• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Background
 Conditioned floor areas
 Exterior wall systems
 Insulation levels
 Glazing materials
 Cooling system
 Heating system
 Air handler location
 Domestic water heaters (DWH)
 Water heating conservation...
 HVAC credits






Group Title: Technical note - University of Florida Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing ; 05-01
Title: Energy related characteristics of new-home construction in Florida 1999-2005
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 Material Information
Title: Energy related characteristics of new-home construction in Florida 1999-2005
Series Title: Technical note - University of Florida Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing ; 05-01
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing
Publisher: University of Florida Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 2005
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Subject: University of Florida.   ( lcsh )
Spatial Coverage: North America -- United States of America -- Florida
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00087011
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida

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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Background
        Page 1
    Conditioned floor areas
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Exterior wall systems
        Page 3
    Insulation levels
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Glazing materials
        Page 6
    Cooling system
        Page 7
    Heating system
        Page 8
    Air handler location
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Domestic water heaters (DWH)
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Water heating conservation credits
        Page 13
    HVAC credits
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
Full Text







Technical Note 05-01


Energy Related Characteristics
of


New-Home


Construction in Florida
1999-2005


June 2005





Prepared for:
Florida Department of Community Affairs
Housing and Community Development
2555 Shumard Oak Blvd
Tallahassee, FL 32399-2100


Prepared by:
Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing
M. E. Rinker, Sr. School of Building Construction
College of Design, Construction & Planning
University of Florida
P. O. Box 32611-5703
Gainesville, Florida 32611-5703






Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing


CONTENTS


Page
Background 1

Conditioned Floor Areas 1

Exterior Wall Systems 3

Insulation Levels 4

Glazing Materials 6

Cooling System 7

Heating System 8

Air Handler Location 9

Domestic Water Heaters (DWH) 11

Water Heating Conservation Credits 13

HVAC Credits 14
Ceiling Fans 14
Cross Ventilation 14
Programmable Thermostat AC 15
Programmable Thermostat HP 16
Multi-zone Cooling 16
Multi-zone Heating 17


LIST OF TABLES

Number Page
1 Sample Distribution by Year and Climatic Zone 1
2 Average Conditioned Floor Areas (Square Feet) 2
3 Frequency Distribution of Conditioned Floor Area (1999-2005) 3
4 Exterior Wall Construction Systems 3
5 Average R-value for Attic Insulation 4
6 Frequency Distribution of Attic Insulation (1999-2005) 5
7 Glazing Type Distribution (1999-2005) 6
8 Average Glass/Floor Area Ratio 6
9 Average Cooling System Capacity 7
10 Average Energy Efficiency Ratings for Cooling Systems 8






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LIST OF TABLES (Continued)

Number Page
11 Heating Systems by Fuel Type 9
12 Air Handler Location 9
13 Domestic Water Heating Systems 11
14 Average Domestic Water Heating System Efficiencies 12
15 Average Water Heater Capacities (in gallons) 12
16 DWH Energy Conservation Credit Incidence 13
17 Incidence of Ceiling Fans 14
18 Cross Ventilation Incidence 15
19 Programmable Thermostat AC Incidence 15
20 Programmable Thermostat HP Incidence 16
21 Multi-zone Cooling Incidence 17
22 Multi-zone Heating Incidence 17


LIST OF FIGURES

Number Page
1 Average Conditioned Floor Areas (Square feet) 2
2 Frequency Distribution of Conditioned Floor Areas (1999-2005) 2
3 Exterior Wall Construction Systems 4
4 Average Attic Insulation Levels 5
5 Frequency Distribution of Attic Insulation (1999-2005) 5
6 Frequency Distribution of Glazing Types (1999-2005) 6
7 Glass-to-Floor Area Ratios 7
8 Cooling System Capacity 7
9 Average Energy Efficiency Ratings Cooling Systems 8
10 Heating System Fuel North Zone 9
11 Location of Air Handler 10
12 Domestic Water Heating Fuel North 11
13 Average Water Heater Capacity (in gallons) 12
14 DWH Energy Conservation Credit Incidence 13
15 Incidence of Ceiling Fans 14
16 Incidence of Cross Ventilation 15
17 Programmable Thermostat AC Incidence 16
18 Programmable Thermostat HP Incidence 16
19 Multi-zone Cooling System Incidence 17
20 Multi-zone Heating System Incidence 18






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Background

In January 2001, the Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing entered into an agreement with
the Florida Department of Community Affairs to serve as the receiving point for Florida Energy
Efficiency Code for Building Construction (FEECBC) Compliance forms submitted by local
building officials across the state.

Upon receipt of the FEECBC Forms, the Shimberg Center draws a random sample of 1 out of 20
(5%) of the forms for entry into a database. If a jurisdiction submits less than 20 forms, one
form is selected at random and entered in to the database. This procedure insures representation
in the database of housing markets with low levels of construction activity.

The following summaries are focused on the data that had been manually entered into the
database through February 2005. As shown in Table 1, a total of 5,441 forms had been entered
representing the energy-related characteristics of single-family detached homes built in Florida
between late 1999 and early 2005.

The objective of this report is to provide the Department of Community Affairs and other
interested organizations and individuals with insight into trends in the energy-related features of
single-family homes being constructed in Florida. The summaries stratify the state into three
climatic zones (i.e., south, central, and north) for the purpose of exposing any trends that may be
present.

Table 1: Sample Distribution by Year and Climatic Zone

lClinatic zone
Sear South Central lJorth Totals
1999 4.5 0 134
2000 115 103 100 31..
2001 314 5 ?50 1 459.
2002 i, ?;391 120 ,~-
200? 3 2. 21
2004 2-3 19 101 1 193
2005 1-0 35' 190 -1
Totals 1 .:.? ? .. 1 100 5441


Conditioned Floor Areas

Presented in Table 2 are the average conditioned floor areas for the homes built in the three
climatic zones in the seven years covered by this report. These data are also summarized
graphically in Figure 1. As may be seen in Figure 1, the homes built in the south and north zones
display increased floor areas on the order of 20 to 30 percent. The homes built in the central
zone also display an increase but on the order of 10 percent.






Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing


Background

In January 2001, the Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing entered into an agreement with
the Florida Department of Community Affairs to serve as the receiving point for Florida Energy
Efficiency Code for Building Construction (FEECBC) Compliance forms submitted by local
building officials across the state.

Upon receipt of the FEECBC Forms, the Shimberg Center draws a random sample of 1 out of 20
(5%) of the forms for entry into a database. If a jurisdiction submits less than 20 forms, one
form is selected at random and entered in to the database. This procedure insures representation
in the database of housing markets with low levels of construction activity.

The following summaries are focused on the data that had been manually entered into the
database through February 2005. As shown in Table 1, a total of 5,441 forms had been entered
representing the energy-related characteristics of single-family detached homes built in Florida
between late 1999 and early 2005.

The objective of this report is to provide the Department of Community Affairs and other
interested organizations and individuals with insight into trends in the energy-related features of
single-family homes being constructed in Florida. The summaries stratify the state into three
climatic zones (i.e., south, central, and north) for the purpose of exposing any trends that may be
present.

Table 1: Sample Distribution by Year and Climatic Zone

lClinatic zone
Sear South Central lJorth Totals
1999 4.5 0 134
2000 115 103 100 31..
2001 314 5 ?50 1 459.
2002 i, ?;391 120 ,~-
200? 3 2. 21
2004 2-3 19 101 1 193
2005 1-0 35' 190 -1
Totals 1 .:.? ? .. 1 100 5441


Conditioned Floor Areas

Presented in Table 2 are the average conditioned floor areas for the homes built in the three
climatic zones in the seven years covered by this report. These data are also summarized
graphically in Figure 1. As may be seen in Figure 1, the homes built in the south and north zones
display increased floor areas on the order of 20 to 30 percent. The homes built in the central
zone also display an increase but on the order of 10 percent.







Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing


Table 2: Average Conditioned Floor Areas (Square feet)


Conditioned Floor Area


* South
o Central
O North


1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005


Figure 1: Average Conditioned Floor Areas (Square feet)



In addition to these point estimates of the conditioned floor areas of the homes included in the
sample, it is useful to consider the frequency distribution of the individual homes included in the
sample as shown in Figure 2 and listed in Table 3.


Conditioned Floor Area Distribution (1999-2005)


South
O Central
o North

8 Ii HII HIIl


:1200 1200- 1501- 2001-
1200 2000 2500
Square feet


2501-
3000


>3000


Figure 2: Frequency Distribution of Conditioned Floor Areas (1999-2005)


Ciirn3iic zr'ne
,'ear Soulh Central rIorth
1999a I-I-I I. 19 0 1 -1)
:000 4.:. 4 -97 1 i 101. 1
'001 :'. .:. 4 101 .
"'0 2 :":.44 4 "N-., 0 "1 4:
2003 -47: ":'".' ';. -."1 4

'005 ";,.:.:". 0 "l I 1 44 "
Ssm ol 1 l-:-.-. O1.14 1O'9i7


30000
25000
20000
15000
1000 0
5000
00







Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing


Table 3: Frequency Distribution of Conditioned Floor Area (1999-2005)
Climnaic zone
Floor areas
SouILh central l I Jorlh
: 1200.. ".. ,5,5"..
1200-1500 ".. 14 0".. 14 0"..
1501-2000 :5 .J.".. ? 1.. ?.?. ,"..
2001-2500 ".. ?. ....
2501-3000 1,. 1".. 10 .. 1 ..
::'?3000 ?. 1".. 11 0 .. 10 8 ..
Sanple I 0 1 0-.??. 0-:41 0'


Figure 2 indicates that all three climatic zones have a similar distribution of homes based on
conditioned floor area. The most frequently built home in all regions is between 1,501 and 2,000
square feet; about 6 percent of the homes built are less than 1,200 square feet; and over 10
percent of the homes are built with over 3,000 square feet. In the south zone these homes with
over 3,000 square feet of floor area represent 23.1 percent of the homes built from 1999 through
2005 as shown in Table 3.

Exterior Wall Systems

The Florida Energy Code Compliance Form allows the builder to specify the exterior wall
system from a list of eight options: concrete, wood-frame, steel-frame, light-weight concrete,
face brick, concrete bead-poly bead frame, log, and other. Of the 5,441 homes included in the
sample, only the first four exterior wall system types were reported in sufficient numbers to
summarize. Data for the incidence of concrete, wood frame, steel frame and light-weight
concrete exterior walls is shown in Table 4. These data are converted to percentages and
presented graphically in Figure 3.

Table 4: Exterior Wall Construction Systems


., i I ,:,,l', I *.il l I i, II II II ,u I I


.1.11 :, ,:' 41:1. IhI ,, I!:. ,
S 1,087 2,408 216 430 1,44:, .1 89 4 1 62 ,42 7

1,,8 2,408 ,1, 430 II II8I i
,1 ., I ".h 'II ,

ha:le ,-e 1,087 2,408 216 430 1,441 892 4 14 1 62 42 7







Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing


Concrete Building Systems Light-weight Concrete Systems




S,:,, South South
l OCentral 0 Central
1:' |0 North 0 North
,:, ,, ..




Wood Frame Systems Steel Frame Systems




I South 0 m South
0 Central I0 Central
SNorth North

0,

1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

Figure 3: Exterior Wall Construction Systems

When studying the four charts in Figure 3, the reader is cautioned that the percentages may add
to more than 100 percent. This situation is caused by the homes that are built with multiple
exterior wall building materials and, therefore, appear more than once in the database. The
concrete systems dominate the market in the south and central zones while wood-frame
construction dominates in the north. The light-weight concrete systems are losing market share
in the south while steel-framed construction, although at a low percentage, is increasing market
share in both the south and central zones.

Insulation Levels

Average R-values of the insulation installed in attic spaces are listed in Table 5 and displayed
graphically in Figure 4. The trend in this chart is an increasing level of attic insulation in all
three zones over the seven years presented.


Table 5: Average R-value for Attic Insulation
Climatic zone
Year South Central North
1999 22.1 21.4 27.7
2000 23.8 23.8 25.5
2001 23.9 24.0 29.7
2002 22.7 24.7 30.5
2003 23.7 26.4 29.9
2004 24.3 23.8 32.5
2005 25.7 32.6 29.5








Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing


Figure 4: Average Attic Insulation Levels


The frequency distribution of level of attic insulation in homes built between 1999 and 2005 is
presented in Figure 5. As may be seen, homes in the south are more likely to have a lower attic
R-value than homes built in the north. The percentages used to produced the histogram are
shown in Table 6.


Table 6: Frequency Distribution of Attic Insulation (1999-2005)
SClimnatic zone
R* .'aIlue------------
South Central rJorlh
19 0.4o0 0.100 0.2o0
19-23 53.60o 53.50o 37.50o
=23- 30 44.400 46.2o0 55.2o0
'30 1.5o 0.2o 7.1o
Sample size 1 3S1 1 -.:.


Attic Insulation Levels (1999-2005)


60 0%
U 50 0%
M 40 0%
30 0%
0 20 0%
U
10 0%
0 0
0 0% -


R-19 R-1923 R>23-30 R-30
< R-19 R-19-23 R>23 -30 > R-30


* South
O Central
O North


Figure 5: Frequency Distribution of Attic Insulation (1999-2005)


Average Attic Insulation Levels


35

30



S20I South
0 Central
15 0 North
10

5


1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005







Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing


Glazing Materials


Seventy to 80 percent of the housing units used single-pane, clear glazing in the south and
central zones while nearly 80 percent of the units in the north zone used double-pane, clear
gazing. It should be noted that prior to 2001, the term "tinted" included glazed areas that were
either tinted, covered with a film, or covered with a sun screen. The types of glazing are
summarized in Table 7 and Figure 6.


Table 7: Glazing Type Distribution (1999-2005)
Climai: zone rlnLmbers of housing units bL. glazing tIpe
Chnmgiii nonn D----------Do-- s ---- ---_ ---
Sing/Clear Sing/Tinlec DouID/Clear Doul'/Tinie, Totils
Souln .:.4.: 10 1-0 -43 1 191i
Central 2 4,... 230 ..:.' 1 1.4
rJorlh 1..:. 12 *:.9..:. ,.4 1 1 .


Figure 6: Frequency Distribution of Glazing Types (1999-2005)


The glass/floor area ratio ranged between 0.13 and 0.17 in all regions between 1999 and 2005.
Homes in the south zone were reported to have larger glass-to-floor area ratios in all years (See
Figure 7). The average ratio over the seven-year period for the south was 0.161. The average
ratios for the central and north zones were 0.143 and 0.140, respectively. (See Table 8)


Table 8: Average Glass/Floor Area Ratio
:ImI3le zone
i ear
SOuLth Ceniral IN Jrth
Claa 0 1-,. 0 144 o 1I :
2000 01,. 0 1 ? 01 ?.

2001 0 1C.. 0 14.:. 0 14-
200 0 1.. 0 1:,51 0 1:
2003 0 1 0 14 01 ?..C
2004 0 1..4 0 140 0 1 ?
2,00 0 11:.0 0140 0 1 ?.4


Glazing Type Distribution (1999-2005)


90 0%
800%
700o% I Single/clear
3 600%
so 500 o% o Single/tinted
o
S[0 Double/clear
Q 300%
2 20 o% O Double/tinted
- 100%


SEuth Central North







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Glass/Floor Area Ratio


0.180

0.150

0.120

0.090

0.060

0.030

0.000


SSouth
O Central
o North


1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005


Figure 7: Glass-to-Floor Area Ratios


Cooling System


An essential piece of equipment in homes built in Florida is the cooling system. The two main
characteristics used to describe the systems are the system's capacity and efficiency. The
cooling systems installed in homes in the south zone had higher rated capacities than in the other
two zones. (See Table 9 and Figure 8) The average cooling system capacities for the south zone
ranged from 40.6 Btuh to 47.5 Btuh between 1999 and 2005. The range for the central zone was
from 36.2 Btuh to 38.9 Btuh and the range for the north zone was 29.5 Btuh to 38.7 Btuh.


Table 9: Average Cooling System Capacity
Bltuh Capa.'city
i ear S~oulh Cenral [ Jorth
1SS 44 ?, -. :-'U
2000 4-'4 7 9 ?.-i..
2001 4 2- 7 ?.,..
2002 4.5 ? ?. ?.- ?.

2003 40 ?. ?
20 0.4 .4- 2 ?. 7 ?. ? 5 ?.
2005 .4 ?8 9 ?8 -


Cooling System Capacity


0 ESouth

M n North



1999 2003 2031 2002 2003 2OO4 2005


Figure 8: Cooling System Capacity






Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing


Presented in Table 10 is a list of the average efficiency ratings for the cooling systems reported
each year in the three climatic zones.


Table 10: Average Energy Efficiency Ratings of Cooling Systems
Climatic zone


1999 11.0 10.4 11.1
2000 10.9 10.7 10.4
2001 11.1 10.4 10.7
2002 11.7 10.7 10.8
2003 11.6 11.7 10.9
2004 11.4 10.6 10.7
2005 11.7 11.8 10.9


The average energy efficiency ratings of cooling systems are displayed graphically in Figure 9.
The energy efficiency ratings in the south and central zones display an increase through the
period shown while the average efficiency in the north zone remained relatively unchanged.


Cooling System Bficiency Rating


SSouth
I Central
0 North


Figure 9: Average Energy Efficiency Ratings Cooling Systems

Heating System

Heating systems are listed in Table 11 by fuel type, climatic zone, and year. As may be
expected, the south zone is dominated by electric strip heating systems and electric heat pump
systems due to the lack of availability of natural gas in south Florida. In the central zone the
installation of electric strip heating declined to less than 10 percent; electric heat pumps comprise
73 to 85 percent of the units installed, and natural gas systems captured between 12 and 26
percent of the market.


Year


South


Central


North







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Table 11: Heating Systems by Fuel Ty e
Year South Central North
Year
Elec strip Heat Pump Nat. Gas Elec strip Heat Pump Nat. Gas Elec strip Heat Pump Nat. Gas
1999 4I0 0".. 0 0".. 0 0".. 0 0".. '".. 2' ".. 5 ".. 2'. ".. i,..:. 4"..
2000 95.6% 4.4% 0.0% 4.9% 83.3% 11.8% 1.0% 47.9% 51.0%
2001 92.3% 7.4% 0.3% 3.9% 84.2% 12.0% 0.3% 72.5% 27.2%
2002 95.0% 5.0% 0.0% 8.0% 77.5% 14.5% 4.3% 77.8% 17.9%
2003 87.7% 9.8% 2.5% 5.2% 79.2% 15.6% 2.3% 86.6% 11.1%
2004 97.8% 2.2% 0.0% 1.6% 73.0% 25.4% 0.0% 91.9% 8.1%
2005 90.0% 10.0% 0.0% 1.1% 83.5% 15.4% 0.0% 94.1% 5.9%
Sample size 1,188 79 6 110 2,380 518 13 848 220


The most striking trend during the seven year period occurred in the north zone where the
electric heat pump market share increased from 26 percent to 94 percent while the natural gas
system market share declined from 68 percent to 6 percent. This change in market share is
shown graphically in Figure 10.



Heating System Fuel Type North


100.0%
80.0
60.0
40.0
20.00
0.0 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005


* Elec. strip
3 Heat pump
SNat. gas


Figure 10: Heating System Fuel North Zone


Air Handler Location


The air handler component of the cooling/heating system can be placed in a variety of locations.
The energy code compliance forms allow this location to be specified as: attic, garage, interior,
outdoors, or other. The counts of units installed in the three most common locations are shown
in Table 12.
Table 12: Air Handler Location
Yr South Central North
Atl,; Garage5 Inlerior nlic Garage Inlerior ullic Garage Inlenor
14r 9 1 17 '.4 2 I' 12
?000 f. .,_'.. .0. 7 .40 ,- ,
211111 11 1 ? '. 1.-... .'.4 '.74 \ I I4 7 1 I111171
2,00,,,2 1.'. 2 .'... :. 1 ..:.t 79 17 .'. 1.'.
2 0 0, 3 1 '. .'. i 1 I_ 1 ,
'2 '4 ...2 .. .i t _. .1 7 1 2 1 .2 "2-.
2'1:11:1'5 41, 2 -_ 1 2 1 1 1 1 1
Tlatas 1 217 527 7761 137 2,066 794 72 714 385





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Presented in Figure 11 are the percentages of air handlers placed in attics, garages, or interior.
Less than 1.0 percent of the units were reported to be placed in either the "outdoors" or "other"
locations. It appears that there is a tendency in all three climatic zones for the air handler to be
placed in an "interior" conditioned space. This choice should improve the performance of the
system. Yet, a substantial percentage of air handlers are installed in attics and garages.


Air Handler Location South


j1 ',


I, ,


1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005


* Attic
E Garage
O Interior


Air Handler Location Central


E Attic
o Garage
O Interior


Air Handler Location North


Ri ThTh
Jb1


1999 2000 2001


2002 2003 2004 2005


Figure 11: Location of Air Handler


E Attic
E0 Garage
o Interior


1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005







Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing


Domestic Water Heaters (DWH)


Domestic water heaters in Florida utilize primarily electricity, natural gas, or LP gas as their fuel
sources. In the south, electricity is the dominant energy used (see Table 13) although generally
less than 5 percent in any one year are designed for either natural gas or LP gas. In the central
zone between 75 and 85 percent of the DWH systems use electricity with the remainder using
natural gas. During the seven years for which data are presented, the north zone water heating
systems have shifted from a fuel choice dominated by natural gas (70.0% in 1999) to a fuel
choice dominated by electricity (91.1% in 2005). This shift from natural gas to electricity for
water heating is illustrated graphically in Figure 12.


Table 13: Domestic Water Heating Systems


Domestic Water Heater Fuel North


100 0%
90 0%
80 0%
70 0%
60 0%
50 0%
40 0%
30 0%
20 0%
100%
0 0%


1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005


1 Electric
0 LP Gas
o Nat. Gas
0 Other


Figure 12: Domestic Water Heating Fuel North


South Central North
iear
Elec LP Gas Nat Gas Other Elec LP Gas Nat Gas Other Elec LP Gas Nat Gas Other


2000 9 '"'4,, ,,,,
20021 V .'"'.4 4 ?. 4 1 ?." ,," 14 -".. ," i'' "_ ,,, ,, "

200 1 2 '"' I I"'' :'' ,I I ,:' I. ,,' : 4 "




amole size I1_-I 4 i: 4_ :


- -3 ... ...... .


0


S







Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing


The efficiencies of the domestic water heating systems in the three zones are summarized in
Table 14 for electric and natural gas fuel types. There were insufficient observations of the "LP
Gas" and the "Other" fuel types to justify the calculation of average efficiencies. The average
efficiencies for the electric systems range between 0.86 and 0.90 in all three climate zones. The
average efficiencies for the natural gas systems range from 0.55 to 0.65.

Table 14: Average Domestic Water Heating System Efficiencies
Electric DWH Svslems Natural Gas DWH Systems


Yea. Climatic zone Year Climalic zone
South Central Noirh South Central North
1999 0.88 0.89 0.89 1999 0.60 0.65 0.61
2000 0.89 0.89 0.90 2000 0.59 0.55 0.58
2001 0.88 0.90 0.90 2001 0.56 0.62 0.59
2002 0.89 0.89 0.89 2002 0.59 0.61 0.59
2003 0.89 0.89 0.88 2003 0.57 0.61 0.59
2004 0.87 0.89 0.89 2004 0.58 0.62 0.55
2005 0.86 0.89 0.89 2005 0.57 0.61 0.59

The average capacity of the water heating systems in the three climate zones during each of the
seven years reported range from 50 to 55 gallons in the south. The capacities in the central and
north zone are slightly lower ranging primarily from 40 to 50 gallons. (See Table 15) These
relationships are shown graphically in Figure 13.


Table 15:


Average Water Heater Capacities (in gallons)


Domestic


1oo
200



100


1999 2000 2001


Water Heater Capacity


* South
0 Central
a North


2002 2003 2004 2005


Figure 13: Average Water Heater Capacity (in gallons)


Clinlatic zone
'S,,'a r C-----


South Central Nlortn
1999 54 1 43 3 41 1
2000 548 458 46
2001 521 497 486
2002 515 458 495
2003 50 6 462 52 5
2004 51 459 499
2005 544 450 466


"^


I


nI n


u







Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing


Water Heating Conservation Credits


Domestic water heating systems are second only to the HVAC system in the total energy
consumption of a home. The Florida energy code provides energy conservation credits toward
code compliance for: Dedicated heat pump, HP-Heat recovery, and AC-Heat recovery. As may
be seen in Table 16, application for the conservation credits has begun to appear in the south
zone, particularly for the AC-Heat recovery systems. The incidence of domestic water heating
energy conservation credits is between zero and 0.5% in the central and north climate zones.
These patterns of incidence are illustrated graphically in Figure 14.


Table 16: DWH Energy Conservation Credit Incidence
South Central Horth
*,'ear Dedicated HP- Heal AC Heat Dedicated HP- Heal AC Heat Dedicated HP Heal AC Heal
Heat Pump Recovers Recovers Heal Pump Recovers Recoverj Heal Pump Recovers Recovery
999 0.0% 0.0% 0.5% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
2000 0.0% 0.0% 1.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
2001 0.0% 0.0% 3.2% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1%
2002 0.0% 0.1% 0.5% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
2003 0.2% 0.0% 0.2% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
2004 1.3% 1.6% 0.2% 0.4% 0.4% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
2005 0.0% 0.0% 0.6% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1%


DWH Energy Conservation Credits DWH Energy Conservation Credits -Central
South




0 0
-i I ,,
] c



1999 20DD 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 t
--9 2000 2001 2002 23 22 202005
B Dedicated HP 0 HP-Heat recovery 0 AC-Heat recovery
SDedicated HP DHP-Heat recovery OAC-Heat recovery


DWH Energy Conservation Credits North


1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005
* Dedicated HP U HP-Heat recovery a AC-Heat recovery


Figure 14: DWH Energy Conservation Credit Incidence







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HVAC Conservation Credits


Energy credits are issued for buildings that are designed with certain energy conserving features
that influence the energy consumed for heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC).
Presented in this section is a summary if the features claimed for energy credit. Note that these
data may not indicate the level of market penetration of a given feature. This situation arises
when the feature is present but no HVAC Credit is claimed.


Ceiling Fans: The incidence of ceiling fans in homes is erratic from year to year but is greatest
in the south as shown in Table 17 and Figure 15.


Table 17: Incidence of Ceiling Fans


, ear

1999
2000
2001


2004

2005


Clihmatic zone


1 ?. 0"..
i 4-"" ..

P. P"..


1 1"..


Central
0 "..
0 -"..




1. *..
1 :,"..


I Jorth
0 "J..


10 0..



-' T"..


Incidence of Ceiling Fans


25.0%

S20.0%

15.0% m South
Sb | Central
10.0% North
O North
5.0%

0.0%




Figure 15: Incidence of Ceiling Fans


Cross Ventilation: As shown in Table 18 and Figure 16, cross ventilation has been employed as
an energy credit in Florida homes since 2000. Generally speaking, the incidence has remained
below 1.0 percent of the homes built. The exception to this statement is the south zone. In 2003






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and 2005, the data indicate that 1.5% and 1.8%, respectively, of the homes built in the south
claimed cross ventilation. In 2004 the percentage climbed to 8.4%.



Table 18: Cross Ventilation Incidence
Climatic zone
Year
South Central North
1999 0.0o0 0.000 0.000
2000 0.000 0.000 0.10o
2001 0.000 0.10o 0.3o0
2002 0.000 0.10o 0.10o
2003 1.5o 0.10o 0.10o
2004 8.4o0 0.60o 0.1o0
2005 1.8o0 0.1o0 0.2o0


Figure 16: Incidence of Cross Ventilation


Programmable Thermostat AC: Programmable thermostats controlling the AC have been
installed in about 5% of the homes in the south between 1999 and 2002 but displayed a marked
increase beginning in 2003. The incidence in the central and north zones also increased in 2003
from less than 1% to about 5% or less in 2005. (See Table 19 and Figure 17)

Table 19: Programmable Thermostat AC Incidence
Climatic zone
Year
Soulh Central North
1999 4.4o0 0.000 0.000
2000 5.2o0 0.10o 0.3o0
2001 4.1o 0.3o0 0.4o0
2002 6.2o0 0.9o0 0.5o0
2003 30.7o0 5.5o0 2.5o0
2004 28.9o0 3.2o0 1.000
2005 42.4o0 5.000o 3.4o0


Cross Ventilation Incidence

10.0%
E 8.0%
6.0% South
=" 6.0% -
05 OCentral
S 4.0% -
5 O North
S2.0%
0.0%
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005






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Programmable Thermostat AC


54: 0..

3 :1, 0",,
2 :, i" ..
1 M 0",,
-, -,,,,


-BLLL


1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005


* South
o Central
O North


Figure 17: Programmable Thermostat AC Incidence


Programmable Thermostat HP: Prior to 2003, from 6% to almost 10% of the homes in the
south had programmable thermostats installed for both heating and cooling that was provided by
their heat pump. The incidence dropped to zero in 2003, rebounded to 3.7% in 2004, and
dropped to 0.6% in 2005. The central and north zones have not embraced these thermostats as
indicated in Table 20 and Figure 18.

Table 20: Programmable Thermostat HP Incidence
Climatic zone
Year
South Central North
1999 8.9o0 0.000 0.7o0
2000 9.6o0 0.10o 0.6o0
2001 8.3o0 0.9o0 1.8o
2002 6.2o0 0.2o0 0.000
2003 0.000 0.000 0.10o
2004 3.7o0 0.4o0 0.2o0
2005 0.6o0 0.000 0.2o0


Programmable Thermostat HP


''"~~
'""~~
"~~
'' '~~

'II~~
111111..


L


1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004


* South

O Central

O North


2005


Figure 18: Programmable Thermostat HP Incidence


Multi-zone Cooling: HVAC systems designed for multi-zone cooling have been installed in
homes built in the south throughout the seven-year period as shown in Table 21 and Figure 19.


- c~- -'







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In 2004 there was a substantial increase (nearly three-fold) in the incidence of the multi-zoned
systems. In 2005 the incidence was approximately half of the high mark set in 2004. Multi-zone
cooling in the central and northern market in 2000 has remained at or below 1.0 percent of the
homes.

Table 21: Multi-zone Cooling Incidence
Climatic zone
Year
Soulh Central North
1999 2.2o0 0.0o0 0.10o
2000 8.7o0 0.2o0 0.2o0
2001 8.3o0 0.9o0 0.9o0
2002 6.8o0 0.10o 0.7o0
2003 4.4o0 0.8o0 1.3o0
2004 21.6o0 1.0o 0.3o0
2005 11.2o 0.5o0 0.7o0


Multi-zone Cooling

v)
ID
E
Si, I South
o Central
I North

L L
. uu.
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

Figure 19: Multi-zone Cooling Incidence


Multi-zone Heating: The distribution of the incidence of multi-zone heating systems appears
similar to that for the multi-zone cooling systems. The homes built in the south are being
equipped with the multi-zone systems to a greater extent than are the homes in either the central
or north zones. (See Table 22 and Figure 19)

Table 22: Multi-zone Heating Incidence
Climatic zone
Year
South Central North
1999 2.2o0 0.0o0 0.10o
2000 7.8o0 0.2o0 0.2o0
2001 8.3o0 0.7o0 0.6o0
2002 5.6o0 0.10o 0.7o0
2003 3.9o 0.7o 1.1o
2004 21.2o0 1.0o 0.0o0
2005 11.2o 0.5o0 0.5o0







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Multi-zone Heating



E
o I South
SIa Central
c[ North


1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005


Figure 19: Multi-zone Heating Incidence




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