These days, the threat of budget cuts and layoffs is on many people's minds, and universities are certainly experienc-
ing the effects of the economic downturn. At the same time, transportation infrastructure and plans for improving it
are at the forefront of the national agenda. This presents a unique challenge and also an opportunity for University
Transportation Centers (UTCs) to play a key role in shaping the future of transportation policy and practice. To that
end, we at the CMS have been deeply engaged in developing new ways to mitigate congestion, reduce transporta-
tion-related impacts on the environment, create livable communities and improve the quality of our lives. As we
enter our second year of operation as a USDOT-funded Tier 1 UTC, we are working on improving several widely
used traffic analysis tools, on considering the impacts of intelligent vehicle capabilities on congestion, as well as on
emergency evacuation strategies, among other topics.
In this issue, you will read how the CMS is playing a key role in improving CORSIM, a traffic simulation soft-
ware produced by our affiliate center, McTrans. One of our projects will incorporate two-lane highway analysis and
passing maneuvers into CORSIM, while another one uses CORSIM to study the impacts advanced vehicle technolo-
gies are likely to have on congestion. In our Featured Research section, you will read about a CMS-funded project
led by researchers in the Department of Industrial & Systems Engineering, which is looking into ways to improve
evacuation efficiency in emergency situations.
We have now completed the second round of research project selection (see page 10 for a complete list), and we
are expecting the first group of final reports to be completed soon. These will be posted on our Web site as soon as
they are available. Abstracts of all on-going projects are provided on our Web site rr '
Also on our Web site is our new "Ask the Expert" link, which invites transportation professionals and the gen-
eral public to ask transportation-related questions. Responses will be obtained by transportation experts and posted
on the site.
I hope you will enjoy reading our newsletter, and I look forward to hearing from you with any questions or
Lily Elefteriadou, Ph.D.
Ask the Expert!
Do you have a transportation-related question
or concern? If so, send them to us. Questions
will be assigned to our experts and responses
will be posted on the CMS Web page, and a se-
lected few will be published in our newsletter.
Ask the Expert serves several useful purposes,
such as stimulating discussion among profes-
sionals, and it assists the CMS in focusing
research and educational activities. Addition-
ally, publicizing questions and answers serves
as a form of technology and information trans-
fer. All questions will be posted or reprinted
with permission. For more information, visit:
rr ... '.. r rus/ask_the_expert.php.
Dear Transportation Alumni...
Help keep our database up to date by register-
ing withusal rr F.. rus/.
The CMS will provide you with notices on
transportation-related activities such as con-
ferences, workshops, webcasted seminars and
other activities. Additionally, we will send
you our bi-annual newsletter and annual re-
port. Also, if you have moved or are receiving
duplicate copies of this newsletter, or if you
are receiving mail for folks who are no longer
with your institution, agency or company,
please let us know.
Clockwise from right:
Bill Sampson manning the McTrons booth at the TRB Exhibit hall
Sherrilene Classen and Ruth Steiner at the UF reception.
Siva Srinivasan, Abishek Komma, Lily Elefteriadou and Aaron Elias at the
Omni Shoreham Hotel during the CUTC Awards Banquet.
George Chrysikopoulos, Dimitra Michalaka, Grady Carrik and Lily
Elefteriadou at the UF reception
CMS Representation at TRB
Several CMS faculty, staff and students attended the 88th
Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board
(TRB) in Washington, D.C. on January 11-15, 2009. CMS
affiliates made technical paper presentations, participated
in various committees, attended the CUTC meeting and
awards ceremony (see page 14 for information on UF stu-
dent awardees) and participated in various events spon-
sored by the Southeastern Transportation Center of which
the University of Florida is a participating university. They
also attended the University of Florida/Transportation Re-
search Center Reception on January 12, 2009 at the Marriott
Wardman Park Hotel.
CMS Participation in TRB Committees
Ken Courage, P.Eng., Professor Emeritus, CCE
Member, Traffic Flow Theory Committee
Member, former chair, Subcommittee on Joint
Member, former chair, Subcommittee on Signalized
Member, Subcommittee on Simulation
Janet Degner, Florida Transportation Technology Transfer
Center (T2), Director
Friend, Technology Transfer Committee
Lily Elefteriadou, Ph.D., Professor, CMS Director
Secretary, Highway Capacity & Quality of Service
Member, Traffic Flow Theory & Characteristics
Siriphong "Toi" Lawphongpanich, Associate Professor, ISE
Friend, Transportation Network Modeling Committee
Friend, Congestion Pricing Committee
Bill Sampson, McTrans Director
Member, Highway Capacity & Quality of Service
Siva Srinivasan, Assistant Professor, CCE
Member, Traveler Behavior & Values Committee
Member, Telecommunications & Travel Behavior
Ruth Steiner, Associate Professor, URP
Member, Transportation & Land Development
Chair, Subcommittee on Research for Transportation
& Land Development
Member, Pedestrian Committee
Member, NCHRP Project Panel on Enhancing
Internal Trip Capture Estimation for Mixed-Use
Scott Washburn, Associate Professor, CCE
Member, Highway Capacity & Quality of Service
Chair, Subcommittee on Freeways/Multilane Highways
Member, ACRP Project Panel on Airport Curbside
& Terminal-Area Roadway Operations
Tiffany Wise, LTAP Director
Member, 10th International Conference on Low-Volume
Yafeng Yin, Assistant Professor, CCE
Member, Transportation Network Modeling
Friend, Traffic Signal Systems Committee
Friend, Artificial Intelligence & Advanced
Computing Applications Committee
1/ Z( 0SO9 3
CMS Research Funds Help
Improve Traffic Analysis Tools
Center for Microcomputers in Transportation McTrans
Left to right:
Screen shots of two popular
McTrans software products:
HCS+ T7F and TSIS-CORSIM
An aerial view of an interchange
in Florida taken by Dave
Bloomquist, a CCE faculty
member.This highway system
is simulated in the McTrans
Highway Capacity Software.
Mention McTrans in the transportation industry, and most people will immediately know what you are talking about. That's
because McTrans has been around for a long time. In the 23 years since its inception, the center has become a standard in the in-
dustry, distributing and producing software to practitioners in the transportation and planning communities and, more recently,
focusing on three major products (HCS, TRANSYT-7F and TSIS-CORSIM) which have come to define the center. McTrans is an
affiliate of the Center for Multimodal Solutions for Congestion Mitigation (CMS), often collaborating with the University Trans-
portation Center (UTC) on various research projects.
McTrans has humble beginnings. Housed in the Department of Civil & Coastal Engineering at the University of Florida,
the center was established in 1986 through a two-year grant funded by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Its mis-
sion was to serve as a focal point for the sale and support of transportation software products, primarily those produced by the
federal government, to practitioners in the field. The center's plan from the very beginning was to eventually establish itself as
a completely self-supported entity. That's when Bill Sampson stepped in. Formerly a manager at McTrans and now the center's
director, Sampson, an engineer, was tasked with the job of administrating the center very much like a small business and keep-
ing it afloat without the aid of a federal grant.
"From day one, the plan was that after the first two years of funding, the center would become self supporting, relying on
revenues from the sale of software," Sampson said. "So I came to work here on April 29, 1988, literally the day the funding ended
and we went self supporting. We are a little business. All the money comes from the end users."
McTrans is now considered an auxiliary, a revenue-generating center at the University of Florida. Membership is free as
are most of the services provided. The center offers expert technical advice with various Levels of Support (LOS), information
exchange which includes the McTrans newsletter, a technical assistance hotline, training courses for popular software packages
and a wide range of transportation-related software.
If you go to the McTrans online catalog rr r ... '.. r. you will see software for use in construction man-
agement, environmental, highway design, pavements, bridges and hydraulics, maintenance safety, surveying, traffic engineer-
ing, transit and urban transportation planning. McTrans also distributes software developed by the FHWA and state depart-
ments of transportation, universities, local transportation agencies and private individuals. Privately developed commercial
software packages are also distributed by the center.
The center's continued success has come primarily from three internally produced transportation software packages: the
Highway Capacity SoftwareTM (HCS), TRANSYT-7FTM and TSIS-CORSIMTM.
"HCS is likely the most widely used transportation engineering and planning program in the world," Sampson said. "COR-
SIM is probably the most used traffic simulation tool worldwide, but without some of the attributes of some other privately
developed simulation packages."
What does HCS do? The program analyzes the capacity of intersections and roadways to quantify their level of ser-
vice for the traveling public. It is used to compare alternative strategies and determine the impact of new developments on
T faffich ftware
I~j: v 7
neighboring systems to quantify capacity
improvements needed to mitigate that impact.
Then there is CORSIM, the popular traffic
simulation tool. CORSIM models the operation
of intersections and roadways by tracking each
individual vehicle's movements, essentially
second-by-second, to produce a large number
of parameters. It can show when and where
congestion will develop, what the expected
speed of a freeway will be, or what the impacts
of an incident will be on corridor operations.
The program includes animation output that
graphically shows movements and queuing,
among other things. Also there is TRANSYT-
7F which is now regenerating its niche, helped
somewhat by its integration with the HCS and
easy interaction with CORSIM.
"TRANSYT-7F is not as widely used as it
once was," Sampson said. "But the inclusion
within the HCS+ package has reintroduced it
to many users, and it has always maintained a
significant following internationally."
TRANSYT-7F is a signal timing optimiza-
tion tool that uses different models with data
on traffic, geometry and phasing to arrive at
the best allocation of green times needed to
achieve maximum efficiency at each signal as
well as parameters that provide coordination
among signals along an arterial or within a
As long as there are roads to build,
bridges to fix and urban communities to plan,
or any transportation need for that matter,
McTrans will certainly continue to exist. And
as long as there are these needs, research will
certainly play a major role, and that's where
the CMS will continue to benefit from its affili-
ation with McTrans.
"It's a natural partnership," Sampson
said. "That is the benefit CMS gets from Mc-
Trans, and McTrans receives from CMS the
ability to work together to modify software
to increase its usefulness in research and
practice. There are a lot of things in common
such as subject matter, research goals, the use
of software and interfacing with graduate
For more information on McTrans, visit:
Where the rubber meets the road:
How CMS interfaces with McTrans and the practitioner benefits
So exactly how does the CMS benefit from its
affiliation with the McTrans Center? There are
various ways in which it does, and it primar-
ily involves research. For example, faculty
and graduate students are working with pro-
grammers at McTrans to improve CORSIM,
a microsimulation program, so that it can
replicate passing maneuvers on a two-lane
highway. Faculty and graduate students are
also working with McTrans on the CORSIM
modeling of emerging vehicle technologies.
These CMS projects have real-world applica-
tions because they ultimately make their way
into programs such as CORSIM, which are
used by thousands of practitioners in the field
Title: Development of a Simulation Program
for Two-Lane Highway Analysis
CMS project: 2008-002
Principal Investigator: Scott Washburn, Ph.D.,
Co-Investigator: Lily Elefteriadou, Ph.D.,
This project will research ways to modify
CORSIM's capacity to model passing on two-
lane highways. Two-lane highways constitute
the vast majority of highway facilities in the
U.S. Scott Washburn, in collaboration with
McTrans, is developing new algorithms to
modify CORSIM so that it can handle passing
maneuvers on two-lane highways. There is
currently no analysis tool that can replicate
two lane highway operations within a highway
network. Developing this method for imple-
mentation into McTrans' CORSIM will benefit
the transportation community and will also
strengthen the CMS-McTrans relationship.
A screen capture of TSIS-CORSIM showing queue
activity at various intersections.
Title: Using Microsimulation to Evaluate the
Effects of Advanced Vehicle Technologies
CMS project: 2009-006
Principal Investigator: Lily Elefteriadou, Ph.D.,
Co-Investigator: David Hale, Ph.D., McTrans;
Tom Simmerman, McTrans
Automobile companies have been
developing advanced vehicle technologies for
quite sometime now. These include Vehicle-
to-Vehicle (V2V), radar cruise control systems
to monitor speed and following distance,
and "brake assist" technologies, with sensors
detecting the possibility of a crash, lateral
skidding and emergency braking conditions.
However, unknown is how these technolo-
gies could affect congestion and the flow
of traffic. Lily Elefteriadou is working with
McTrans to modify CORSIM so that these
technologies can be evaluated through
simulation. Algorithms in CORSIM would be
modified to replicate the operation of various
selected advanced vehicle technologies in
traffic. When completed, this research could
provide the automotive industry with a new
way to determine which technologies might
help improve congestion.
( J LS --(2'(' 9 5
Optimization Models for Improving
By: Panos Pardalos, Ph.D., Distinguished Professor and Ashwin Arulselvan, doctoral student
Department of Industrial & Systems Engineering
This article is based on ongoing research under CIfS Project # 2008-005
Purpose of study: Minimize the total evacuation time for a given highway network
Approach: Make traffic flow more efficiently by identifying lanes to be reversed and by establishing optimal evacuation
routes for passenger cars and buses
Identifying the optimal set of lanes to be reversed is computationally complex and exact analytical solutions would
have unrealistically high running times.
The problem is solved in two steps: first, the lanes to be reversed are identified, and second, the optimal evacuation
routes are established for the reconfigured network.
The model provides evacuation routes for passenger cars and for each origin- destination pair and the frequency of
departures for buses.
The Florida Division of Emergency Management reported that Hurricane Frances required 1.8 million people to be evacuated,
Hurricane Ivan required 545,000 and Hurricane Jeanne required 4.4 million'. The Department of Homeland Security in the
nationwide report for the year 2006 identified a significant inadequacy in evacuation planning effort for using multiple modes
of transport to evacuate people from different risk zones2. According to the report, only less than 20 percent of state and 10
percent of urban areas have sufficiency in their plans for accommodating multiple modes of transport. Some of the important
measures in an evacuation plan that are listed in the report include contraflow measures, identifying evacuation routes and
consideration of alternative and safe modes of transportation besides the personal vehicles used by the evacuees.
The objectives of this study are to make traffic flow more efficiently by identifying lanes to be reversed, and by establish-
ing optimal evacuation routes for passenger cars and buses.
Lane reversals have been a proven
strategy to improve evacuation efficiency in
an emergency situation. Generally, the lane
reversal strategies vary depending on the need.
For instance, lane reversals due to work zones
or incidents do not require a global strategy, as
these pertain to a specific link in the network.
On the other hand, emergency situations
and sporting events that require mass transit
would require more sophisticated lane reversal
plans. Also, for hurricanes, the intensity of the
hurricane and the population in the area to be
evacuated needs to be considered. The illustra-
tion in Figure 1 describes how lane reversals
would help in improving flow. The numbers in
parentheses indicate the capacity and the travel
time of the arc respectively.
(2,4) 2 ) (2.4)
Figure 1. a) Original network b) Reconfigured
Figure la presents a directed graph with
four nodes. Origin is indicated by O and D
destination. In figure la it takes 1 time unit to
send 2 units of flow from node O to node 1 and
2 time units to send 3 units of flow from node 1
to node D. Thus, the time required for evacuat-
ing 21 units of flow from O to D, using all the
possible routes, is 10.
The graph in figure lb is a reconfigured
graph with lane reversals, and it takes 1 time
unit to send 5 units of flow from node O to 1
and 2 time units to send 4 units of flow from
node 1 to node D. Thus along the path O-1-D
we can send 2 units of flow in 3 time units in
the original network, whereas in the reconfig-
ured network we could send 4 units of flow
in 3 time units. In this reconfigured network
the evacuation time for 21 units of traffic is 5,
which is half of that for the original network.
A complexity study performed on these
types of network flow problems3 indicated that
these types of problems are computationally
hard (i.e. they require exponential running
times.) Several issues may arise during a
reconfiguration of a network. These include
permitting only a subset of arcs (i.e., lanes of
roadway segments) to be reversed, imposing
a switching cost to the arcs involved in the
reversals, and considering multiple origins and
destinations. Ford and Fulkerson4 studied the
maximum dynamic flow problem, where one
tries to maximize the flow sent from source to
sink, within a given time horizon T and proved
that this problem is equivalent to solving a
minimum cost flow problem with the arc costs
as travel times on the arcs. Then the optimal
flow on the arcs from source to sink is decom-
posed into a set of paths or chains.
A simple graph transformation that
involves replacing each directed arc with an
undirected arc with increased capacity would
allow solving the minimum cost flow problem
to identify lanes to be reversed in a single
origin/ single destination dynamic contraflow
problem. The details of the transformation and
a proof of correctness of this transformation are
provided in reference5. The problem becomes
NP-hard3 for multiple sources and multiple
sinks. The problem is NP-hard for single ori-
gin/ single destination scenarios if we consider
the cost of reversing an arc. These results
indicate that the optimization problems are
computationally difficult and polynomial time
algorithms are available only to the simplistic
single origin/single destination network flow
A bimodal transportation network is
a reasonable assumption in an emergency
situation as buses and cars could serve as
the predominant modes of transportation.
In this ongoing research effort, the research-
ers consider the bimodal evacuation problem
with multicommodity flow, where travelers
(or evacuees) have destination preferences
from their respective origins. In this problem,
there are two sets of travelers, depending on
their modes of transport. It is assumed that the
demands of passenger cars and bus passengers
for every pair of origin destinations in the
network are known and do not vary. It is also
assumed that the bus routes have already been
established. The links of the network under
consideration are shared by both cars and
buses. Each link has a given travel time and a
given capacity. The objective is to determine
the most efficient path for passenger cars
between the origins and destinations, and the
frequency of the buses along their predeter-
mined routes, without exceeding the capacity
of the arcs.
This optimization problem which consid-
ers multimodal and multicommodity flows is
non-trivial as it is NP-hard3, and it is modeled
with a large number of variables. The solution
developed attempts to exploit the combinato-
rial structure of the problem. The researchers
are proposing to use the column generation
procedure, where the variables are generated
iteratively and added to the model. A com-
putationally efficient subproblem is solved at
each iteration to generate a subset of variables.
The entire procedure has been successfully
implemented and tested in C++. This iterative
procedure has difficulties with the convergence
to an optimal solution and the researchers are
currently experimenting with the numerical
acceleration of this convergence.
1. Contraflow Plan for the Florida Intrastate
Highway System, Technical Memorandum,
Version 1, June 6, 2005.
2. Department of Homeland Security
(DHS), Nationwide Plan Review, Phase II
3. M. R. Garey and D. S. Johnson. Computers
and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory
of NP-completeness. Freeman, 1979.
4. L.R. Ford and D.R. Fulkerson. Flows in
Networks. Princeton University Press,
5. S. Rebennack, A. Arulselvan, L.
Elefteriadou, and P.M. Pardalos. Complexity
Analysis for Maximum Flow Problems
with Arc Reversals, Journal of Combina-
torial Optimization (accepted).
(;I[, S i, --(']9
Q&A with Richard Long
Director of Research
Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT)
Richard Long is a member of the CMS's External Advi-
sory Board and has been a great resource to the center as
it gains momentum. He has for many years supported the
research, educational and technology transfer activities in
transportation at the University of Florida. Long will be
retiring from FDOT at the end of June 2009.
What was the career path that led you to your
current position as Research Director at FDOT?
Aimlessly wandering around. By 1984, I had developed a
decent background in maintenance, construction, long range
planning, finance, contracting, and project scheduling. I
also spent some time as a legislative analyst in the Florida
Senate. I was working as staff to the State Highway Engineer
(SHE) when I was asked to develop a white paper on the
Department's research efforts. Management wanted a de-
partment-wide research program and asked if I would assist
in its development. While I initially expected to be here for
a couple of years to get things started, I found a home and
have never considered doing anything else.
What were some of the biggest challenges you
faced as a rookie?
Convincing the research community as it existed that there
is more to transportation research than asphalt and con-
crete and then building a culture for multi-modal research
and working with all of the other functional offices.
Your innovative thinking and practices helped
other DOTs in blazing the way for creative solutions
to problems impacting their state DOTs. What are
some of the Research Office practices you have
implemented that stand out in your mind?
Our research Deployment Plan, which is made up of five
separate components: implementation, performance mea-
sures, technology transfer, training, and marketing. Before
funding any research project, we look at it in light of each of
these components to ensure usage of the results.
What are some of the research projects that have
really enhanced the success of FDOT?
Our multi-year Florida Bridge Pier research effort has to
be the single biggest success. It has saved the Department
tens of millions of dollars, at least. However, in another
light, I could say all of them! Whenever a need for knowl-
edge is satisfied through research, the Department benefits.
What may be important to some may not be important to
others, so "benefit" can be argued on a number of different
levels. The fact remains that an important need for knowl-
edge was satisfied for the office that requested the funding.
Across the functional areas of the Department, research is
regularly changing and improving how we do business.
Contrast the current research environment today to
when you came on board.
There is more sharing of research results. Some may call this
technology transfer but I think it is more. There is a general
awareness that a major part of the research effort is deploy-
ing the results; otherwise, the outcome is just a report to sit
on someone's bookshelf.
How have transportation problems in Florida
changed over your tenure?
They really haven't. Our business is to provide a safe, reli-
able transportation system to the citizens. We have always
been at the mercy of unconstrained growth, never able to
catch up to needs, and that is still the case today. Sure, proj-
ects cost more and urbanization has made land acquisition
and what you can do within the rights of way more compli-
cated, which increases the time it takes to provide improve-
ments, but the basic problems haven't changed. They have
just become more complicated.
What are some of your most memorable experi-
ences working with FDOT?
The people. I have been blessed to know and work with
hundreds of people in all walks of transportation represent-
ing all 50 States, national organizations, universities, private
groups and citizens, and the FDOT. While my staff is most
special, I have learned, grown, and been influenced by
everyone I have met.
What would you like for our transportation systems
to look like 50 years from now?
Fifty years is hard to put my arms around. Within the near
term (10-25 years), I expect to see cars doing more and more
thinking for us with onboard computers initiating evasive
action to avoid crashes and to keep our elderly and young
drivers safer. I expect travel demand to flatten as more
people work in virtual offices. There will be less congestion
since everyone will not have to be at the office at the same
time. There will be less demand for fossil fuels and more
electric vehicles as the next generation demands that we
become better stewards of the environment.
What do you consider the biggest challenges of the
future besides funding?
The creation of, or at the very least a common agreement on,
a national research agenda combined with a strategic vision.
The major players today are the USDOT (FHWA and RITA),
the Transportation Research Board (primarily the Coopera-
tive Research Programs), and the individual state research
programs. Combined, these groups look at all aspects of
transportation and transportation-related issues. They also
look at a combination of basic and applied research efforts
to varying degrees. What is lacking, in my opinion, is a stra-
tegic plan that not only links these groups together but also
provides guidance and a balance between research to satisfy
our daily needs and research that will affect our future. The
Standing Committee on Research is beginning to look to the
future, but they will need coordination and collaboration
with other agencies.
If you could change one thing about transportation,
what would it be?
In the final analysis, nothing. Everyday, I see outstanding
efforts by transportation professionals across the country
who are passionate about their work. Improvements to the
system are occurring daily, maybe not fast enough for some,
but we are moving forward and, in the end, that is all you
What does the future hold for Richard Long?
Make me an offer!
Advice for the CMS?
Stick to your knitting and do it better than anyone else.
The UTCs that I have seen fail provide no real benefit
to transportation, try to do too much, or try to grow too
large. You were established because of your theme and
the impact of congestion on anyone who travels. Expand
congestion issues to the extent that funding will allow, and
be the "go-to" center on the subject of congestion.
G11/W^. dJO 9
THE CMS WRAPPED up its research project
selection process for 2009-2010 this past February.
Our RFP yielded a total of 13 pre-proposals. Eight
of those pre-proposals were selected by the CMS's
Project Review Committee to proceed to the full
proposal stage. After review by external evalua-
tors, it was determined that six projects would be
funded for 2009-2010 (see 2009 Projects). Most of
the projects selected from the center's first RFP in
2008 are scheduled to be completed this year and
are listed below. The CMS has various matching
projects with the Florida Department of Transpor-
tation (FDOT), which are also listed below, and the
list is expected to grow. Additionally, CMS-affili-
ated faculty are involved with other related projects
such as those with the NCHRP.
2009 PROJECTS (NEW)
Innovations in Pricing of Transportation
Systems: Theory and Practice
PI: Siriphong "Toi" Lawphongpanich, Ph.D. (ISE)
Co-Investigators: Janet Degner, M.S. (T2); Yafeng
Yin, Ph.D. (CCE)
CMS Project # 2009-004
Using Microsimulation to Evaluate the Effects of
Advanced Vehicle Technologies on Congestion
PI: Lily Elefteriadou, Ph.D. (CCE)
Co-Investigators: David Hale, Ph.D. i l. -...
Tom Simmerman (McTrans)
CMS Project # 2009-006
Tour Generation Models for Florida
PI: Siva Srinivasan, Ph.D. (CCE)
CMS Project # 2009-008
Development of a Multimodal Transportation
Educational Virtual Appliance (MTEVA) to Study
Congestion during Extreme Tropical Events
PI: Peter Sheng, Ph.D. (CCE)
Co-Investigators: Panos Pardalos, Ph.D. (ISE);
Renato Figueiredo (ECE); Justin Davis, Ph.D. (CCE)
CMS Project # 2009-010
Robust Congestion Pricing under Boundedly
Rational Travel Behaviors
PI: Yafeng Yin, Ph.D. (CCE)
Co-Investigators: Siriphong "Toi" Lawphongpanich,
Ph.D. (ISE); Yingyan Lou, doctoral candidate (CCE)
CMS Project # 2009-012
Needs Assessment of Land Use Modeling for
FSUTMS, Phase I
PI: Zhong-Ren Peng, Ph.D. (URP)
CMS Project # 2009-013
2008 PROJECTS (ONGOING)
Central Data Warehouse Configuration, Data
Analysis for Congestion Mitigation Studies
PI: Kenneth Courage, P. Eng., Professor Emeritus
CMS Project # 2008-001
Development of Simulation Program for Two-
Lane Highway Analysis
PI: Scott Washburn, Ph.D. (CCE)
Co-Investigators: Lily Elefteriadou, Ph.D. (CCE)
Project # 2008-002
Simulation-Based Robust Optimization for
Actuated Signal Timing and Setting
PI: Yafeng Yin, Ph.D. (CCE)
Co-Investigators: Scott Washburn, Ph.D. (CCE);
Farid AitSahlia, Ph.D. (ISE)
Characterizing the Tradeoffs and Costs Associated
with Transportation Congestion in Supply Chains
PI: Joseph Geunes, Ph.D. (ISE)
Project # 2008-004
Multimodal Solutions for Large Scale Evacuations
PI: Panos Pardalos, Ph.D. (ISE)
Project # 2008-005
A Pricing Approach for Mitigating Congestion
in Multimodal Transportation Systems
PI: Siriphong (Toi) Lawphongpanich, Ph.D. (ISE)
Co-Investigators: Yafeng Yin, Ph.D. (CCE)
Project # 2008-006
Vehicle-Miles-of-Travel-Based Traffic Impact
PI: Ruth Steiner, Ph.D. (URP)
Co-Investigators: Siva Srinivasan, Ph.D. (CCE)
Project # 2008-007
FDOT MATCH PROJECTS
Implementation of the Statewide Traffic Engi-
neering Warehouse for Regionally Archived
PI: Kenneth Courage, P.Eng., Professor Emeritus
Project # 72734
Field Data Collection and Analysis for Freeway
Work Zone Capacity Estimation
PI: Lily Elefteriadou, Ph.D. (CCE)
Project # 67207
Travel Time Reliability Modeling for Florida
PI: Lily Elefteriadou, Ph.D. (CCE)
Project # 77415
Investigation of Freeway Capacity: A) Effective
Capacity of Auxiliary Lanes and B) Segment
Capacity as a Function of Number of Lanes and
PI: Scott Washburn, Ph.D. (CCE)
Co-Investigators: Yafeng Yin, Ph.D. (CCE)
Project # 73157 & 74022
Multimodal Arterial LOS Modeling and Testing
PI: Scott Washburn, Ph.D. (CCE)
Project # 76279 & 76293
Development of a Prototype Land Use Model for
Statewide Transportation Planning Activities
PI: Zhong-Ren Peng, Ph.D. (URP)
Project # 78101
For information on the abstracts related to the in-
dividual projects, .i -1 .
OTHER RELATED PROJECTS
NCHRP 3-60A Validation and Enhancement of
the Highway Capacity Manual's Interchange
Ramp Terminal Methodology
Investigator: Lily Elefteriadou, Ph.D. (CCE)
NCHRP 3-85 Guidance for the Use of Simula-
tion and Models
Investigators: Ken Courage, P. Eng., Professor
Emeritus (CCE); Scott Washburn, Ph.D. (CCE);
Lily Elefteriadou, Ph.D. (CCE)
NCHRP 3-87 Proactive Ramp Management
under the Threat of Freeway Flow Breakdown
Investigators: Lily Elefteriadou, Ph.D. (CCE);
Scott Washburn, Ph.D. (CCE)
NCHRP 3-92 Year 2010 Highway Capacity
Investigators: Ken Courage, P. Eng., Professor
Emeritus (CCE); Scott Washburn, Ph.D. (CCE);
Lily Elefteriadou, Ph.D. (CCE); Bill Sampson
Prime Contractor: Kittelson & Associates, Inc.
NCHRP 3-96 Analysis of Managed Lanes on
Investigator: Yafeng Yin, Ph.D. (CCE)
Prime Contractor: University of Washington
SHRP L-11 Evaluating Alternative Operations
Strategies to Improve Travel Time Reliability
Investigator: Siva Srinivasan, Ph.D. (CCE)
Prime Contractor: Kittelson & Associates, Inc.
CCE (Dept. Civil & Coastal Engineering)
ISE (Dept. Industrial & Systems Engineering)
URP (Dept. Urban & Regional Planning)
CMS Hosts Its First RITA Site Visit :
Representatives from the USDOT Research and Innovative Technology Ad-
ministration (RITA) visited the CMS on March 19, 2009 to assess the overall
management and progress of the center, including its research, educational
and technology transfer activities. RITA university program specialists Robin
Kline and Amy Stearns, and program analyst Denise Dunn spent their day
in meetings, taking note of the activities and accomplishments reported by
CMS faculty and staff. They also met with CMS-affiliated students and grants
management personnel, and they provided useful feedback regarding future
activities of the center. Our RITA visitors were taken on a tour of the CMS-
affiliated research facilities, which included the computer simulation lab, the
signals lab, the instrumented vehicle, the transportation library and faculty
and staff offices.
Robin, Amy, and Denise:
Thank you for the visit, we enjoyed sharing our accomplishments and goals with
you and hearing your insights on UTC program operations!
Top: RITA and CMS representatives pose in front of Ben Hill Griffin Stadium at UF.
(Back row) Siva Srinivasan, Yafeng Yin, Bill Sampson, Toi Lawphongpanich, Janet /
Degner (front row) Lily Elefteriadou, Denise Dunn, Ruth Steiner, Amy Stearns,
Bottom: Scott Washburn gives RITA visitors a tourof the Traffic Signal Control Lab.
SAVE THE DATE!
UF/TRC Workshop on Roundabouts
A workshop for transportation professionals interested in roundabouts design and operations
Co-sponsored by the CMS and McTrans
August 18, 2009
Sheraton Orlando North Hotel
Sponsorship Opportunities Available!
Early-birds $195 USD (register by July 15, 2009)
Regular or on-site $245 USD
Workshop Sponsors $145 USD
(All fees include morning and afternoon breaks, lunch and workshop materials)
To register, 7. -. .... .. .. .' :_Workshop_2009.html
TOPICS & SPEAKERS
An Overview of Modern Roundabouts and What They Might Soon Mean for You (Ken Sides, City ofClearwater, Florida)
Design of Roundabouts (Michael Wallwork, Alternate Street Design, P.A.)
Roundabouts and Their Implementation in the United States (Mark Doctor, Federal Highway Administration)
Luncheon & Speaker: Dan Burden, C. Jackson Kercher Anglin, Inc./Co-Founder, Walkable Communities, Inc.)
Roundabouts in the 2010 Highway Capacity Manual and Updated FHWA Roundabout Guide (Lee Kittelson and Associates, Inc.)
Modeling of Roundabouts Using SIDRA (Rahmi Akcelik, Akcelik and Associates Pty Ltd)
Modeling Roundabouts Using CORSIM (Aaron Elias, University of Florida)
Designing Roundabouts with TORUS (Milton Carrasco, Transoft Solutions)
There are three sponsorship levels available ($1,500, $1,000 and $500). Your donation will provide your company a discounted workshop registration rate
and more. Sponsorship Deadline: July 15, 2009. Visit our Web site for details.
For more information on registration and sponsorship opportunities, contact Ines Aviles-Spadoni at firstname.lastname@example.org or at 352-392-9537, Ext. 1409.
(i;IL S.S,i -- 20, 11
fatue a esea rca.ra
As you walk into Scott Washburn's office, it doesn't take long to notice
that he likes fast cars and motorcycles, with numerous models on dis-
play. Thus, it is no surprise that he ended up in the field of transporta-
tion engineering. Washburn has been with the Department of Civil &
Coastal Engineering at UF since 1999, and from just about the day he got
here, he has been working closely with the Florida Department of Trans-
portation (FDOT) on traffic analysis and level of service research.
"Much of the research I do for FDOT is aimed at developing new
traffic analysis and level of service methodologies or improving existing
ones," Washburn said. "Additionally, I write the software (LOSPLAN)
for FDOT that implements their traffic analysis and level of service meth-
odologies, which is used extensively throughout the state."
Some project examples in this area include the development of a
two-lane highway facility analysis procedure, the development of mod-
els to estimate the impact of left turn spillover at a signalized intersec-
tion on through capacity, identification of performance measures and
thresholds to be used for level of service on rural freeways based on
traveler-perception, and the identification of appropriate level of service
measures for the commercial truck mode. One of Washburn's current
projects, funded through CMS, deals with implementing two-lane high-
way modeling into the CORSIM simulation program.
Complementing his research in the areas of traffic operations analy-
sis and level of service, Washburn is a member of the Highway Capacity
and Quality of Service committee of the Transportation Research Board.
This committee oversees the development of the Highway Capacity
Manual, and he chairs the Freeways/Multilane Highways subcommittee,
which is responsible for several chapters in the manual.
As much as Washburn enjoys the research opportunities in the uni-
versity environment, he just as much has passion for the educational op-
portunities. "I really enjoy teaching and interacting with the students,"
Washburn said. "Even for the same course, every semester is different
because of the different students, and it keeps things fun and interest-
ing. I was fortunate to have some really good professors in college, and
it was very obvious to me the big difference a good professor made to
my enjoyment of the class and how much I learned from the class. The
opportunity to be a great educator was part of the appeal of academia."
All the more proof of his commitment to education, he is co-author
of the textbook "Principles of Highway Engineering and Traffic Analy-
sis" 4th Edition, which is one of the most popular textbooks used for
introductory transportation courses.
A method to the madness
But what was the driving force behind his interest for transportation
engineering? It seems that it all began when he moved from Spokane,
Wash., to Seattle to begin college (Washburn obtained his BSCE, MSCE,
and Ph.D. at the University of Washington).
"Seattle was a traffic nightmare," Washburn said. "Spokane is a city
of a few hundred thousand people, but there was no notion of traffic con-
gestion at that time, so I had never experienced driving in it until I got to
Seattle. As I was sitting in traffic, I thought to myself that someone had to
address this issue. I broke out the university course catalog and started
looking for anything related to transportation."
Initially, Washburn thought he would study computer science. As
a youth, he was fascinated with computers, and started doing his own
computer programming at the age of 12. But after spending a lot of time
in congested Seattle traffic, transportation engineering became his pri-
mary professional passion. However, he realized that he could still apply
his computer programming skills to solve transportation problems, as he
still does to this day.
"Initially, I kept thinking to myself, there has got to be a better way
to design a roadway system, and not-so-humbly thought I would be the
one to solve all of Seattle's congestion problems," Washburn said. "Of
course, I think a lot of people driving on congested roadways think they
have the solution, but once you get into the profession, you quickly learn
that eliminating congestion is a very complex problem, and that there is
often, although not always, a method to the madness."
Going east to UF
It was the offer of a tenure-track faculty position that brought him to
Florida. He found it very appealing for several reasons: FDOT's active
research program in his research areas, UF's very good reputation as
an engineering school, and the opportunity to learn from the renowned
Kenneth Courage, now retired. Plus, how could he pass up the great
"Coming from Seattle, I was definitely ready for more sunshine,"
The transportation academic program at UF has as much to offer as
many of the top programs in the country, Washburn said, and it has ex-
cellent faculty and strong relationships with other departments, colleges
and centers. This is confirmed by the tremendous amount of ongoing
activity at UF aimed at solving the problems in transportation and in
educating the future of the transportation workforce, he said.
The future workforce
Transportation engineers will be in high demand for decades to come,
according to Washburn. He describes it as a diverse field which needs to
continue to employ people with skills in planning, operations, and policy
analysis. As long as people continue to demand safe and efficient trans-
portation systems, vital to societal economies and quality of life, there
will be a need for transportation professionals, Washburn said.
"So, for students looking for challenges and many opportunities
that will last an entire professional career, transportation engineering is
definitely a field you should consider," Washburn said.
More information about Scott Washburn can be found on his Web
siteal rr . ... '..-swash/.
External Advisory Board Meeting
(Back row) Ananth Prasad, Janet Degner, Scott Washburn, Wayne Kittelson, Debora Rivera
(Front row) Toi Lawphongpanich, Ruth Steiner, Lily Elefteriadou, Linda Watson and Laura Kelley
The annual gathering of the CMS's External Advisory Board (EAB) took place on March 5-6, 2009 at the Samuel P. Harn
Museum of Art on the University of Florida campus. This year, two new members joined the EAB: Linda Watson, Chief
Executive Officer, LYNX (Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority public transportation for Orange, Osceola
and Seminole Counties) and Elizabeth Birriel, Deputy State Traffic Operations Engineer (FDOT Tallahassee, Fla.). After a
thorough report to the EAB by Lily Elefteriadou, the center's director, on the past year's activities, the group discussed three
major research focus areas of the CMS: traffic operations, congestion pricing and transportation and land use planning. They
also discussed CMS plans related to research, education and technology transfer activities. Lastly, the board, lead by Wayne
Kittelson of Kittelson & Associates, Inc., made some excellent recommendations with respect to the center's future activities
and goals. Board members also attended the CMS Annual Student Conference on March 6, where students presented their
work on CMS-funded projects (see article below).
The CMS held its Annual
Student Conference on March
6, 2009 at the Samuel P. Ham
Museum of Art (UF campus).
The half-day conference was
attended by UF students,
faculty and staff, and
included members of the
center's External Advi-
sory Board (EAB) and other
als. A total of eight students
from the departments of civil
engineering (CE), industrial
and systems engineering
(ISE), occupational therapy
(OT) and urban and regional
planning (URP) presented
their work on transporta-
tion-related issues. This
year, the CMS added a bit of
a competitive streak to the
conference and decided to
award prizes to students who were best able to deliver ex-
cellent, over all presentations. The students were evaluated
by the EAB members, and the awardees were selected based
on the EAB's votes.
Our first place winner was Di Wu, who presented on
his work in congestion pricing. Wu is a doctoral student in
the transportation program. In second place, Chad Riding,
a master's student in urban and regional planning, won
for his access management case-study work on Florida
State Road 26. Our third place winner was Matt Weisman,
a transportation master's student, for his presentation on
signal preemption for responses to emergency vehicles.
A poster session was held during lunch as part of the
conference activities. Several students participated and
delivered 1 to 3-minute summaries of their work.
Ashwin Arulselvan (ISE) Branch-and-Price Approach for a
Bimodal Evacuation Problem
Dincer Konur (ISE) A Competitive Facility Location Game
with Traffic Congestion Costs
Lihui Zi!,, (CE) Robust Synchronization of Actuated
Signals on Arterials
Di Wu (CE) Pareto-Improving Congestion Pricing on Mul-
timodal Transportation Networks
Keirra Gent (OT) Occupational Therapy Driving Perfor-
mance Issues in Post Deployed Military Personnel with TBI,
Russell Provost (URP) Using Geographical Information
Systems to Analyze Relationships between Factors in the
Built Environment and Travel Behavior
Chad Riding (URP) Access Management as a Means of
Accommodating Access, Accessibility, and Mobility on
an SIS Facility: The Case Study of State Road 26 through
Matt Weisman (CE) A Comparison of Signal Preemption
and Priority for Emergency Vehicle Response
Poster Session Participants
Alexandra Kondyli (CE) Driver Behavior at Freeway-Ramp
Merging Areas: Focus Group Findings
Ashish Kulshrestha & Abigail Osei-Asamoah (CE) Estimating
Capacity of Signalized Intersection with a Left-Turn Lane
Using a Probabilistic Approach
Yingyan Lou (CE) A Robust Approach to Discrete Network
Designs with Demand Uncertainty
Dimitra Michalaka (CE) Proactive and Robust Dynamic
Pricing Strategies for High Occupancy/Toll Lanes
Xiaoyu Zhu (CE) A Case Study in Spatial Misclassification
of Work Zone Crashes
( fS5j2(109 13
Matt Weisman presenting his
workon signal preemption
during the Annual Student
(Left to right) Yafeng Yin, Di
Wu and Toi Lawphongpanich
CMS-Affiliated Student Award Winners
Aaron Elias, master's student, cvil engineering (transportation)
Student of the Year Award
(CUTC Awards Banquet, January 2009)
Abishek Komma, M.S. (UF 2008)
Wootan Award for Outstanding M.S. Thesis in Policy & 7.
(CUTC Awards Banquet, January 2009)
Anna Lai, master's student, cvil engineering (transportation)
Frankee F .. Undergraduate Scholarship
(WTS Central Florida Chapter, 2008)
Yingyan Lou, doctoral candidate, civil engineering (transportation)
2" Place, Student Paper Competition
(2nd International Symposium on Freeway and Tollway Operations,
Frankee f. .. Graduate Scholarship
(WTS Central Florida Chapter, 2009)
Outstanding International Student
(UF College of Engineering, 2008 and 2009)
Jessica L. Mackey, master's student, urban and regional
planning / transportation
Helene M. Overly Memorial Scholarship
(WTS Central Florida Chapter, 2009)
Li Xie, doctoral student, civil engineering (transportation)
Frankee F .. Graduate Scholarship
(WTS Central Florida Chapter, 2008)
WTS = Women's Transportation Seminar
Distinguished Lecturer Seminar
Genevieve Giuliano, Ph.D., Senior Associate Dean, Research & Technology
University of Southern California, METRANS Director
School of Policy, Planning and Development
Impacts of Port Gate Operations on the Highway System: A Case Study
PRESENTATION CONTENT: Under continued pressure to adjust operations in ways that mitigate
traffic and air quality impacts of port operations and in response to threatened regulatory legisla-
tion, terminal operators collaborated to establish and implement a voluntary program of extended
gate hours. The program, known as PierPASS, assesses a Traffic Mitigation Fee (TMF) on eligible
containers moved into and out of the ports during regular daytime hours. The PierPASS program
resulted in a significant temporal shift of cargo moves at the ports. The researchers examined the
effects of this shift on heavy truck traffic. Using a traffic simulation model, they estimated PierPASS effects on highway system performance for vari-
ous weekday time periods. A shift of truck traffic out of daytime and into evening hours has resulted in little change in the level of peak period traffic
volume, and hence in the level of congestion, despite significant growth in container volumes since PierPASS was implemented. The presentation con-
dudes with some observations on recent events and the implications of PierPASS for reduction of externalities associated with port related trade.
CMS Distinguished Lecturers are chosen from academia and industry and are invited once a semester to present on congestion mitigation related issues. All Distin-
guished Lecturer Seminars are webcast live, recorded and posted on the CMS Web site at itt,. .... ,-,. tl , i_events/distinguished_lecturer_seminar_seriesphp.
Student Spotlight Yingyan Lou
Area of Specialization: Transportation
Expected Graduation Date: Fall 2009
Yingyan Lou is working fervently these days
trying to figure out how to best prevent con-
gestion by offering drivers attractive options
for alternative routes by setting up practical
but sensible toll rates on the road network.
This is the topic of her dissertation, which she
is close to wrapping up this summer before she
starts her academic career as a tenure-track as-
sistant professor at the University of Alabama.
On more than one occasion, Lou has
received recognition for her excellent scho-
lastic abilities and for her work in congestion
pricing, thus validating the knowledge-base
she has built over the years in school. She is an
exemplary student, and one of the many stars
born out of the Transportation Program in the
UF Department of Civil & Coastal Engineering.
The path to success
Lou attended Beijing University, in Beijing,
China, where she completed a bachelor's
degree in mechanics and engineering science
and another in economics. The programs were
theoretical in nature with vigorous training in
mathematics, physics and computer science.
Certainly, Lou had acquired a plethora of
knowledge during her undergraduate years,
but she was in search for a more practical side
to her training and wanted to know how her
skills could be applied to real-world situations.
What she did know is that she also had
a passion for urban planning and design.
Lou pondered how she could merge urban
planning with her training in mathematics and
economics. After some very intense months
consumed by contemplating her career path,
the search eventually led her to pursue gradu-
ate studies in transportation at UF a natural
choice flanked by both her technical back-
ground and her urban planning interests.
"Transportation is in the middle of these
two areas," Lou said. "We need to use a lot of
technical skills to solve transportation prob-
lems, and transportation problems play a big
part in urban planning and design. I feel the
knowledge I learned has helped me very much
with the research I am doing right now."
Lou currently focuses on systems analysis.
Her work involves considering the transportation
system in its entirety, which includes freeway
and transit, among others. She's done a lot of
work in the area of congestion pricing and has
collaborated with researchers in other depart-
ments. Congestion pricing isn't the only topic she
focuses on; she has been expanding to other areas
such as transportation network security and reli-
ability, modeling people's travel-choice behaviors
and the financing of transportation systems.
Industry or academia?
When Lou initially decided to pursue graduate
studies in the United States, she thought she
would ultimately end up working in the corpo-
rate sector for some consulting firm. But it was
her graduate adviser, Yafeng Yin, an assistant
professor in the Department of Civil & Coastal
engineering at UF, who after observing her
progress in graduate school, encouraged her to
pursue a career in academia.
"I firmly believe that Yingyan has huge po-
tential to be a great researcher and educator," Yin
said. "She is intellectually gifted and possesses an
exceptional capability of quickly digesting exist-
ing knowledge, discovering critical problems and
proposing innovative solutions."
Through her dissertation research, Yin
says that Lou has developed a rational and
practical structure for congestion pricing on
urban transportation networks.
These days, it's not that Lou is not inter-
ested in industry anymore, she is just more
passionate about research.
Yingyan in her yin and yang
Ancient Chinese people viewed the world as
a harmonious and holistic entity, thus giving
way to the concept of yin and yang, a kind
of logic which views things in relation to its
whole. This is very much the way Lou views
her world in relation to how she balances
graduate studies at UF with life in general.
When not glued to her office chair and
captivated by the blossoming results of her
most current research project, Lou is gracefully
striking the keys of her piano, practicing Yoga,
joining friends for dinner on the weekends or
singing karaoke with her friends. The songs
she sings are mostly in Chinese, and she does
prefer to sing them at home, she says. Lou also
likes to visit many of the natural parks in the
Gainesville, Fla., area.
Family is very important to Lou. Born in
Shanghai, China, she is the only child to very
caring parents. When Lou visits her parents in
China, she likes to cook with her mother and
finds comfort in engaging in long conversations
with her parents. Lou even likes to spend time
teaching her mother and father how to use the
computer. "They learn really fast," Lou said.
"They can now e-mail me and share things they
like with me."
With her dissertation almost complete and
graduation just around the corner, Lou is eager
to tackle the next phase in her life, a job as a
tenure track assistant professor at the Uni-
versity of Alabama. Although she knows that
academia has its challenges, she feels confident
that her training at UF will prepare her for her
"My research goal is to help enhance
decision-making in transportation, to achieve a
more efficient, reliable, and sustainable trans-
portation system," Lou said. "I plan to build
a research program featuring in improving
transportation decision-making from a system
perspective based on a more comprehensive
understanding of traffic phenomena. I plan
to apply systems modeling and optimization
techniques with more realistic traffic flow and
travel behavior models to solve real-world
(;J LsS ,rj -20]9 15
U UNIVERSITY of
Center for Multimodal Solutions for Congestion Mitigation
512 Weil Hall
P.O. Box 116580
Gainesville, FL 32611-6580
Phone: 352.392.9537, Ext. 1409
Permit No. 94