Group Title: Affordable housing issues
Title: Affordable housing issues ; vol. 14 no. 6
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 Material Information
Title: Affordable housing issues ; vol. 14 no. 6
Series Title: Affordable housing issues
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing
Publisher: Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: October 2004
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Bibliographic ID: UF00087009
Volume ID: VID00029
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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M.E. Rinker, Sr., School of Building Construction College of Design, Construction & Planning PO Box 115703,
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-5703 TEL: (352) 273-1192 SUNCOM: 622-7697 FAX: (352) 392-4364

Volume XVI, Number 6

October 2004

Manufactured housing provides affordable housing opportunities for many Floridians.
Volume 20, Number 3 of the Florida Housing Coalition's "Housing News Network"
included a series of articles addressing manufactured housing and the 2004 hurricanes.
Presented below is a version of the article that appeared in the Coalition's "Housing News
Network" that was authored by the Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing.

The news coverage of property damage
resulting from hurricanes Charley, Frances, and
Ivan has indicated that the thousands of manu-
factured homes in Florida do a poor job of
protecting the occupants and their belongings.
But is that the complete story?
There are a number of organizations that are
busy pouring over data collected during on-site
inspections following Charley and Frances.
More data will be collected in the Florida
panhandle communities ravaged by Ivan.
The organizations performing this study
include the US Department of Housing &
Urban Development, the Florida Department of

Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles, the Florida
Manufactured Housing Association, and the
Institute for Business and Home Safety. Teams
of experts from these organizations have visited
manufactured home parks throughout the track
of the hurricanes for the purpose of document-
ing the damage and the characteristics of the
housing units.
Of particular interest in this effort has been
the performance of different age manufactured
units. If the changes that have been made in the
codes that govern the manufacture and the
placement of manufactured housing units have
improved the units' performance, the data
should show the improvement.

H 0 S N

The key dates of interest are when the units
were produced relative to the dates that major
changes have taken place in the building codes
that dictate how the units are produced and tied

Units produced before 1976.
Units produced after 1976 when the
Federal Manufactured Home Construction
and Safety Standards (FMHCSS) were
adopted by Congress. Manufactured units
produced under the Standards became
known as "HUD-Code" units.
Units produced after 1994 when the
FMHCSS were updated following Hurri
cane Andrew in order to reflect increased
wind-load requirements.
Units produced and set after 1999 when
Florida issued more stringent installation
and tie-down standards and licensing of

A team from the Manufactured Housing
Institute (MHI) accompanied the HUD damage
inspection team following Hurricane Charley
when they inspected six manufactured housing
communities near Punta Gorda. In MHI's Just
the Facts published 23 August 2004 it was
reported that the wind speeds in the six com-
munities ranged from 100 to 145 mph depend-
ing on the location. The homes built prior to the
1976 HUD Code did not perform well in two of
the communities. The damages were attributed
to inadequate anchors, corroded anchors, or
penetrations of the exterior walls and windows
of the units by wind-borne debris. Car ports

that had been attached to the units failed due to
wind forces and tore off portions of the walls
and roof. These wall penetrations and those
resulting from wind-borne debris allowed
internal pressure to increase and destruction of
the home resulted. The only homes that sur-
vived without considerable damage were pro-
tected by nearby tree lines.

Most of the damage experience by manufac-
tured units built according to the 1976 HUD
Code, but before the 1994 changes, was related
to the failure of attached carports that pealed
away siding and roof covering exposing the
home to increased internal pressure. Wind-
borne debris impact was also observed as a
cause of damage. A small number of homes
were observed to have shifted off their founda-
tions. Many homes were saved from serious
damage by being equipped with hurricane
shutters. In general, it was concluded that most
of the homes could be repaired and would still
be livable.

Homes that were built after the 1994 HUD
Code, with its wind-load updates, performed
well. Most of the units had storm shutters that
likely prevented buildup of internal pressure.
Wind-borne debris damage was observed on
siding and roofs. Where attached garages failed,
collateral damage to the units was limited to
small wall or roof areas. Movement on the
foundation was observed in very few units and
was considered to be easily repairable.

0 2004 Iriuklsrie for Bjness & MomirD Saletym

Next to the older,
manufactured home,
stands a manufactured
home built and
installed to the newer
HUD codes governing
manufactured home
construction in wind
zone III. The newer
home lost a few
shingles, but remains
intact. It was installed
one month before
Hurricane Charley

None of the homes built after the 1994 HUD
Code updates and in accordance with the 1999
Florida installation standards could be found
that were displaced from their foundations.
The tougher installation and tie-down safety
standards for Florida's mobile homes required
the use of more tie-downs. Today, a typical
manufactured home might have as many as 45
tie-downs compared with just 10 for a pre-
Andrew manufactured unit. Most damage that
was observed was related to the loss of attached
carports, the impact of wind-borne debris, or
siding failure.

The summary statements published by the
MHI stated, "Overall, performance of homes
built to the post-1994 HUD Code wind changes
was very good. Homes built to the pre-1994
HUD Code faired well. Homes built to the 1976
HUD Code failed at an alarming rate."

Another damage assessment of the manufac-
tured home damage related to Hurricane Char-
ley was conducted by the Florida Department of
Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles, Division
of Motor Vehicles. This team visited 77 manu-
factured housing parks and assessed the dam-
age to 11,800 housing units located in Polk,
Charlotte, DeSoto, Hardee, Lee, Highlands, and
Orange Counties. The goal of the team was to
assess the effectiveness of the 1994 HUD Code
with its updates to improve the wind resistance
of the units. Out of all the units observed, 2,422
(20.5%) were either destroyed or damaged to
the point of not being repairable. Focusing only
on the 2,883 post-1994 HUD Code homes that
were observed, none of the units were seriously
damaged. The damage observed to these units
was related to the loss of attached carports and
screen rooms, siding and shingle loss, broken
windows, and siding/roof damage caused by
wind-borne debris or falling trees.

The findings reported by the damage assess-
ment teams indicate that the strengthened
Federal Manufactured Home Construction and
Safety Standards are improving manufactured
housing structural performance during high-
wind events. Similarly, the administrative rules
implementing a mobile home installer training
and licensing program has had a positive effect
on the stability of manufactured units during
high-wind events.

A comprehensive report of the HUD damage
assessment teams is anticipated to be published
later this year.

Subscription to the Housing News Network are
provided with basic membership in the Florida
Housing Coalition. The Coalition may be
reached at 850-878-4219 or by visiting their
website at

Affordable Housing ISSUES is prepared bi-monthly by the Shimberg Center for Affordable Housing for the purpose of
discussing contemporary issues facing affordable housing providers. Reproduction of this newsletter is both permitted and
encouraged. Comments or questions regarding the content are welcome and should be addressed to Robert C. Stroh, Director.

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