, the
states' interests in political socialization are
not sufficient to justify discrimination against
alien teachers.

61. Bauer, David.
The Foreign-Born and U.S. Manpower Supplies.
Conference Board Record, 7:15-20, (Feb-
ruary 1971).

"Estimates indicate that during the 1970's
roughly one out of every 10 new members of
the U.S. labor force will be foreign-bor, a
ratio approximating that of the 1960's. More-
over, since immigration laws have recently been
revised to encourage the entry of professional
and technical personnel, a significant portion of
the increase in this country's reservoir of skilled
manpower can be traced directly to the inflow
of workers from abroad."


62. Briggs, Vernon M., Jr.
No title. Industrial Relations Research Asso-
ciation, Annual Proceedings, Madison, Wise.,
Industrial Relations Research Association, n.d.
pp. 495-500. (March, 1977)

The effects of legal and illegal immigration on
the labor market are examined. Stricter curbs
and deterrent measures are advocated.

63. Chiswick, Barry R.
The Earnings of Immigrants and Their Sons.
Challenge, 21:2, 55-61, (May-June 1978).

Immigrants, in the long run, earn equal wages as
compared to native Americans. This is attrib-
uted to the high levels of motivation and the
relatively free labor market in the U.S.

64. Chiswick, Barry R
Occupational Change Among U.S. Immigrants.
Monthly Labor Review, 101:3, 29-30, (March
1978).

The article examines the perceptible change in
occupational progress of immigrants over a five
year period, starting in 1970.

65. Chiswick, Barry R.
Sons of Immigrants: Are They at an Earnings
Disadvantage? American Economic Review,
67:376-380, (February 1977).

"The analysis suggests that [with respect to
labor market performance,] second genera-
tion white male Americans differ very little
from white males of native born parents...
having a slight earnings advantage (5 percent)
when other things are held constant."

66. Coopersmith, Douglas Paul.
Aliens, Employment, and Equal Protection.
Villanova Law Review, 19:589-620, (March
1974).

This comment considers the evolving position
of the alien with respect to the equal protec-
tion clause of the Constitution and empha-
sizes case law which delineates the state's
power to restrict the alien's right to work.





IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


67. Das, Shyameshwar.
Discrimination in Employment Against Aliens-
the Impact of the Constitution and Federal
Civil Rights Laws. University of Pittsburgh
Law Review, 35:499-555, (Spring 1974).

The argument is that "existing statutory and
case law may be effectively utilized to break
down the traditional barrier of discrimination
in employment which exists against aliens."

68. Doeringer, Peter B. and Michael J. Piore.
Unemployment and the "Dual Labor Market."
Public Interest, 38:67-79, (1975).

The work points out that much current unem-
ployment occurs in the secondary labor sector
where jobs are unattractive. It also delineates
changes in public policy to deal with this
phenomenon.

69. Edwards, Richard C.
The Social Relations of Production in the Firm
and Labor Market Structure. Politics and So-
ciety, 5:1,83-108 (1975).

"The argument of this paper is that the social
relations of the firm-particularly the 'system
of control'-underlie the structure and opera-
tion of labor markets."

70. Fields, G.S.
Labor Force Migration, Unemployment and
Job Turnover. The Review of Economics and
Statistics, 58:4, 407415, (November 1976).

Labor turnover considerations can be inte-
grated into the human investment theory of
migration. The author constructs an intertem-
poral framework for approaching migration
and demonstrates its empirical relevance. The
usefulness of the labor turnover approach as the
basis for explaining labor force migration is
underscored.
71. Gallasch, H.F., Jr.
Minimum Wages and the Farm Labor Market.
Southern Economic Journal, 41:480-491,
(January 1975).

"The purposes of this study are to set forth a
model of the farm labor market and to use this


model to analyze the impact of minimum wage
legislation."


72. Gallaway, Lowell E., Richard K. Vedder, and
Vishwa Shukla.
The Distribution of the Immigrant Population
in the United States: An Economic Analysis.
Explorations in Economic History, 11:3, 213-
226. (Spring 1974).

This work investigates immigrant settlement
patterns at the beginning of the 20th century.
Several frameworks are employed to measure
immigrant labor mobility. The study finds that
immigrants are responsive to economic and
social factors; their settlement pattern has re-
flected "rational" behavior.


73. Goldblatt, A., and others.
Licensure, Competence, and Manpower Dis-
tribution. A Follow-Up Study of Foreign Medi-
cal Graduates. New England Journal of Medi-
cine, 292:3, 137-141, (1975).

Medical statistics report United States medical
graduates licensed at higher rates than foreign
medical graduates; this is often interpreted to
to show greater medical competence of United
States graduates. But factors unrelated to com-
petence, namely, visa, citizenship status, and
state of examination, are associated with hold-
ing a license. Moreover, quality of medical ed-
ucation is not an accurate predictor of licen-
sure. It follows that the use of licensure rates as
measures of medical competence distorts under-
standing of the quality of medical care in the
United States. More probably, the difficulties
in obtaining medical licensure experienced by
foreign graduates result from the use of such
graduates to relieve specific medical manpower
shortages.

74. Goldman, Robert.
Aliens-Equal Protection-Admission to Prac-
tice Law-Requirements that Applicant be
United States Citizen Held Unconstitutional-
In re Griffiths. New York University Journal of
International Law and Politics, 7:191-202,
(Spring 1974).





ECONOMIC STUDIES


This case note reviews Griffiths which "gave
the United States Supreme Court an oppor-
tunity to determine whether nondeclarant al-
iens may be excluded from the bar."

75. Grodin, J.R.
California Agricultural Labor Act: Early Ex-
perience. Industrial Relations, 15:3, 275-294
(October 1976).

A selected series of difficult issues relating to
representation cases which were faced by the
agricultural labor relations board in its first
year is discussed. The casual nature of much
agricultural employment poses a policy choice
in defining the political constituency. The right
of farmworkers to engage in collective bargain-
ing through their own representatives is long
overdue.

76. Hoffheimer, Daniel J.
Wandering Between Two Worlds: Employment
Discrimination Against Aliens. Virginia Journal
of International Law, 16:355-402, (Winter
1976).

The article is a discussion of the nature and
sources of constitutional power over resident
aliens, constitutional limitations on alienage
discrimination, the problem of Congressional
enforcement of the rights of aliens to private
employment, and enforcement power under the
13th and 14th Amendments.

77. Issues in Full Employment Policy. Labor Law
Journal, 28:483-503, (August 1977).

The effect of immigration on full employment
is discussed by Vernon Briggs, Jr.

78. Kade, G., and G. Schiller.
Foreign Workers-Development Aid by LDCs?
Intereconomics, 1:24-27, (January 1972).

"People have up to now seen in the armies of
foreign workers a useful labour reserve, without
which the highly industrialized nations of
northern Europe would suffer a decline of pros-
perity. However, the present article, in examin-
ing the economic effects of this mass transfer of
workers, makes the point that it may have


highly adverse consequences for host coun-
tries."

79. Keely, Charles B.
Effects of U.S. Immigration Law on Manpower
Characteristics of Immigrants. Demography,
12:179-191, (May 1975).

The author attempts to "survey the manpower
elements of immigration law and to assess the
effects of the changes in the 1965 Act" as well
as to determine "the impact of those provisions
on the labor characteristics of immigrants."

80. Kendall, Leon A.
Admission to the Bar and Legally Resident
Aliens. Howard Law Journal, 17:3, 682-692,
(1972).

The comment argues that state laws which re-
strict the practice of law to citizens are con-
trary to 14th Amendment protections.

81. Knoppke-Wetzel, Volker.
Employment Restrictions and the Practice of
Law by Aliens in the United States and
Abroad. Duke Law Journal, 1974:871-922,
(December 1974).

"Statutory employment restrictions against
aliens have persisted in the United States for
many decades, generally with judicial acquies-
cence ... Alien law students have recently
proved to be exceptionally litigious, however,
and one of them recently obtained a significant
decision from the United States Supreme Court
which ruled that aliens have the right to prac-
tice law in the United States if they otherwise
qualify."

82. Levin, Susan Bass.
The Constitutionality of Employment Restric-
tions On Resident Aliens in the United States.
Buffalo Law Review, 24:211-238, (Fall 1974).

This work is an assessment of "the actual and
potential impact of Sugarman and Griffiths on
state and Federal statutes."

83. A Look At Four Occupations. Monthly Labor Re-
view, 99:3, 24, (March 1976).





IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


Increased education and expanding educational
opportunities for Black women as well as in-
creased aid to families with dependent children
are identified as important factors contributing
to sharp downward movement in supply of
workers for domestic employment. Legal and
illegal immigration has provided an alternate
source of labor. Household, apparel, construc-
tion and hospital industries are studied.

84. Marshall, Ray.
Employment Policies that Deal With Structural
Unemployment. Monthly Labor Review, 101:5,
30-32, (May 1978).

Programs dealing with structural unemploy-
ment are classified under five categories and
described. These categories are: labor market
information systems, training, market mecha-
nisms, immigration policy, and public service
employment.

85. Marshall, Ray.
Where is Industrial Relations Headed? In Indus-
trial Relations Research Association, Annual
Proceedings, March 1977, pp. 453-457.

The effects of international trade, frictional un-
employment, and immigration on the labor
market are discussed.

86. North, David S., and William Weissert.
The New Immigrants: Study Shows Recent
Arrivals Have High Skills and Strong Work
Ethic. Manpower, 5:25-31, (December 1973).

This summary of a two year followup study of
immigrants who entered the U.S. in 1970 em-
phasizes that many of the initial statements
made on the immigrants' applications regard-
ing employment were found to be different
from their actual employment status two years
later. Recommendations for an immigration
system more sensitive to the labor market are
made.

87. Old World Workers Ease Skill Shortage. Industry
Week, 167:32-39, (July 13, 1970).

"Imported labor equals and sometimes beats
the performance of the hard-core unemployed
and other training program graduates."


88. Otte, Monica A.
Aliens in the Federal Civil Service. Cornell
International Law Journal, 10:255-279, (May
1977).

This article is an analysis of alien exclusion
from Federal employment in the wake of the
1976 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Hampton
v. Mow Sun Wong. President Ford's subsequent
executive order continuing this prohibition also
is given.


89. Paul, Rodman W.
Immigrant Groups in Western Agriculture: A
Comment. In Symposium on Agriculture in the
Development of the Far West. Washington,
D.C., Agricultural History Society of Washing-
ton, 1975. pp. 216-219.
LC: N.A., NAL 522.59/1974.

This work is a comment on the papers given at
the symposium. It states that the social and
economic problem embedded in the agribusi-
ness pattern of food production is that it does
not create a steady demand for farm labor.
Paul urges historians to seek insights from so-
cial scientists in understanding the psychology
of the migrant worker, and the qualities that
allowed some immigrant groups to "climb up
in our... agricultural ladder, while others
were condemned to live out drab lives as seas-
onal laborers ."


90. Piore, Michael J.
Impact of Immigration on the Labor Force.
Monthly Labor Review, 98:41-44, (May
1975).

The increase in immigration to the United
States, both legal and illegal, in recent years
is due to the shortage of labor in the "second-
ary sector", a term used to characterize jobs
which tend to have low wages, poor working
conditions, instability, little opportunity for
advancement, and few skill requirements.


91. Ress, S.S.
Unemployment Compensation Denied Special
Groups. CPA Journal, 47:3, 59, (March 1977).






ECONOMIC STUDIES


New Federal unemployment compensation stat-
utes exclude nonresident aliens and persons try-
ing out for professional sports teams. Recip-
ients of government pensions will also have un-
employment compensation reduced by the
amount of such pensions under certain circum-
stances.

92. Rodino, Peter W., Jr.
The Impact of Immigration on the American
Labor Market. Rutgers Law Review, 27:245-
274, (Winter 1974).

"The labor certification program is intended to
serve the aim of protecting United States la-
borers from adverse competition from alien
workers. In its present form, however, the pro-
gram has not only been the source of some of
the most vexing problems associated with the
immigration process, but its protective value
has been seriously questioned as well," writes
Rep. Rodino, chairman of the House Judiciary
Committee. The article reviews the statutory
basis for the labor certification program and its
legislative history, its administration by the
U.S. Department of Labor, its scope and im-
pact, and recent legislative development. Modi-
fication of the program must be "a joint ad-
ministrative and legislative effort."

93. Rosales, Simona F.
Resident Aliens and the Right to Work: the
Quest for Equal Protection. Hastings Consti-
tutional Law Quarterly, 2:1029-1064, (Fall
1975).

"In the past century this country has imposed
discriminatory employment restrictions on
aliens. The author surveys the major cases
challenging these restrictions and concludes
that the piecemeal approach taken by the
courts has not effectively eradicated legislative
discrimination against aliens' right to work."

94. Schiffel, Dennis, and Seymour Goldstone.
Employment Induced In-Migration and Labor
Market Equilibrium. Growth and Change,
7:3340, (October 1976).

This study of 1960 census data on 2,998 per-
sons in 327 counties finds that "different de-


mographic groups vary widely in their mobility
resulting from a complex interaction of age,
sex, and educational achievement."

95. Sherman, Jeremy P.
Alien Labor Certification Proceedings: the Per-
sonal Preference Doctrine and the Burden of
Persuasion. George Washington Law Review,
43:914-935, (March 1975).

The comment discusses recent judicial ap-
proaches to the Labor Department's imple-
mentation of the "able, willing, qualified, and
available" requirement pursuant to considering
alien labor for admission to the U.S. under the
Immigration and Nationality Act.

96. Smith, Barton, and Robert Newman.
Depressed Wages Along the U.S.-Mexico Bor-
der: an Empirical Analysis. Economic Inquiry,
15:51-66, (January 1977).

"This paper analyzes the degree to which the
labor market in [south Texas] is depressed. The
results presented here tend to verify hypotheses
suggested by several other authors but indicate
that the magnitude of the problem as reflected
by low wages along the border is much less se-
vere than generally believed."

97. Taylor, Paul S.
Immigrant Groups in Western Agriculture. In
Shideler, James H., Symposium on Agriculture
in the Development of the Far West, Washing-
ton, D.C., Agricultural History Society of Wash-
ington, 1975. pp. 179-181.
LC: N.A.,NAL S22.S9/1974.

This article points out the need agribusiness has
for cheap labor. Presently it is satisfied by im-
migrants, (legal or illegal), whereas previously
it was satisfied by slaves or indentured servants.

98. Weber, Arnold R.
The Role of the U.S. Department of Labor in
Immigration. International Migration Review,
4:3,31-50, (1970).

This work is an outline of the certification and
processing functions of the Labor Department
in the implementation of the Immigration Act






IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


of 1965. Data on origins, skills, and destination
of certified immigrants are included, as well as
the author's personal view that preference is
necessary in modern America.

99. Weiermair, Klaus.
The Economic Effects of Language Training to
Immigrants: a Case Study. InternationalMigra-
tion Review, 10:205-219, (Summer 1976).

"Little change in the rate of unemployment
was found between before and after training.
The unemployment rate was 45 percent before
and 42 percent after training."

100. When Refugees Meet Recession. Business Week,
no. 2381:41, (May 19, 1975).

The Presidential Task Force on Vietnamese
Refugees finds jobs and sponsors for the
130,000 to 150,000 refugees now in the U.S.
It must also convince unemployed Americans
that they are not being discriminated against.

101. World Conference on Labour.
The World Confederation of Labour and Migra-
tion Questions. International Migration Review,
7:289-321, (Fall 1973).

The document, approved by the WCL at the As-
sembly of March 5-9, 1973, considers the size
of migration, positive and negative aspects,
migration and development, and propositions
for trade union action.

DISSERTATIONS

102. Rogg, Eleanor H.
The Occupational Adjustment of Cuban Refu-
gees in the West New York, New Jersey Area.
Ph.D., 1970, Fordham University. 464 p.
UMI:70-20132

This study of the adjustment and acculturation
of Cuban refugees living in West New York and
New Jersey investigates the hypotheses that:
(1) The formation of a tightly knit commu-
nity aids in the adjustment of first generation
Cubans, although in the short run it may retard
their acculturation, and (2) Adjustment and


acculturation are easier for persons from middle
class backgrounds than for immigrants from
poorer families. The study concludes that gov-
ernmental programs have been far less effective
than the refugee community'in aiding adjust-
ment.

Undocumented Aliens

BOOKS

103. Briggs, Vernon M., Jr.
Mexican Migration and the U.S. LaborMarket:
a Mounting Issue for the Seventies. Austin,
Tex., Center for the Study of Human Re-
sources, University of Texas at Austin, 1975.
37 p.
LC: JV6895/.M48B74

An expanded version of a paper presented at
the First International Conference on Migrant
Workers sponsored by the International Insti-
tute of Management of Berlin, Federal Republic
of Germany, in December 1974. Briggs, an
economics professor at the University of Texas
at Austin, analyzes Mexican immigration, par-
ticularly illegal immigration, giving a historical
overview of the movement, a description of the
migration, causes and consequences, and policy
recommendations. Among the latter are crim-
inal sanctions against employers who hire un-
documented aliens, increased resources for the
Immigration and Naturalization Service, and
financial and technical aid to Mexico.

*104. Cardenas, Gilbert.
Manpower Impact and Problems of Mexican
Illegal Aliens in an Urban Labor Market.
Champaign-Urbana, Ill., Center for Advanced
Computation, University of Illinois, 1976.
282 p.
@LC: N.A.

This study analyzes the manpower impact of
Mexican undocumented aliens on wages, em-
ployment, and social services. The study pro-
vides a historical perspective and traces the
development of illegal migration to the mid-
1970's. It examines the process by which Mexi-
can undocumented aliens enter the U.S. and






ECONOMIC STUDIES


adjust to labor force requirements and employ-
ment opportunities. It examines the causes, the
nature, and consequences of the Mexican un-
documented alien population in an urban labor
market and the United States. Through a theo-
retical framework, an attempt is made to study
the disadvantages and the extent of discrimina-
tion encountered by this group relative to other
minorities. An analysis of the determinants of
hourly earnings of the sample population is also
provided. The study reviews current efforts
which emphasize rural opportunities.

*105. North, David S., and Marion F. Houstoun.
The Characteristics and Role ofIllegal Aliens in
the U.S. Labor Market: An Exploratory Study.
Washington, D.C., Linton, 1976. 301 p.
@LC: N.A.

Data on the characteristics and labor market
experiences of undocumented aliens in the U.S.
workforce were collected by voluntary inter-
views with 793 apprehended undocumented
aliens who had worked at least two weeks in
the U.S. From the resulting diverse collection
of case histories, it was concluded that undocu-
mented alien workers in the U.S. are likely to
be disadvantaged persons, with little education
and few skills, employed in low-level jobs. Most
reported employment as the primary motive for
migration and sent an average of $105 a month
to their homeland to help support an average of
4.6 people. They are successful in finding low-
level jobs due to work experience in their own
countries and appear to be highly motivated
and productive. The study concludes that an in-
creasing supply of undocumented aliens is
likely to depress the educational and skill level
of the workforce, depress labor standards in the
secondary sector, cause displacement of low-
skill legal resident workers, and create a new
class of disadvantaged workers. Data are pro-
vided for the survey respondents on demo-
graphic characteristics, work experience, back-
home socioeconomic conditions, reasons for
migration, and on their contact with various
governmental systems. U.S. immigration policy
and practices are discussed, as well as the role
and impact of undocumented aliens on the U.S.
labor market. Appended to the report are re-


sults of another survey of undocumented aliens
and the interview schedule.

GO VERNMENT DOCUMENTS

106. Vialet, Joyce C.
Illegal Aliens: Analysis and Background. Pre-
pared by the Education and Public Welfare
Division, Congressional Research Service, Li-
brary of Congress, for the House Committee on
the Judiciary, 95th Cong., 1st sess., Washing-
ton, D.C., 1977.73 p.

This report emphasizes social and economic im-
pacts of undocumented aliens.

ARTICLES

107. Briggs, Vernon., Jr.
Illegal Immigration and the American Labor
Force: the Use of "Soft" Data for Analysis.
American Behavioral Scientist, 19:351-363,
(January-February 1976).

"The objective of this paper ... is to examine
a 'knowledge crisis' as it relates to the study of
the contemporary impact of illegal immigration
on the labor force of the United States." The
author concludes that "better understanding of
the issue requires analytical methods that are
more intuitive, investigative, and descriptive
than those presently in vogue in mainstream
economics."

108. Briggs, Vernon M., Jr.
No title. In Industrial Relations Research Asso-
ciation, Proceedings of the Twenty-Seventh
Annual Winter Meeting, December 28-29, 1974,
San Francisco. Madison, Wisc., Industrial Rela-
tions Research Association, 1975. no page num-
bers given.

The discussion examines the impact of illegal
immigration and suggests that alternative solu-
tions be examined. Action should be taken
quickly to resolve resultant problems.

109. Bustamante, Jorge A.
The Historical Context of Undocumented Mexi-
can Immigration to the United States. Atzlan,
3:257-281, (Fall 1973).


297-200 0 79 6






IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


A study which considers the migration of un-
documented aliens as an inevitable component
of the total Mexican immigration.

110. Bustamante, Jorge A.
Structural and Ideological Conditions of the
Mexican Undocumented Immigration to the
United States. American Behavioral Scientist,
19:364-376, (January-February 1976).

The author suggests that U.S. capitalist classes
benefit from undocumented immigration
though they may assert that they favor ending
it.

111. Bustamante, Jorge A.
Undocumented Immigration from Mexico:
Research Report. International Migration Re-
view, 11:149-177, (Summer 1977).

"This work is a statement on the state of the
art regarding the empirical research on this
phenomenon; a review of what we know on
some of the characteristics of this migration
and the presentation of preliminary findings of
a survey conducted by the author in nine Mexi-
can border cities," and "a discussion [of] past
attempts to solve the problems and some sug-
gestions on how it [sic] might be solved."

112. Bustamante, Jorge A.
The "Wetback" As Deviant. An Application of
Labeling Theory. American Journal of Sociol-
ogy, 77:4,706-718, (1972).

"This paper deals with some of the questions
that arise from the deviant character of those
who cross the U.S.-Mexico border without in-
spection, and the process of interaction through
which the label 'wetback' is 'created' and used.
The historical context of immigration to the
United States as related to cheap labor demands
is described, and the emergence of the label
'wetback' is discussed. The roles of the persons
involved in the violation of the immigration law
and some of the socioeconomic implications of
those roles are analyzed through labeling
theory. The process of interaction in which
those roles become visible is discussed in terms
of the interests, power, and consequences of
each role with respect to those of the other


roles in the process. The concept of 'antilaw
entrepreneur' is introduced, and its explanatory
potential is indicated."

113. Carter's Plan for Illegal Aliens. U.S. News and
World Report, 83:19-20, (August 15, 1977).

The article discusses the meaning of the plan for
business, workers, and consumers. It describes
the new status for undocumented aliens and the
rules on hiring them, and tighter border security.

114. Chapman, Leonard F., Jr.
Illegal Aliens-a growing Population. Immigra-
tion and Naturalization Reporter, 24:15-18,
(Fall 1975).

A former Commissioner of the Immigration and
Naturalization Service discusses his views on
how many undocumented aliens are in the U.S.,
where they come from and settle, what types
of jobs they obtain, and the dangers of popula-
tion growth resulting from the influx of these
immigrants. He advocates the passage of strict
laws against employers who knowingly hire
undocumented aliens.

115. Dagodag, W. Timothy.
Source Regions and Composition of Illegal
Mexican Immigration to California. Interna-
tional Migration Review, 9:499-511, (Winter
1975).

The author argues that fundamental to the for-
mulation of policy with regard to undocu-
mented aliens is the determination of where
they originate. This study reviews basic regional
problems, and, through the use of a case study
focusing on California, generates a profile of
undocumented aliens. A major finding of the
study was that illegal immigration is largely a
rural phenomenon although urban areas may
become increasingly important points of origin.

116. Enlisting Employers in the Alien Hunt. Business
Week, no. 2454:46, (October 18, 1976).

Despite the difficulty in determining legal status
of aliens, employers may be forced by a proposed
law to take responsibility for screening for un-
documented aliens.






ECONOMIC STUDIES


117. Fagen, Richard R.
So Distant From God, So Close to the United
States. Across the Board, 14:47-51, 54-57,
(September 1977).

"The flood of illegal aliens into the U.S. from
Mexico poses a most serious problem. Despite
various developmental programs and impressive
economic growth, only the elite segment of the
Mexican population has prospered.... How-
ever, the U.S. must find a way of backing Mexi-
can development..."

118. Flanigan, J.
North of the Border-Who Needs Whom.
Forbes, 119:8, 3741, (April 15, 1977).

Undocumented Mexican workers in the United
States create a two sided problem. On the one
hand, their cheap labor keeps Americans unem-
ployed and unions weaker, while on the other
hand, American businesses rely on the cheap
labor and the Mexican's willingness to work
hard at menial jobs.

119. Fogel, Walter.
Illegal Alien Workers in the United States. In-
dustrial Relations, 16:3, 243-263, (October
1977).

A synthesis of the problem of undocumented
alien workers (primarily from Mexico) in the
U.S. is presented. Due to current economic and
population trends, the government needs to
revise its immigration policy.

120. Fragomen, Austin T., Jr.
Regulating the Illegal Aliens. International Mi-
gration Review, 8:4, 567-572, (Winter 1974).

The provisions of Senate Bill 3827 are analyzed
in this article. The provisions include regulariza-
tion of status for some aliens and sanctions
against the employment of undocumented
aliens. This would not, however, extend relief
to aliens in lawful status during any portion of
the time period, thus placing a premium on
illegality of status. The other key provision of
the bill would impose sanctions on employers
who employ aliens not legally authorized to


work. The author feels that such penalties are
undesirable because they would lead to inevi-
table discrimination, they would not be effec-
tive and would be another attempt to crim-
inalize a sociological phenomenon (migration
for economic betterment). Justice will be
done only by regularizing the status of all per-
sons in the U.S.

121. Frisbie,W. Parker.
Illegal Migration From Mexico to the United
States: a longitudinal Analysis. International
Migration Review, 9:3-13, (Spring 1975).

"Because of its de facto past policy of expe-
dient use of foreign labor supplies, especially
Mexican, and because of the rising urgency of
international population and economic differ-
ences, the U.S. now faces a flow of illegal im-
migration which it cannot control. This fact,
together with 'the domestic and international
contexts of the flow, is sure to produce changes
in U.S. de jure immigration policy and may also
produce fundamental changes in U.S.-Mexican
relations as well."

122. Gordon, Wendell.
The Problem of Illegal Aliens. Texas Business
Review, 51:167-70, (August 1977).

This is a review of employment of undocu-
mented aliens from Latin America with some
emphasis on Mexican migration.

123. Hiestand, D. L.
Discussion. In Industrial Relations Research
Association, Proceedings of the Twenty-seventh
Annual Winter Meeting, December 28-29, 1974,
San Francisco.

After a brief overview of the source of recent
legal immigration, the discussion revolves
around illegal immigration and the need to ac-
cept its inevitability and seek to legalize and
regulate it.

124. Hohl, Donald G.
U.S. Immigration Legislation-Prospects in the
94th Congress. International Migration Review,
9:59-62, (Spring 1975).






IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


This article is a summary of efforts in the 92nd
and 93rd Congresses to enact legislation deal-
ing with the problem of illegal immigration.
An assessment of the prospects for legislation in
the 94th Congress also is given.

125. How Illegal Aliens Rob Jobs From Unemployed
Americans. Nation's Business, 63:5, 18-24, (May
1975).

Undocumented aliens from every country, with a
great variety of skills, have been found holding
more than a million jobs in the U.S., while 8 mil-
lion citizens are unemployed. As the number of
undocumented aliens grows, the problem in-
creases. Legislation and amnesty are suggested.

126. Illegal Aliens with American Families: the Scope
of the Statutory Waivel of Deportation in Cases of
Fraudulent Entry After Reid v. Immigration and
Naturalization Service. Northwestern University
Law Review, 70:673-698, (September-October
1975).

This article is "a critical analysis of the Court's
holding in Reid that section 241(f) does not apply
to aliens claiming citizenship at entry and that, in
fact, such conduct by aliens is conclusive evidence
of the deportable offense of entering without in-
spection."

127. Jenkins, J. Craig.
Push/Pull in Recent Mexican Migration to the
U.S. International Migration Review, 11:178-
189, (Summer 1977).

"[I]llegal immigration [is compared] with
the ... migration of 'braceros'..." The author
"seeks to determine whether illegal migration
is simply a substitute for bracero migration or
if it is shaped by a different set of factors."

128. Levering, R.
Is Business Pro or Con Illegal Immigration?
Business and Society Review, 24:55-59, (Winter
1977-78).

The flow of undocumented aliens, particularly
from Mexico, puts pressure on the U.S. labor
force and government. Businesses generally ad-
vocate legalizing the immigrants, but labor and


government leaders disagree about possible
long-range solutions.

129. McWilliams, Carey.
No Trespassing: What Became of the Land of
Opportunity? Skeptic, 20:49-53, (July-August
1977).

The article is a discussion of Mexican undocu-
mented aliens and the role of such persons as
cheap labor for employers.

130. Martinez, Vilma S.
Illegal Immigration and the Labor Force: an
Historical and Legal View. American Behavioral
Scientist, 19:335-350, (January-February
1976).

The article presents the Mexican American
perspective on illegal immigration. The thesis is
that the traditional method of dealing with
illegal immigration, by apprehending and de-
porting undocumented aliens, may infringe on
the civil rights of legal Mexican American
immigrants.

131. Munoz, Peter S.
The Right of an Illegal Alien to Maintain a Civil
Action. California Law Review, 63:762-800,
(May 1975).

The author examines "both the extent to which
these people, illegally present in the country,
are guaranteed the right to maintain a civil
action by the fifth and 14th amendments, and
the extent to which government agencies, no-
tably INS, must recognize the concomitant
right of an alien to remain in this country as
long as his presence is essential for the effective
exercise of the right to sue."

132. Nafziger, James A.R.
A Policy Framework for Regulating the Flow
of Undocumented Mexican Aliens into the
United States. Oregon Law Review, 56:1,
63-106, (1977).

The article "assess [es] the extent and nature of
the problem [of undocumented immigration],
with particular reference to the prevailing
mythology, identif[ies] salient public policy to





ECONOMIC STUDIES


guide relevant United States immigration laws,
clarif[ies] international law considerations, dis-
cuss [es] alternative proposals; and advance [s] a
set of recommendations for further action."

133. North, David S.
Illegal Aliens: Fictions and Facts. Worklife,
2:17-21, (December 1977).

"The evidence already shows ... that the pre-
vailing beliefs are incorrect. Illegal aliens are a
more polyglot and ... integrated population
than is generally realized. Their principal im-
pact on American life is on the labor market
and not on the U.S. Treasury. And the nature
of that impact is to depress wages and working
conditions and to alter the very character of
the labor market, much to the detriment of
disadvantaged citizens."

134. Orton, Eliot S.
Changes in the Skill Differential: Union Wages
in Construction, 1907-1972. Industrial and
Labor Relations Review, 30:16-24, (October
1976).

"Although the author's model predicts a nar-
rowing of the skill differential since the early
1960s, the differential has remained essentially
unchanged in recent years, leading the author
to conclude that the increasing level of illegal
immigrants, not recorded in official statistics,
has served to retard the expected decrease in
the premium paid to skilled workers."

135. Piore, Michael.
The "Illegal Aliens" Debate Misses the Boat.
Working Papers for a New Society, 6:60-69,
(March-April 1978).

Immigration levels depend on the needs of the
U.S. economy rather than on what Congress
allows. Current efforts to reform the immigra-
tion system fail to recognize that fact and may
therefore be making the situation worse.

136. A Plan to Slow the Flood of Illegal Aliens.
Business Week, no. 2393:67-68, (August 11,
1975).

Hiring undocumented aliens is standard practice
in some low-wage industries. Shortly all com-


panies may be required to police their person-
nel, since they would be penalized for employ-
ing illegal aliens.

137. Portes, Alejandro.
Labor Functions of Illegal Aliens. Society,
14:31-37, (October 1977).

"A more effective means of prevention consists
of undermining the incentives for illegal immi-
gration. Illegals come because there are oppor-
tunities for work at a level of remuneration
higher than where they lived before."

138. Robinson, Dianne.
State Regulation of the Employment of Illegal
Aliens: A Constitutional Approach. Southern
California Law Review, 46:565-588, (March
1973).

Citing Department of Labor reports of the
adverse impact of undocumented aliens upon
the labor market, particularly in California, the
author "proposes a new act to amend [section]
2805 of the Labor Code, and argues that the
proposed act overcomes the constitutional in-
firmities of the prior act."

139. Rosen, G.R.
New Curbs on Illegal Aliens. Dun's Review,
110:1,49, (July 1977).

Undocumented aliens number 6 to 8 million
and put a drain on housing, schools, welfare
and hospitals. A three-pronged approach to the
problem has been suggested: amnesty for those
here five years, fines for those employers who
knowingly hire illegals, and an increase in
border patrol.

140. Stoddard, Ellwyn R.
A Conceptual Analysis of the "Alien Invasion":
Institutionalized Support of Illegal Mexican
Aliens in the U.S. International Migration Re-
view, 10:157-189, (Summer 1976).

The author identifies and analyzes the forces
within our society which contribute to the
support of the Mexican undocumented alien
problem even while we publicly condemn it.





IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


141. Stoddard, Ellwyn R.
Illegal Mexican Labor in the Borderlands: Insti-
tutionalized Support of an Unlawful Practice.
Pacific Sociological Review, 19:175-210, (April
1976).

The report is comprised of sections on the
conceptualization of the problem of undocu-
mented immigration, an outline of various
perspectives which are considered in U.S. policy
decisions, a history of Mexican-U.S. border
migration, the factors which affect illegal immi-
gration from the perspectives of Mexico and the
United States, the types of Mexican undocu-
mented aliens in the U.S., and a case study of
Mexican undocumented aliens in a border
community which explores the networks set up
to supply and support them once they arrived.

Stoddard's approach is to consider "illegal
Mexican labor as a normal, functioning ingre-
dient of Southwestern agribusiness, encouraged
and utilized by it, with the approval and
support of social and cultural institutions of the
region, [and] with the tacit cooperation of
border control agencies and legal authorities."

142. What Illegal Aliens Cost the Economy. Business
Week, no. 2487:86-88, (June 13, 1977).

The problem of undocumented aliens in the
U.S. workforce is examined. Working standards
and wages are kept down, unemployment rates
are up, and public services are strained, while
the workers are underpaid and overworked.

BIBLIOGRAPHIES

143. Library of Congress. Congressional Research Serv-
ice.
Illegal Aliens and Alien Labor: A Bibliography
and Compilation of Background Materials
(1970-June 1977). Prepared for the House
Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on
Immigration, Citizenship, and International
Law. Washington, D.C., 1977. 58 p.
LC: N.A.

This bibliography is a compilation of Congres-
sional documents (hearings, reports, committee
prints, debates, congressional record state-


ments), government documents (Federal, state
and local), books, pamphlets, research studies,
periodical articles, newspaper stories, editorials,
state laws, and Supreme Court decisions on
undocumented aliens and alien labor.

144. Linton and Co.
Illegal Aliens, An Annotated Bibliography of
Recent and Related Literature on the Subject
of Illegal Aliens, 1968-1975. Washington, D.C.
54 p.
LC: N.A.

This bibliography is a listing of books, monog-
raphs, unpublished papers, periodical articles,
Congressional documents, other Federal docu-
ments, state and local reports, and selected
newspaper articles on the subject. The lengthy
annotations are critical, analytical, and give
useful background information on the docu-
ments.

145. U.S. Department of Justice. Immigration and
Naturalization Service.
Selected References on Undocumented Aliens.
Washington, D.C., Office of Planning and Evalu-
ation, 1977. 55 p.
LC: N.A.

This document is a sourcebook, not a bibliog-
raphy, produced on contract by D.A. Lewis
Associates, listing newspaper articles, organiza-
tions having an interest in immigration, immi-
grant-serving organizations, and periodicals
which frequently carry immigration-related ar-
ticles. References are also given to books,
reports, Federal, state, and local government
publications, and periodical articles. Most refer-
ences are not annotated.

146. U.S. Department of Labor. Office of the Assistant
Secretary for Administration and Management.
Library.
Undocumented Workers. Prepared by Barbara
Teel Savage. Washington, D.C., 1977(?). 31 p.
LC: N.A.

Completed September 1977, this bibliography
lists books, pamphlets, articles, papers, and
newspaper articles on the subject of undocu-
mented labor; most selections are not anno-
tated.





ECONOMIC STUDIES


Hispanics

BOOKS

147. Choldin, Harvey M., and Grafton D. Trout.
Mexican Americans in Transition. Migration
and Employment in Michigan Cities. East Lans-
ing, Mich., Rural Manpower Center, Michigan
State University, 1971. 480 p.
@LC: N.A.,PB-199 901.

The study describes the process by which
increasing numbers of Mexican American mi-
grant farmworkers drop out of the migrant
stream, settle in northern communities, and
adjust to new labor force requirements and
opportunities. It also identifies factors affecting
the settlement and stabilization of migrant
workers in selected communities, with atten-
tion to occupation and income, to provide
policy guidelines for facilitating the transition
process. Interviews were held with 695 migrant
heads of households and nearly 50 community
leaders in eight Michigan counties outside the
Detroit area. Information was collected about
the migrant's occupational background, motiva-
tion for dropping out of the migrant stream,
kinship and friendship ties, job aspirations,
interests in training and retraining, and com-
munity reactions.

148. Jones, Lamar Babington.
Mexican-American Labor Problems in Texas.
San Francisco, Calif., R and E Research Asso-
ciates, 1971. 127 p.
LC: HD8081/.M6J58/1971

"This dissertation charts the course national
manpower policy has taken among the
Mexican-American workers in the Texas border
area. The relevant policy aspects are examined
in terms of immigration and agricultural labor.
The study analyzes the effect these aspects of
manpower policy have had on regional labor
problems and suggests some changes designed
to reduce persistent poverty in the area. The
conclusions point to the need to develop
broader and more stable employment oppor-
tunities for Mexican-American workers." His-
torical, statistical, and legal perspectives aug-
ment the economic analysis.


149. Moncarz, Raul.
A Study of the Effect of Environmental Change
On Human Capital Among Selected Skilled
Cubans. Tallahassee, Fla., Department of Eco-
nomics, Florida State University, 1969. 341 p.
@LC: N.A., PB-186 396

The author's doctoral dissertation employed
regression analysis techniques.

150. Tyler, Gus, editor.
Mexican-Americans Tomorrow: Educational
and Economic Perspectives. Albuquerque,
N.M., University of New Mexico Press, 1975.
208 p.
LC: E184/.M5M52

This book consists of six papers on the educa-
tional and economic perspectives of Mexican-
Americans, presented at a conference sponsored
by the Weatherhead Foundation at the Aspen
Institute for Humanistic Studies in 1972. The
papers are: "The Neglected Chapters of
Mexican-American History," by Clark Knowl-
ton, "Mexican Immigration" by Julian Samora,
"The Economic Condition of the Mexican-
American" by Fred Schmidt and Kenneth
Koford, "Educational Challenges in Elementary
and Secondary Schools" by Julian Nava,
"Higher Education and the Mexican-American"
by Henry Casso, and "A Perspective on
Mexican-American Organizations" by Henry
Santiestevan.

151. Zisman, Paul M.
Education and Economic Success of Urban
Spanish-Speaking Immigrants. San Francisco,
Calif., R and E Research Associates, 1975.
166 p.
LC: LC2670/.Z57/1975

This work, originally the author's dissertation,
is a cross-cultural study intended to "analyze
the relationship between educational attain-
ment and economic success for a group of
urban male Spanish-speaking immigrants...
[and to] test the hypothesis that this group of
immigrants is underutilized in the labor force."
Research was done in Washington, D.C., among
male immigrants (e.g. persons classified by INS
as "permanent residents") of working age in






IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


1972; thus a good deal of information about
that group (statistical and descriptive) is also
included. It is available from University micro-
films in that form, UMI order number
74-09904.


GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS

152. Bowles, Gladys Kleinwort, Calvin L. Beale, and
Benjamin S. Bradshaw.
Potential Supply and Replacement of Rural
Males of Labor Force Age, 1960-70. Washing-
ton, D.C., Economic Research Service, Dept. of
Agriculture, 1966. 145 p.
LC: HD1751/.A5/no. 378

An estimate of the ebb and flow of agricultural
labor is presented, including separate measures
for Spanish surnamed persons in Arizona, Cali-
fornia, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas.
Replacement rates and ratios are given, by
color, for each county in the U.S. except those
in Alaska and Hawaii.

153. Bryce-Laporte, Roy S., and Delores M. Mortimer,
editors.
Caribbean Immigration to the United States.
Washington, D.C., Research Institute on Immi-
gration and Ethnic Studies, Smithsonian Insti-
tution, 1976. 254 p.
LC: N.A.

Twelve papers on Caribbean immigration cover
economic status, black immigrants, Puerto
Ricans, West Indians in Los Angeles, the Brain
Drain, as well as other dimensions of the
subject. Two articles by Bryce-Laporte serve as
an introduction and a conclusion; one by
Mortimer offers perspectives. A bibliography,
appendix, and notes on contributors are in-
cluded.

154. Cornelius, Wayne A., and others.
The Dynamics of Migration, International Mi-
gration. Washington, D.C., Interdisciplinary
Communications Program, Smithsonian Insti-
tute, 1976. 141 p.
LC: JV6895/.C6D9


Elsa Chaney is among the researchers who aided
in this examination of outmigration from rural
Mexican communities, Colombian migration to
the U.S., and other topics.

155. Leonard, Olen Earl, and Helen W. Johnson.
Low Income Families in the Spanish surname
Population of the Southwest. Washington, D.C.,
Economic Research Service, Dept. of Agricul-
ture, 1967.29 p.
LC: N.A.

"The Spanish surname population of the South-
west contains many low-income families and
has unsolved social and economic problems.
This report focuses attention on the charac-
teristics of these families which are associated
with the special nature of their problems ..."
Tables, charts, maps, and graphs illustrate de-
mographic characteristics (residence, nativity,
mobility, sex ratio, fertility, dependency) and
economic and social characteristics (income
distribution, labor force participation, indus-
trial composition, occupational pattern, educa-
tional level, housing and amenities, cultural
traits). Most statistics are broken down by state
(California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Colo-
rado), some are aggregates for the whole South-
west.

156. U.S. Interagency Committee on Mexican American
Affairs.
Cabinet Committee Hearing on Mexican Ameri-
can Affairs: Transcript of Proceedings on Labor
Affairs. Washington, D.C., 1967. 269 leaves.
LC: HD8081/.M6A5/1967

This is a transcript of proceedings on Mexican
Americans and labor affairs. The following
papers are discussed: "Labor Standards" by
Maclovio Banaza, "The View of Organized
Labor" by Henry Munoz, "Unemployment of
Juvenile Delinquents" by Salvador Ramirez,
"Equal Opportunity in Training" by Charles
Tafoya, "Institutional Training" by George
Roybal, "Placement" by Hector Abeytia, "Im-
migration" by Judge Phillip Newman, "Modular
Training Concepts" by J.B. Andrasko, and
"Farm Labor" by Robert Sanchez.





ECONOMIC STUDIES


ARTICLES

157. Bradshaw, Benjamin Spencer.
Potential Labor Force Supply, Placement, And
Migration of Mexican-American and Other
Males in the Texas-Mexico Border Region.
International Migration Review, 10:1, 29-45,
(1976).

This is a discussion of the migration and
potential labor force supply of Mexican Ameri-
can males in the Texas-Mexico border region in
the 1960's and 1970's.

158. Briggs, Vernon M., Jr.
Mexican Workers in the United States Labour
Market: A Contemporary Dilemma. Inter-
national Labour Review, 112:351-368, (No-
vember 1975).

"Believing that the present situation, which
harms United States workers as well as the
immigrants themselves, could soon become
uncontrollable, the author suggests a number of
reforms Washington might introduce to assist in
the smooth integration of legal immigrants, to
combat illegal immigration far more vigorously,
and to reduce the push effect by helping to
strengthen Mexican industry."

159. Corwin, Arthur F.
Causes of Mexican Emigration to the United
States: a Summary View. Perspectives in Ameri-
can History, 7:557-635, (1973).

This article is a summary of Mexican emigration
to the United States. It details the causes of this
movement, both legal and illegal, from 1900 to
the present.

160. DeWind, Josh, Tom Seidl, and Janet Shenk.
Contract Labor in U.S. Agriculture. NACLA
Report on the Americas, 11:5-37, (November-
December 1977).

Four articles examine the use of West Indians
and Puerto Ricans in the harvesting of sugar-
cane, apples, tobacco and other crops in the
Eastern United States. The articles criticize
working conditions and treatment of workers


by the U.S. growers and by labor organizations
in their own countries and in the U.S.

161. Fogel, Walter.
Mexican Labor in United States Labor Markets.
In Industrial Relations Research Association,
Proceedings of the Twenty-seventh Annual
Winter Meeting, December 28-29, 1974, San
Francisco. Madison, Wis., Industrial Relations
Research Association, 1975. 372 p.

Fogel, who also worked on UCLA's Mexican-
American Study Project, traces the history of
legal and illegal migrations of Mexicans into the
U.S. and their impact on the economy. The
geographical locations of concentrations of
Mexican workers and the characteristics and
significance of Mexican labor are discussed.

162. Palmer, R.W.
A Decade of West Indian Migration To The
United States, 1962-1972: An Economic Anal-
ysis. Social and Economic Studies, 23:4,
571-587, (1974).

Because of U.S. immigration law and wage
differences, many Jamaican migrants are skilled
personnel. With the exception of remittances,
this constitutes a loss for Jamaica, which will
continue as long as the wage difference exists.

163. Portes, Alejandro.
Return of the Wetback. Trans-Action, 11:3,
40-46, (March-April 1974).

This article delineates Mexican immigration to
the U.S. It concentrates on the phenomenon of
undocumented immigration and the costs and
benefits of this movement for both the U.S.
and Mexico.

164. Shannon, Lyle W.
False Assumptions About the Determinants of
Mexican-American and Negro Economic Ab-
sorption. Sociological Quarterly, 16:1, 3-15,
(Winter 1975).

"It generally is believed that with age and time
in the urban industrial community, differences
between rural-reared and urban-reared persons


297-200 0 79 7





IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


decline or disappear. This longitudinal study of
973 families (280 Mexican Americans, 280
Negroes, and 413 Anglos) in Racine, Wisconsin,
finds little significant change (1960-1971) in
the relative position of Mexican Americans and
Negroes on occupational level, income, and
level of living, even though controls for...
other pertinent variables are introduced. These
findings suggest that the community is orga-
nized... to facilitate better the economic
absorption of its Anglo immigrants than
Negroes from the South or Mexican Americans
from the Southwest . Race/ethnicity remains
the most powerful determinant of a family's
position in the community."

165. Shannon, Lyle W.
Measuring Changes in Occupation and Income:
Some Problems with a Cohort of Mexican-
Americans, Negroes, and Anglos. Pacific Socio-
logical Review, 19:1, 3-20, (January 1976).

Data from a previous study of a cohort of
Mexican-Americans and Anglos in Racine, Wis-
consin were used as bases for this study,
consisting of reinterviewing most of the original
group. This study of economic absorption
revealed that Mexican Americans seemed to
improve their statuses in the society more than
Negroes.

Asians

BOOKS

166. Sung, Betty Lee.
A Survey of Chinese-American Manpower and
Employment. New York, Praeger, 1976. 247 p.
LC: HD8081/.C5S9

The book consists of fifteen chapters of statis-
tical analyses which discuss the following cate-
gories: Patterns of Chinese immigration, for-
eign-born and alien Chinese, geographical distri-
bution, educational level, labor force and occu-
pational characteristics, working women,
Chinese in government work, Chinese in unions,
unemployment and underemployment, the
Chinese work ethic, self-employed Chinese,
cultural conflicts related to work, and racism
and work. Each chapter ends with a summary


of findings and recommendations. A summary
chapter makes final comments on the statistical
data (which was based on the 1970 Census), the
employment and labor force characteristics
noted, the influence of Chinese culture on the
worker, and suggests means of expanding the
occupational horizons of Chinese Americans.

167. Young, Jared J.
Discrimination, Income, Human Capital Invest-
ment, and Asian-Americans. San Francisco,
Calif., R and E Research Associates, 1977. 97 p.
LC: E184/.06Y68

Usually a strong correlation exists between
education and income level. Asian Americans
generally have made the human capital invest-
ment in education. But has the presence of
economic discrimination led to different re-
sults? This study, based on a utility maximizing
approach to economic behavior, an economic
discrimination theory and a human capital
approach to income distribution, contends that
"level of returns to education is lower for Asian
Americans than for the majority of [the]
population ... [and] (1) returns ... are greater
for native-born than for foreign-bor Asian
Americans, and (2) returns are greater for Asian
Americans in Hawaii than on the Mainland
United States in relation to the dominant
group." The study is based on 1960 census
data.

ARTICLES

168. Hill, Herbert.
Anti-Oriental Agitation and the Rise of
Working-Class Racism. Society, 10:43-48,
50-54, (January-February 1973).

The relationship of labor unions to Oriental
minorities is examined.

169. Jaco, Daniel E., and George L. Wilber.
Asian Americans in the Labor Market.Monthly
Labor Review, 98:33-38, (July 1975).

"Americans of Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino
descent have been relatively successful in the
job market and have higher overall labor force
participation than whites."





ECONOMIC STUDIES


170. Kweller, Ronnie Jill, and others.
Jobseeking for Jobless Refugees. Manpower,
7:12, 20-23, (December 1975).

Federal and state employment service systems
provided local job placement services for Viet-
namese and Cambodian refugees in their tempo-
rary housing centers, but placements were
generally at a lower skill level than refugee
qualifications indicated. Resettlement and job
placement processes are described, and agencies
involved are discussed.

171. Light, Ivan, and Charles Choy Wong.
Protest or Work: Dilemmas of the Tourist
Industry in American Chinatowns. American
Journal of Sociology, 80:1342-1368, (May
1975).

Recent Chinese immigration has strained the
capacity of tourism, Chinatown's major indus-
try, to provide employment. Tensions have
arisen between the Chinese indigent, who
desires public welfare funds, and the communi-
ties' business leadership, which fears assistance
programs would injure the romantic image
necessary to attract tourists.

172. Lott, Juanita T.
Migration of a Mentality: The Philippino Com-


munity. Social Casework, 57:3, 165-172,
(March 1976).

This sociohistorical view of Filipinos in the U.S.
sees them as victims of a colonial mentality who
remain in a low-income, low-achievement
group. The exploitation of Filipinos is traced
from their initial importation as cheap labor to
the present: the adverse effects of depriving
them of voting and property rights and barring
wives from initial immigration are noted. Re-
sults include segregated living, minimal educa-
tion, lack of cohesive social organization, with
consequent loss of cultural traditions, and
continuance in low-paying jobs.

173. Melendy, H. Brett.
Filipinos in the United States. Pacific History
Review, 43:4, 520-547, (1974).

Two major periods of Filipino immigration to
Hawaii and to the mainland United States have
occurred, during the 1920's and after 1965.
The motives of immigrants and the American
attitudes toward the newcomers are discussed.
A large share of the Filipino Americans have
found employment as agricultural workers,
while those with college degrees have not found
positions commensurate with their education.
Unlike earlier immigrants, most recent arrivals
wish to establish permanent homes here.






BRAIN DRAIN STUDIES


BOOKS

1. Adams, Walter, editor.
The Brain Drain. New York, Macmillan, 1968.
273 p.
LC: HD8038/.A1B7

The sixteen essays in this classic work were the
result of an international conference in
Lausanne, Switzerland, in 1967. The attitude is
very much that the brain drain is detrimental.
Two essays discuss "old" migration and point
out how population movement has changed
character, another discusses why the U.S. is
such a magnet, especially for medical persons.
The concept is discussed from nationalist and
internationalist perspectives. One essay dis-
cusses education and migration. The volume
consists of case studies-of France, Greece, the
European Common Market, Africa, and India,-
and a "less alarmist" analysis of developing
countries. Conclusions reached include raising
salaries in many countries, revising salaries to
keep professions competitive with politics and
public service, increasing professional oppor-
tunities, and other public policy changes to be
implemented by sending countries. Developed
countries are told to increase development aid
to allow poor countries to "grow their own"
technicians.

2. Berry, R. Albert, and Ronald Soligo.
Optimal Waste and Education Policies with
International Migration. Houston, Tex., Rice
University, 1972. 33 p.
LC: HD82/.W535/no. 25

Two professors of economics, at Yale and Rice
Universities, consider (1) under what circum-
stances there is a welfare loss to non migrants
because of government educational subsidies to
persons who emigrate, (2) how emigration of
educated persons should affect government
decisions on educational subsidies and/or the
number of persons so subsidized, and
(3) whether subsidizing the wage rate for skilled
persons is a better instrument than educational
subsidies.

3. Bhagwati, Jagdish N., and Martin Partington,
editors.


Taxing the Brain Drain. New York, American
Elsevier, 1976. 2 v.
LC: JV6487/.T39
These papers grew out of the proceedings of the
Bellagio Conference on the Brain Drain and
Income Taxation, held February 15-19, 1975.
This volume examines a proposal, originally
advanced in 1972 by J. Bhagwati, to tax the
Brain Drain. A tax, collected in the developed
countries from new immigrants, would be
returned to less developed countries for spend-
ing for modernization. Papers presented discuss
revenue estimates for the United States, the
United Kingdom, and Canada, the constitu-
tionality of the tax, and its compatability with
human rights.

4. Colloquium on the Foreign Graduate Student,
Wingspread, 1967.
University, Government, and the Foreign Grad-
uate Student; a Summary. New York, College
Entrance Examination Board, 1969. 57 p.
LC: LB2376/.C573

Persons professionally associated with foreign
graduate students, including, deans of graduate
schools, administrators from the Council of
Graduate Schools, the Institute of International
Education, and the National Association for
Foreign Student Affairs, met to discuss ques-
tions in relation to foreign graduate student
programs. The topics considered included the
following: the "prospects, assumptions, poli-
cies, and responsibilities from the standpoint of
the graduate schools; the interplay in such
programs between the university... and the
government and other sponsoring agencies...
problems of how relevant data might be better
collected, processed, and disseminated ... how
policies of universities in this field can be
defined and communicated, and so forth." The
volume is comprised of an introduction, sum-
mary, and three essays.

5. Colombo Plan Bureau.
The Special Topic: Brain Drain: Country
Papers, the Working Paper and Report of the
Special Topic Committee. Prepared for the
meetings of the 22nd Consultative Committee,
New Delhi, India, October-November 1972.
Colombo, Sri Lanka, 1972. 248 p.
LC: HD8038/.A1C64/1972






IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


A two page introduction to aspects of the Brain
Drain and a number of country papers form the
bulk of this work. The country papers consist
of detailed analyses of the problem of the Brain
Drain as it affects various developing and
developed countries.

6. Conference on International Migration from the
Philippines.
Proceedings of Conference on International
Migration from the Philippines, 10-14 June
1974. Sponsored by the East-West Population
Institute, in cooperation with the Population
Institute, University of the Philippines,
National Institute of Mental Health, U.S. De-
partment of Health, Education, and Welfare,
and Filipino Volunteers of Hawaii. Honolulu,
Hi., East-West Population Institute, East-West
Center, 1975. 46 p.
LC: JV6891/.F54C65/1974

Abstracts of the 28 papers presented at the
conference give a demographic overview of
Filipino emigration, address the problem of
Brain Drain of Filipino professionals to the U.S.
and the presence of foreign trained profes-
sionals in the Philippines. In addition, the
papers study the Filipino community in Hawaii,
explain how U.S. policy affects Filipino immi-
gration, and examine Filipino adaptation in
Hawaii, the U.S. mainland, Guam, and Canada.
A final section outlines research needs.

7. Cortes, Josefina B.
Factors Associated With the Migration of High-
Level Persons From the Philippines to the U.S.
Stanford, Calif., Stanford International Devel-
opment Education Center, 1970. 240 p.
LC: HD8038/.U5C64

This detailed sociological study involved a
questionnaire administered to 9,613 Filipinos
who studied in the United States during the
period from 1960 to 1965. The group was
divided into two sections, those who returned
to the Philippines and those electing to stay in
the U.S. Individuals were questioned about
their feelings of attachment and anchorage to
the Philippines and the U.S., and their percep-
tions of the opportunities for advancement
each country offered. Other factors such as age,


sex, level of education, work background, and
government support also enter into the decision
to migrate. A portrait of a "typical" migrant is
drawn.

8. Das, Man Singh.
Brain Drain Controversy and International Stu-
dents. Lucknow, India, Lucknow Publishing
House, 1972. 119 p.
LC: LA203/.D37/1972

A study of 1,400 students from 31 developing
countries analyzes their attitudes toward re-
turning to the country of origin on completion
of study. Most of the African and Latin
American students plan to return. Asian stu-
dents generally wish to remain in the U.S.,
especially if their field is one in which employ-
ment opportunities are limited in the home
country. For physicians, engineers, scientists
and agriculturalists, employment opportunities
exist in the home country; therefore, these
students plan to return. The work, based on the
author's doctoral dissertation, includes a litera-
ture review and statistical data on students by
country and major field of study, marital
status, and source of financial support. Post-
educational plans are correlated with several
variables: parental income status, marital status,
perceived employment opportunities, and aca-
demic status. The survey instrument is
included.

9. Edinburgh Conference on Demography, 1967.
Population Growth and the Brain Drain. Edited
by F. Bechhofer. Edinburgh, Scotland, Edin-
burgh University Press, 1969. 236 p.
LC: HB881/.E37

This book consists of the proceedings of a
conference which, in part, focused on the
phenomenon of the Brain Drain. The topic is
treated here in three long essays which make up
less than one-third of the volume; the rest is
given over to essays on historical demography,
population forecasting, and other aspects of the
science.

The first essay ("The Brain Drain as a Burden, a
Stimulus, and a Challenge to European Integra-
tion"), by G. Beijer, is chiefly concerned with





BRAIN DRAIN STUDIES


stopping the scientific flow to the U.S. by
making the European environment more attrac-
tive. J.M. Last's "International Mobility in the
Medical Profession" briefly treats that problem.
"The Economic and Political Consequences of
Selective Migrations" by A. Sauvy, discusses
migration in general, from a historical perspec-
tive, and wrestles with the problem of deter-
mining a person's economic value.

10. Education and World Affairs. Committee on the
International Migration of Talent.
Modernization and the Migration of Talent.
New York, Education and World Affairs, 1970.
88 p.
LC: Q148/.E346

The nature and the causes of the Brain Drain
are examined. Particularly interesting is the re-
lationship drawn between migration of talent
and the rapid expansion of university output.
The role of the Brain Drain in modernization of
developing countries is also discussed. Two sets
of recommendations, for developing and de-
veloped countries, are given in some detail.


11. Friborg, Goran, editor.
Brain Drain Statistics: Empirical Evidence and
Guidelines: Report on an International Expert
Meeting in Stockholm 1973 and Guidelines for
Future Studies Stockholm, Sweden, NFR Edi-
torial Services, 1975. 283 p.
LC: HD8038/.A1B72

The report of the Swedish Committee on
Research Economics (FEK) includes the pro-
ceedings of the conference, a review of research
methodologies and empirical evidence gained
during the sixties, and guidelines for future
research designs.

12. Henderson, Gregory.
The Emigration of Highly-Skilled Manpower
From the Developing Countries. New York,
United Nations Institute for Training and Re-
search, 1970. 213 p.
LC: HD8038/.A1H45/no. 3

This work includes an unannotated bibliog-
raphy, an explanation of U.S. visa terminology,


and tables on immigrants to the U.S. by
country and occupation, immigrants to Canada
by country and occupation, foreign students in
France by country and field, stocks of profes-
sional labor by field for 65 countries, and
graduates by field and by country.

13. Hoek, F. J. van.
The Migration of High Level Manpower From
Developing to Developed Countries. The Hague,
the Netherlands, Mouton, 1971. 52 p.
LC: Q148/.H64

This book is a study by the Office for Eco-
nomic Cooperation and Development which
delineates the major themes of the literature on
the Brain Drain: the size and nature of the
migration, push-pull factors that cause it, the
effects of Brain Drain on modernization in
developing countries, and suggestions for policy
modifications by both developed and develop-
ing countries.

14. International Migration of Talent From and To
the Less-Developed Countries: Report of a
Conference at Ditchley Park, 16-19 February
1968. Ditchley Park, England, Ditchley Foun-
dation, 1968. 29 p.
LC: HD8038/.A1I54

This brief summary of the conference touches
on the definition of the "Brain Drain" problem,
economic aspects, push-pull factors, and reme-
dial measures both developing and developed
countries might implement.

15. Irani, Ahmad.
The Brain Drain From Poor Nations-a Brain-
Storming, Heart-Breaking Issue: How Poor
Nations Give to the Rich. Lawrence, Kan.,
University of Kansas, 1974. 24 p.
LC: LB2376/.K35/no. 28

This paper, written by a graduate student at the
University of Kansas defines the "Brain Drain,"
describes the push-pull factors that are asso-
ciated with it, and discusses various analyses of
the Brain Drain. Among these are the "no prob-
lem" approach, the "problem is that of the de-
veloping countries" approach, and the "prob-
lem must be solved by action on both sides"






IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


approach. The author's belief is that "The brain
drain is a problem... created by both devel-
oped and developing countries... a product of
poor planning... on both sides... as long as
industrialized countries are not "self-sufficient"
... there will be grave problems and great suf-
ferings."

*16. Kleinman, Joel C., Robert J. Weiss, and Dan S.
Felsenthal.
Immigrant Physicians: Results of a Cohort
Study. Boston, Mass., Harvard Center for Com-
munity Health and Medical Care, 1975. 11 p.
LC: N.A., HRP-0007702/4ST

Results of a study of foreign medical graduates
(FMG's) immigrating to the United States
between 1968 and 1971 are reported, based on
data from the American Medical Association,
the Immigration and Naturalization Service,
and the Educational Council for Foreign Medi-
cal Graduates (ECFMG). The study was de-
signed to determine where the FMG's are
coming from, how they are entering the U.S.,
the ECFMG examination experiences, and their
medical training and licensure experiences. Data
are presented for 28,572 physician immigrants
for four periods: 1961-65, 1966-67, 1968-69,
and 1970-71. The proportion of females in-
creased from 14 percent in 1961-65 to 27
percent in 1968-69 and then decreased to 23
percent in 1970-71. Females tended to be
younger than male FMG's; all immigrants are
considerably older than U.S. medical graduates,
most of whom are under 30. Over the 10 year
period, 26 percent adjusted their status from
nonimmigrant to immigrant. Almost 50 percent
changed to immigrant status in 1970-71 when
the two-year residency requirement for physi-
cian exchange visitors was relaxed. The ECFMG
failure rate is considerably higher for those
admitted under occupational preference than
for other immigrants. An estimated 49 percent
of all immigrants had not passed the examina-
tion prior to admission. Of the entire sample,
only 15 percent are unlicensed and/or not in
approved training programs. The proportion of
FMG's in internships and residencies is slightly
higher than for U.S. graduates.


17. Langlois, Eleanor.
Foreign Graduate Students. Data gathered and
prepared by Carol Walther. Berkeley, Calif.,
Office of the Registrar, University of California
at Berkeley, 1965.
LC: A228.5/.L3

Ten tables give various measures and charac-
teristics of foreign graduate students at the
University of California, Berkeley, chiefly in
1963 and 1964. Field of study and country of
origin are the variables appearing most fre-
quently.

*18. Luft, Harold.
Determinants of the Flow of Physicians to the
United States. Santa Monica, Calif., Rand,
1970. 119 p.
LC: N.A.

The flow of physicians is composed of two
subgroups: physicians actually planning to be-
come permanent residents in the United States
and physicians who come here only for spe-
cialist training in internships and residencies.
The basic hypothesis of the paper is that these
two groups respond to different factors in
different ways. The large income increases
available to physicians who come here to
practice may be important to the potential
immigrants, but the relative position of doctors
in the income distribution is critical for the
trainees. Additional hypotheses concern the
different ways in which the proportion of
specialists influences the two groups. There are
several subsidiary tests concerning some of the
traditional measures of the relative need for
physicians. Finally, the influence of the physi-
cian's working and living conditions on migra-
tion is investigated. The second part of the
paper provides background information con-
cerning medical education, licensure, and immi-
gration laws.

19. McKnight, Allan D.
Scientists Abroad, a Study of the International
Movement of Persons in Science and Tech-
nology. Paris, France, UNESCO, 1971. 147 p.
LC: Q148/.M3






BRAIN DRAIN STUDIES


The work "attempts to trace the international
movement of scientists, engineers, and techni-
cians and to assess the relationship of this travel
to national development. It also contains both
short-term and long-term solutions to the prob-
lems posed." Results of a 1969-70 UNESCO
survey of (1) governments, (2) organizations of
different countries awarding scholarships for
study abroad or international travel, and (3) in-
ternational organizations making similar awards
are presented.

20. Margulies, Harold and Lucille Stephenson Bloch.
Foreign Medical Graduates in the United States.
Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press,
1969. 169 p.
LC: RA410.7/.M36

"Physicians who migrate to the United States
create a number of special problems." The phy-
sician Brain Drain affects America's policy of
aid to foreign development, and causes resent-
ment in sending countries, which are often the
ones receiving technical and financial assistance.
A different problem is the quality of health
care provided by foreign medical graduates
(FMG's), and the tendency of migrating medi-
cal persons to stay in the United States past
their training period. The effect of govern-
mental immigration and visa regulations on the
patterns of FMG's migration; the impact FMG's
have on the U.S. medical establishment; and,
finally, the changes which can resolve the prob-
lems FMG's present are considered. One ap-
pendix traces the history of the Educational
Council for Foreign Medical Graduates, another
gives occupation, country of origin, salary,
medical specialty, and other data on FMG's.

21. Myers, Robert G.
Education and Emigration; Study Abroad and
the Migration of Human Resources. New York,
McKay, 1972. 423 p.
LC: HD8038/.U5M9

Using a model which classifies migrants by
education and employment, and incorporates
emigration, the author assembles data on for-
eign students and their plans. He reviews
various approaches towards the Brain Drain:
nationalist and human capital theories, and ap-


plies the concepts developed to a case study of
non-returning Peruvian students. Implications
for policy are discussed.

22. National Research Council. Office of Scientific
Personnel. Research Division.
Mobility of Ph.D.'s Before and After the
Doctorate, with Associated Economic and Edu-
cational Characteristics of States. Washington,
D.C., National Academy of Sciences, 1971.
200 p.
LC: HD8038/.U5N35

Although chiefly concerned with internal
migration of Ph.D.'s, some statistical data is
presented on numbers and national origins of
all levels of foreign students in the U.S., from
undergraduate to post-doctoral. Statistical
breakdowns are also given by economic status
of home country and major field. Some data
are included on Americans going abroad for
their Ph.D. degrees.

23. Oh, Tai K.
The Asian Brain Drain: a Factual and Casual
Analysis. San Francisco, Calif., R and E Re-
search Associates, 1977. 97 p.
LC: HD8038/.A7704

Four Asian countries, Taiwan, Japan, Korea,
and India, and Hong Kong have contributed
heavily to the Brain Drain: One estimate places
non-return of students from these countries at
"over 90 percent". This study, which includes
a recent literature review, was based on the
responses of 1,177 students at the University of
Wisconsin-Madison and the University of Min-
nesota during the 1967-68 academic year. The
results are broken into four motivational pat-
terns: (1) reasons for study in the U.S.,
(2) availability of suitable employment as a
factor in migration, (3) the role of racial dis-
crimination, political conditions, and personal
ties in migration, and (4) attitude factors. Con-
flicting opinions on the goodness or evil of the
Brain Drain are analyzed as functions of per-
spective, be the perspective that of the econo-
mist, politician, or developing country.

24. Policy Conference on Highly Qualified Manpower.
26th-28th September 1966, Proceedings. Paris,






IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


France, Organization for Economic Coopera-
tion and Development, 1967. 361 p.
LC: HD5701/.P6/1966

The 19 member countries of the OECD are
many of the developed, industrialized countries
of the world. The question discussed here is
how best to educate for use the available
human capital; these countries are Brain Gain,
not Brain Drain, nations. Since the relationship
of education to employment is one area that
must be understood if the Brain Drain is to be
clear, the proceedings are included for the help
they may give in general policy development.

GOVERNMENTDOCUMENTS

25. Butter, I.
Foreign Medical Graduates: a Comparative
Study of State Licensure Policies. Washington,
D.C., Health Resources Administration, Dept.
of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1977.
LC: N.A., HRA-77-3166

At least one-fifth of the American physician
population consists of foreign medical gradu-
ates (FMG's), many of whom are concentrated
in the East and Midwest. Their growing role in
the U.S. medical system prompted this mono-
graph which studies state licensure rules and
how they could be improved. Data was col-
lected in the form of three surveys: (1) a
comparison of state licensure regulations, (2) a
survey of licensure boards, and (3) on-site
investigation in 12 states and a small-scale
survey of Michigan FMG's. Emphasis is placed
upon "less-than-full" licensure for FMG's,
where physicians who are not fully licensed are
allowed restricted practice. Less-than-full licen-
sure is more convenient for the physician if
he/she will only reside in a state for a short
time, which is often the case with FMG's. But
less-than-full licensure often occurs when the
physician is having difficulty completing cre-
dentials, which raises questions about compe-
tence of performance. Three recommendations
for improvement of licensure are given: (1) fur-
ther research on the topics, (2) improvement of
evaluations of competence (e.g., standard
screening procedures), and (3) reorganization of


the licensing system, further limiting the scope
of practice allowed and duration of a less-than-
full license.

*26. Seltzer, Norman, and Joseph Gannon.
Immigrant Scientists and Engineers in the
United States. A Study of Characteristics and
Attitudes. Washington, D.C., Division of
Science Resources Studies, National Science
Foundation, 1973. 112 p.
@LC: N.A., PB-223 173/6

The report presents results of a mid-1970
survey of the characteristics and attitudes of
foreign scientists and engineers who were immi-
grants between 1964 and 1969. The bulk of
immigrants come to the United States seeking a
higher standard of living; however, additional
economic, social, and work-related factors are
also of importance. Immigrants' backgrounds
reveal very high levels of formal education, but
interest in continuing their education in the
United States is maintained. Over 90 percent are
employed in professional positions, and over
one-half are engaged in Research and Develop-
ment activities. Immigrants' contributions to
U.S. science and technology are shown by the
number authoring scientific papers and holding
U.S. patents. Economic, social, and personal
benefits derived since immigrating to the
United States are listed.

27. U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. California Advi-
sory Committee.
A Dream Unfulfilled: Korean and Filipino
Health Professionals in California: a Report.
Washington, D.C., 1975. 43 p.
LC: R697/.F6U54/1975

"This report examines state licensure policies in
four health fields as they affect the large
number of Korean and Philippine-born and
-educated professionals residing in California:
pharmacists, medical doctors, dentists, and
nurses.

"Since 1965, increasingly large numbers of
Korean- and Philippine-educated professionals
in health-related fields have entered the U.S.
Their difficulties in resuming their professions






BRAIN DRAIN STUDIES


present significant socioeconomic problems
within the Asian and Pacific communities.

"The unemployment and underemployment of
experienced professionals in the health field
points up the vast amount of untapped re-
sources which could be used for better and
increased health care and medical services."

28. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Government
Operations. Research and Technical Programs Sub-
committee.
The Brain Drain of Scientists, Engineers, and
Physicians from the Developing Countries into
the United States: Hearing, 90th Cong., 2d
sess., January 23, 1968. Washington, D.C.,
1968. 120 p.
LC: HD8038/.U5A432

"The nub of the problem... is to discern
whether these [American] research and devel-
opment programs through their use of scientific
manpower from the less-developed countries
are in any way colliding with the need for
securing the orderly development of those
countries... [because] a high and an increas-
ing proportion of the immigration [to the U.S.]
is coming from ... many less-developed coun-
tries ... which had been the object of our
foreign aid effort." Tables show data relating to
immigration of students, medical persons, scien-
tists, and engineers for 1956, and 1962-67. A
communication submitted by Harold Margulies
of the American Medical Association, and
testimony by G. Halsey Hunt, director of the
Educational Council for Foreign Medical Grad-
uates, are among the statements included.

29. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Government
Operations. Research and Technical Programs Sub-
committee.
The Brain Drain into the United States of
Scientists, Engineers, and Physicians: a Staff
Study. 90th Cong., 1st sess. Washington, D.C.,
1967. 110 p.
LC: HD8038/.U5A43

The bulk of the report is tabulations of the
immigration of scientists, engineers, and medi-
cal persons in the fiscal years 1956 and


1962-66, provided by I&NS. Statements by
Charles Frankel, Assistant Secretary of State,
and Charles V. Kidd, of the Executive Office of
Science and Technology, are also included.

30. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee on Immigration and Naturali-
zation.
International Migration of Talent and Skills:
Hearings, 90th Cong., 1st sess., March 6 and 10,
1967. Washington, D.C., 1968. 363 p.
LC: HD8038./U5A44

"There is alarm ... that U.S. immigration poli-
cies are draining the best talent from Europe to
the detriment of Europe's development. These
policies have been the objects of sharp criticism
in the European press and among various
European leaders, including Soviet Premier
Kosygin ...

"Of primary importance to this subcommittee,
however, is the apparent lure of the United
States and other advanced countries, as well,
including those in Europe, to a growing number
of skilled and talented persons from the under-
developed areas of the world."

Statements by Charles V. Kidd of the Executive
Office of Science and Technology, Senator
Walter F. Mondale, and Eugene Rostow, Under-
secretary of State for Political Affairs, are in-
cluded. Appendices detail the immigration of
scientists, engineers, and medical persons from
Latin America, with special attention to Chile.

*31. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Wel-
fare. Public Health Service. Division of Nursing.
Conference on Immigration of Graduates of
Foreign Nursing Schools Bethesda, Md., 1975.
60 p.
@LC: N.A., HRP-0009366/6ST

The proceedings of a conference on immigra-
tion of graduates of foreign nursing schools,
sponsored by the Division of Nursing, Public
Health Service, on June 23-24, 1975, are
reported. Representatives of government agen-
cies and professional associations gathered to
hear the reports, to review and discuss the





IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


project recommendations, to discuss alternative
or additional courses of action, and to take
specific steps toward implementation of the
recommended action. The projects reported
are: 1) an American Nurses' Association survey
of foreign nurse graduates undertaken through
questionnaires mailed to state boards of nursing
in 1970, 1971, and 1972, including numbers,
characteristics and results of licensure applica-
tions; and 2) the Pace University project in
which the feasibility of a pre-immigration
examination for nurses was investigated and a
plan for establishing such an examination was
developed. There is consensus among confer-
ence participants that an organization should be
established as a central agency for all matters
relating to immigration of graduates of foreign
nursing schools, and that a pre-immigration/pre-
licensing examination would reduce the burden
of individual evaluations carried by state boards
of nursing, and would help to insure that
immigrating nurses would have a reasonable
chance to become licensed. Supporting data, a
list of conference participants, and a summary
of a post-conference meeting on implementa-
tion accompany the report.

*32. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Wel-
fare. Public Health Service. Division of Nursing.
Immigration of Graduates of Foreign Nursing
Schools. Report of the Conference. Washing-
ton, D.C., 1975. 38 p..
LC: N.A., HRP-0015196/9ST

A report is presented of a conference convened
June 23-24, 1975 by the Division of Nursing,
Public Health Service, to explore the question
of establishing a pre-immigration examination
or other screening procedure for nurses immi-
grating to the United States. Data are presented
on the numbers, characteristics, and education
of the foreign-trained nurses, and results of
licensure applications of foreign nurse gradu-
ates. Information is provided on immigration
laws and regulations, nonimmigrant aliens,
immigrant visas, and required documentation
for a visa petition. It is noted that securing
clearcut information on foreign nurse graduates
is difficult; relevant informational needs and
other data needs are discussed. A project to
investigate the feasibility of a pre-immigration


screening examination is described, and recom-
mendations are offered by an advisory council.
The following conclusions are drawn: informa-
tion about graduates of foreign nursing schools
is incomplete and inadequate; no single univer-
sally accepted criterion is available to determine
if a visa applicant will meet state boards of
nursing requirements; State boards do not have
a universally accepted credential for issuing a
temporary permit; indications are that the
proportion of unlicensed foreign-trained nurses
will increase; and an organization should be
established as a central agency for all matters
relating to immigration of foreign-trained
nurses.

33. U.S. Department of State. Council on Inter-
national Educational and Cultural Affairs.
Some Facts and Figures on the Migration of
Talent and Skills. Washington, D.C., 1967.
113 p.
LC: Q148/.U53

This publication includes an analysis of data on
the migration of skilled personnel to the United
.States, some position papers on the Brain Drain
by the Interagency Council on International
Educational and Cultural Affairs, the code of
regulations for the "Exchange Visitor Pro-
grams," and the Mutual Educational and Cul-
tural Exchange Act of 1961.

34. U.S. General Accounting Office.
Better Controls Needed to Prevent Foreign
Students From Violating the Conditions of
Their Entry and Stay While in the United
States. Department of Justice. Department of
State: Report to the Congress. By the Comp-
troller General of the United States. Washing-
ton, D.C., 1975. 68 p.
LC: N.A.

GAO examined the policies, procedures, and
practices at American consulates for issuing
visas to foreign students. It reviewed I&NS
policies and procedures in approving schools for
attendance by foreign students, in determining
whether students maintain their status, and in
expelling those failing to maintain their status.
The GAO also examined the role of the
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare






BRAIN DRAIN STUDIES


in consulting with I&NS on approval of schools.
The review was made at the State Department
headquarters and at the I&NS Central Office, at
American consulates in Tehran, Karachi, Bang-
kok, Rio de Janeiro, Bogota, Lima, and Cara-
cas, at I&NS district offices in New York and
Los Angeles, and at 15 approved schools in
those I&NS districts. I&NS records showed that
about 42 percent of the 222,000 foreign
students in the U.S. as of December 1974 were
undocumented. Recommendations, and agency
responses to the recommendations, are
included.


35. U.S. Library of Congress. Congressional Research
Service. Foreign Affairs Division.
Brain Drain: a Study of the Persistent Issue of
International Scientific Mobility: Prepared for
the Subcommittee on the National Security
Policy and Scientific Developments of the
Committee on Foreign Affairs, U.S. House of
Representatives. Washington, D.C., 1974.
272 p.
LC: Q149/.U5U53/1974a

"The purpose of this study is to show the
interaction of American diplomacy with science
and technology respecting the problem of the
brain drain. The approach is to examine the
various aspects of the issue, show its complexi-
ties, and assess its importance as a continuing,
but largely unperceived, problem in American
diplomacy."


36. U.S. National Science Foundation.
Immigrant Scientists and Engineers in the
United States: A Study of Characteristics and
Attitudes. Washington, D.C., 1973. 101 p.
LC: Q149/.U5U54/1973

"This report presents the results of a mid-1970
survey of the characteristics and attitudes of
foreign scientists and engineers who were immi-
grants between 1964 and 1969." It was con-
cluded from the survey that "scientists and
engineers who immigrate to the U.S. are mobile
and highly educated individuals who contribute
to U.S. science and technology and at the same
time advance themselves."


37. U.S. National Science Foundation.
Scientists, Engineers, and Physicians from
Abroad: Fiscal Years 1966 and 1967. Washing-
ton, D.C., 1969. 31 p.
LC: Q149/.U5A56/1969

"This publication updates previous reports by
the NSF with more recent data on the numbers,
occupational specialties, and national back-
grounds of immigrant scientists, engineers,
physicians, and surgeons, and examines the
impact of the new law (Immigration and
Nationality Act of October 1965) on the level
and composition of this immigration. Also
included are analyses of international migration
patterns of these immigrants and data on
changes of status from temporary resident of
the U.S. to that of immigrant. Separate data are
shown on men and women and their age
distributions. And, for the first time, informa-
tion is provided on the intended state of
residence."

38. U.S. National Science Foundation.
Scientists, Engineers, and Physicians From
Abroad; Trends Through Fiscal Year 1970. By
Joseph Gannon. Washington, D.C., 1972. 44 p.
LC: Q149/U5A56/1972c

"This report [presents] data ... on the inflows
of scientists, engineers, and physicians from
abroad in order to assess recent trends in terms
of numbers, occupations, and national back-
grounds of these personnel. The report includes
both immigrant and nonimmigrant components
of scientific and technical manpower from
abroad."

ARTICLES

39. Ahmad, Aqueil.
Gain-Drain Ratio in the Global Exchange of
Scientific and Technical Manpower. Journal of
Asian and African Studies, 5:3, 215-222. (July
1970).

The author presents a model to determine the
Brain Drain measured in terms of manpower
which accrue to nations as a result of multi-
directional migratory flows.





IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


40. Bernard, Thomas L.
The U.S. "Brain Gain" in Higher Education.
International Behavioural Scientist, 2:4, 31-41,
(December 1970).

This study was based on a survey of college
professors of foreign origin teaching in the U.S.
The purpose of the study was to identify
factors which were significant determinants of
the decision to remain in the U.S.

41. Bhagwati, Jagdish N.
The Brain Drain. International Social Science
Journal, 28:4, 691-729, (1976).

The author reviews the existing evidence on the
flow of skilled manpower from less-developed
countries to developed countries, the possible
consequences of these flows, and tax and other
policy proposals to stem this flow.

42. Bhagwati, Jagdish N.
Taxing the Brain Drain. Challenge, 19:34-38,
(July-August 1976).

"There is a way to compensate for the brain
drain from the less developed countries to the
developed countries. A supplementary income
tax can be imposed on immigrants' earnings in
the developed countries; the funds raised in this
manner can then be routed to the less devel-
oped countries for development spending."

43. Cortes, Josefina R., and Bernardino A. Perez.
Factors Associated With the Outflow of High-
Level Philippine Manpower. Philippine Socio-
logical Review, 18:3-4, 159-167, (July-October
1970).

This study was based on a survey taken to
identify determinants of the emigration of
highly skilled persons from the Philippines to
the U.S. and developing means to counter this
migratory flow.

44. Fortney, Judith
International Migration of Professionals. Popu-
lation Studies, 24:2, 217-234, (1970).

"Using chiefly data published by the U.S.
Immigration and Naturalization Service this


paper presents a statistical summary of the
trends in professional immigration into the
United States. The proportion of immigrants
who are professionals has been steadily increas-
ing during recent decades, and changes in immi-
gration laws produced a sharper increase since
1965. The second trend of importance is the
increasing proportion of professional immi-
grants who come from the less .developed
nations of the world. The effects of immigra-
tion on American science and medicine are
discussed. Important benefits appear to have
accrued to the U.S. The effects on the countries
of origin are less beneficial. Finally, the reasons
behind the migration of professionals are
discussed."

45. Girling, R.K.
The Migration of Human Capital from the
Third World: The Implications and Some Data
on the Jamaican Case. Social and Economic
Studies, 23:1, 84-96, (March 1974).

A case study of Jamaica is utilized in this study
as a means of depicting the effects of the Brain
Drain on developing countries. A human capital
approach is utilized.

46. Glaser, William A., and G. Christopher Habers.
The Migration and Return of Professionals.
International Migration Review, 8:2, 227-244,
(Summer 1974).

This article concerns the migration and return
of highly skilled manpower from developing
countries. The study is based on a survey of
students who studied in foreign countries and
either stayed on there or returned to their
home countries.

47. Grubel, Herbert G.
Reflections on the Present State of the Brain
Drain and a Suggested Remedy. Minerva,
14:209-224, (Summer 1976).

"[T] he magnitude and the effects on welfare of
the brain drain from poor countries do not
warrant the institution of a tax on the income
of highly skilled migrants in their new countries
of residence." The author suggests creating a
tax-exempt foundation in the United States for






BRAIN DRAIN STUDIES


the benefit of the developing countries, sup-
ported by these skilled migrants.

48. Inhaber, H.
The Brain Drain from India. Social Biology,
22:3, 250-254, (Fall 1975).

This article details the flow of scientists from
India to the U.S. as a means of evaluating the
phenomenon of the Brain Drain for developing
countries.

49. Jaafari, Lafi Ibrahim.
The Brain Drain to the United States: The
Migration of Jordanian and Palestinian Profes-
sionals and Students. Journal of Palestine
Studies, 3:1, 119-131, (Autumn 1973).

This article is based on a survey of Palestinian
students. Its purpose was to determine motiva-
tions for studying in the U.S. and for remaining
after the completion of studies.

50. Jesudason, Victor.
Some Descriptive Characteristics of Indian Stu-
dents in the United States 1954-55 to 1969-70.
Indiah Journal of Sociology, 3:1-2, 119-138,
(March and September 1972).

Data are presented on Indian students who
come to the U.S. to study.

51. Kao, Charles H.C., and Jae Won Lee.
An Empirical Analysis of China's Brain Drain
into the United States. Economic Development
and Cultural Change, 21:3, 500-513, (April
1973).

This study of the Brain Drain from China is
based on a survey of Chinese scholars in the
U.S. It also discusses factors determined to be
significant in the decision to remain in the U.S.

52. McCarthy, Florence E.
The Local Environment of Filipino Scientists.
Philippine Sociological Review, 18:3-4,
169-173, (July-October 1970).

This article is based on interviews with scien-
tists at ten universities in the Philippines.
Opportunity and the support of the institutions


seem to influence a scientist in deciding
whether to leave or remain in the country.

53. Mason, H.R.
Foreign Medical Graduates. Profiles of Those
Qualifying for Practice in the United States,
1957 to 1971. Journal of the American Medical
Association, 229:4, 428-430, (1974).

Thousands of foreign medical graduates initially
attracted by residency training opportunities in
the United States have become permanent
additions to the U.S. medical labor pool. While
the numbers migrating from Western countries
have remained constant, there continues to be
an upsurge of physicians migrating from the Far
East and Middle East. Once qualified for
practice, they tend to settle in the more
populous metropolitan states; proportionately,
they hold more full-time staff positions in state
and county hospitals. These foreign graduates
seek specialty training and board certification
in about the same proportion as their American
counterparts.

54. Oh, Tai K.
Estimating the Migration of U.S.-Educated
Manpower from Asia to the United States.
Social and Economic Studies, 22:3, 335-357,
(September 1973).

Various definitions of Brain Drain are included
in this article as a means of effectively deter-
mining a nonreturn rate among Asian students
in the U.S.

55. Oh, Tai K.
A New Estimate of the Student Brain Drain
From Asia. International Migration Review,
7:4, 24, 449-456, (Winter 1973).

This study is based upon data collected in a
survey of Asian nationality students in 1968.
An attempt was made to measure individuals'
intentions regarding their length of stay in the
U.S.

56. Oldman, Oliver, and Richard Pomp.
The Brain Drain: A Tax Analysis of the
Bhagwati Proposal. World Development,
3:751-763, (October 1975).





IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


"To alleviate the problems caused by the brain
drain, Professor Bhagwati proposes that profes-
sional, technical, and kindred persons who
emigrate from less developed countries be
subjected to a special tax on the income they
earn in developed countries. This paper high-
lights political and legal issues raised by his
proposal and examines three approaches to
implementation: a tax levied by the less devel-
oped country, a tax levied by the developed
country, and a tax levied by the United
Nations. Specific aspects of the proposal which
require further study and refinement, such as
administrative feasibility, are outlined."

57. Pemia, Ernesto M.
The Question of the Brain Drain From the
Philippines. International Migration Review,
10:1,63-72, (1976).

The emigration of physicians, scientists, and
engineers from the Philippines to the United
States, 1962-70, is discussed.

58. Pido, Antonio J.A.
Brain Drain Philippinos. Society, 14:50-53,
(September-October 1977).

The composition of recent Filipino immigra-
tion, which, since passage of the 1965 Immi-
gration Act, has been made up of affluent and
highly skilled professionals, is examined.

59. Portes, Alejandro.
Determinants of the Brain Drain. International
Migration Review, 10:4, 489-508, (Winter
1976).

The paper presents an alternative explanatory
framework for professional emigration. "The
obvious existence of different levels of causa-
tion of the problem suggest a logic of successive
approximations in which broader structural
determinants are defined as limiting conditions
within which more specific processes operate.

"In discussing the more general variables, facts
already known will be summarized, reorganized
for purposes of the present argument. When
approaching the level of individual differences,


original results based on samples of Argentine
physicians planning to emigrate and planning to
stay in their country will be employed."

60. Portes, Alejandro, and Adreain A. Ross.
Modernization for Emigration: the Medical
Brain Drain from Argentina. Journal of Inter-
american Studies and World Affairs,
18:395-422, (November 1976).

The work "complements descriptive data on
the brain drain and general speculation on
'push' and 'pull' forces affecting it . [a] n
illustration of the definitions of the situation
and values held by participants in the process
and shows how these subjective definitions and
values are linked with broader issues of under-
development and theories about sources of
change in this situation."

61. Ronaghy, H.S., E. Zeighami, and B. Zeighami.
Physicians Migration to the U.S.-Foreign Aid
for U.S. Manpower. Medical Care, 14:6,
502-511, (1976).

Data were obtained from the American Medical
Association on Iranian physicians practicing in
the U.S., and from the Iranian Medical Registry
on U.S.-trained Iranian physicians who have
returned to practice in Iran. There were 2,066
Iranian physicians practicing in the U.S. in
1972, 1,234 (60 percent) of whom were not
undergoing any training. Only 600 of Iran's
9,535 physicians in 1972 had been trained in
the United States. Thus, less than one-third of
the specialists who have completed training in
the U.S. have returned to practice in Iran. The
specialist group with the highest rate of return
is the combined surgery sub-specialties (neuro-
surgery, thoracic surgery, orthopedic surgery,
and plastic surgery). The specialist groups with
the lowest rates of return were pathology,
anesthesiology, and psychiatry. A comparison is
made of manpower problems Iran and the U.S.
face.

62. Stevens, R.A., L.W. Goodman, and S.S. Mick.
Foreign Medical Graduates and American Medi-
cine. Executive Summary. Abstracts of Hospital
Management Studies, 14:2, (1977).






BRAIN DRAIN STUDIES


The objectives of this study were to collect and
analyze data relevant to four questions.
(1)What were the expectations of foreign
physicians in coming to the United States and
how have they been fulfilled? (2) How have
American hospitals recruited foreign interns
and residents and contributed to their training?
(3) How have those FMG's (Foreign Medical
Graduates) used their American training in
subsequent careers? (4) How have foreign medi-
cal systems been affected by this process?
Interviews were held with 690 FMG's and 133
United States FMG's in a sample of selected
hospitals where they were employed as house
staff.


63. Stevens, R.A., L.W. Goodman, and S.S. Mick.
What Happens to Foreign Trained Doctors Who
Come to the United States? Inquiry, 11:2,
112-124,(1974).

A series of recent publications has shed light on
the scope and nature of physician migration to
the United States. But while there is now a
wealth of information on the number and
demographic characteristics of doctors who
enter the U.S., relatively little is known about
their subsequent experiences and careers. A
series of questions demands more detailed
investigation: whether those who remained in
the United States were different from those
who had left, and if so, in what respects;
whether any had left the United States and
returned between the two fixed points of the
study period; how far various personal charac-
teristics of individuals, including citizenship,
affected individual choices of career; and what
the apparent motivations and expectations of
individuals were. Finally, there was a need to
assess the reliability of the AMA (American
Medical Association) information. This study
represents a first step toward answering these
questions.


64. Tanton, John H.
International Migration as an Obstacle to
Achieving World Stability. Ecologist,
6:221-227, (July 1976).


This conference paper discusses migration of
the educated elite from the less to the more
developed countries of the world.


DISSERTATIONS

65. Bae, Chong-Keun.
The Effect of Traditionalism on Social Adjust-
ment and Brain Drain: A Study of Korean
Students at the University of Wisconsin. Ph.D.,
1972, University of Wisconsin. 254 p.
UMI: 72-09106

The purpose of this study is to discover the
effects of traditional Korean values on social
adjustment and the rate of Brain Drain in a
sample of Korean Students registered at the
University of Wisconsin.

The major hypotheses are: (1) The strength of
Korean traditionalism does not change over
time in the United States. (2) Traditionalism is
negatively related to social adjustment in the
United States. (3) Traditionalism is negatively
related to Brain Drain.

The hypothesis that traditionalism would be
negatively related to social adjustment was
generally sustained. Traditionalism, however,
was not related to more casual or friendly
relations with Americans or Koreans. This
suggests that cultural differences have the
greatest impact on intimate relationships.

Traditionalism did not generally predict the
decision leading to becoming a factor in Brain
Drain. Even students who scored high on
measures of filial piety and group conformity
were no more likely to plan a return to Korea
than those who scored low. Moreover, the
reasons why an individual would return or
extend his sojourn were similarly perceived by
both groups: Koreans go home for social and
national reasons; they stay in the U.S. for
professional and material reasons.

66. Bernard, Thomas Love.
Motivational Implications of Attrahent and
Expellant Factors as They Relate to 'Brain






IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


Drain' Personnel on College Faculties in the
United States. Ed.D., 1969, University of
Massachusetts. 264 p.
UMI: 69-17898

The purpose of this dissertation was to investi-
gate the international problem of the "Brain
Drain" as it relates to the immigration of
foreign-educated professors on college faculties
in the U.S. The study attempted to illustrate
the reasons why these highly educated profes-
sionals leave their home countries, why they
come to the United States, why some intend to
remain permanently, and why others plan to
leave. Specifically, the study sought to establish
whether significant relationships exist between
attrahent ("pull") factors, and expellant
("push") factors in terms of the retention or
decrement of these immigrants. A further aim
of this investigation was to assess whether
significant motivational differences existed be-
tween those from advanced countries and those
from developing countries.

67. Chukunta, Niki K. Onuoha.
The Nigerian Brain Drain: Factors Associated
With the Expatriation of American-Educated
Nigerians Ed.D., 1976, Rutgers University, the
State University of New Jersey. 238 p.
UMI: 76-27308

The Brain Drain has been an issue for almost 15
years. An important dimension of this issue is
the indefinite delay of return, or, in some cases,
the permanent emigration of students. The
importance of this dimension for Nigeria is
predicated on two considerations: foreign edu-
cation presently plays a major role in the
development of high and middle level man-
power; and secondly, the United States cur-
rently trains more Nigerians outside Nigeria
than any other country. From this point of
view, Nigeria stands to gain from the return of
American-educated Nigerians. However, despite
avowed need by the Government for some
official action, a sizable proportion of the
students remain or go elsewhere after gradua-
tion. This research was an attempt to under-
stand the phenomenon of delay of return.


It was found that, irrespective of age, sex, and
level of academic achievement, (1) Nigerian
students are willing to return, but an assurance
of jobs in Nigeria before departure is the key to
an early return. (2) Students who are dissatis-
fied with the salary structure in Nigeria are
more likely to delay return. (3) Students who
bear financial responsibilities over their families
(nuclear and extended) are more likely to delay
return. (4) Students who perceive the political
situation in Nigeria negatively are more likely
to delay return. (5) Students who perceive
themselves as patriotic Nigerians are more likely
to return early. (6) A change from military to
civilian government will hasten return, particu-
larly of Yoruba students. (7) Students of higher
socioeconomic status are less likely to delay
return. (8) Latter-born students are more likely
to delay return than first-born students or
latter-born playing the role of first-born.
(9) Students raised in rural settings in Nigeria
are more likely to delay return than urban
dwellers. (10) Students in the social sciences
and humanities are more likely to return early
than those in the natural, physical, and medical
sciences as well as engineering. (11) Students of
the Igbo group are more likely to delay return
than those of Yoruba and minority ethnic
groups.

68. Niland, John Rodney.
The Brain Drain of Highly Trained Engineering
Manpower From Asia Into the United States.
Ph.D., 1970, University of Illinois-Urbana-
Champaign. 195 p.
UMI: 70-21026

The international flow of skilled manpower
currently runs swifter and cuts deeper than
ever. Taking the case of student nonreturn of
highly trained engineering manpower from
India, Taiwan, Korea, Thailand, and Japan, the
present study focuses on five issues: the magni-
tude of drain, particularly in a net sense, the
manpower character of those who might be
involved in drain, the nature of international
mobility patterns, reasons governing the inter-
national mobility decision, and the policy
implications of Brain Drain.






BRAIN DRAIN STUDIES


The position developed is that Brain Drain has
been badly defined, loosely measured, and
generally misinterpreted in much of the litera-
ture. Its internal character so varies from one
national group to another that each developing
country virtually should be treated as a special
case. Actions to alter the nature of Brain Drain
are better implemented by the home country
themselves. The internationalist's argument that
such actions should be geared to maximize a
world welfare function is attractive through its
neat and highminded commitment to a global
socioeconomy. The uncomfortable truth,
though, is that the nation-state does exist, and
sometimes with a fierce passion for self-
identity. Policy making should shift from the
emotional presumption that casts Brain Drain
as an international ogre to one that sees it more
likely as a source of eventual but specific
economic welfare. The probable repatriation of
savings accumulated in the host country is
crucial here.

69. Oh, Tai Keun.
Role of International Education in the Asian
Brain Drain. Ph.D., 1970, University of Wiscon-
sin-Madison. 920 p.
UMI: 70-24712

Each year the number of foreign students in the
United States has increased, and by 1967 they
totaled more than 100,000 and came from 172
countries and territories. Much evidence has
existed that a large proportion of the foreign
students from developing countries have
decided not to return but to remain in the
United States to pursue their careers. Scholars
began to study how many students were migrat-
ing, why, and what policies to formulate to deal
with them. They disagreed as to whether the
immigration was harmful or beneficial and were
unable to answer the basic questions satisfac-
torily.

In order to supply some of the empirical data
needed to provide better answers to the basic
questions, we surveyed by mail the entire
population of students from Hong Kong,
Formosa, Taiwan, India, Japan, and Korea
enrolled at the University of Wisconsin-
Madison, and the University of Minnesota-


Minneapolis-St. Paul. We obtained 657 valid
returns. The survey supports the notion that
student immigration from the survey nations is
heavy.

In order to evaluate the effects of this migra-
tion we investigated the reasons for it. We
found that our respondents came to the United
States to study without clear intentions to
adapt themselves to the labor markets of their
native countries. Most had no clear idea of the
employment opportunities offered by their
native countries and chose their major fields
mainly because of interest in the subject. Thus
our respondents subjected themselves unwit-
tingly to what they identified as their most
important reason for nonreturn-difficulty in
finding jobs which suited the professional capa-
bilities and aspirations they had developed
while studying in the United States. Important
secondary factors affecting the respondents'
intentions were personal ties, political condi-
tions in Asia, length of stay in the United
States, and adaptability to American society.

Examining the manpower needs of the survey
countries in terms of available jobs suitable for
our respondents, we concluded that their non-
return was not harmful to their native coun-
tries. We suggested that, in cases where the
survey countries wished to repatriate their
overseas students, they finance them fully, send
them abroad on J visas, and assure them of
suitable employment upon their return. These
were the three factors in the survey showing the
strongest relationships with intention to leave
the United States.


70. Orthman, William George.
Implications of the Brain Drain: Verdict of
Educated Immigrants In the Puget Sound Area.
D.B.A., 1971, University of Washington. 270 p.
UMI: 71-24070

The migration of scientists, engineers, physi-
cians and other highly educated specialists,
from one country to another, which began after
World War II, had reached the stage of a
worldwide controversy by the early 1960's.





IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


The present study, made to fill some of the
gaps in the information available, uses the
United Kingdom for purposes of studying the
advanced nations which have lost talent to the
United States, and India as an example of the
effects of the Brain Drain on a developing
nation. The study is based on these hypotheses:
(1) Most Brain Drain migrants who come to the
United States do so for economic reasons.
(2) Economic reasons are more important to
those from the United Kingdom than those
from India. (3) Most of the scientists and
engineers from the United Kingdom have
attained professional degrees from British uni-
versities before coming to the United States,
whereas their counterparts from India come as
students and obtain jobs in the United States
after graduation. (4) The United Kingdom has
the resources to alleviate the Brain Drain,
whereas the Brain Drain from India is a
function of a disproportionate capital-labor
ratio with respect to certain categories of
highly-educated labor. Until a better balance is
achieved between India's capability to turn out
university graduates and its capability to gen-
erate the capital to use these graduates, the
Brain Drain serves a useful purpose in economic
development. From the evidence collected, all
of the hypotheses appear valid.

71. Razavi, Masoumeh Zinat.
Personality Correlates Relating to the Brain
Drain Among Foreign Students From Far
Eastern and South American Countries. Ph.D.,
1975, University of Southern California. 135 p.
UMI: 75-15569

This study proposed to determine if, among a
sample of foreign students enrolled in seven
selected American universities, there were meas-
urable personality characteristics which corre-
lated with their declared intentions to return to
their homeland or to remain in the United
States. It was hypothesized that certain varia-
bles of individual personality would correlate
with their specific intentions.

Students who declared their intention to return
to their homeland appeared to indicate a higher
degree of dominance, achievement via conform-
ance, conservatism, defensiveness, and positive


self-concept than students declaring their inten-
tion to stay in the United States. Students who
declared their intention to remain in the United
States appeared to indicate a higher degree of
tolerance than students who declared their
intention to return to their homeland. There
appeared to be no difference between the two
groups with regard to achievement via inde-
pendence, flexibility, capacity for status,
responsibility, and self-control.

72. Rodriguez, Orlando
Social Determinants of Non-Return: A Study
of Foreign Students From Developing Coun-
tries in The United States. Ph.D., 1975,
Columbia University. 237 p.
UMI: 75-27458

This study analyzes the determinants of non-
return among foreign students from developing
countries in the U.S. Data are taken from a
sample of over 1,300 students in over 30
colleges and universities in the U.S.

In a model of nonreturn intention, the follow-
ing factors are considered, going from the most
indirectly causally connected to the most
directly connected: political and economic
characteristics of the home countries, students'
statuses, institutional ties, reference group
choice and social influences, motivations, and
perceptions of opportunity differentials be-
tween the home and developed countries.

In a final path analysis of all factors, the
estimate at time-of-arrival of years to be spent
abroad, advice about migration by significant
others, the students' choice of reference groups
while abroad, and the location of job offers are
found to have the strongest effects. Students'
perception of standard of living differentials are
seen to depend on opportunities at home and
abroad, on sources of advice, and, inexplicably
in the model, on political characteristics of the
home country. Policy suggestions for dealing
with student non-return are evaluated in the
light of the findings.

73. Sours, Martin Harvey.
The Brain Drain and World Politics. Ph.D.,
1971, University of Washington. 242 p.
UMI: 71-28477





BRAIN DRAIN STUDIES


The Brain Drain has been a phenomenon
considered to be limited both spatially and
temporally. Spatially, it has been discussed as
the movement of skilled manpower between
specific nation-states. Following from such an
orientation, it has received attention when such
movement was clearly desirable. This disserta-
tion moves beyond such constraints to recon-
ceptualize the issue as an indicator of world
interdependence. Further, Great Powers, by the
policy decisions of their governments, exercise
a dominant influence on this process as they do
over the international system generally. Thus,
world interdependence and Great Power influ-
ence in international relations are not mutually
exclusive in this case, but operate concurrently.

The enactment of new immigration legislation
by the United States in 1965 has increasingly
changed the Brain Drain into a developmental
issue. The development of the Third World
generally, and Asia particularly, has been ad-
versely affected due to the costs of skilled
manpower loss. The Brain Drain also serves as
an index of the propensity for systematic
dominance of the international system by the
United States. The case of physicians, most
topically relevant at the time of this study, is
symptomatic of general world interdependence
and also demonstrates the effects of Great
Power policy decisions, domestically enacted,
which have transnational impacts.

74. Truscott, Michael Hugh.
The Brain Drain of Scientists, Engineers, and
Physicians From the Developing Countries to
the United States. Ph.D., 1971, Louisiana State
University and Agricultural and Medical
College. 177 p.
UMI: 71-29396

The Brain Drain from the developing countries
to the United States has been a controversial
topic since the end of World War II. Some
students of the Brain Drain contend that the
underdeveloped countries are using up their
vital and scarce human talent to provide the
developed countries with highly skilled human
capital at zero cost, thus foregoing the use of a
highly specialized resource which is essential to
the economic and social development process.


Others contend that the movement of highly
educated individuals from developing to devel-
oped countries is salutary since it results in a
more efficient allocation of world resources.

This study examines some of the more impor-
tant "push" and "pull" forces which are com-
monly cited as contributing to the Brain Drain.
However, a basic conclusion of this study is
that the immigration laws of the United States
are the main contributing factors. A regression
analysis was undertaken to isolate the most
significant "push" or "pull" variables.

This study concludes that the Brain Drain is
more a symptom of the state of underdevelop-
ment than a cause of underdevelopment; it is a
symptom of the disequilibrium that exists
between the typical pattern of expansion of
higher education in developing countries and
their limited capacity to absorb an expanding
number of graduates. The possibility of a
reverse Brain Drain for the United States
presents itself in the very near future.


BIBLIOGRAPHIES

75. Beijer, G.
Brain Drain. Auszug des Geistes. Exode des
Cerveaux. A Selected Bibliography on Tempo-
rary and Permanent Migration of Skilled
Workers and High Level Manpower 1967-1972.
The Hague, Nijhoff, 1972. 84 p.
LC: Z7164/.I3B44

This bibliography consists of journal articles,
books, newspaper articles, and pamphlets on
the subject in English, French, and German,
with author, source, geographical and subject
indexes.

76. Crockett, Pernell W.
Foreign Medical Graduates (A Bibliography
with Abstracts). Springfield, Va., National
Technical Information Service, 1977. 32 p.
LC: N.A.

A compilation of research reports is presented
on the following issues regarding the immigra-
tion of foreign trained medical personnel to the





IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


United States: (1) immigration policies,
(2) demographic and professional character-
istics, (3) performance on examinations, li-
censing tests, and specialty certification,
(4) clinical performance, and (5) information
on location and professional activities. The
impact of foreign medical graduates on health
manpower planning is discussed.


77. Kolehmainen, Riitta-Liisa.
International Migration of Physicians and
Nurses: an Annotated Bibliography. Bethesda,
Md., Health Resources Administration, Public
Health Service, Dept. of Health, Education, and
Welfare. 1975. 64 p.
LC: Z6675/.P4K65R697.F6.


This bibliography consists chiefly of journal
articles, in English, on aspects of the Brain
Drain. Six sections treat patterns and dimen-
sions of migration, factors fostering migration,
the impact of migration, methodology for the
study of migration, intervention strategies, and
training and evaluation of foreign physicians
and nurses. Author and geographical indexes
are included. This work includes most of the
citations in a previous Bureau of Health Re-
sources Development (BHRD) bibliography
The Foreign Medical Graduate: A Bibliog-
raphy.


78. Research Policy Program.
Brain Drain and Brain Gain. A Bibliography
on Migration of Scientists, Doctors and Stu-
dents. Lund, Sweden, 1967. 48 p.
LC: Z7164/.I3R4
"... The bibliography is prepared to serve as a
source of information for those who...
study ... aspects of the migration of scien-
tists ... although the phenomenon of migra-
tion of scientists is as old as science ... it is ac-
quiring and will acquire new dimensions and
political significance." Four hundred and fif-
teen items from 40 countries relate to migra-
tion in general, history of migration, and the
modem "brain drain." Studies and articles,
newspaper stories and editorials, and advertise-
ments in professional journals are noted.

79. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Wel-
fare. National Institutes of Health. Division of
Manpower Intelligence.
The Foreign Medical Graduate: a Bibliography.
Washington, D.C., 1972. 107 p.
LC: Z6672/.A1U54/1972
"The focus of this bibliography is the foreign
medical graduate in the U.S. Citations deal with
this subject from several perspectives, including
education of foreign medical graduates abroad,
the flow of foreign medical graduates to the
United States, and their training and utilization
in American medicine."






POLICY STUDIES


General

BOOKS

1. Bernard, William Spencer.
The United States and the Migration Process.
New York, American Immigration and Citizen-
ship Conference, 1975. 64 p.
LC: JV6455/.B47

This is a brief history of immigration, with at-
tention to the ethnic groups involved, and an
analysis of immigration since 1965, as well as
U.S. immigration policy. Attention is paid to
the influences of ethnocentrism, isolationism,
humanitarianism, and the pressures exerted
by particular social groups. The last chapter
discusses indicators of acculturation.

2. Brody, Eugene B.
Behavior in New Environments; Adaptation of
Migrant Populations. Beverly Hills, Calif., Sage,
1970. 479 p.
LC: HB1951/.B4

"Adapted from working documents prepared as
resource material for a conference on migra-
tion and behavioral deviance ... held Novem-
ber 4-8, 1968, in Dorado Beach, Puerto Rico."

Nineteen essays and an appendix on rural-urban
migration, refugees, ethnic groups and migra-
tion, and psychological aspects of migration are
presented. Five of the essays address public
policy; one each is specifically devoted to
Puerto Ricans and Alaskan natives. An appen-
dix lists resources for refugees.

*3. Evaluation of Visa Medical Activities. Atlanta, Ga.,
Center for Disease Control, 1972.
LC: N.A., PB-224 385/5

The Foreign Quarantine Program (FQP) of the
Center for Disease Control is responsible for iden-
tifying from among aliens applying for immi-
grant status those who have any mental or physi-
cal defect specified in the immigration law. Three
excludable conditions, mental retardation, pre-
vious attacks) of insanity, and active tuberculo-
sis, account for 95 percent of all visas refused on
medical grounds; they also are the only condi-


tions for which waivers are obtainable. This eval-
uation was undertaken to assure that the visa
medical examination meets prescribed standards,
to determine if aliens who have been excluded for
medical reasons are medically eligible for waivers,
to identify methods for improving delivery of the
medical component (examination and waiver) of
the visa issuance process, and to assure that aliens
admitted under waiver of excludability are inte-
grated into the health care system best able to
provide care and assistance. While the tubercu-
losis waiver and chest X-ray programs were found
to function adequately, the mental waiver pro-
gram is administratively complex and has not
kept pace with modem medical knowledge or
practice; program revision is recommended.

4. Flicker, Barbara, and Nicholas S. Vazzana, editors.
Labor Aspects of Immigration Law. New York,
Practicing Law Institute, 1969. 497 p.
LC: KF4829/.L3

This book is the edited and annotated tran-
script of a two-day program, presented by the
Practicing Law Institute, in which representa-
tives of government agencies explained to at-
torneys how immigration laws are administered.
Eight chapters cover the following areas: labor
certification, the role of the Central Office (i.e.,
the Central Immigration Office of the New
York State Department of Labor), the role of
the Department of Labor, visa petitions for
third or sixth preference classification, labor
certification for the professional, scientific or
artistic alien, visa processing by the American
Consulate, temporary admission of aliens, and,
lastly, alien employment and labor certifica-
tion. Because the conference took place in New
York City, the role of New York State govern-
ment is considered.

5. Glazer, Nathan.
Affirmative Discrimination: Ethnic Inequality
and Public Policy. New York, Basic Books,
1975. 248 p.
LC: JC599/.U5G53

"I think... that the American policy has...
been defined by a steady expansion of the defi-
nition of those who may be included in it to
the point where it now includes all humanity;






IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


that the United States has become the first
great nation that defines itself not in terms of
ethnic origin but in terms of adherence to com-
mon rules of citizenship ...

"A new course that deals with the issues of
equality that arise ... has been set since the
early 1970's... affirmative action came to
mean ... the setting of statistical requirements
based on race, color, and national origin for em-
ployers and educational institutions. This new
course threatens the abandonment of our con-
cern for individual claims to consideration on
the basis of justice and equality ..."

6. Littrell W. Boyd, and Gideon Sjoberg, editors.
Current Issues in Social Policy. Beverly Hills,
Calif., Sage, 1976. 248 p.
LC: HN65/.C87

The chapters in this volume were originally pre-
pared as working papers for an interdisciplinary
conference... held on April 10 and 11, 1975
at the University of Texas at Austin. Part 2,
"Illegal Immigration and the Labor Force,"
contains articles by Martinez, Briggs, Busta-
mente, and Cardenas.

GO VERNMENTDOCUMENTS

7. Hawaii. Commission on Manpower and Full Em-
ployment.
Report on Immigrant Services and Problems.
Honolulu, Hi., 1973. 87 p.
LC: N.A.

Information on immigrants to Hawaii, 1966-
1972, and agencies giving assistance to immi-
grants are included.

8. North, David, and Allen LeBel.
Manpower and Immigration Policies in the
United States. Washington, D.C., National
Commission for Manpower Policy, 1978. 275 p.
LC: N.A.

This work is a history of immigration policy, a
description of current U.S. policy, and a dis-
cussion of the results and consequences of that
policy. Alternative policies-those of other na-
tions-are examined for the perspective they


give on U.S. policy. Recommendations for
broad and specific policy directions are given.

*9. San Francisco Mayor's Office.
Report of the San Francisco Research Planning
Conference on Asian Immigration. San Fran-
cisco, Calif., National Science Foundation,
1975. 190 p.
@LC: N.A., PB-273 O11/7ST

This conference was organized to confront the
issues of the immigration of Asian people into
the San Francisco area. It was an attempt to
bring together officials, scholars, and repre-
sentatives of the Asian American community to
discuss the issues raised by Asian immigration.
Workshops at the conference were conducted
on the following topics: administration of jus-
tice, education, health, intercultural communi-
cation, and manpower and economic develop-
ment. Papers delivered included: (1) The
Immigration of Vietnamese to the United
States: Ideas for Future Research, (2) Lessons
of the Cuban Refugee Experience, (3)Perspec-
tives on Overseas Filipinos: a Conference Re-
port, (4) Refugee Problems in the Days Ahead,
(5) Preliminary Outline of Research Needs in
the Study of Adjustment of Vietnamese Refu-
gees to the United States, and (6) the Viet-
namese Refugees: Perspectives and Recom-
mendations. Support was received from the
National Science Foundation.

10. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Government
Operations. Executive and Legislative Reorganiza-
tion Subcommittee.
Establishing a Commission on Population
Growth, and Related Matters: Hearings, 91st
Cong., 1st sess., on S. 2701, to establish a Com-
mission on Population Growth and the Ameri-
can Future, and related House bills, Novem-
ber 19-20, 1969. Washington, D.C., 1970.
102 p.
LC: KF27/.G659/1969h

The text of the bill which established the Com-
mission, as well as bills which would have estab-
lished Commissions with similar concerns but
different emphases are given.

11. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judici-
ary.






POLICY STUDIES


Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments
of 1976: Report Including Cost Estimate of
the Congressional Budget Office to Accompany
H.R. 14535, 94th Cong., 2d sess. Washington,
D.C., 1976. 37 p.
LC: N.A.

The amendments enacted the following policy
changes: (1)extended to the Western Hemi-
sphere the slightly modified seven-category
preference system and per-country limitations
in force in the Eastern Hemisphere, (2)pro-
vided for adjustment of resident alien status
without leaving the country, (3)facilitated
entry for foreign scholars, and (4) ensured that
Cuban refugees achieving resident status not be
charged to the hemisphere ceiling.

12. U. S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship
and International Law.
Immigration and Naturalization Service Over-
sight: Hearings, 93rd Cong., 2d sess., April 3
and June 25, 1974. Washington, D.C., 1974.
55 p.
LC: KF27/.J864/1974a

A summary of I&NS activities in 1973-74,
which touches on I&NS activities regarding
Nazi war criminals and undocumented aliens.
Appropriations are discussed.

13. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship,
and International Law.
Report of Special Study... to Review Im-
migration, Refugee, and Nationality Problems,
93rd Cong., 1st sess. Washington, D.C., 1973.
36 p.
LC: KF32/.J853/1973

This brief report is based on hearings and in-
vestigations conducted in the Far East during
August 7-17, 1973, on "visa work loads at the
various ports" and on "problems in the imple-
mentation and administration of the Immigra-
tion and Nationality Act. Discussion [is] in-
cluded on fraudulent documentation for
obtaining nonimmigrant visas, misuse of valid
visas, and recommendations for dealing with
these problems."


14. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship
and International Law.
Review of Immigration Problems. Hearings,
94th Cong., 1st and 2d sess., June 11, 1975-
July 28, 1976. Washington, D.C., 1976. 159 p.
LC: KF27/.J864 1976b

Testimony of Leonard Chapman, Jr., Commis-
sioner of the Immigration and Naturalization
Service, Sam Bernsen, General Counsel, Leon-
ard Walentynowicz, Administrator, Bureau of
Security and Consular Affairs, and others, pre-
sent a variety of issues relating to immigration
and border security. These issues include: in-
vestigations of Nazi war criminals living in the
U.S., the number of women in foreign service
positions, the basis for excluding certain Irish
nationals from temporary admission to the
U.S., the current administration of immigration
laws affecting foreign students, among other
topics.

15. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship,
and International Law.
Review of the Administration of the Immigra-
tion and Nationality Act. Hearings, 93rd Cong.,
1st sess., on legislative oversight of the Im-
migration and Nationality Act, July 26-
September 20, 1973. Washington, D.C., 1973.
296 p.
LC: KF27/J.864/1973b

These hearings were held to determine whether
provisions contained in the Immigration and
Nationality Act were being "reasonably and
properly" administered by the I&NS and the
Bureau of Security and Consular Affairs. Testi-
mony is given on the location and apprehension
procedures of undocumented aliens, on pro-
cedures to reduce the number of mala fide non-
immigrants, and on interagency-cooperation
with regard to the problem of undocumented
aliens. Also discussed are the roles of the Social
Security Administration and the Internal Reve-
nue Service. A brief history of I&NS and the
development of immigration and naturalization
laws is included, as well as tables on deportable
aliens, by nationality, employment status, and
other variables.





IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


16. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship,
and International Law.
Western Hemisphere Immigration: Hearings,
94th Cong., 1st and 2d sess., on H.R. 367, H.R.
981, and H.R. 10323, September 25, 1975-
March 18,1976. Washington, D.C., 1976. 397 p.
LC: KF27/.J864/1976

These hearings were part of an attempt to
"equalize" treatment of immigrants from both
hemispheres by imposing similar sets of regula-
tions on both groups, and by revising priorities
for admission. The bills differ in their treat-
ment of immigrants from Canada and Mexico.
Refugees and the impact of immigration on
U.S. labor are also considered.

17. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign
Relations.
Freedom of Emigration: Report to Accom-
pany S. Con. Res. 71. Washington, D.C., 1977.
2 p.
LC: N.A.

This document is concerned with civil liberties,
emigration and the right to travel.

18. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee on Immigration and Nat-
uralization.
Immigration and Naturalization: Report Pur-
suant to S. Res. 256, 92d Cong., 2d sess., 93rd
Cong., 1st sess. Washington, D.C., 1973. 5 p.
LC: N.A.

The report reviewed activities of the 92nd
Congress.

19. U.S. General Accounting Office.
Immigration-Need to Reassess U.S. Policy,
Departments of Justice and State: Report to
the Congress. By the Comptroller General of
the United States. Washington, D.C., 1976.
70 p.
LC: KF4819/.A312

"This report summarizes the problems the Gov-
ernment has in administering and enforcing im-
migration laws and highlights the need for reas-
sessing U.S. immigration policy." Problems of


concern range "from an inability to control
large scale illegal entry to an inequity in the
existing immigration law which unfairly allows
undocumented entrants to later obtain immi-
gration benefits while bona fide immigrants are
denied early admission."

20. U.S. General Accounting Office.
Need to Reduce Public Expenditures for Newly
Arrived Immigrants and Correct Inequity in
Current Immigration Law: Report to the Con-
gress on the Department ofJustice, Department
of State. By the Comptroller General of the
United States. Washington, D.C., 1975. 63 p.
LC: KF4819/.A313

"This report (1)discusses the need to reduce
the likelihood that large expenditures of public
funds will be made to support newly arrived im-
migrants, (2) describes various ways aliens have
violated immigration laws, and (3) recommends
administrative and legislative changes needed to
alleviate these problems."

*21. U.S. General Accounting Office. Health Resources
Division.
Number of Newly Arrived Aliens Who Receive
Supplemental Security Income Needs to Be Re-
duced: Report to the Congress by the Comp-
troller General of the United States. Washing-
ton, D.C., 1978. 32 p.
@LC: N.A., PB-277 367/9ST

This report is based upon a study which esti-
mates that about $72 million in Supplemental
Security Income is provided annually to newly
arrived legal immigrants in five states. In most
cases, public assistance is supplied because
aliens' sponsors fail to keep their promises of
providing support. Administrative and legisla-
tive changes are recommended to reduce these
payments.

22. Westoff, Charles F. and Robert Parke, Jr., editors.
Aspects of Population Growth Policy. Wash-
ington, D.C., U.S. Commission on Population
Growth and the American Future, 1972. 607 p.
LC: HB3505/.A5254/vol. 6

This volume deals with the following areas of
population growth policy: fertility control,






POLICY STUDIES


employment and income policy, guiding popu-
lation change, public opinion, and the process
of population policy formation.

ARTICLES

23. Abrams, Elliott, and Franklin S. Abrams.
Immigration Policy-Who Gets in and Why?
Public Interest, 38:3-29, (Winter 1975).

An investigation into the demographic, labor
market, and social effects of immigration to the
U.S. since passage of the 1965 Immigration
Act. The intended and unintended conse-
quences of that Act are discussed in some de-
tail; for example, the unanticipated excess of
demand over supply of visas in the Western
Hemisphere, a problem compounded by a lack
of selection procedures. The effects of immi-
gration on population growth and social poli-
cies regarding this issue are briefly considered.
The labor certification program, a major re-
form of the Act, is criticized because it does
not and cannot limit the immigration of
workers to job categories in which a shortage
exists. Much attention is given to illegal immi-
gration. The authors argue that the problem is
to some extent the result of an artificial con-
cept, e.g., a question of immigration law tech-
nicalities, as well as a result of lack of enforce-
ment. Little evidence that undocumented aliens
have an adverse effect on the labor market is
found, outside the border states.

24. Boyd, Monica.
Immigration Policies and Trends: A Compari-
son of Canada and the United States. Demog-
raphy, 13:83-104, (February 1976).

"After an examination of the volume, origin,
and occupational composition of immigration
to Canada and the United States, flows between
the two countries are studied. The paper con-
cludes with a scrutiny of changes in immigra-
tion regulations which are pending in both
countries."

25. Commuters, Illegals and American Farmworkers:
the Need for a Broader Approach to Domestic
Farm Labor Problems. New York University Law
Review, 48:439-492, (June 1973).


This comment examines the effectiveness of pres-
ent Federal programs in aiding domestic farm
laborers and looks at the impact of Mexican "com-
muters" and undocumented aliens upon the farm
labor situation.

26. Dietz, John P.
Deportation in the United States, Great Britain
and International Law. International Lawyer,
7:326-356, (April 1973).

The formal deportation procedures adopted by
the U.S. and Great Britain are examined. No
enforceable international minimum standard
governs deportation procedures.

27. Driessen, Paul K.
Immigration Laws, Procedures and Impedi-
ments Pertaining to Intercountry Adoptions.
Denver Journal of International Law and Pol-
icy, 4:257-287, (Fall 1974).

This article discusses adopting a child from
another country, nonpreference and special im-
migrant visas, and the effects of state laws on
intercountry adoptions.

28. Fragomen, Austin T., Jr.
Permanent Resident Status Redefined. Inter-
national Migration Review, 9:63-68, (Spring
1975).

This is a discussion of the possible ramifications
of the Saxbe v. Bustos decision, which held that
permanent resident aliens residing abroad and
commuting to work in the U.S. are entitled to
maintain their status as permanent residents.

29. Hohl, Donald G.
Proposed Revision of U.S. Western Hemisphere
Immigration Policies. International Migration
Review, 8:1, 69-78 (Spring 1974).

The revision deals with the status of Canada
and Mexico, the preference system, the refugee
provisions, adjustment of status, and a provi-
sion for regulating commuter aliens.

30. Hohl, Donald G., and Michael G. Wenk.
Current U.S. Immigration Legislation: Anal-
ysis and Comment. International Migration,
10:3,91-108, (1972).





IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


This work begins "analysis of the legislative
proposals on the immigration issues currently
before Congress."

31. Immigration and Naturalization-the Alien Com-
muter Fiction-Actual Residence Test Applied to
Exclude Entry into the United States. New York
University Journal of International Law and Poli-
tics, 5:139-154, (Spring 1972).

This work is a discussion of various methods of
immigration that permit entry of foreign labor and
the discretionary abuses relevant to each type of
immigration.

32. Immigration Symposium. San Diego Law Review,
13:whole issue, (December 1975).

Articles by Leonard Chapman, and others, dis-
cuss immigration law, causes and impact of un-
documented aliens, deportation procedures, and
preemption theory.

33. Keely, Charles B.
Immigration Composition and Population
Policy. Science, 185:587-593, (August 16,
1974).

This work is a review of immigration policy,
data on immigration, and immigrant character-
istics in light of proposals to limit immigration
as an element of population policy.

34. Kennedy, Edward.
Immigration Law: Some Refinements and New
Reforms. International Migration Review, 4:3,
4-10 (1970).

The Senator outlines proposed legislation
(S. 3202) designed to implement the intent of
the Immigration Act of 1965. The reforms
would provide equitable distribution of visas
within a preference system, ease reunion of
families, create a humanitarian refugee asylum
in the United States, establish a statute of limi-
tation on deportation, and adjust the natural-
ization process.

35. Neville, Mark K., Jr., and Ruben D. Campos.
Statutory and Constitutional Problems in Im-
migration Law. Columbia Human Rights Law
Review, 7:451494, (Fall-Winter 1975-76).


The article discusses the need for aliens to be
represented by counsel in deportation pro-
ceedings.

36. Possible Limitations on the Discretionary Powers
of the Immigration and Naturalization Service to
Order Deportation. New York University Journal
of International Law and Politics, 4:459-469,
(Winter 1971).

"The purpose of this article is to examine the dis-
cretionary power of the INS and to determine
whether a trend is developing among the courts to-
ward more careful scrutiny of the INS and in-
creased readiness to overturn its decisions."

37. Reid, John J.
Constitutional Law-Aliens. Duquesne Law Re-
view, 10:280-283, (Winter 1971).

"[The] United States Supreme Court has held
that state welfare laws discriminating against
aliens violate the equal protection clause of the
Fourteenth Amendment, and encroach upon
the exclusive Federal control of immigration."

38. Reubens, Edwin P.
Aliens, Jobs, and Immigration Policy. Public
Interest, no. 51:113-134, (Spring 1978).

The way to deal with the problem of undocu-
mented aliens in the United States "would be
to combine an informal kind of legitimiza-
tion for illegals now here, with a tight border
seal and a flexible program for authorizing tem-
porary workers."

39. Rodriguez, Jacobo.
Alienation of a New Generation of Chicanos.
Aztlan, 4:147-154, (Spring 1973).

It "is moral and rational to expedite legalities
and give permanent resident visas to all those
who are now living in this country without
documents in order for them to take care of
their families. Otherwise, the system is again
creating the alienated generation of tomorrow."

40. Shen, I-yao.
A Century of American Immigration Policy
Toward China. Foreign Service Journal, 51:10-
12, (July 1974).





POLICY STUDIES


This analysis shows how immigration laws have
been used to exclude the Chinese from the
United States.

41. Simon, Julian L.
A Policy to Promote the World's Economic
Development with Migration. Policy Sciences.
2:407-411, (December 1971).

"This paper proposes a scheme of large-scale
migration from poor countries to rich ones to
speed up economic development and raise the
world's economic level. The key behavioral
mechanism is nonschool learning: as the mi-
grants and their children take on the culture of
the rich country, they acquire the skills and at-
titudes necessary for modem industrial produc-
tion."

42. Stein, B.
Immigration As a Social Issue. In Industrial Re-
lations Research Association, Proceedings of
the Twenty-seventh Annual Winter Meeting,
December28-29, 1974, San Francisco. Madi-
son, Wisc., Industrial Relations Research Asso-
ciation, 1975. no page numbers given.

An examination, in very broad societal terms,
of the foreign policy aspects and economic con-
sequences of immigration.

43. Travers, Patrick J.
The Constitutional Status of State and Federal
Government Discrimination Against Resident
Aliens. Harvard International Law Journal,
16:113-131, (Winter 1975).

This comment "describes the evolution of the
Supreme Court's position with respect to this
form of discrimination and suggests the effect
its current position may have on the future en-
forceability of state and federal restrictions on
the activities of resident aliens."

44. U.S. Commission On Population Growth and the
American Future.
Immigration Recommendations of the Com-
mission on Population Growth and the Ameri-
can Future. International Migration Review,
6:290-294, (Fall 1972).


"The work of the Commission and its report
will most likely have a negligible impact on
those forces which traditionally shape the im-
migration policy of the United States."

DISSERTATIONS

45. George, Neil James.
The Interplay of Domestic and Foreign Con-
siderations in United States Immigration Policy.
Ph.D., 1975, Case Western Reserve University.
268 p.
UMI:75-27911

This study of the process of United States im-
migration policy formation examines the issue
from its historical origins to the most recent at-
tempt by formal representatives of the United
States government to establish an acceptable,
lasting, public policy.

A brief overview of the major developments
preceding the enactment of Federal immigra-
tion legislation is followed by an analysis of
several major attempts by the government to
establish a comprehensive and permanent im-
migration policy. Detailed attention is given to
the acts of 1921, 1924, 1952, and 1965.

The research suggests a behavioral consistency
and continuity in the formulation and deter-
mination of immigration policies. Congress
regularly viewed immigration primarily as a do-
mestic policy, while the executive branch regu-
larly viewed it primarily as an instrument of
foreign policy. Such findings show, in part,
why immigration policy was subjected to for-
mal reconsideration so often despite widespread
belief that a permanent policy was established.

46. Robledo, Amado.
The Impact of Alien Immigration on Public
Policy and Educational Services on Selected
Districts in the Texas Educational System.
Ed.D, 1977, University of Houston. 195 p.
UMI:78-09179

This study addressed several important issues
which have directly affected American society.
Primarily, it showed the degree of impact alien





IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


immigration is having on the Texas educational
system. Secondly, the study made recommend-
ations on public policy that have implications
in the educational field. The study focused on
the following questions: What have been some
of the consequences of immigration on school
funding, school personnel, and school facilities?
How have school systems responded to these
problems? The study also explored the whole
issue of illegal immigration and public policy
ramifications. It generated new data which
should prove useful to educators and others
who are concerned with initiating public policy
which will address this issue.

Federal and state governments should enact
legislation which provides financial assistance
to affected school districts. This should be
done in the most expeditious manner, as the
problem is severe and will increase in the fu-
ture. It is recommended that the state set aside
special funds for constructing facilities in
school districts experiencing large enrollments
of immigrant students. Residency and tuition
requirements should be clearly specified in
order to aid school officials in determining who
is eligible to attend Texas schools. The Texas
Education Agency should continue its yearly
immigrant student surveys and local school dis-
tricts should conduct in-depth studies on the
impact of immigrant students.


Refugees

GENERAL

Government Documents

47. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship,
and International Law.
Admission of Refugees into the United States:
Hearings, 95th Cong., 1st sess., on H.R. 3056,
February 24, March 3, and April 22, 1977.
Washington, D.C., 1977. 146 p.
LC: KF27/.J864/1977.

The bill, which did not go beyond the hearing
stage, would have broadened the definition of
"refugee," allowing for retroactive adjustment


of status after two years in the U.S., and estab-
lished numerous limitations for additional ad-
mission of emergency refugees under particular
conditions. The bill's emergency refugee provi-
sions terminate executive authority to grant
parole admission to emergency refugees, and
establish Congress's right to disapprove such
paroles.

48. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee on Refugees.
Subcommittee on Refugees: Report, 95th
Cong., 1st sess. Washington, D.C., 1977. 9 p.
LC: N.A.

This report is a history of the subcommittee
and description of its hearings and activities
during the 94th Congress.

49. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee To Investigate Problems
Connected With Refugees and Escapees.
U.S. Assistance to Refugees Throughout the
World, November 3, 1969. Washington, D.C.,
1969.80 p.
LC: HV640.4/.U54A5

This report is a source of information on refu-
gees and U.S. policy towards refugees. The
document is divided into four parts: (1)a
resume of world refugee problems, (2)a de-
scription of U.S. programs of assistance to
refugees (Intergovernmental Committee for
European Migration, United Nations Relief and
Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the
Near East, and others), (3) some basic findings
on the policy of the U.S., the administrative
structure of U.S. assistance to refugees, the role
of voluntary organizations, and other issues,
and (4) some recommendations for changes in
administration and policy.

Articles

50. Bondell, Jay A.
The Status of Political Fugitives and Refugees
Under United States Law. Brooklyn Journal of
International Law, 2:266-288, (Spring 1976).

"The United States has traditionally been lib-
eral in protecting the political fugitive. The






POLICY STUDIES


courts attempt to categorize an offense excep-
tion to extradition treaties and the immigration
laws in order to provide beneficial treatment
for the political refugee. However, there is
much room for improvement."

51. Frank, Ira L.
Effect of the 1967 United Nations Protocol on
the Status of Refugees in the United States.
International Lawyer, 11:291-305, (Spring
1977).

"How have the 1951 Convention and the 1967
Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees af-
fected the administration and interpretation of
Section 243(h) of the Immigration and Nation-
ality Act of 1952? Section 243(h) establishes
the humanitarian safeguard of withholding
deportation of an alien when, in the opinion of
the Attorney General, the alien would be sub-
ject to persecution on account of race, religion,
or political opinion."

52. Hill, Donal M.
Immigration Law and the Refugee-a Recom-
mendation to Harmonize the Statutes with the
Treaties. California Western International Law
Journal, 5:129-153, (Winter 1975).

The focus is on the failure of immigration law
"to conform to the requirement that all asylum
requests be considered on their merits."

INDOCHINESE

Books

53. American Bar Association. Young Lawyers Sec-
tion.
Indo-Chinese Refugee Legal Assistance Pro-
gram: an Interim Report. Chicago, 1977. 24 p.
LC: KF337.5/.R4A45

"The Indo-Chinese Refugee Legal Assistance
Program was started in July 1975 as part of the
commitment of the Young Lawyers Section to
provide needed legal advice to as many refugees
as sought it." This work, consisting of four
short essays, gives a history of the war that
brought Vietnamese refugees to the U.S. and


describes the setting up of the legal assistance
program.

Government Documents

*54. Anderson, Gerald O. and Robert A. Silano.
Operations NEW LIFE/NEW ARRIVALS. U.S.
Army Support to the Indochina Refugee Pro-
gram, 1 April 1975-1 June 1976. Washington,
D.C., Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and
Plans (Army), 1977. 270 p.
@LC: N.A., AD-A036 359/8ST

This is a Department of the Army after action
report which deals with U.S. Army involve-
ment in and support of the Indochinese refu-
gee program. Covering the period from 1 April
1975 to 1 June 1976, it focuses on the role of
the Army Staff in crisis management and other
aspects of Operations New Life and New Ar-
rivals as well as a brief account of Army sup-
port of Operation Babylift. Included in the re-
port are sections dealing with the preparation,
operation, and termination of the refugee
reception centers at Orote Point, Guam, Fort
Chaffee, Arkansas, and Fort Indiantown Gap,
Pennsylvania. Sections treating the participa-
tion of Army staff agencies and special areas of
concern also appear, including: resources and
environmental concerns, winterization, legal
considerations and repatriation, refugee em-
ployment and enlistment, and Congressional
oversight. A separate section on lessons learned
that includes planning factors, problems, rec-
ommendations, and suggested principles for
future operations concludes the report. Ap-
pendices contain relevant messages and docu-
ments, tables, illustrations and a bibliography,
plus a pictorial annex.

*55. Gonsalves, George Jr.
Operation New Life: Camp Orote-A Study in
Refugee Control and Administration, Doctrine
and Practice. Fort Leavenworth, Kans., Army
Command and General Staff College, 1976.
219 p.
@LC: N.A., AD-A031 622/4ST

As a result of the fall of the Government of
South Vietnam, more than 100,000 refugees






IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


fled that country. The majority of all refugees
under United States control were processed
through Camp Orote, an interim refugee center
on Guam. This study addresses the problems
experienced by Army personnel who were given
the mission of operating Camp Orote as a part
of Operation New Life. This camp reached a
peak population of 39,331 and processed more
than 90,000 refugees between 23 April 1975
and 24 June 1975. The methodology consisted
of the historical method of research in com-
bination with the author's eyewitness account
and personal notes. In describing the organiza-
tion, structure, and functions of the agencies
that were involved in the operation, primary
emphasis is on the Army's capabilities and ef-
forts. Based on the results achieved, the study
supports the hypothesis that current U.S. Army
doctrine and training are inadequate insofar as
they pertain to refugee administration and op-
eration. Specific recommendations are made to
improve doctrine and training.

56. HEW Refugee Task Force.
Report to the Congress. Washington, D.C.,
1976. 128 p.
LC: HV640.4/.U54H24/1976

A profile of the 130,000 refugees from Indo-
china (e.g. Vietnam and Cambodia) in the U.S.
by 1975 was obtained by surveying 1,424 heads
of families to determine their status in eco-
nomic, demographic, employment, and English
language skill terms. Statistics of refugees on
public assistance, services available to refugees
through the Department of Health, Education
and Welfare, and a description of settlement
work done by private agencies are included.

*57. Operation New Arrivals. Phase I-The Buildup,
27April 1975-23May 1975. Part I Eglin Air
Force Base, Fla., Armament Development and
Test Center, 1975. 235 p.
@LC: N.A., AD-A017 703/OST

The Eglin Refugee Processing Center at Auxiliary
Field 2, Eglin AFB, Florida, came into existence
as a direct consequence of the abrupt cessation of
the U.S. presence on 29 April 1975 in South
Vietnam (Republic of Vietnam-RVN). Before the
total collapse of the RVN, the U.S. provided the


means for Vietnamese employees of the U.S. con-
tractors and other Vietnamese to exit South
Vietnam for the U.S. The establishment of the
Eglin Refugee Processing Center as one of the
four refugee centers in CONUS is chronicled to
depict the planning, construction, operations, ad-
ministration, and impact of Operation New Ar-
rivals at Eglin AFB. Events and experiences en-
countered had both an ephemeral and permanent
value. For that reason those events and experi-
ences are discussed, analyzed, and critiqued to pro-
vide an overview of judicial interfacing of the in-
tegral parts of such functions as they affected the
whole. This approach was selected because it elim-
inated functional or organizational competition,
thus making it possible to answer in totality ex-
actly what the Air Force did. Phase I, the Buildup,
covers the period from 27 April to 23 May 1975
and includes selected supporting documents and
photographs.

*58. Operation New Arrivals. Phase II-The Pipeline
Phase. 24May-28 June 1975. Part II. Eglin Air
Force Base, Fla., Armament Development and
Test Center, 1975.99 p.
@LC: N.A., AD-A017 704/8ST

A continuation of the above history and analysis.

*59. Operation New Arrivals. Phase III-The Phase-
down, 29June 1975-19 September 1975. Part
III. Eglin Air Force Base, Fla., Armament Devel-
opment and Test Center, 1975. 150 p.
@LC: N.A., AD-A049 692/7ST

This report on Operation New Arrivals prepared
by the ADTC Office of History mirrors and chron-
icles an event which is without precedent for the
United States and, in particular, the United States
Air Force. The report for Phase I served as the
model for the record of policy-making decisions at
all levels in the Department of Defense and the
executive agencies of the Federal government.

*60. Silano, Robert A.
Joint Refugee Information Clearing Office

(JRICO). Washington, D.C., Army Element
Joint Refugee Information Clearing Office,
1976. 136 p.
LC: N.A.





POLICY STUDIES


This report provides an historical record of the
establishment, procedures, functions, and ob-
servations of the Joint Refugee Information
Clearing Office (JRICO). Its role was to ex-
pedite the Indochinese refugee sponsorship
process for members of the United States
military community by facilitating the location
of Vietnamese, Cambodian (Khmer), and
Laotian nationals who were evacuated and to
disseminate sponsorship and resettlement infor-
mation.

61. U.S. Congress. Conference Committees, 1975.
Indochina Migration and Refugee Assistance
Act of 1975: Conference Report to Accom-
pany H.R. 6755, 94th Cong., 1st sess. Wash-
ington, D.C., 1975. 5 p.

H.R. 6755, which became P.L. 94-23, author-
ized emergency assistance for transportation,
maintenance, and resettlement of Indochinese
refugees.

62. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Education
and Labor.
Indochina Refugee Children Assistance Act of
1975: Report to Accompany H.R. 7897 To-
gether With Dissenting Views, 94th Cong.,
1st sess. Washington, D.C., 1975. 16 p.
LC: N.A.

H.R. 7897 authorized Federal aid to state pro-
grams for education of Indochinese children
through fiscal year 1977. While this bill was not
passed, a similar bill was passed by the U.S.
Senate.

63. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Interna-
tional Relations.
Oversight Report on Assistance to Indochina
Evacuation, 94th Cong., 1st sess. Washington,
D.C., 1975. 6 p.
LC: N.A.

This report discusses the ways in which funds
appropriated under the Foreign Assistance Act
were used in refugee evacuation and settlement,
and in the evacuation of Americans and third
party nationals from Vietnam.


64. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on International
Relations.
The Vietnam-Cambodia Emergency, Part I-
Vietnam Evacuation and Humanitarian Assist-
ance: Hearings, 94th Cong., 1st sess., on H.R.
5960 [and] H.R. 5961. Washington, D.C.,
1976. 240 p.
LC: KF27/.1549/1975k/pt. 1

Six days of hearings, 9 April-8 May, included
testimony of Henry Kissinger, Daniel Parker,
Administrator, Agency for International De-
velopment, Congressional representatives, and
the Vietnamese and Cambodian Ambassadors.
They offer detailed information on the evacua-
tion of Indochinese refugees available.


65. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on International
Relations.
Vietnam Humanitarian Assistance and Evacua-
tion Act of 1975: Report Together With Dis-
senting, Minority, and Additional Views to Ac-
company H.R. 6096, 94th Cong., 1st sess.
Washington, D.C., 1975. 25 p.
LC: N.A.

H.R. 6096 was a combination of H.R. 5960 and
H.R. 5961; it authorized funds for evacuation
of Americans, their dependents, and some
South Vietnamese, from Vietnam.


66. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Appropria-
tions. Subcommittee on Foreign Operations and
Related Agencies Appropriations.
Special Assistance to Refugees from Cambodia
and Vietnam: Hearings, 94th Congress, 1st
sess. Washington, D.C., 1975. 61 p.
LC: KF27/.A646/1975

A request by HEW for funds to give special as-
sistance to Indochinese refugees is considered.
Tables give demographic characteristics of refu-
gees.


67. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on International
Relations. Special Subcommittee on Investiga-
tions.





IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


The Vietnam-Cambodia Emergency, 1975, Part
Ill-Vietnam Evacuation: Testimony of Am-
bassador Graham A. Martin. Hearing, 94th
Cong., 2d sess. January 27, 1976. Washington,
D.C. 1976. 87 p.
LC: KF27/.I549/1975k/pt. 3

These are chiefly responses to questions on
political and military aspects of the fall of Viet-
nam, but pp. 588-595 are a detailed discussion
of the first few refugee evacuations, including
airlift statistics for April 1975.

68. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on International
Relations. Subcommittee on International Or-
ganizations.
Human Rights in Cambodia. Hearing, 95th
Cong., 1st sess., July 26, 1977. Washington,
D.C. 1977.25 p.
LC: KF27/.I5494/1977d

The concerns are mostly diplomatic and mili-
tary, but the testimony of Charles Twining,
Department of State, touches on the Cam-
bodian refugees.

69. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on International
Relations. Subcommittee on International Or-
ganizations.
Human Rights in Vietnam. Hearings, 95th
Cong., 1st sess., June 16, 21, and July 26,
1977. Washington, D.C., 1977. 229 p.
LC: KF27/.I5494/1977h

Personal accounts of witnesses and press ac-
counts give a multiperspective, conflicting ac-
count of Vietnam after the war. Press reports of
the refugee situation are included.

70. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary.
Adjustment of Status for Indochina Refugees:
Report Together With Additional Views to Ac-
company H.R. 7769, 95th Cong., 1st sess.
Washington, D.C., 1977.
LC: N.A.

H.R. 7769, which became P.L. 95-145, author-
ized the Immigration and Naturalization Serv-
ice to allow Indochinese refugees to adjust their
status to become permanent resident aliens.


This bill is a clean version of H.R. 2051, and is
similar to H.R. 14447, considered during the
94th Congress.

71. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary.
Amending the Indochina Migration and Refu-
gee Assistance Act of 1975: Report to Ac-
company S. 2760, 94th Cong., 2nd sess. Wash-
ington, D.C., 1976. 8 p.
LC: N.A.

S. 2760 authorized assistance to Laotian refu-
gees.

72. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary.
Enabling the United States to Render Assist-
ance to, or in Behalf of, Certain Migrants and
Refugees; Report to Accompany H.R. 6755,
94th Cong., 1st sess. Washington, D.C., 1975.
14 p.

H.R. 6755, which became P.L. 94-23, author-
ized emergency assistance for the transporta-
tion, maintenance, and resettlement of Indo-
chinese refugees under the 1962 Migration and
Refugee Assistance Act.

73. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship,
and International Law.
Extension of Indochina Refugee Assistance
Program. Hearings, 95th Cong., 1st sess., on
H.R. 9133, H.R. 9134, and H.R. 9110. Wash-
ington, D.C., 1977. 240 p.
LC: N.A.

The text of the hearings held on September 23
and 27, 1977 is provided here. The bills under
discussion called for the extension of the Indo-
china Refugee Assistance Program, established
in 1975. During the first hearing the respective
roles and responsibilities of the Federal, state,
local governments and voluntary agencies in the
resettlement process were discussed. The sec-
ond hearing was a continuation of the sub-
committee's consideration of the various pro-
posals to extend the program. The texts of the
four bills are included.






POLICY STUDIES


74. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship,
and International Law. ,
Indochina Refugees-Adjustment of Status:
Hearings, 95th Cong., 1st sess., on H.R. 2051,
May 25 and June 2, 1977. Washington, D.C.,
1977. 162 p.
LC: KF27/.J864/1977a

H.R. 2051 would have authorized I&NS to ad-
just the status of some refugees to that of per-
manent resident alien without regard to exist-
ing numerical limitations on immigration. It
never moved beyond the hearing stage. The
subcommittee was Subcommittee No. 1 at the
time.

75. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship,
and International Law.
Indochina Refugees: Hearings, 94th Cong., 1st
sess., May 5 and 7, 1975. Washington, D.C.,
1975. 129 p.
LC: KF27/.J864/1975

The hearings contain information on Indochina
refugees, and deliberations on H.R. 6755, the
Indochina Migration and Refugee Assistance
Act of 1975, which became law less than three
weeks after these hearings. The subcommittee
was Subcommittee No. 1 at the time.

76. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship,
and International Law.
Refugees from Indochina: Hearings, 94th
Cong., 1st and 2d sess., April 8, 1975-Febru-
ary 5, 1976. Washington, D.C., 1976. 746 p.
LC: KF27/.J864/1975d

These hearings examined U.S. involvement in
the evacuation of Vietnamese, Laotian, and
Cambodian refugees to the U.S. The hearing on
February 5th was part of the process of includ-
ing Laotian refugees under the migration and
resettlement assistance provisions.

77. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Appropria-
tions.


Special Appropriations for Assistance to Refu-
gees from Cambodia and Vietnam: Report to
Accompany H.R. 6894, 94th Cong., 1st sess.
Washington, D.C., 1975. 4 p.
LC: N.A.

A request for appropriations for fiscal year
1975.

78. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign
Relations.
Indochina Migration and Refugee Assistance
Act of 1975: Report to Accompany S. 1661,
94th Cong., 1st sess. Washington, D.C., 1975.
31 p.
LC: N.A.

S. 1661 was the companion bill to H.R. 6755,
noted above.

79. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Human Re-
sources.
Indochina Migration and Refugee Assistance
Act of 1977: Report to Accompany S. 2108,
95th Cong., 1st sess. Washington, D.C., 1977.
7 p.
LC: N.A.

S. 2108, is intended to extend the Indochina Mi-
gration and Refugee Assistance Act of 1975 for
an additional four years of settlement benefits.

80. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee to Investigate Problems Con-
nected with Refugees and Escapees.
Aftermath of War: Humanitarian Problems of
Southeast Asia: Staff Report, 94th Cong., 2d
sess., May 27, 1976. Washington, D.C., 1976.
589 p.
LC: N.A.

The report summarizes U.S. and international
agency programs aiding war victims in Indo-
china and resettling refugees in the U.S. Rec-
ommendations on U.S. policy towards nor-
malization of relations with Vietnam and hu-
manitarian aid for refitgees are included. Ap-
pendices include reports from UNICEF, the
World Health Organization, the UN, the Red
Cross, HEW, and GAO.





IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


81. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee to Investigate Problems Con-
nected with Refugees and Escapees.
Indochina Evacuation and Refugee Problems.
Part I: Operation Babylift and Humanitarian
Needs: Hearing, 94th Cong., 1st sess., April 8,
1975. Washington, D.C. 134 p.
LC: KF26/.J869/1975/pt. I

Testimony from Daniel Parker, Agency for
International Development, and seven private
refugee relief organizations detail how each is
helping Indochinese refugees. Appendices give
the text of Senator Kennedy's emergency hu-
manitarian assistance bill, an assessment of
relief needs in Cambodia, and an analysis of
factors involved in Operation Babylift.

82. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee to Investigate Problems
Connected with Refugees and Escapees.
Indochina Evacuation and Refugee Problems.
Part II: the Evacuation: Hearings, 94th Cong.,
1st sess., April 15, 25, and 30, 1975. Washing-
ton, D.C., 1975. 257 p.
LC: KF267/.J869/1975/pt. II

Testimony from Department of State em-
ployees, private relief agencies, and I&NS repre-
sentatives detail the roles of each organization
in the evacuation. Appendices give Senator
Kennedy's statements and appeals regarding the
Indochinese refugees.

83. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee to Investigate Problems Con-
nected with Refugees and Escapees.
Indochina Evacuation and Refugee Problems.
Part III: Reception and Resettlement in the
U.S.: Hearing, 94th Cong., 1st sess., May 13,
1975. Washington, D.C. 1975. 145 p.
LC: KF26/.J869/1975/pt. III

Representatives from State, I&NS, Health,
Education, and Welfare, and private relief agen-
cies explain their roles in the settlement proc-
ess. Appendices give background material, in-
cluding a General Accounting Office Report,
U.S. Provides Safe Haven for Indochina Refu-
gees, cited elsewhere in this bibliography.


84. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee to Investigate Problems Con-
nected with Refugees and Escapees.
Indochina Evacuation and Refugee Problems:
Part V: Conditions in Indochina and Refu-
gees in the U.S.: Hearing, 94th Cong., 1st sess.,
July 24, 1975. Washington, D.C., 1975. 245 p.
LC: KF26/.J869/1975/pt. V.

Representatives of the Inter-Agency Task Force
on Indochina Refugees, voluntary agencies, and
Philip Habib, Assistant Secretary of State for
East Asian and Pacific Affairs, give testimony
on their roles in the settlement process. A case
study by David Johnson estimates the cost in
goods and services for resettlement of a family
of four adults in Minneapolis, Minn. The Task
Force Report and selected press reports on
conditions in Indochina and Indochinese refu-
gees in the U.S., make up the balance of the
report.


85. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Labor and
Public Welfare. Subcommittee on Education.
Indochina Refugee Children Assistance Act,
1975: Hearing, 94th Cong., 1st sess., on
S. 2145, September 9, 1975. Washington, D.C.,
1976. 57 p.
LC: KF26/.L343/1975f

The act provided Federal financial assistance
to states to help local school districts provide
education for Vietnamese and Cambodian refu-
gees. Statistical data on refugee resettlement by
state are included. Testimony was given by
J. Glenn Beall, Senator from Maryland, John V.
Tunney, Senator from California, Donald
Wortman, Director, HEW Refugee Task Force,
and others.


86. U.S. General Accounting Office.
Domestic Resettlement of Indochinese Refu-
gees-Struggle for Self-Reliance, Department of
State, Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare: Report to the Congress by the Comp-
troller General of the United States. Washing-
ton, D.C., 1977. 47 p.
LC: HV640.4/.U54U54/1977





POLICY STUDIES


"This report deals with our observations on the
two resettlement phases of the program:
(1) placing the refugees with sponsors and their
initial steps toward being integrated into Ameri-
can society, and (2) providing additional assist-
ance to refugees in the early stages of resettle-
ment and assessing their progress since their
departure from the reception centers."

The roles of voluntary agencies, Federal, state,
and local governments in the resettlement proc-
ess, and obstacles to self-sufficiency are dis-
cussed. Statistics on numbers of refugees, refu-
gees on public assistance, and refugee unem-
ployment are presented.

87. U.S. General Accounting Office.
U.S. Provides Safe Haven for Indochinese Refu-
gees, Department of State and Other Agen-
cies: Report to the Congress by the Comp-
troller General of the United States. Washing-
ton, D.C., 1975. 60 p.
LC: HV640.4/.U54U54/1975

"This report contains information on the refu-
gee program based on GAO's independent re-
view and onsite observation of processing pro-
cedures from May 12 to May 23."

Chapters report on the screening, reception,
and resettlement of refugees, make estimates
of costs of the program, and note potential
problem areas.

Articles

88. Costello, Mary.
Indochinese Refugees. Editorial Research Re-
ports, 2:8, 639-660, (1977).

"To date, the United States has accepted more
than 150,000 Indochinese refugees, most of
them from Vietnam. The vast majority were
granted asylum over two years ago, and subse-
quent attempts to admit more refugees have
encountered opposition in Congress and
throughout the country. The Carter adminis-
tration recently decided to accept an addi-
tional 15,000, but there were warnings from
Congress that any further large-scale admissions
would be resisted."


OTHER GROUPS

Government Documents

89. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship,
and International Law.
Haitian Emigration, 94th Cong., 2d sess. Wash-
ington, D.C. 1976. 36 p.
LC: JV6895/.H34U54/1976


The hearing concerned claims for political
asylum and requests for administrative relief
made by Haitians. Appendices detail State De-
partment and I&NS guidelines relating to polit-
ical asylum.


90. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship,
and International Law.
Refugees from Sicily. Hearing, 90th Cong., 2d
sess., on H.R. 14806, H.R. 14807, and H.R.
14808, and similar bills, for the relief of vic-
tims of the earthquake in Sicily, February 21,
1968. Washington, D.C., 1968. 45 p.
LC: KF27/.J8/1968


"The Subcommittee is meeting today to [con-
sider] legislation to permit the immediate ad-
mission into the United States of victims of the
recent earthquake disaster in Sicily ...


"The United States has had a long tradition of
offering a haven to the distressed and suffer-
ing... and this is certainly no exception."


The three bills introduced (none of which be-
came law) were similar in most respects, the
most important difference being that different
numbers of special immigration visas were pro-
vided. Testimony by Emanuel Celler, chairman,
Committee on the Judiciary, Barbara Watson,
Acting Administrator, Bureau of Security and
Consular Affairs, and representatives of Italian
interest groups, as well as statements from
28 Congressional representatives and other in-
terested parties, are included. The subcom-
mittee was Subcommittee No. 1 at the time.






IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


91. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee to Investigate Problems Con-
nected with Refugees and Escapees.
Cuban Refugee Problem: Hearings, 89th Cong.,
2d sess. Washington, D.C., 1969. In three parts.
304 p.
LC: HV640.5/.C9U53

"Last November... the United States and
Havana concluded a memorandum of under-
standing, which provided for a regular monthly
airlift of some 4,000 refugees to Miami...

"We are interested in the background, opera-
tion, and significance of the memorandum of
understanding, and its effect on Cuban-
American relations. We are interested in condi-
tions in Cuba which lead to the exodus of so
many of its citizens...

"We are interested in the effectiveness of the
Cuban refugee program and the resettlement
experience of refugees throughout the coun-
try...

"Of special concern ... [is] the number of
Cubans on public welfare rolls, the impact of
refugees in the labor market, alleged security
problems, and incidents of crime and drug
peddling involving Cuban nationals.

"... a most important issue concerns the in-
ability of most Cubans to practice their pro-
fession or skill ... because of their immigration
status as parolees rather than permanent resi-
dents."

*92. U.S. General Accounting Office. International
Division.
U.S. Assistance Provided for Resettling Soviet
Refugees: Departments of State and Justice.
Washington, D.C., 1977. 86 p.
@LC: N.A.

Assistance to refugees has been an established
part of American foreign policy. This report
describes how U.S. funds have been used to
aid the resettlement of refugees from the Soviet
Union. To assist in efforts to evaluate the ad-
ministration of the program, the Congress may
want to provide more specific criteria of the


types of activities it would like to support in
the future and decide whether fund expendi-
tures should be generally related to the num-
ber of refugees.

Articles

93. Markowitz, Arthur A.
Humanitarianism versus Restrictionism: the
United States and the Hungarian Refugees.
International Migration Review, 7:1, 46-59,
(Spring 1973).

This article describes the 1956 relief and re-
settlement program for displaced Hungarian
refugees. Attitudes leading to the termination
of the program are discussed.

Undocumented Aliens

BOOKS

94. Cornelius, Wayne A.
Illegal Migration to the United States: Recent
Research Findings, Policy Implication and Re-
search Priorities. Cambridge, Mass., Center for
International Studies, Massachusetts Institute
of Technology, 1977. 28 p.
LC: N.A.

"The basic argument advanced in this paper is
that a truly effective long-term solution to the
problem of illegal Mexican migration to the
United States can be achieved only through
concerted, bilateral efforts, with primary em-
phasis on action by the Mexican government."

95. Dunbar, T., and L. Kravitz.
Hard Traveling, Migrant Farm Workers in
America. Cambridge, Mass., Ballinger, 1976.
158 p.
LC: N.A.

There are some 830,000 migrant farm workers
in the United States, plus an unknown number
of children who accompany and often work
with them. There is difficulty in defining ex-
actly what a "migrant" is; the Federal govern-
ment, for example, uses at least six different
definitions of the term. They are freelance
workers who drift from farm to farm, often






POLICY STUDIES


covering thousands of miles a month, seeking
temporary jobs during the short-lived periods
of plenty, the cultivating and harvesting sea-
sons. The book discusses impacts of undocu-
mented immigration from Mexico, and the U.S.
Government's failure to devise intelligent poli-
cies for immigration and/or elevation of the
standard of living for migrants. Though cur-
rent government policies create special spending
programs, they are directed towards effects, not
causes. Proposals are put forward for construc-
tive government response, based on new poli-
cies toward immigration from Mexico, support
of migrant efforts to organize unions, and im-
proved educational and vocational oppor-
tunities for migrant workers.

96. National Council on Employment Policy.
Illegal Aliens: An Assessment of the Issues:
A Policy Statement and Conference Report
With Background Papers. Washington, D.C.,
1976. 76 p.
LC: N.A.

Papers by Michael Piore, David North and
Marion Houstoun, Ray Marshall, Gilbert
Cardenas, and Joyce Vialet are included.


GO VERNMENT DOCUMENTS

97. Gallup Organization.
The Gallup Study of Attitudes Toward Illegal
Aliens. Conducted for the Immigration and
Naturalization Service. Princeton, N.J., 1976.
20 p.
LC: N.A.

This survey attempted to assess the attitudes of
1,549 adults regarding the level of immigration
considered desirable, the extent to which un-
documented aliens enter the U.S., and the
seriousness of problems caused by the presence
of undocumented aliens.

98. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary.
Amending the Immigration and Nationality
Act, and For Other Purposes: Report To-
gether With Additional, Supplemental, and


Dissenting Views to Accompany H.R. 8713,
94th Cong., 1st sess. Washington, D.C., 1975.
41 p.
LC: N.A.

H.R. 8713 would make unlawful the knowing
hiring of undocumented aliens, and estab-
lish a three-step procedure for the imposi-
tion of sanctions against employers who know-
ingly do so.

99. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary.
Amending the Immigration and Nationality
Act, and for Other Purposes: Report Together
with Individual Views to Accompany H.R.
16188, 92d Cong., 2d sess. Washington, D.C.,
1972. 15 p.
LC: N.A.

"The purpose of this bill is to make it unlawful
to knowingly hire aliens who have not been
lawfully admitted for permanent residence or
are not authorized by the Attorney General to
work while in the United States and to estab-
lish a three-step procedure for the imposition
of sanctions against employers who hire illegal
aliens." The bill passed the House but died in
the Senate.

100. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship,
and International Law.
Amending the Immigration and Nationality
Act, and for Other Purposes: Report Together
with Additional Views to Accompany H.R.
982. 93rd Cong., 1st sess. Washington, D.C.
1973. 28 p.
LC: N.A.

The amendment repeals the proviso in section
274 of the Immigration and Nationality Act,
and establishes a three step procedure for the
imposition of sanctions against employers who
knowingly hire undocumented aliens. The bill
also requires the Department of Health, Educa-
tion, and Welfare to disclose to I&NS names of
undocumented aliens receiving assistance under
any state plan of the Social Security Act.






IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


101. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship,
and International Law.
Illegal Aliens: Hearings, 94th Cong., 1st sess.,
on H.R. 982 and related bills, February 4-
March 19, 1975. Washington, D.C., 1975.
450 p.
LC: KF27/.J864/1975a

Various questions relating to undocumented
aliens are considered: Should there be a citi-
zenship identification system? Should there be
amnesty for undocumented residents? What ai,
the social costs of providing health care and
welfare for undocumented aliens? What border
security problems exist?

102. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship,
and International Law.
Illegal Aliens. Hearings, 92d Cong., 1st and 2d
sess., May 5, 1971-March 24, 1972 in various
cities. Washington, D.C., 1971-1972. 5 v. in
one.
LC: KF27/.J8666/1971m

These are investigative and legislative hearings
on the increasing number of apprehended un-
documented aliens and on the impact of an
indeterminate number of undocumented aliens
on I&NS, the labor market, unemployment,
welfare and medical programs, and crime and
living conditions in various U.S. cities. Each of
these parts was also issued separately.

103. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship,
and International Law.
Illegal Aliens. Hearings, 93rd Cong., 1st sess.,
March 7 and 8, 1973. Washington, D.C., 1973.
85 p.
LC: KF27/.J8666/1973a

H.R. 982 would have revised procedures for the
adjustment of status of aliens, established pen-
alties for employing undocumented aliens, re-
quired HEW to disclose names of undocu-
mented aliens receiving public assistance, and
expanded the illegality of falsification of im-
migrant documents. It was sent to the Senate
Judiciary Committee later that spring, and died


there. The subcommittee was Subcommittee
No. 1 at the time.

104. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship,
and International Law.
Illegal Aliens: A Review of Hearings Con-
ducted During the 92d Congress, 93rd Cong.,
1st sess. Washington, D.C., 1973. 27 p.
LC: KF27/.J8666/1973

This review of hearings and investigations was
conducted by the members of what was then
Subcommittee No. 1 during the 92d Congress.
Besides the hearings, the subcommittee held
many formal and informal conferences with
officials and employees of the Departments of
State, Justice, and Labor. The observations,
findings, and conclusions are set forth in terms
of answers to and discussions of the questions
originally asked by the subcommittee: How
many undocumented aliens are in the U.S.?
Why is the number increasing? Do they displace
American workers? Do they depress wages, or
burden welfare rolls and other governmental
programs? Do they adversely affect our bal-
ance of payments by sending money to their
countries of origin? Are they victimized by
smugglers, unscrupulous employers, and others?

105. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee on Immigration and Naturali-
zation.
Immigration 1976: Hearings, 94th Cong., 2d
sess. on S. 3074, March 17-April 18, 1976.
Washington, D.C., 1976. 274 p.
LC: KF26/.J852/1976

"S.3074 [is] an omnibus immigration reform
bill including provisions relating both to Wes-
tern Hemisphere immigration and to the [em-
ployment] of undocumented aliens.

106. U.S. Domestic Council. Committee on Illegal
Aliens.
Preliminary Report. Washington, D.C., 1976.
295 p.
LC: JV6416/.A8/1976

This is the report of a "Cabinet-level committee
established in January 1975 by President Ford





POLICY STUDIES


chaired by Attorney General Edward H. Levi.
[It] reviews [the] illegal alien problem in the
contexts of 'international push-pull factors' and
U.S. immigration law and policy; considers its
domestic impact and the characteristics of
illegal aliens, and concludes that 'illegal immi-
gration is significant and growing'. The report
recommends amnesty, penalties for [knowingly
employing undocumented aliens], and in-
creased resources for INS and State Depart-
ment activities aimed at prevention."

107. U.S. General Accounting Office.
More Needs to be Done to Reduce the Number
and Adverse Impact of Illegal Aliens in the
United States, Immigration and Naturalization
Service. Department of Justice. Report to the
Congress. By the Comptroller General of the
United States. Washington, D.C., 1973. 76 p.
LC: JV6416/.A8/1973

"This report deals with the illegal alien prob-
lem, its impact on I&NS enforcement opera-
tions, and the coordination of I&NS activities
with those of other Government agencies to
help relieve some of the burdens caused by
illegal aliens."

*108. U.S. General Accounting Office. General Govern-
ment Division.
Illegal Entry at United States-Mexico Border-
Multiagency Enforcement Efforts Have Not
Been Effective in Stemming the Flow of Drugs
and People. Washington, D.C., 1977. 121 p.
@LC: N.A., PB-274 754/1ST

The inflow of undocumented aliens and illicit
drugs across the United States-Mexico border
continues. Federal agencies responsible for law
enforcement along the border operate almost
independently; little consideration is given for
each other's missions. These separate yet similar
lines of effort are diluting border coverage and
control. This report addresses the need for
effective leadership and direction; it contains
recommendations to Federal agencies and to
the Congress intended to strengthen law en-
forcement at the border.


ARTICLES

109. Hohl, Donald G., and Michael G. Wenk.
Legislative and Judicial Developments: the Il-
legal Alien and the Western Hemisphere Im-
migration Dilemma. International Migration Re-
view, 7:323-332, (Fall 1973).

This article discusses the principal issues raised
by the House Subcommittee on Immigration
and Nationality [sic] in the 93rd Congress.
Also included are analyses of H.R. 982 as
passed by the House, imposing sanctions on
employers who knowingly hire undocumented
aliens, and of the issue of Western Hemisphere
immigration. A discussion of a preference sys-
tem for the Western Hemisphere and cross-
border commuters is also presented.

110. Piore, Michael J.
The "New Immigration" and the Presumptions
of Social Policy. In Industrial Relations Re-
search Association, Proceedings of the Twenty-
seventh Annual Winter Meeting, Decem-
ber 28-29, 1974, San Francisco. Madison, Wise.,
Industrial Relations Research Association,
1975. no page numbers given.

The undocumented immigration of the last
decade is discussed. The paper concludes that it
is necessary to develop social policies to con-
tend with ensuing problems.



The Immigration and Nationality Act
Amendments of 1965

GO VERNMENT DOCUMENTS

111. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship,
and International Law.
Immigration. Hearings, 89th Cong., 1st sess.
Washington, D.C., 1965. 487 p.
LC: KF27/.J8666/1965d

These hearings were intended "to undertake a
complete and public airing of all of the major





IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


issues involved in recommendations for immi-
gration reform expressed in the Administra-
tion's bill as well as the public issues which
grow out of that proposal."

112. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship
and International Law.
Immigration. Hearings, 90th Cong., 2d sess.
Washington, D.C., 1968.153 p.
LC: KF27/.J8/1968i

The Subcommittee was known as subcom-
mittee No. 1 when these hearings were held.
The purpose was to review the magnitude and
effects of the Immigration Act of 1965, since
the transition period (1 December 1965
through 30 June 1968) between the enactment
of the 1965 law and the date it became
effective. Statements were made by Barbara
Watson, Acting Administrator, Bureau of Se-
curity and Consular Affairs, Department of
State, Raymond Farrell, Commissioner, Immi-
gration and Naturalization Service, and Stanley
Ruttenberg, Assistant Secretary of Labor for
Manpower.

113. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship
and International Law.
Immigration. Hearing, 90th Cong., 2d sess., on
H.R. 15450, a bill to amend section 101(a)
(27)(D) of the Immigration and Nationality Act
to exempt from numerical limitation members
of certain religious denominations, March 27,
1968. Washington, D.C. 1968. 12 p.
LC: KF27/.J8666/1968d

H.R. 15450 would have exempted "from the
numerical limitations on immigration any immi-
grant who continuously, for at least 2 years
immediately preceding the time of his applica-
tion for admission .. has been, and who seeks
to enter the United States solely for the
purpose of serving as a missionary, brother,
nun, or sister of a religious denomination
having a bona fide organization in the United
States, and the spouse or child of any such im-
migrant..." Testimony was given by Barbara
Watson, Acting Administrator, Bureau of Se-
curity and Consular Affairs, and others. The


subcommittee was Subcommittee No. 1 at the
time.

114. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship
and International Law.
Immigration. Hearings, 90th Congress, 2d sess.,
on the effect of the act of October 3, 1965, on
immigration from Ireland and northern Europe,
July 3 and September 18, 1968. Washington,
D.C., 1968. 90 p.
LC: KF27/.J8666/1968f

"The Immigration Act of 1965 became fully
effective on Monday, July 1 of this year...
This hearing will give ... representatives of
organizations who believe that the ... Act...
has created and will create inequities for na-
tionals of certain countries which previously
had enjoyed what might be considered favored
treatment . ." [a chance to speak on these is-
sues] .

"The question again presents itself, how we
may maintain the principle that every immi-
grant applicant should be treated without con-
sideration of his place of birth, color of his
skin, or political or religious affiliation and at
the same time provide a minimum number of
immigrants from each country that previously
did not use the full numbers allocated to
them.

Testimony by members of Irish ethnic groups and
statements from 15 Congressional representatives
are included. Statistics on immigrants, by pref-
erence categories and countries, cover fiscal years,
1966-68; statistics on labor certification requests
from potential Irish immigrants are also included.
The subcommittee was Subcommittee No. 1 at
the time.

115. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship,
and International Law.
Immigration. Hearings, 91st Cong., 1st sess., on
H.R. 445, 7022, 9112, and 9554, concerning
nonimmigrant visas, September 10-Novem-
ber 19, 1969. Washington, D.C., 1970. 323 p.
LC: KF27/.J8666/1969k





POLICY STUDIES


Ten days of hearings were held to consider
amendments to the Immigration and .Nation-
ality Act of 1965 which would have changed
admission regulations for several classes of
immigrants, notably fiances and finances, and
nonimmigrants such as cultural exchange visi-
tors and executives of multinational corpora-
tions. Among the witnesses were Harold
Margulies, formerly of the American Medical
Association, Kenneth Meiklejohn, legislative
representative, AFL-CIO, and Barbara Watson,
Administrator, Bureau of Security and Coun-
sular Affairs. The subcommittee was the Sub-
committee on Immigration and Nationality
when these hearings were held.

116. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee on Immigration and Nation-
ality.
Immigration. Hearings, 89th Cong., 1st sess.
Washington, D.C., 1965.
LC: KF26/.J852/1965

This hearing "on bill, S. 500 to eliminate the
national origins quota system of selecting immi-
grants," includes statements from the Attorney
General, Secretary of State, Secretary of Labor,
and several Senators and Representatives. The
Administrator of the Bureau of Security and
Consular Affairs, the Assistant Attorney Gen-
eral, the Secretary of the Department of
Health, Education and Welfare, and the Sur-
geon General also made statements.

117. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee to Investigate the Adminis-
tration of the Internal Security Act and Other
Internal Security Laws.
Proposed Amendments to Internal Security
Laws. Hearings, 92d Cong., 1st sess. on S. 1499,
S. 1500, S. 1501, S. 1502, S. 1503, [and]
S. 1504, May 11, 12, and 13, 1971. Parts 1-3.
Washington, D.C., 1971. 3 v.
LC: KF26/.J832/1971a

S. 1500 would have made eight changes in the
Immigration and Nationality Act; some of
which were the following: (1)transfer visa-
issuance from the Department of State to
Justice, (2)modify regulations covering aliens
ineligible for visas, (3) provide supervision of an


alien under an order of deportation, and (4) re-
lax the stringent requirements for instituting
denaturalization proceedings.


ARTICLES

118. Association of the Bar of the City of New York.
Special Committee on Sex and Law.
Sexual Discrimination in the Immigration and
Nationality Act. Record of the Association of
the Bar of the City of New York, 31:593-596,
(November 1976).

The Committee urged "that the Immigration
and Nationality Act be amended insofar as it
excludes aliens from the United States and/or
U.S. citizenship on the basis of their private
sexual behavior as and with consenting adults."

119. Farrell, Raymond
The Role of the Immigration and Naturaliza-
tion Service in the Administration of Current
Immigration Law. International Migration Re-
view, 4:3, 16-30, (1970).

The article outlines the functions of the Immi-
gration and Naturalization Service in the imple-
mentation of the 1965 Immigration Act. It also
provides data on numbers of visa petitions filed,
Cuban adjustments, and the origins and char-
acteristics of immigrants since 1965.

120. Keely, Charles B.
Effects of the Immigration Act of 1965 on
Selected Population Characteristics of Immi-
grants to the United States. Demography,
8:157-169, (May 1971).

Changes in the 1965 Immigration Act affected
two characteristics of immigrants: their coun-
tries of origin and occupational levels. Some
effects of the policy changes and the changes in
population characteristics of the American so-
cial and political scene are briefly outlined.

121. Keely, Charles B.
Philippine Migration: Internal Movements and
Emigration to the United States. International
Migration Review, 7:2, 177-187, (Summer
1973).






IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


Major population movements of the Philippines
are discussed. In particular, the article examines
trends in immigration to the U.S. and detailed
characteristics of U.S. bound emigrants.

122. Rodino, Peter W., Jr.
New Immigration Law in Retrospect. Interna-
tional Migration Review, 2:3, 56-61, (1968).

According to P.L. 89-236, (the Immigration
Act of 1965), on June 30, 1968 the national
origins system was completely phased out of
use. The author, writing as a participant in the
legislation, reveals his unsuccessful effort to end
the national origins system without the phase-
out provision. His purpose, as proposed in
legislation introduced in 1967 and 1968, was to
restructure entrance priorities for skilled aliens.
The hope for "corrective legislation" in 1968,
an election year, was deemed unlikely.

DISSERTATIONS

123. Keely, Charles Borromeo.
The Immigration Act of 1965: A Study of the
Relationship of Social Science Theory to Group
Interest and Legislation. Ph.D., 1970, Fordham
University. 247 p.
UMI:70-20125

The study focuses on the relationship of social
science theories of assimilation to immigration
legislation. There are two aspects to the prob-
lem. The first is the role of scientific theory in
the process of adopting legislation and, second,
the use of results of legislation to test scientific
propositions. Antecedents and consequences of
the most recent major immigration legislation,
the Immigration Act of 1965, are used for a
case study of the problem.

Analysis of the provisions of the 1965 Act and
the effect of the provisions of the Act on the
characteristics of the immigrant population
makes it evident that the law was based on
conflicting theories and the different provisions
worked at cross purposes. Thus, the effects of
the 1965 Immigration Act cannot be presented
validly as support for or evidence against any of
the theoretical premises upon which the bill
was enacted.


The study showed that (1) social science the-
ories played a supportive and not an innovative
role in the process of influence, (2) assimilation
theories are closely associated to assimilation
ideologies, and (3) the best known or "clas-
sical" theories of American assimilation fail to
include the legislative variables. The final chap-
ter, therefore, presents an analysis of theories
of assimilation and shows how the concept of
interest groups can be used in future theoretical
developments.


Citizenship and Naturalization

GO VERNMENTDOCUMENTS

124. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary.
Amending Section 301(b) of the Immigration
and Nationality Act as Amended: Report to
Accompany H.R. 8273, 92d Cong., 2d sess.
Washington, D.C., 1972. 9 p.
LC: N.A.

H.R. 8273, which became P.L. 92-262,
amended the Act relating to residence require-
ments for citizens who were born abroad of one
alien and one U.S. citizen parent.

125. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary.
Amending Section 319 of the Immigration and
Nationality Act: Report to Accompany H.R.
1536, 92d Cong., 2d sess. Washington, D.C.,
1972.6 p.
LC: N.A.

H.R. 1536, which died in the Senate, provided
for quick naturalization of the surviving parents
of a serviceman who died while on active duty
during a war.

126. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary.
Amending Sections 320(a) and 321(a) of the
Immigration and Nationality Act: Report to
Accompany H.R. 1534, 92d Cong., 1st sess.
Washington, D.C., 1971.4 p.
LC: N.A.





POLICY STUDIES


H.R. 1534, which died in committee, changed
the age of automatic acquisition of U.S. citizen-
ship by children, due to a parent's naturaliza-
tion. The age would have been raised from 16
to 18.

127. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship
and International Law.
Amending the Immigration and Nationality
Act: Report to Accompany H.R. 6420, 92d
Cong., 2d sess. Washington, D.C., 1972. 3 p.
LC: N.A.

H.R. 6420, which died in the Senate, increased
the maximum amount of naturalization fees
which could be retained by clerks of state
courts.

128. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship,
and International Law.
Immigration. Hearing, 90th Cong., 1st sess.,
March 8, 1967. Washington, D.C., 1967.
LC: KF27/.J8666/1967g

Hearings were held on three bills "to change the
exemption from the English language require-
ment (for naturalization) of section 312 of the
Immigration and Nationality Act; and to amend
section 301(b) of the Immigration and Nation-
ality Act." Testimony was given by Representa-
tives de la Garza and Mink and Mr. Rudnick,
Immigration and Naturalization Service.

129. U.S. Congress. House. Committee on the Judi-
ciary. Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship,
and International Law.
Immigration. Hearings, 94th Cong., 1st sess.,
March 1, 1976. Washington, D.C. 1967. 31 p.
LC: KF27/.J8666/1967f

Hearings were held on seven bills "to amend the
Immigration and Nationality Act to provide for
the naturalization of persons through active-
duty service in the Armed Forces." Testimony
was given by Representatives Rooney, Rodino,
Donohue, Kelly, and Ryan, by Mr. Rudnick,
Immigration and Naturalization Service, by
Captain Fickenscher, U.S. Navy. Statements


from Representatives de la Garza and Mat-
sunaga and various veterans organizations are
also included.

130. U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on the Judi-
ciary.
Granting an Alien Child Adopted by an Un-
married U.S. Citizen the Same Immigrant
Status as an Alien Child Adopted by a U.S.
Citizen and His Spouse: Report to Accompany
H.R. 568, 94th Cong., 1st sess. Washington,
D.C., 1975. 6 p.
LC: N.A.

H.R. 568 became P.L. 94-155.


ARTICLES

131. Bell, Steven S.
Expatriation: Constitutional and Non-
Constitutional Citizenship. California Law Re-
view. 60:1587-1614, (November 1972).

This comment "examines the law of expatria-
tion for each of these three types of citizen-
ship: citizenship by birth in the United States,
citizenship by naturalization in the United
States, and citizenship by birth abroad when
one parent is a United States citizen."

132. Bragg, Morgan Stevenson.
Citizenship and Expatriation of "Non-
Fourteenth Amendment" Citizens. University
of Florida Law Review, 24:373-378, (Winter
1972).

The case note reviews a Supreme Court decision
holding that citizens outside the 14th amend-
ment definition of citizenship may be ex-
patriated for not meeting reasonable require-
ments.

133. DiGrazia, Anthony A.
Citizenship and the Supreme Court. Illinois Bar
Journal, 60:690-696, 698-700, (May 1972).

This article surveys Supreme Court decisions on
citizenship and concludes that the concept
needs further clarification by the Court.





IMMIGRATION LITERATURE


134. Fujiwara, Gary Y.
New Naturalization Law. Immigration and Nat-
uralization Reporter. 18:18-20, 23, (October
1969).


Comment is made on the special naturalization
privileges provided by P.L. 90-633 to military
personnel.


135. Harvey, Gerald C.
Expatriation Law in the United States: the
Confusing Legacy of Afroyim and Bellei. Co-
lumbia Journal of Transnational Law, 13:3,
406-435, (1974).


An examination of the development of ex-
patriation and citizenship law in the U.S.


136. Hertz, Michael T.
Limits to the Naturalization Power. George-
town Law Journal, 64:1007-1045, (May 1976).


"Three interrelated principles govern the nat-
uralization power under the Constitution: the
power must be uniformly employed on a
national basis, naturalized citizens must be
treated in almost all respects like the native-
born, and Congress may not undermine the first
principle by taking away the citizenship of
naturalized citizens without their consent. This
article seeks to analyze the first and third
principles and to show the failure of Congress
to observe, and the courts to enforce, these
constitutional limitations."

137. Naturalization and the Adjudication of Good
Moral Character: an Exercise in Judicial Uncer-
tainty. New York University Review, 47:545-583,
(June 1972).


This is an analysis of the requirement that nat-
uralization applicants demonstrate "good moral
character." Resolutions to the problems created
by the application of that standard are suggested.


Enforcement

ARTICLES

138. Greene, Sheldon L.
Public Agency Distortion of Congressional
Will: Federal Policy Toward Non-Resident
Alien Labor. George Washington Law Review,
40:440-463, (March 1972).

"This article [sketches] the record of the
Immigration and Naturalization Service in car-
rying out the will of Congress with respect to
the admission of aliens who enter the country
to find work in competition with the resident
labor force and suggests] remedies for the
specific problem of unlawful alien entry and
the general problem of public agency unrespon-
siveness to the mandate of the legislature."

139. Hickock, Robert L.
Minority Groups and the Fourth Amendment
Standards of Certitude: United States v. Ortiz
and United States v. Brignoni-Ponce. Harvard
Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review,
11:733-763, (Summer 1976).

This comment "examine [s] current search and
seizure doctrine and the methodologies it offers
for designating the standard of certitude neces-
sary to initiate a police intrusion on the privacy
of an individual" and "explore [s] the necessity
of modifying fourth amendment doctrine in
situations where the police investigate a suspect
class characterized by immutable distinguishing
traits." These cases set forth the standard that
I&NS officers on roving patrol, away from the
border or its functional equivalent, may only
stop vehicles upon "reasonable suspicion" that
the occupants are aliens in the country in
violation of law.

140. Schulte, Jeffrey L.
Area Search Warrants in Border Zones:
Almeida-Sanchez and Camara. Yale Law Jour-
nal, 84:355-372, (December 1974).

"The analogy between alien searches in border
zones and administrative inspections is unper-
suasive ... procedures which render administra-





POLICY STUDIES


tive inspections constitutional fail to justify
alien searches."
141. Sutis, Robert W.
The Extent of the Border. Hastings Constitu-
tional Law Quarterly, 1:235-250, (Spring
1974).
"In Almeida-Sanchez v. United States, the
Supreme Court found illegal an automobile


search made by a roving unit of the United
States Border Patrol without warrant or prob-
able cause. [In this article] the author examines
the decision and concludes that Justice Powell's
middle approach best protects the rights of
individuals while allowing the government to
effectively curb the flow of illegal aliens and
contraband across the borders."




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