Title: Dairy update
ALL VOLUMES CITATION PDF VIEWER THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087054/00003
 Material Information
Title: Dairy update
Series Title: Dairy update
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Institute of Food and Agricultural Science
Publisher: University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Science
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: Winter 2003
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087054
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

DairyUpdateWinter2003 ( PDF )


Full Text



UNIVERSITY OF

FLORIDA


Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Department of Animal Sciences


Update


Quarterly Newsletter


IS YOUR SOMATIC CELL
TOO HIGH?

GIVE DHI CELL COUNT A
TRY!

David R. Bray

Many dairies have been
experiencing this problem. If you are one
of them, what is your solution? High
somatic cell counts are usually mastitis
related. If your count is high, you have a
lot of cows and quarters infected with
mastitis. The problem is how you find
them, and what to do with them once
found, so you can lower the count. High
SCC cows can found the following
ways:

1. Identify cows treated multiple
times for clinical mastitis and you are
still milking and treating them, then once
you treat a cow more than five episodes
in one lactation (1 episode is usually
dumping milk for 5 days), you are losing
money on this cow after that. If you have
treatment records you can find these
cows and get them out of the milking
herd. Culling would be the best method
of doing this. If you would just cull
your chronic mastitis cows, and do
this every couple of months, your
problems would probably go away.

2. Strip each quarter of each cow,
and actually look at the milk. Cows with
clinical mastitis should be removed from
the milking string, treated with lactation
tubes if this cow has not been treated
five times this lactation, or you could dry
her off if she is pregnant, or cull her if
not. Many high SCC cows do NOT
show clinical signs.

3. Culture every cow and do
sensitivity tests on each cow. This is a
nice expensive option that will make
everybody involved rich but you. Then


treat all infected cows
drugs you use anyway,
pregnant ones or cull
producers.


with the same
or dry treat the
the open, low


4. Use the C.M.T. paddle test on
every cow, correctly. You must mix the
solution correctly with good water. Do
this test before milking the cow. Take a
few squirts of milk out of each quarter,
then squirt milk from each quarter into
the cup, tilt the paddle to get an equal
amount of milk in each cup, add an equal
amount of reagent, swirl. Quarters which
gel up would be ones to be concerned
about. If not treated over five times this
lactation, treat, or dry off or cull like
above.

5. Get sample bottles, squirt milk
into them, and send them to SMI for
them to run somatic cell counts. This
will not work as well as you hoped it
would. The machine that counts them is
calibrated for a small sample taken over
the entire milking, because somatic cells
vary from the beginning to the end of
milking. If you get some milk meters,
take your samples properly, identify
the samples correctly and take them to
SMI, then this will work very well. They
will list your high to low cows by SCC.
You can then work on the high cows. If
you would do this every month, you
would have a list of high cows, including
old chronic cows and new high cows.
This is just like DHIA if you also take
milk weights, but you'll spend lots of
time to try to figure this all out.

6. Go on DHIA SCC Program and
do it every month. It will give you
your high cows in your tank. Actual
SCC count x milk production =
amount of cells each cow puts in the
tank. If you do this every month you can
identify your chronic cows. PCDART
will give you days in the mastitis herd,
identify SCC by stage of lactation, and
lactation number. All this gives you
information on when new infections


occur, or where your problems are
starting.

7. Do a weekly bulk tank sample if
over 1000 cows, or every 2-4 weeks for
smaller dairies. This allows you to see
what is causing the problem; contagious
or environmental mastitis. If contagious,
post-milking teat dipping must be done
better. Environmental are controlled by
milking clean and dry teats and udders
and cleaning up where your cows are
kept.

8. Milk clean and dry teats and
udders, post dip all cows to the base of
the udder with teat dip, keep the area
where cows are kept clean. Clean
ponds every year, or as needed,
remove mud and replace with new
clean dirt. Keep milking equipment in
proper working order, dry treat all
cows going dry, cull your chronic
mastitis cows. If you can do this, your
mastitis worries are over.






LONG RANGE MASTITIS
CONTROL

Roger P. Natzke

In the previous article Dave Bray
outlined a rather detailed set of
instructions for dairymen whose herds
are in jeopardy of losing their market or
in danger of having to pay a penalty for
averaging more than 750,000 cells per
ml. While those practices are needed for
a herd with high cell counts, they should
not be necessary for routine mastitis
control. In this article we will review
some of the routine practices which will
keep herds at acceptable somatic cell
levels.


Winter 2003


I I I







Teat dipping and Dry Cow Therapy

Teat dipping and the routine use of
dry cow therapy are the core ingredients
for a successful mastitis control program.
While these practices have been shown
to be highly successful in a number of
research studies, there are a few factors
that must be considered to insure that
they will be effective on your farm.

Dry cow therapy

Dry cow treatment works because it
achieves two functions. First, it
eliminates 90+% of all infections that are
in the udder at the time of drying off and
second, it prevents most new infections
which would otherwise occur near the
time of calving. Special formulation
changes were made to these antibiotic
formulas to make the products more
effective. Dry cow tubes generally
contain a higher dose of antibiotics and
are incorporated into a slow release base
so that they will remain in the udder until
calving.

With the National emphasis on
insuring that we do not contaminate the
milk with antibiotics, some dairymen
have become concerned with any
potential risk of using the dry cow
products. These products will not cause a
problem if they are used according to
label instructions. Recall that it is
ILLEGAL to include the milk of cows
for the first three days after calving. In
the data that was supplied to FDA to get
Quartermaster approved (mentioning the
name does not imply endorsement of the
product), laboratory results showed that
if cows were dry for 42 days or more, all
of the antibiotics were out of the udder
by the end of the third milking. Thus if
dairymen follow the legal requirements
for milk discard after calving, the
discarded milk from the last three
milkings will be free of antibiotics and
will provide that extra assurance that the
milk on day 4 is antibiotic free.

What happens if a cow calves early?
Milk her for 2-3 days and have the milk
checked for antibiotics before you
include it. Dry treatment is the most
effective tool that you have on a farm to
control mastitis. Why stop using it so
that you do not have to test the milk
from that very small number of cows
that calve early?


Other considerations:


SNever use intramuscular antibiotics;
they are not effective in mastitis
control.

r Never try to formulate your own
product; the risk of contamination
with organisms like mycoplasma is
high.

SScrub teat end with cotton and
alcohol before insertion of the tube.

r Dry treat immediately after the last
milking.

r Never use once-a-day milking to dry
off cows; if you insist on doing it,
do not use the milk for human
consumption.

Teat Dipping

The products that have been
formulated for teat dipping are very
effective in killing the organisms on the
teat skin rapidly, assuming that the teats
are clean when it is applied. Several
formulations have been adequately tested
to show that they are effective.
Unfortunately there are a lot of "me too"
products that have not been adequately
tested. Be advised to ask your teat dip
supplier to provide efficacy data on the
product that he/she is selling.

Many efforts have been made to
improve the effectiveness of the standard
teat dips. Several sealants are now
available, but unfortunately to date the
results are disappointing. Dairymen are
best off to use the standard dip and then
insure that the cows return to a clean dry
environment.

To complete the long term mastitis
control program, one must check the
milking equipment regularly to insure
that it is functioning properly. And
finally, only milk clean, dry udders.

Dairymen who follow these
procedures regularly with no short cuts
should never have to worry about a high
cell count situation.


NEED HELP WITH
REPRODUCTIVE
MANAGEMENT
PROBLEMS?

Brent Broaddus and
Pete Hansen

With problems like hot weather and
in large herds, it can be hard to get
lactating cows pregnant in Florida.
Recently, the University of Florida, in
partnership with 8 other universities and
the USDA at Brooksville, Florida,
formed a group whose goal is to develop
and improve methods for reducing
effects of heat stress on dairy cow
reproduction and provide practical
information on this topic to dairy
farmers. The group, which is called the
International Dairy Heat Stress
Consortium, has recently begun an
extension reproduction effort. The group
is in the process of compiling
information on the use of cooling
systems, timed artificial insemination,
and embryo transfer. This information
will be made available on CD, various
websites, newsletters, and through
regional meetings. One of us, Brent
Broaddus, extension agent located in
Hillsborough County, will take the major
responsibility for this effort and will be
assisted by other members of the
Consortium from Florida and elsewhere,
including Bill Thatcher, Albert de Vries
and Pete Hansen at UF. For more
information, contact Brent Broaddus at
813-787-5600 or Broaddus@tufl.edu and
look for information on the website of
the International Heat Stress Consortium
at http://hotcow.ads.uga.edu.







FLORIDA DAIRY
PRODUCTION
CONFERENCE

The 40th Florida Dairy Production
Conference is scheduled this year on
Tuesday, April 29 and Wednesday, April
30 in Gainesville. The emphasis will be
on nutrition. For more information
contact Dave Bray or James Umphrey at
(352) 392-5594.







WHAT DOES DHIA TELL US
ABOUT HERD SOMATIC
CELL COUNT?

Dan W. Webb

Many herds enrolled in DHIA or
using PCDART (independent version)
can receive somatic cell counts (SCC) on
individual cows. Herds that run SCC
every month have a very good tool for
managing the cell count of the total herd.
With national, state and Co-op standards,
herd SCCs are being monitored heavily.

We are receiving frequent questions
about how the individual herds vary in
SCC as determined by DHIA. Data from
Florida and Georgia herds are presented
in tables 1 and 2 to help answer those
questions. DHIA herd summaries for
September, 2002 and December, 2002
were used.

For herds on DHIA, the milk testing
laboratory at SMI can provide the DHIA
Hot List which lists all cows with milk
production and SCC. Included in this
report is a list of the 20 cows whose milk
contributes most to the herd average
SCC count. The DHIA Hot List is now
available by email. (Notify your DHIA
Technician to request this via email.)

For more information on the SCC
option from DHIA, contact SE DHIA at
352-392-5592 or email Dan Webb at
webb@,animal.ufl.edu.


Table 1. Comparison of Georgia and Florida Herds in September and December, 2002

% Cows
Weighted % Cows Over
No. Herd Daily Avg. SCC Below 1.13
State Herds Size Milk SCC Score 145,000 Million
GA September 148 190 52.1 504,000 3.75 47 12
FL September 36 794 50.3 648,000 4.25 37 16

GA December 145 207 57.1 478,000 3.77 46 12
FL December 31 854 56.9 560,000 3.97 42 15


Table 2. Herds Above and Below 500,000 SCC in September and December, 2002
(Georgia and Florida Herds, combined).

Category No. Herd Daily Weighted Avg.
Herds Size Milk SCC
Herds below
500,000 in September 84 326 53 326,000
Herds above
500,000 in September 100 293 50 679,000

Herds below
500,000 in December 98 371 59 363,000
Herds above
500,000 in December 78 308 54 654,000


UF/IFAS DAIRY EXTENSION PERSONNEL


Dave Bray
Albert de Vries
Mary Beth Hall
Roger Natzke
Jan Shearer
James Umphrey
Dan Webb

Andy Andreasen
Brent Broaddus
Roger Elliot
Shep Eubanks
Russ Giesy
Pat Hogue
Doug Mayo
Pat Miller
Travis Seawright
Paulette Tomlinson
Chris Vann
Marvin Weaver


Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville
Gainesville


Washington County
Hillsborough County
Escambia County
Holmes County
Sumter County
Okeechobee County
Jackson County
Okeechobee County
Manatee County
Columbia County
Lafayette County
Gilchrist County


(352) 392-5594
(352) 392-7563
(352) 392-1958
(352) 392-3889
(352) 392-4700
(352) 392-5594
(352) 392-5592

(850) 638-6180
(813) 744-5519
(850) 475-5230
(850) 547-1108
(352) 793-2728
(863) 763-6469
(850) 482-9620
(863) 763-6469
(941) 722-4524
(386) 752-5384
(386) 294-1279
(352) 463-3174


bray@animal.ufl.edu
devries@animal.ufl.edu
hall@animal.ufl.edu
natzke@ animal.ufl.edu
jks@ifas.ufl.edu
umphrey@animal.ufl.edu
webb@animal.ufl.edu

amandreasen@imail.ifas.ufl.edu
babroaddus@mail.ifas.ufl.edu
rmelliott@imail.ifas.ufl.edu
shep@mail.ifas.ufl.edu
rgiesy@mail.ifas.ufl.edu
phogue @mail.ifas.ufl.edu
demayo@mail.ifas.ufl.edu
opmiller@0mail.ifas.ufl.edu
teseawright@mail.ifas.ufl.edu
aptomlinson@amail.ifas.ufl.edu
cvann@imail.ifas.ufl.edu
mfweaveri(,mail.ifas.ufl.edu


~ ca ~~ ca ~~ ca ~~ ca ~~ ca ~~ ~n ~~ ~n ~~ ~n ~~ ~n ~~ ~n
.i-J .









SOUTHEAST DHIA DATA BY HERD SIZE

ITEM SMALL MEDIUM LARGE
NO. OF HERDS 182 93 29
NO. OF COWS per HERD 147 476 1479
% IN MILK 81.7 83.0 81.5
MILK LBS ALL COWS 45.2 47.8 50.5
MILK LBS MILKING COWS 55.2 57.4 61.6
CONCENTRATE FED ..LBS 26.1 24.6 39.0
CONCENTRATE COST ..$ 2.06 1.82 2.99
TOTAL FEED COST ..$ 2.86 3.14 2.92
VALUE OF MILK ..$ 6.59 7.00 7.57
VALUE ABOVE FEED COST ..$ 4.12 4.33 4.51
FEED COST PER CWT MILK ..$ 6.24 6.53 6.25
ROLLING HERD AVG MILK LBS 17327 17859 19153
% LEFT HERD 37.1 36.6 37.9
AVG DAYS IN MILK 179 183 196
TEST PERIOD PERSISTENCY 104 105 107
AVG AGE 1ST LACTATION 26.7 25.8 25.4
SUMMIT MILK 1ST LACTATION 59.5 62.7 66.7
ME MILK 1ST LACTATION 19797 20682 21462
AVG SIRE PTA$ 1ST LACTATION 246 229 253
AVG AGE 2ND LACTATION 41.4 40.5 40.1
SUMMIT MILK 2ND LACTATION 72.2 76.7 82.9
ME MILK 2ND LACTATION 20043 20482 21464
AVG SIRE PTA$ 2ND LACTATION 213 206 207
AVG AGE 3+ LACTATION 69.9 66.2 63.6
SUMMIT MILK 3+ LACTATION 76.0 79.8 83.7
ME MILK 3+ LACTATION 19261 19312 19782
AVG SIRE PTA$ 3+ LACTATION 133 158 147
% OPEN < VWP @ 1ST SERV 18.8 18.4 20.6
% OPEN VWP-100 DAYS @ 1ST SERV 40.3 45.0 46.4
% OPEN OVER 100 DAYS @ 1ST SERV 41.0 36.6 33.1
AVG DAYS DRY 74 72 75
AVG PTA$ FOR SERVICE SIRES 252 258 229
AVG DAYS TO 1ST BREEDING 105 108 103
% HEATS OBSERVED 31.8 37.6 36.4
PROJ. CALVING INTERVAL 15.6 15.7 15.7
AVG DAYS OPEN 195 196 196
STANDARDIZED 150-DAY MILK LBS 59.9 62.9 68.6
SCCS < 4 46 45 50
SCCS = 4 18 17 17
SCCS = 5 14 14 13
SCCS = 6 10 10 9
SCCS > 6 13 13 12
AVERAGE SCC SCORE 3.8 3.9 3.6
AVERAGE WEIGHTED SCC 489 509 483


Data from Georgia and Florida DHIA Herds tested in December, 2002. For more information
contact Dan Webb at 352-392-5592 or webb@animal.ufl.edu.


The Florida Dairy Update newsletter is published on a quarterly basis by the University of Florida, Department of Animal Sciences as
an educational and informational service. Please address any questions comments or suggestions to Albert de Vries, Editor, Dairy
Update, PO Box 110910, Gainesville, FL 32611-0910. Phone: (352)392-7563. E-mail: devries@animal.ufl.edu.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs