Group Title: Affordable housing issues
Title: Affordable housing issues ; vol. 17 no. 1
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00087009/00042
 Material Information
Title: Affordable housing issues ; vol. 17 no. 1
Series Title: Affordable housing issues
Physical Description: Serial
Creator: Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing
Publisher: Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: December 2006
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087009
Volume ID: VID00042
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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AFFO R D A B L E


ISSU


FEi


S


M.E. Rinker, Sr., School of Building Construction College of Design, Construction & Planning PO Box 115703,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-5703 TEL: (352) 273-1192 SUNCOM: 622-7697 FAX: (352) 392-4364


Volume XVI, Number 6


December 2006


The combination of energy conserving features built into new homes in Florida differs from
location to location due primarily to differences in climate. However, some of the differences in
features between the regions of the state are based on availability of products. This newsletter
provides a brief look at trends that can be seen in the new homes built in Florida between 1999
and 2004.


The Florida Energy Efficiency Code for Building
Construction (FEECBC) requires that the design
features of a building be evaluated for predicted
energy performance as part of the building permit
application process. Analysis of the projected energy
performance of the building is performed by the
EnergyGauge software developed by the Florida
Solar Energy Center (FSEC). The software requires
that detailed information be provided describing the
products and materials used in the home including
the HVAC and domestic water heating system. These
detailed data are analyzed by the program and a one-
page summary report is produced indicating "Pass"
or "Fail". A building permit may be issue if the
summary page indicates that the building plan meets
or exceeds the FEECBC requirements. It is the data
shown on the summary page that is entered into the
database by the Shimberg Center's staff.


In January 2001, the Shimberg Center for Affordable
Housing entered into an agreement with the Florida
Department of Community Affairs to serve as the
receiving point for the summary pages submitted
by local building officials in response to the
requirements of the FEECBC. The Shimberg Center
draws a random sample of approximately five
percent and manually enters the data shown on the
summary page into a database. Presented in this
newsletter is a summary of some of the main energy
conserving features of the 4,184 housing units that
have been entered into the database. The results are
shown for three climate zones: South, Central, and
North.


H 0 S N G











As may be seen in Table 1, the sample of 4,184
housing units is distributed over a five-year period
from 1999 through 2004. Geographically, the sample
spans the three major climatic zones of the state -
South, Central, and North with about half (46.9%)
of the sample taken from the Central zone.

Table 1: Distribution of Sample


Average attic insulation throughout Florida ranges
between R-20 and R-30 in all three climatic zones.
The average R-value in the South ranged from R-22 to
R-23; in the Central zone the average attic insulation
R-value ranged from R-21 to R-25; and in the North
zone the average insulation level ranged from R-25 to
R-30. (See Table 3)

Table 3: Average Attic Insulation Level


Year South Central
1999 48 87
2000 65 128
2001 156 432
2002 163 387
2003 760 581
2004 74 348


Totals 1266


North


1963


Totals
157
308
897
667
1710
445

4184


Percent 30.3% 46.9% 22.8%




The average conditioned floor area of the homes
built in the South climatic zone was larger than the
averages for the Central and North zones in the 1999
through 2002. (See Table 2) This relationship shows
that there was a general increase in conditioned floor
area during the four-year period in all three climatic
zones.


Table 2: Average Conditioned Floor Area


h tuoS Central


VPar


1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004


2225.4
2552.7
2488.3
2524.6
1816.0
2290.0


1953.6
2217.6
2116.1
2044.2
1973.2
1969.1


1600.4
2206.5
2060.8
2165.0
1901.9
1826.7


VYnr


Cnllth CPantrl


Mnrth


ear ou en ra +orK


1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004


22.1
22.6
24.1
22.7
22.7
23.1


21.3
23.8
23.5
24.3
25.2
23.0


28.6
24.5
25.5
27.7
26.6
29.9


The relative amount of glazing in Florida's new
homes between 1999 and 2004 ranged from about
13 percent of the floor area of the home to about 17
percent of the floor area. As may be seen in Figure
1, this percentage is fairly stable throughout the time
period in all three climatic zones.

Glazing as Percent of Floor Area

20.0%

15.0%
m South
10.0% Central
m North
5.0% [

0.0%8
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
rigure i: ulazing as a rerceni oU riour Area

Shown in Figure 2 is a frequency distribution of
the percent of homes reported to have single-glazed
windows installed. As may be seen, single-glazing
continues to dominate the homes in the South and


Van... r








Central zones. However, in the North zone, the use
of single-glazed windows peaked at 20.4 percent in
2000 and declined to zero percent in 2004.

Window Glazing Single Pane


8 south
i Central
* North


19992000 2001 2002 2003 2004
Figure 2: Homes with Single Glazing

Some builders choose tinted glass, solar films,
or solar screens as an c Ii. I saving mechanism.
Presented in Figure 3 is a summary of the percent
of homes that installed windows with one of these
features. In 1999 just over 91 percent of the homes
in the sample reported one of the three forms of solar
protection. By the end of the six-year period the
incidence had declined to just over 43 percent. In
contrast, homes in the Central zone started the period
with zero percent having solar protection; but by
2004 over 56 percent of the units had installed solar
window protection. There does not appear to be a


pattern of use in the North zone except that less than
20 of the homes are built with solar protection for
window glazing.


Window Solar Protection
(Tinted glass, solar films, solar screens)

100.0%
80.0%-
60.0%
40.0% a Central
40.0%-
20.0% HNorth
0.0%
Figure 3: Homes with Window Solar Protection

Table 4 shows the percent distribution of heating
systems by type by region from 1999 2004. The
percentages may not add up to 100 percent due to
unspecified fuel type or multiple systems installed in
a single home. However, the data clearly indicate the
preferred fuel type in the regions by year. Electric
resistance heating is the dominant fuel type in the
South zone; heat pump systems dominate the Central
zone; and in the North zone electrical resistance
heating systems have been replaced by natural gas
and electric heat pumps.


Table 4: Heating System Type


HEAT PUMP
South
Central
North
NAT. GAS
South
Central
North
ELEC. STRIP
South
Central
North


1999


0.0%
67.8%
28.6%

0.0%
31.0%
19.1%

100.0%
1.1%
4.8%


2000

1.6%
74.4%
39.1%

0.0%
23.2%
57.3%

98.4%
2.4%
3.6%


2001


1.9%
79.2%
83.8%

0.0%
14.3%
14.2%

98.1%
6.1%
1.6%


2002

4.9%
69.2%
75.7%

0.0%
12.9%
19.1%

95.1%
7.2%
4.3%


2003

4.8%
76.3%
89.1%

0.3%
13.0%
10.1%

95.0%
10.6%
0.8%


2004


0.0%
42.3%
80.8%

0.0%
16.9%
7.7%

100.0%
0.9%
11.5%










The average heating system efficiencies of the
various fuel types were uniform within regions.
Natural gas systems were reported with efficiencies
(i.e., AFUE) of from 0.80 to 0.82. Electric strip
heating was reported as 1.0. Heat pump systems
displayed the variation in efficiencies ranging
between 6.8 and 7.5. In 2002, the average HSP in the
South zone was 10.0. These relationships are shown
in Figure 4

Heat Pump System Efficiencies


Ia centr


1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004


Figure 4: Average Heat Pump System Efficiency
(HSP)




Air handlers for the HVAC system are typically
located either in the interior conditioned space, in
the unconditioned garage, or in the unconditioned
attic space. Of these three locations, placing the air
handler in a conditioned space is the most en. I.i ,.
efficient choice. However, as shown in Table 5,
the garage was chosen 95 percent of the time in the
South zone in 1999 but by 2003 an interior location
was chosen almost 80 percent and declined to about
30 percent in 2004.

Placing the air handler in the garage has been the
dominant choice in the Central zone however, close
to 25 percent of the homes built from 2001 through
2004 had the air handlers placed in an interior space.


In the North zone the Garage location for the air
handler dominated the choices with about 60 percent
of the decisions going to the Garage. It is interesting
to note that the new homes built in 2003 and 2004
have reversed the relationship with nearly 70 percent
reporting placement in the interior space.

Table 5: Air Handler Location

SOUTHAir Handler Location
Attic Garage Interior Other
1999 5.3% 94.7% 0.0% 0.0%
2000 7.5% 45.0% 47.5% 0.0%
2001 11.6% 46.6% 41.3% 0.5%
2002 9.1% 46.0% 44.9% 0.0%
2003 0.0% 0.0% 99.7% 0.3%
2004 36.0% 34.9% 29.1% 0.0%

CENTRALAir Handler Location
Attic Garage Interior Other
1999 3.6% 72.3% 24.1% 0.0%
2000 8.5% 81.4% 8.5% 1.7%
2001 4.3% 72.8% 22.0% 0.9%
2002 8.8% 66.0% 24.5% 0.8%
2003 8.8% 66.3% 24.3% 0.8%
2004 4.9% 73.1% 21.4% 0.6%

NORTHAir Handler Location
Attic Garage Interior Other


1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004


0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%


0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%


100.0%
96.6%
97.2%
100.0%
96.9%
69.6%


0.0%
3.4%
2.8%
0.0%
3.1%
30.4%










The average capacities of these systems ranged from
a low of 30 kBtuh in the North in 1999 to a high of
47.3 kBtuh in the South in 2002. The average c nc. I .*
efficiency ratings (EER) of these cooling systems are
presented in Table 6. As may be seen, the efficiencies
ranged from 10.2 to 11.7 with a tendency for the
higher EERs to be reported in the South.

Table 6: Average Cooling System Energy Efficiency
Rating


Year


Mnrth


1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004


10.9

11.0
11.7
10.9
11.1


10.4
10.2
10.3
10.5
11.5
10.5


11.0
10.5
10.7
10.8
10.6
10.5


Table 7: Domestic Water Heating Fuel Type

FUEL TYPE South
Year Electric Nat. gas L.P. gas
1999 97.9% 2.1% 0.0%
2000 95.2% 0.0% 4.8%
2001 95.5% 3.8% 0.6%
2002 96.9% 3.1% 0.0%
2003 97.5% 1.9% 0.7%
2004 100.0% 0.0% 0.0%

FUEL TYPE Central
Year Electric Nat. gas L.P. gas
1999 69.4% 30.6% 0.0%
2000 76.2% 22.1% 1.6%
2001 84.2% 15.1% 0.7%
2002 84.6% 15.1% 0.3%
2003 81.6% 18.1% 0.3%
2004 71.1% 28.9% 0.0%

FUEL TYPE North
Year Electric Nat. gas L.P. gas


The lack of natural gas supply resulted in the South
zone being dominated by electric water heating
systems. In the Central zone, natural gas systems
appeared in 30% of the homes in 1999, declined to
around 15% in 2001 and 2002, and then recovered
to an incidence of about 29% in 2004. This dip in
natural gas incidence is likely related to fuel supply
and cost issues. In the North zone, natural gas water
heating fuel use followed a similar pattern. These
relationships are shown in Table 7.


1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004


31.8%
33.9%
82.1%
72.6%
80.7%
0.0%


68.2%
66.1%
16.6%
26.5%
18.8%
82.1%


0.0%
0.0%
1.3%
0.9%
0.5%
16.6%


~~""~'


Snifth Pentral

































Affordable Housing ISSUES is prepared bi-monthly by the Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing for the purpose
of discussing contemporary issues facing affordable housing providers. Reproduction of this newsletter is both permitted and
encouraged. Comments or questions regarding the content are welcome and should be addressed to Robert C. Stroh, Director.


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