• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Half Title
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 The battle-ship Maine
 The preliminaries
 A declaration of war
 The battle of Manila Bay
 News of the day
 Cardenas and San Juan
 From all quarters
 Hobson and the Merrimac
 By wire
 Santiago de Cuba
 El Caney and San Juan Heights
 The Spanish fleet
 The surrender of Santiago
 Minor events
 The Porto Rican campaign
 The fall of Manila
 Peace
 Appendices
 Back Cover
 Spine






Title: The boys of '98
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086976/00001
 Material Information
Title: The boys of '98
Physical Description: ix, 386 p., 62 leaves of plates : ill, port. ; 21 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Otis, James, 1848-1912
Dana Estes & Company ( Publisher )
Publisher: Dana Estes & Company
Place of Publication: Boston
Publication Date: c1898
 Subjects
Subject: Spanish-American War, 1898 -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Soldiers -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Sailors -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Youth -- Death -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
War -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature -- Cuba   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile literature -- United States -- 20th century   ( lcsh )
Photographs -- 1898   ( gmgpc )
Bldn -- 1898
Genre: Photographs   ( gmgpc )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by James Otis ; illustrated by J. Steeple Davis, Frank T. Merrill, and with reproductions of photographs.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086976
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002394790
notis - ALZ9697
oclc - 228695034
lccn - 98002087

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page i-a
    Half Title
        Page ii
    Frontispiece
        Page iii
    Title Page
        Page iv
        Page v
    Table of Contents
        Page vi
    List of Illustrations
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
    The battle-ship Maine
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 6a
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 12a
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    The preliminaries
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 20a
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 24a
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 30a
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    A declaration of war
        Page 38
        Page 38a
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 44a
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 48a
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 54a
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 58a
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    The battle of Manila Bay
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 68a
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 72a
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 74a
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 76a
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 82a
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    News of the day
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 98a
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 106a
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 116a
    Cardenas and San Juan
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 118a
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 122a
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 126a
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
    From all quarters
        Page 130
        Page 130a
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 134a
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 144a
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
    Hobson and the Merrimac
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 150a
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 156a
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 160a
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 166a
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 168a
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 170a
    By wire
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 180a
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 186a
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 192a
        Page 193
    Santiago de Cuba
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 200a
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 206a
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 214a
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 218a
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
    El Caney and San Juan Heights
        Page 224
        Page 224a
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 228a
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 234a
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 238a
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 242a
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
    The Spanish fleet
        Page 254
        Page 254a
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 256a
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 262a
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 266a
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 268a
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 274a
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 282a
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
    The surrender of Santiago
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 292a
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 300a
        Page 301
    Minor events
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 314a
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 318a
        Page 319
    The Porto Rican campaign
        Page 320
        Page 320a
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 326a
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 332a
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 334a
    The fall of Manila
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 344a
    Peace
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 348a
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
    Appendices
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Appendix A. The Philippine Islands
            Page 355
            Page 356
            Page 357
            Page 358
            Page 359
            Page 360
            Page 361
            Page 362
            Page 363
            Page 364
            Page 365
            Page 366
            Page 367
            Page 368
            Page 369
        Appendix B. War-ships and signals
            Page 370
            Page 371
            Page 372
            Page 373
            Page 374
            Page 375
            Page 376
            Page 377
            Page 378
        Appendix C. Santiago de Cuba
            Page 379
            Page 380
            Page 381
            Page 382
        Appendix D. Porto Rico
            Page 383
            Page 384
            Page 385
        Appendix E. The Bay of Guantanamo
            Page 386
    Back Cover
        Page 387
        Page 388
    Spine
        Page 389
Full Text

























ANO
14




























































Fit.




















































The Baldwin Library
University
FRmBorida


II~LIP~4h~bPslss__e~_sl~lll~a~~

















THE BOYS OF '98
































































THE CHARGE AT EL CANEY.









THE BOYS OF




BY
JAMES OTIS


AUTHOR OF
"TOBY TYLER," "JENNY WREN'S BOARDING HOUSE,"
"THE BOYS OF FORT SCHUYLER," ETC.




IllustrateB bi
J. STEEPLE DAVIS
FRANK T. MERRILL
And with Reproductions of Photographs


BOSTON
DANA ESTES & COMPANY
PUBLISHERS


'98
































Copyright, z898
BY DANA ESTES & COMPANY
























Colonial ezuss
Electrotyped and Printed by C. H. Simonds & Co.
Boston, U.S.A.

















CONTENTS.


CHAPTER PAGh
I. THE BATTLE-SHIP MAINE I
II. THE PRELIMINARIES .
III. A DECLARATION OF WAR 38
IV. THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY 64
V. NEWS OF THE DAY 92
VI. CARDENAS AND SAN JUAN 117
VII. FROM ALL QUARTERS 130
VIII. HOBSON AND THE MERRIMAC 149
IX. BY WIRE 171
X. SANTIAGO DE CUBA 194
XI. EL CANEY AND SAN JUAN HEIGHTS. 224
XII. THE SPANISH FLEET 254
XIII. THE SURRENDER OF SANTIAGO 290
XIV. MINOR EVENTS 302
XV. THE PORTO RICAN CAMPAIGN 320
XVI. THE FALL OF MANILA 335
XVII. PEACE 345
APPENDIX A-THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS 355
APPENDIX B--WAR-SHIPS AND SIGNALS 370
APPENDIX C-SANTIAGO DE CUBA 379
APPENDIX D- PORTO RICO 383
APPENDIX E--THE BAY OF GUANTANAMO 386





















ILLUSTRATIONS.


-4 -


PAGE
THE CHARGE AT EL CANEY Frontispiece
U. S. S. MAINE 7
CAPTAIN C. D. SIGSBEE 12
Ex-MINISTER DE LOME 20
U. S. S. MONTGOMERY 24
MAJOR-GENERAL FITZHUGH LEE 30
U. S. S. COLUMBIA 38
CAPTAIN-GENERAL BLANCO 44
PREMIER SAGASTA 49
PRESIDENT WILLIAM MCKINLEY 55
U. S. S. PURITAN .58
ADMIRAL GEORGE DEWEY 64
U. S. S. OLYMPIA 69
U. S. S. BALTIMORE 72
BATTLE OF MANILA BAY 75
U. S. S. BOSTON 77
U. S. S. CONCORD 82
U. S. S. TERROR 99
JOHN D. LONG, SECRETARY OF NAVY 107
U. S. S. CHICAGO 117
THE TRAGEDY OF THE WINSLOW 19
U. S. S. AMPHITRITE 123
THE BOMBARDMENT OF SAN JUAN, PORTO RICO 127










Viii ILLUSTRATIONS.

PAGE
U. S. S. MIANTONOMAH 130
ADMIRAL SCHLEY .35
U. S. S. MONTEREY. 144
U. S. S. MASSACHUSETTS 151
LIEUTENANT HOBSON .156
U. S. S. NEW YORK 161
HOBSON AND HIS MEN ON THE RAFT 166
ADMIRAL CERVERA 169
QUEEN REGENT, MARIA CHRISTINA OF SPAIN 171
GENERAL GARCIA 181
ADMIRAL CAMERA 186
GENERAL AUGUSTI 192
U. S. S. MARBLEHEAD 201
U. S. S. VESUVIUS 207
U. S. S. TEXAS 215
COLONEL THEODORE ROOSEVELT 218
MAJOR-GENERAL SHAFTER 224
THE ATTACK ON SAN JUAN HILL 229
VICE-PRESIDENT HOBART. 234
U. S. S. NEWARK 239
ADMIRAL W. T. SAMPSON 243
GENERAL WEYLER 254
CAPTAIN R. D. EVANS 256
U. S. S. IOWA 262
THE DESTRUCTION OF CERVERA'S FLEET 266
U. S. S. INDIANA 269
U. S. S. OREGON 275
U. S. S. BROOKLYN 282
MAJOR-GENERAL JOSEPH WHEELER 292
KING ALPHONSO XIII. OF SPAIN 300
GENERAL GOMEZ 311
U. S. S. NEW ORLEANS 314
U. S. S. SAN FRANCISCO 318









ILLUSTRATIONS. ix

PAGE
MAJOR-GENERAL MILES .. 320
MAJOR-GENERAL BROOKE. 327
GENERAL BROOKE RECEIVING THE NEWS OF THE PRO-
TOCOL 333
GENERAL RUSSELL A. ALGER, SECRETARY OF WAR 334
MAJOR-GENERAL WESLEY MERRITT 344
DON CARLOS 349
















THE BOYS OF '98.



CHAPTER I.

THE BATTLE -SHIP MAINE.

AT or about eleven o'clock on the morning of
January 25th the United States battle-ship
Maine steamed through the narrow channel which
gives entrance to the inner harbour of Havana, and
came to anchor at Buoy No. 4, in obedience to orders
from the captain of the port, in from five and one-half
to six fathoms of water. She swung at her cables
within five hundred yards of the arsenal, and' about
two hundred yards distant from the floating dock.
Very shortly afterward the rapid-firing guns on her
bow roared out a salute as the Spanish colours were
run up to the mizzenmast-head, and this thunderous
announcement of friendliness was first answered by
Morro Castle, followed a few moments later by the
Spanish cruiser Alphonso XII. and a German
.school-ship.
The reverberations had hardly ceased before the







THE BOYS OF '98.


captain of the port and an officer from the Spanish
war-vessel, each in his gaily decked launch, came along-
side the battle-ship in accordance with the rules of
naval etiquette.
Lieut. John J. Blandin, officer of the deck, received
the visitors at the head of the gangway and escorted
them to the captain's cabin. A few moments later
came an officer from the German ship, and the cour-
tesies of welcoming the Americans were at an end.
The Maine was an armoured, twin-screw battle-ship of
the second class, 318 feet in length, 57 feet in breadth,
with a draught of 21 feet, 6 inches; of 6,648 tons dis-
placement, with engines of 9,293 indicated horse-power,
giving her a speed of 17.75 knots. She was built in
the Brooklyn navy yard, according to act of Congress,
August 3, 1886. Work on her was commenced Octo-
ber II, 1888; she was launched November 18, 1890,
and put into commission September 17, 1895. She
was built after the designs of chief constructor T. D.
Wilson: The delay in going into commission is said
to have been due to the difficulty in getting satisfactory
armour. The side armour was twelve inches thick;
the two steel barbettes were each of the same thick-
ness, and the walls of the turrets were eight inches
thick.
In her main battery were four Io-inch and six
6-inch breech-loading rifles; in the secondary bat-
tery seven 6-pounder and eight I-pounder rapid-fire
guns and four Gatlings. Her crew was made up of








THE BATTLE-SHIP MAINE.


370 men, and the following officers: Capt. C. D.
Sigsbee, Lieut.-Commander R. Wainwright, Lieut. G.
F. W. Holman, Lieut. J. Hood, Lieut. C. W. Jungen,
Lieut. G. P. Blow, Lieut. F. W. Jenkins, Lieut. J. J.
Blandin, Surgeon S. G. Heneberger, Paymaster C. M.
Ray, Chief Engineer C. P. Howell, Chaplain J. P. Chid-
wick, Passed Assistant Engineer F. C. Bowers, Lieu-
tenant of Marines A. Catlin, Assistant Engineer J. R.
Morris, Assistant Engineer Darwin R. Merritt, Naval
Cadet J. H. Holden, Naval Cadet W. T. Cluverius,
Naval Cadet R. Bronson, Naval Cadet P. Washington,
Naval Cadet A. Crenshaw, Naval Cadet J. T. Boyd,
Boatswain F. E. Larkin, Gunner J. Hill, Carpenter J.
Helm, Paymaster's Clerk B. McCarthy.
Why had the Maine been sent to this port ?
The official reason given by the Secretary of the
Navy when he notified the Spanish minister, Sefior
Dupuy de Lome, was that the visit of the Maine was
simply intended as a friendly call, according to the
recognized custom of nations.
The United States minister at Madrid, General
Woodford, also announced the same in substance to
the Spanish Minister of State.
It having been repeatedly declared by the govern-
ment at Madrid that a state of war did not exist in
Cuba, and that the relations between the United States
and Spain were of the most friendly character, nothing
less could be done than accept the official construction
put upon the visit.








THE BOYS OF '98.


The Spanish public, however, were not disposed to
view the matter in the same light, as may be seen by
the following extracts from newspapers :
If the government of the United States sends one
war-ship to Cuba, a thing it is no longer likely to do,
Spain would act with energy and without vacillation."
- El Heraldo, January i6tlz.
"We see now the eagerness of the Yankees to seize
Cuba." The Imparcial, January 23d.
The same paper, on the 27th, declared:
"If Havana people, exasperated at American im-
pudence in sending the Maine, do some rash, disagree-
able thing, the civilised world will know too well who
is responsible. The American government must know
that the road it has taken leads to war between both
nations."
On January 25th Madrid newspapers made general
comment upon the official explanation of the Maine's
visit to Havana, and agreed in expressing the opinion
that her visit is "inopportune and calculated to en-
courage the insurgents." It was announced that,
"following Washington's example," the Spanish gov-
ernment will instruct Spanish war-ships to visit a
few American ports."
The Izparcial 'expresses fear that the despatch of
the Maine to Havana will provoke a conflict, and adds:
Europe cannot doubt America's attitude towards
Spain. But the Spanish people, if necessary, will do
their duty with honour."








THE BATTLE-SHIP MAINE. 5

The Epocha asks if the despatch of the Maine to
Havana is "intended as a sop to the Jingoes," and
adds:
"We cannot suppose the American government so
naive or badly informed as to imagine that the presence-
of American war-vessels at Havana will be a cause of
satisfaction to Spain or an indication of friendship."
The people of the United States generally believed
that the battle-ship had been sent to Cuba because
of the disturbances existing in the city of Havana,
which seemingly threatened the safety of Americans
there.
On the morning of January 12th what is termed
the "anti-liberal outbreak" occurred in the city of
Havana.
Officers of the regular and volunteer forces headed
the ultra-Spanish element in an attack upon the lead-
ing liberal newspaper offices, because, as alleged, of
Captain-General Blanco's refusal to authorise the sup-
pression of the liberal press. It was evidently a riotous
protest against Spain's policy of granting autonomy to
the Cubans.
The mob, gathered in such numbers as to be for the
time being most formidable, indulged in open threats
against Americans, and it was believed by the public
generally that American interests, and the safety of
citizens of the United States in Havana, demanded the
protection of a war-vessel.
The people of Havana received the big fighting ship







THE BOYS OF '98.


impassively. Soldiers, sailors, and civilians gathered at
the water-front as spectators, but no word, either of
threat or friendly greeting, was heard.
In the city the American residents experienced a
certain sense of relief because now a safe refuge was
provided in case of more serious rioting.
That the officers and crew of the Maine were appre-
hensive regarding their situation there can be little
doubt. During the first week after the arrival of the
battle-ship several of the sailors wrote to friends or
relatives expressing fears as to what might be the
result of the visit, and on the tenth of February one of
the lieutenants is reported as having stated:
If we don't get away from here soon there will be
trouble."
The customary ceremonial visits on shore were made
by the commander of the ship and his staff, and, so
far as concerned the officials of the city, the Americans
were seemingly welcome visitors.
The more radical of the citizens were not so appar-
ently content with seeing the Maine. in their harbour.
Within a week after the arrival of the ship incendiary
circulars were distributed in the streets, on the railway
cars, and in many other public places, calling upon all
Spaniards to avenge the "insult" of the battle-ship's
visit.
A translation of one such circular serves as a speci-
men of all:
"Spaniards : Long live Spain and honour.





















































U. S. S. MAINE.







THE BATTLE-SHIP MAINE.


What are ye doing that ye allow yourselves to be
insulted in this way?
"Do you not see what they have done to us in with-
drawing our brave and beloved Weyler, who at this
very time would have finished with this unworthy
rebellious rabble, who are trampling on our flag and
our honour?
Autonomy is imposed on us so as to 'thrust us to
one side and to give posts of honour and authority to
those who initiated this rebellion, these ill-born autono-
mists, ungrateful sons of our beloved country.
And, finally, these Yankee hogs who meddle in our
affairs humiliate us to the last degree, and for still
greater taunt order to us one of the ships of war of
their rotten squadron, after insulting us in their news-
papers and driving us from our homes.
Spaniards, the moment of action has arrived.
Sleep not. Let us show these vile traitors that we
have not yet lost shame and that we know how to pro-
tect ourselves with energy befitting a nation worthy
and strong as our Spain is and always will be.
"Death to Americans. Death to autonomy.
"Long live Spain !
Long live Weyler! "

At eight o'clock on the evening of February 15th
all the magazines aboard the battle-ship were closed,
Sand the keys delivered to her commander according
to the rules of the service.







THE BOYS OF '98.


An hour and a half later Lieut. John J. Blandin was
on watch as officer of the deck; Captain Sigsbee sat in
his cabin writing letters; on the starboard side of the
ship, made fast to the boom, was the steam cutter, with
her crew on board waiting to make the regular ten
o'clock trip to the shore to bring off such of the officers
or crew as were on leave of absence.
The night was unusually dark; great banks of thick
clouds hung over the city and harbour; the ripple of
the waves against the hulls of the vessels at anchor,
and the subdued hum of voices, alone broke the silence.
The lights here and there, together with the dark tra-
cery of spar and cordage against the sky, was all
that betokened the presence of war-ship or peaceful
merchantman.
Suddenly, and when the silence was most profound, the
watch on board the steamer City of Washington, and
some sailors ashore, saw what appeared to be a sheet
of fire flash up in the water directly beneath the Maine,
and even as the blinding glare was in their eyes came a
mighty, confused rumble as of grinding and rending,
followed an instant later by a roar as if a volcano had
sprung into activity beneath the waves of the harbour.
Then was flung high in the air what might be
likened to a shaft of fire filled with fragments of iron,
wood, and human flesh, rising higher and higher until
its force was spent, when it fell outwardly as falls a
column of water broken by the -wind.
The earth literally trembled; the air suddenly became







THE BATTLE-SHIP MAINE.


heavy with stifling smoke. Electric lights on shore were
extinguished; the tinkling of breaking glass could be
heard everywhere in that portion of the city nearest the
harbour.
When the shower of fragments and of fire ceased to
fall a dense blackness enshrouded the harbour, from the
midst of which could be heard cries of agony, appeals
for help, and the shouts of those who, even while
struggling to save their own lives, would cheer their
comrades.
After this, and no man could have said how many
seconds passed while the confusing, bewildering black-
ness lay heavy over that scene of death and destruc-
tion, long tongues of flame burst up from the torn and
splintered decks of the doomed battle-ship, a signal of
distress, as well as a beacon for those who would
succour the dying.
Captain Sigsbee, recovering in the briefest space of
time from the bewilderment of the shock, ran out of
the cabin toward the deck, groping his way as best he
might in the darkness through the long passage until
he came upon the marine orderly, William Anthony,
who was at his post of duty near the captain's quarters.
It was a moment full of horror all the more intense
because unknown, but the soldier, mindful even then
of his duty, saluting, said in the tone of one who makes
an ordinary report :
"Sir, I have to 'inform you that the ship has been
blown up, and is sinking."







THE BOYS OF '98.


"Follow me," the captain replied, acknowledging
his subordinate's salute, and the two pressed forward
through the blackness and suffocating vapour.
Lieutenant Blandin, officer of the deck, was sitting
on the starboard side of the quarter-deck when the
terrible upheaval began, and was knocked down by a
piece of cement hurled from the lowermost portion of
the ship's frame, perhaps; but, leaping quickly to his
feet, he ran to the poop that he might be at his proper
station when the supreme moment came.
Lieut. Friend W. Jenkins was in the junior officers'
mess-room when the first of a battle-ship's death-throes
was felt, and as soon as possible made his way toward
the deck, encouraging some of the bewildered marines
to make a brave fight for life; but he never joined his
comrades.
Assistant Engineer Darwin R. Merritt and Naval
Cadet Boyd together ran toward the hatch, but only
to find the ladder gone. Boyd climbed through, and
then did his best to aid Merritt; but his efforts were
vain, and the engineer went down with his ship.
It seemed as if only the merest fraction of time
elapsed before the uninjured survivors were gathered
on the poop-deck. Forward of them, where a moment
previous had been the main-deck, was a huge mass
looming up in the darkness like some threatening
promontory.
On the starboard quarter hung the gig, and opposite
her, on the port side, was the barge.







THE BATTLE-SHIP MAINE.


During the first two or three seconds only muffled,
gurgling, choking exclamations were heard indistinctly;
and then, when the terrible vibrations of the air ceased,
cries for help went up from every quarter.
Lieutenant Blandin says, in describing those few but
terrible moments:
Captain Sigsbee ordered that the gig and the
launch be lowered, and the officers and men, who by
this time had assembled, got the boats out and rescued
a number in the water.
Captain Sigsbee ordered Lieut.-Commander Wain-
wright forward to see the extent of the damage, and if
anything could be done to rescue those forward, or to
extinguish the flames which followed close upon the
explosion and burned fiercely as long as there were
any combustibles above water to feed them.
Lieut.-Commander Wainwright on his return re-
ported the total and awful character of the calamity,
and Captain Sigsbee gave the last sad order, 'Abandon
ship,' to men overwhelmed with grief indeed, but calm
.and apparently unexcited."
The quiet, yet at the same time sharp, words of
command from the captain aroused his officers from
the stupefaction of horror which had begun to creep
over them, and this handful of men, who even then
were standing face to face with death, set about aiding
their less fortunate companions.
As soon as they could be manned, boats put off from
the vessels in the harbour, and the work of rescue was








12 THE BLYS OF '98.

continued until all the torn and mangled bodies in
which life yet remained had been taken from the water.
Capt. H. H. Woods, of the British steamer Thurston,.
was among' the first in this labour of mercy, and con-
cerning it he says :
My vessel was within half a mile of the Maine,
and my small boat was the first to gain the wreck.
It is beyond my power to describe the explosion. It
was awful. It paralysed the intellect for a few moments.
The cries that came over the water awakened us to a
realisation that some great tragedy had occurred.
I made all haste to the wreck. There were very
few men in the water. All told, I do not believe there
were thirty. We picked up some of them and passed
them on to other vessels, and then continued our work
of rescue.
"The sight was appalling. Dismembered legs and
trunks of bodies were floating about, together with
pieces of clothing, boxes of meats, and all sorts of
wreckage. Now and then the agonised cry of some
poor suffering fellow could be heard above the tumult.
One grand figure stood out in all the terrible scene.
That was Captain Sigsbee. Every American has reason
to be proud of that officer. He seemed to have realized
in an instant all that happened. Not for a moment did
he show evidence of excitement. He alone was cool.
Discipline? Why, man, the discipline was there as
strong as ever, despite the fact that all around was
death and disaster."





















































































CAPTAIN SIGSBEE.


~ ~








THE BATTLE-SHIP MAINE.


The commander of the Maine was the last to leave
the wreck, and then all that was left of the mighty ship
was beginning to settle in the slime and putrefaction
which covers the bottom of Havana harbour.
Calmly, with the same observance of etiquette as if
they had been assisting at some social function, the
officers took their respective places in the boats, and,
amid a silence born of deepest grief, rowed a short
distance from the rent and riven mass so lately their
post of duty.
A gentleman from Chicago, a guest at the Grand
Hotel, was seated in front of the building when the
,explosion occurred.
It was followed by another and a much louder one,"
he said. "We thought the whole city had been blown
to pieces. Some said the insurgents were entering
Havana. Others cried out that Morro Castle was
blown up.
On the Prado is a large cab-stand. One minute
.after the explosion was heard the cabmen cracked their
whips and went rattling over the cobblestones like
crazy men. The fire department turned out, and bodies
of cavalry and infantry rushed through the streets.
There was no sleep in Havana that night."

Soon after the disaster Admiral Manterola and
General Solano put off to the wreck, and offered their
.services to Captain Sigsbee.
There were many wonderful escapes from death.








THE BOYS OF '98.


One of the ward-room cooks was thrown outboard into
the water.
A Japanese sailor was blown into the air, and, falling
in the sea, was picked up alive.
One seaman was sleeping in a yawl hanging at the
davits. The boat was crushed like an egg-shell; but
the sailor fell overboard and was picked up unhurt.
Three men were doing punishment watch on the
port quarter-deck, and thus probably escaped death.
One sailor swam about until help came, although
both his legs were broken. Another had the bones of
his ankle crushed, and yet managed to keep afloat.
Two hours or more passed before the unsubmerged,
wooden portion of the wreck had been consumed by
the flames, and at 11.30 P.M. the smoke-stacks of the
ill-fated ship fell.
On board the steamer City of Washington, two boats
were literally riddled by fragments of the Maine which
fell after the explosion, and among them was an iron
truss which, crashing through the pantry, demolished
the tableware.
When morning came the wreck was the central
figure of an otherwise bright picture, sad as it was
terrible. The huge mass of flame-charred debris for-
ward looked as if it had been thrown up from a subter-
ranean storehouse of fused cement, steel, wood, and iron.
Further aft, one military mast protruded at a slight
angle from the perpendicular, while the poop afforded
a resting-place for the workmen or divers.







THE BATTLE-SHIP MAINE.


Of the predominant white which distinguishes our
war-vessels in time of peace, not a vestige remained.
In its place was the blackness of desolating death,
marking the spot where two hundred and sixty-six
brave men had gone over into the Beyond.
The total loss to the government as a result of the
disaster was officially pronounced to be $4,689,261.31.
This embraced the cost of hull, machinery, equipment,
armour, gun protection and armament, both in main and
secondary batteries. It included the cost of ammuni-
tion, shells, current supplies, coal, and, in short, the
entire outfit.
The pet of the Maine's crew, a big cat, was found
next morning, perched on a fragment of a truss which
yet remained above the water, and near her, as if seek-
ing companionship, was the captain's dog, Peggy.
Consul-General Lee cabled from Havana on the
afternoon of the sixteenth :

"Profound sorrow is expressed by the government
and municipal authorities, consuls of foreign nations,
organised bodies of all sorts, and citizens generally.
"Flags are at half-mast on the governor-general's
palace, on shipping in the harbour, and in the city.
"Business is suspended, and the theatres are
closed."

On the afternoon of the seventeenth the bodies
which had been found up to that time were buried in








THE BOYS OF '98.


Havana with military honours, two companies of
Spanish sailors from the cruiser Alpfonso XII. acting
as escort.
A board of inquiry, composed of Capt. W. T. Samp-
son of the U. S. S. Iowa as presiding officer, Com-
mander Adolph Marix as judge advocate, Capt. F. E.
Chadwick, and Commander W. P. Potter, all of the
New York, was convened, and on March 28th Presi-
dent McKinley sent a message to Congress, the conclu-
sion of which was as follows :
"The appalling calamity fell upon the people of our
country with crushing force, and for a brief time an
intense excitement prevailed, which in a community
less just and self-controlled than ours might have led
to hasty acts of blind resentment.
"This spirit, however, soon gave way to calmer
processes of reason, and to the resolve to investigate
the facts and await material proof before forming a
judgment as to the cause, the responsibility, and, if
the facts warranted, the remedy due. This course
necessarily recommended itself from the outset to the
executive, for only in the light of a dispassionately
ascertained certainty will it determine the nature and
measure of its full duty in the matter.
"The usual procedure was followed, as in all cases of
casualty or disaster to national vessels of any maritime
state.
"A naval court of inquiry was at once organised,
composed of officers well qualified by rank and prac-







THE BATTLE-SHIP MAINE.


tical experience to discharge the onerous duty imposed
upon them.
Aided by a strong force of wreckers and divers,
the court proceeded to make a thorough investigation
on the spot, employing every available means for im-
partial and exact determination of the causes of the
explosion. Its operations have been conducted with
the utmost deliberation and judgment, and, while inde-
pendently pursued, no source of information was
neglected, and the fullest opportunity was allowed for a
simultaneous investigation by the Spanish authorities.
"The finding of the court of inquiry was reached,
after twenty-three days of continuous labour, on the
twenty-first of March instant, and, having been ap-
proved on the twenty-second by the commander-in-
chief of the United States naval force in the North
Atlantic station, was transmitted to the executive.
It is herewith laid before the Congress, together
with the voluminous testimony taken before the court.
"The conclusions of the court are: That the loss of
the Maine was not in any respect due to fault or
negligence on the part of any of the officers or mem-
bers of her crew.
That the ship was destroyed by the explosion of a
submarine mine, which caused the partial explosion of
two or more of her forward magazines; and that no
evidence has been obtainable fixing the responsibility
for the destruction of the Maine upon any person or
persons.








THE BOYS OF '98.


I have directed that the finding of the court of
inquiry and the views of this government thereon be
communicated to the government of her majesty, the
queen regent, and I do not permit myself to doubt that
the sense of justice of the Spanish nation will dictate a
course of action suggested by honour and the friendly
relations of the two governments.
It will be the duty of the executive to advise the
Congress of the result, and in the meantime deliberate
consideration is invoked."

I-t was the preface to a mustering of the boys of '61
who had worn the blue or the gray, this tragedy in the
harbour of Havana, and, when the government gave
permission, the boys of '98 came forward many and
many a thousand strong to emulate the deeds of their
fathers -the boys of '61 who, although the hand of
Time had been laid heavily upon them, panted to partic-
ipate in the punishment of those who were responsible
for the slaughter of American sailors within the shadow
of Morro Castle.
















CHAPTER II.


THE PRELIMINARIES.

W AR between two nations does not begin sud-
denly. The respective governments are exceed-
ingly ceremonious before opening the game of death,"
and it is not to be supposed that the United States
commenced hostilities immediately after the disaster to
the Maine in the harbour of Havana.
To tell the story of the war which ensued, without
first giving in regular order the series of events which
marked the preparations for hostilities, would be much
like relating an adventure without explaining why the
hero was brought into the situation.
It is admitted that, as a rule, details, and especially
those of a political nature, are dry reading; but once
take into consideration the fact that they all aid in
giving a clearer idea of how one nation begins hostili-
ties with another, and much of the tediousness may be
forgiven.
Just previous to the disaster to the Maine, during
the last of March or the first of February, Senor En-
rique Dupuy de Lome, the Spanish minister at Wash-
ington, wrote a private letter to the editor of the








THE BOYS OF '98.


Madrid Herald, Sefior Canalejas, who was his intimate
friend, in which he made some uncomplimentary re-
marks regarding the President of the United States,
and intimated that Spain was not sincere in certain
commercial negotiations which were then being carried
on between the two countries.
By some means, not yet fully explained, certain
Cubans got possession of this letter, and caused it to
be published in the newspapers. Sefior de Lome did
not deny having written the objectionable matter; but
claimed that, since it was a private communication, it
should not affect him officially. The Secretary of
State instructed General Woodford, our minister at
Madrid, to demand that the Spanish government imme-
diately recall Minister de Lome, and to state that, if he
was not relieved from duty within twenty-four hours,
the President would issue to him his passports, which
is but another way of ordering a foreign minister out
of the country.
February 9. Sefor de Lome made all haste to re-
sign, and the resignation was accepted by his govern-
ment before so it was claimed by the Spanish authori-
ties President McKinley's demand for the recall was
received.
February i5. The de Lome incident was a political
matter which caused considerable diplomatic corre-
spondence; but it was overshadowed when the bat-
tle-ship Maine was blown up in the harbour of
Havana.
























I~; ~rE
"`'
""

~J~ f
9 tr~:


iEr- :-::


l AU


EX-MINISTER DE LOME.








THE PRELIMINARIES.


As has already been said, the United States govern-
ment at once ordered a court of inquiry to ascertain
the cause of the disaster, and this, together with the
search for the bodies of the drowned crew, was prose-
cuted with utmost vigour.
Very many of the people in the United States
believed that Spanish officials were chargeable with the
terrible crime, while those who were not disposed to
make such exceedingly serious accusation insisted that
the Spanish government was responsible for the safety
of the vessel, that she had been destroyed by outside
agencies in a friendly harbour. In the newspapers, on
the streets, in all public places, the American people
spoke of the possibility of war, and the officials of the
government set to work as if, so it would seem, they also
were confident there would be an open rupture between
the two nations.
February 28. In Congress, Representative Gibson
of Tennessee introduced a bill appropriating twenty
million dollars for the maintenance of national honour
and defence." Representative Bromwell, of Ohio, intro-
duced a similar resolution, appropriating a like amount
of money "to place the naval strength of the country
upon a proper footing for immediate hostilities with
any foreign power." On the same day orders were
issued to the commandant at 'Fort Barrancas, Florida,
directing him to send men to man the guns at Santa
Rosa Island, opposite Pensacola.
February 28. Sefor Louis Polo y Bernabe, appointed








THE BOYS OF '98.


minister in the place of Sefor de Lome, who resigned,
sailed from Gibraltar.
By the end of February the work of preparing the
vessels at the different navy yards for sea was being
pushed forward with the utmost rapidity, and munitions
of war were distributed hurriedly among the forts and
fortifications, as if the officials of the War Department
believed that hostilities might be begun at any moment.
Nor was it only within the borders of this country
that such preparations were making. A despatch from
Shanghai to London reported that the United States
squadron, which included the cruisers Olympia, Boston,
Raleigh, Concord, and Petrel, were concentrating at
Hongkong, with a view of active operations against
Manila, in the Philippine Islands, in event of war.
At about the same time came news from Spain
telling that the Spanish were making ready for hostil-
ities. An exceptionally large number of artisans were
at work preparing for sea battle-ships, cruisers, and tor-
pedo-boat destroyers. The cruisers Oquendo and Vis-
caya, with the torpedo-boat destroyers Furor and
Terror, were already on their way to Cuba, where
were stationed the Aljpkonso XII., the Infanta Isabel,
and the Nueva Espana, together with twelve gunboats
of about three hundred tons each, and eighteen vessels
of two hundred and fifty"tons each.
The United States naval authorities decided that
heavy batteries should be placed on all the revenue
cutters built within the previous twelve months, and








THE PRELIMINARIES.


large quantities of high explosives were shipped in
every direction.
During the early days of March, Sefior Gullon,
Spanish Minister of Foreign Affairs, intimated to
Minister Woodford that the Spanish government
desired the recall from Havana of Consul-General
Lee.
Spain also intimated that the American war-ships,
which had been designated to convey supplies to
Cuba for the relief of the sufferers there, should be
replaced by merchant vessels, in order to deprive the
assistance sent to the reconcentrados of an official
character.
Minister Woodford cabled such requests to the
government at Washington, to which it replied by
refusing to recall General Lee under the present cir-
cumstances, or to countermand the orders for the
despatch of war-vessels, making the. representation
that relief vessels are not fighting ships.
March 5. Secretary Long closed a contract for the
delivery at Key West, within forty days, of four hun-
dred thousand tons of coal. Work was begun upon the
old monitors, which for years had been lying at League
Island navy yard, Philadelphia. Orders were sent to
the Norfolk navy yard to concentrate all the energies
and fidelities of the yard on the cruiser Newark, to the
end that she might be ready for service within sixty
days.
March 6. The President made a public statement








THE BOYS OF '98.


that under no circumstances would Consul-General
Fitzhugh Lee be recalled at the request of Spain.
He had borne himself, so it was stated from the
White House, throughout the crisis with judgment,
fidelity, and courage, to the President's entire satisfac-
tion. As to supplies for the relief of the Cuban
people, all arrangements had been made to carry con-
signments at once from Key West by one of the naval
vessels, whichever might be best adapted and most
available for the purpose, to Matanzas and Sagua.
March 6. Chairman Cannon of the House appro-
priations committee introduced a resolution that fifty
millions of dollars be appropriated for the national de-
fence. It was passed almost immediately, without a
single negative vote.
Significant was the news of the day. The cruiser
Montgomery had been ordered to Havana. Brigadier-
General Wilson, chief of the engineers of the army,
arrived at Key West from Tampa with his corps of
men, who were in charge of locating and firing submarine
mines.
March o. The newly appointed Spanish minister
arrived at Washington.
March zz. The House committee on naval affairs
authorised the immediate construction of three battle-
ships, one to be named the Maine, and provided for an
increase of 473 men in the marine force.
The despatch-boat Fern sailed for Matanzas with
supplies for the relief of starving Cubans.



















A %
t 5.


U. S. S. MONTGOMERY.








THE PRELIMINARIES.


News by cable was received from the Philippine
Islands to the effect that the rebellion there had
broken out once more; the' whole of the northern
province had revolted; the inhabitants refused to
pay taxes, and the insurgents appeared to be well
supplied with arms and ammunition.
March 12. Sefior Bernabe was presented to Presi-
dent McKinley, and laid great stress upon the love
which Spain bore for the United States.
-I .:h 4. The Spanish flying squadron, composed
of three torpedo-boats, set sail from Cadiz, bound for
Porto Rico. Although this would seem to be good
proof that the Spanish government anticipated war
with the United States, Sefior Bernabe made two
demands upon this government on the day following
the receipt of such news. The first was that the
United States fleet at Key West and Tortugas be
withdrawn, and the second, that an explanation be
given as to why two war-ships had been purchased
abroad.
March 17. A bill was submitted to both houses of
Congress reorganising the army, and placing it on a
war footing of one hundred and four thousand men.
Senator Proctor made a significant speech in the
Senate, on the condition of affairs in Cuba. He
announced himself as being opposed to annexation,
and declared that the Cubans were "suffering under
the worst misgovernment in the world." The public
generally accepted his remarks as having been sanc-








THE BOYS OF '98.


tioned by the President, and understood them as
indicating that this country should recognize the inde-
pendence of Cuba on the ground that the people are
capable of self-government, and that under no other
conditions could peace or prosperity be restored in the
island.
March 17. The more important telegraphic news
from Spain was to the effect that the Minister of
Marine had cabled the commander of the torpedo
flotilla at the Canaries not to proceed to Havana;
that the government arsenal was being run night and
day in the manufacture of small arms, and that in-
fantry and cavalry rifles were being purchased in
Germany.
The United States revenue cutter cruiser McCutlloch
was ordered to proceed from Aden, in the Red Sea, to
Hongkong, in order that she might be attached to the
Asiatic squadron, if necessary.
March r8. The cruiser Amazonas, purchased from
the Brazilian government, was formally transferred to
the United States at Gravesend, England, to be known
in the future as the New Orleans.
March I9. The Maine court of inquiry concluded
its work. The general sentiments of the people, as
voiced by the newspapers, were that war with Spain
was near at hand, and this belief was strengthened
March 24th, when authority was given by the Navy
Department for unlimited enlistment in all grades of
-the service, when the revenue service was transferred








THE PRELIMINARIES.


from the Treasury to the Naval Department, and
arrangements made for the quick employment of the
National Guards of the States and Territories.
March 24. The report of the Maine court of inquiry
arrived at Washington.
March 27. Madrid correspondents of Berlin news-
papers declared that war with the United States was
next to certain. The United States cruisers San
Francisco and New Orleans sailed from England for
New York, and the active work of mining the harbours
-of the United States coast was begun.
_..' 28. The President sent to Congress, with a
message, the report of the Maine court of inquiry, as
has been stated in a previous chapter.
March 29. Resolutions declaring war on Spain, and
recognizing the independence of Cuba, were introduced
in both houses of Congress.
With the beginning of April it was to the public
.generally as if the war had already begun.
In every city, town, or hamlet throughout .the
country the newspapers were scanned eagerly for notes
of warlike preparation, and from Washington, sent by
those who were in position to know what steps were
being taken by the government, came information
which dashed the hopes of those who had been praying
that peace might not be broken.
There had been a conference between the President,
the Secretary of the Treasury, and the chairman of
the committee on ways and means, regarding the best








THE BOYS OF '98.


methods of raising funds for the carrying on of a war.
A joint board of the army and navy had met to formu-
late plans of defence, and a speedy report was made to
Secretary Long.
Instructions were sent by the State Department to
all United States consuls in Cuba to be prepared
to leave the island at any moment, and to hold them-
selves in readiness to proceed to Havana in order to
embark for the United States.
April 2. A gentleman in touch with public affairs
wrote from Washington as follows:
"To-day's developments show that there is only the
very faintest hope of peace. Unless Spain yields war
must come. The administration realises that as fully
as do members of Congress.
"The orders sent by the State Department to all
our consuls in Cuba, especially those in the interior,
to hold themselves in readiness to leave their positions
and proceed to Havana, show that the department
looks upon war as a certainty, and has taken all proper
precautions for the safety of its agents.
Such an order, it is unnecessary to say, would not
have been issued unless a crisis was imminent, and the
State Department, as well as other branches of the
government, has now become convinced that peace
cannot much longer be maintained, and that the safety
of the consular agents is a first consideration.
General Lee has also been advised that he should
be ready to leave as soon as notified, and that the








THE PRELIMINARIES.


American newspaper correspondents now in Havana
must prepare themselves to receive the notification of
instant departure.
"The Secretary of the Navy has instructed the
Boston Towboat Company, which corporation had
charge of the wrecking operations on the U. S. S.
Maine, to suspend work at once. The Secretary of
War has authorised an allotment of one million dol-
lars from the emergency fund for the office of the
chief of engineers, and this amount will be expended
in purchasing material for the torpedo defences con-
nected with the seacoast fortifications. The United
States naval attach at London has purchased a
cruiser of eighteen hundred tons displacement, cap-
able of a speed of sixteen knots, and the vessel will
put to sea immediately. The Spanish torpedo flotilla
is reported as having arrived at the Cape Verde
Islands."
April 4. Senators Perkins, Mantle, and Rawlins
spoke in the Senate, charging Spain with the murder
of the sailors of the Maine, claiming that it was prop-
erly an act of war, and insisting that the United States
should declare for the independence of Cuba and armed
intervention.
April 5. Senator Chandler announced as his belief
that the United States was justified in beginning hos-
tilities, and Senators Kenny, Turpie, and Turner made
powerful speeches in the same line, fiercely denouncing
Spain. General Woodford was instructed by cable to








THE BOYS OF '98.


be prepared to ask of the Madrid government his
passports at any moment.
Marine underwriters, believing that war was inevi-
table, doubled their rates. The merchants and manu-
facturers' board of trade of New York notified Congress
and the President that it believed Spain was responsible
for the blowing up of the Maine; that the independ-
ence of Cuba should be recognized, and that it should
be brought about by force of arms, if necessary.
April 7. The representatives of six great powers
met at the White House in the hope of being able
to influence the President for peace. In closing his
address to the diplomats, Mr. McKinley said:
"The government of the United States appreciates
the humanitarian and disinterested character of the
communication now made in behalf of the powers
named, and for its part is confident that equal appre-
ciation will be shown for its own earnest and unselfish
endeavours to fulfil a duty to humanity by ending a
situation, the indefinite prolongation of which has
become insufferable."

Americans made haste to leave Cuba, after learning
that Consul-General Lee had received orders to set sail
from Havana on or before the ninth. The American
consul at Santiago de Cuba closed the consulate in that
city.
Solomon Berlin, appointed consul at the Canary
Islands, was, by the State Department, ordered not


































































MAJOR-GENERAL FITZHUGH LEE.







THE PRELIMINARIES.


to proceed to his post, and he remained at New
York.
The Spanish consul at Tampa, Florida, left that town
for Washington, by order of his government.
The following cablegram gives a good idea of the
temper of the Spanish people:

London, April 7. A special dispatch from Madrid
says that the ambassadors of France, Germany, Russia,
and Italy waited together this evening upon Seior
Gullon, the Foreign Minister, and presented a joint
note in the interests of peace.
Senior Gullon, replying, declared that the members
of the Spanish Cabinet were unanimous in considering
that Spain had reached the limit of international policy
in the direction of conceding the demands and allowing
the pretensions of the United States."

April p. Guards about the United States legation.
in Madrid were trebled. General Blanco, captain-gen-
eral of Cuba, issued a draft order calling on every able-
bodied man, between the ages of nineteen and forty, to,
register for immediate military duty. At ten o'clock
in the morning, Consul-General Lee, accompanied by
British Consul Gollan, called on General Blanco to bid
him good-bye. The captain-general was too busy to
receive visitors. General Lee left the island at six
o'clock in the evening.
April Ii. The President sent a message, together







THE BOYS OF '98.


with Consul Lee's report, to the Congress, and Senator
Chandler thus analysed it:
First: A graphic and powerful description of the
horrible condition of affairs in Cuba.
Second: An assertion that the independence of the
revolutionists should not be recognized until Cuba has
achieved its own independence beyond the possibility
of overthrow.
Third: An argument against the recognition of the
Cuban republic.
Fourth: As to intervention in the interest of hu-
manity, that is well enough, and also on account of
the injury to commerce and peril to our citizens, and
the generally uncomfortable conditions all around.
Fifth: Illustrative of these uncomfortable conditions
is the destruction of the Maine. It helps make the
existing situation intolerable. But Spain proposes an
arbitration, to which proposition the President has no
reply.
Sixt/: On the whole, as the war goes on and Spain
cannot end it, mediation or intervention must take
place. President Cleveland said "intervention would
finally be necessary." The enforced pacification of
Cuba must come. The war must stop. Therefore,
the President should be authorised to terminate hostili-
ties, secure peace, and establish a stable government,
and to use the military and naval forces of the United
States to accomplish these results, and food supplies
should also be furnished by the United States.








THE PRELIMINARIES.


April 12. Consul-General Lee was summoned before
the Senate committee on foreign relations. It was
announced that the Republican members of the
ways and means committee had agreed upon a plan
for raising revenue in case of need to carry on war
with Spain. The plan was intended to raise more than
$Ioo,ooo,ooo additional revenue annually, and was
thus distributed :
An additional tax on beer of one dollar per barrel,
estimated to yield 35,000ooo,ooo; a bank stamp tax
on the lines of the law of 1866, estimated to yield
$30,o00,000; a duty of three cents per pound on
coffee, and ten cents per pound on tea on hand in the
United States, estimated to yield $28,ooo,ooo; addi-
tional tax on tobacco, expected to yield $15,ooo,ooo.
The committee also agreed to authorise the issuing
of $5oo,ooo,ooo bonds. These bonds to be offered
for sale at all post-offices in the United States in
amounts of fifty dollars each, making a -great popu-
lar loan to, be absorbed by the people.
To tide over emergencies, the Secretary of the Treas-
ury to be authorised to issue treasury certificates.
These certificates or debentures to be used to pay
running expenses when the revenues do not meet the
expenditures.

These preparations were distinctly war measures,
and would be put in operation only should war
occur.








THE BOYS OF '98.


April 13. The House of Representatives passed the
following resolutions :
Wkereas, the government of Spain for three years
past has been waging war on the island of Cuba
against a revolution by the inhabitants thereof, with-
out making any substantial progress toward the
suppression of said revolution, and has conducted
the warfare in a manner 'contrary to the laws of
nations by methods inhuman and uncivilised, causing
the death by starvation of more than two hundred
thousand innocent non-combatants, the victims being
for the most part helpless women and children, inflict-
ing intolerable injury to the commercial interests of
the United States, involving the destruction of the
lives and property of many of our citizens, entailing
the expenditure of millions of money in patrolling our
coasts and policing the high seas in order to maintain
our neutrality; and,
Whereas, this long series of losses, injuries, and
burdens for which Spain is responsible has culminated
in the destruction of the United States battle-ship
Maine in the harbour of Havana, and the death of
two hundred and sixty-six of our seamen, -
Resolved, That the President is hereby authorised
and directed to intervene at once to stop the war in
Cuba, to the end and with the purpose of securing
permanent peace and order there, and establishing by
the free action of the people there of a stable and
independent government of their own in the island








THE PRELIMINARIES.


of Cuba; and the President is hereby authorised and
empowered to use the land and naval forces of the
United States- to execute the purpose of this
resolution.
In the Senate the majority resolution reported:
Whereas, the abhorrent conditions which have
existed for more than three years in the island of
Cuba, so near our own borders, have been a disgrace
to Christian civilisation, culminating as they have in
the destruction of a United States battle-ship with two
hundred and sixty-six of its officers and crew, while on
a friendly visit in the harbour of Havana, and cannot
longer be endured, as has been set forth by the
President of the United States in his message to
Congress on April 11, 1898, upon which the action
of Congress was invited; therefore,
Resolved, First, that the people of the island of
Cuba are, and of right ought to be, free and inde-
pendent.
Second, That it is the duty of the United States to
demand, and the government of the United States does
hereby demand, that the government of Spain at once
relinquish its authority and government in the island of
Cuba, and withdraw its land and naval forces from
Cuba and Cuban waters.
Third, That the President of the United States be,
and he hereby is, directed and empowered to use the
entire land and naval forces of the United States, and
to call into the actual service of the United States the








THE BOYS OF '98.


militia of the several States to such extent as may be
necessary, to carry these resolutions into effect.

April i4. The Spanish minister at Washington
sealed his archives and placed them in the charge
of the French ambassador, M. Cambon. The queen
regent of Spain, at a Cabinet meeting, signed a call for
the Cortes to meet on the twentieth of the month, and
a decree opening a national subscription for increasing
the navy and other war services.
April i5. The United States consulate at Malaga,
Spain, was attacked by a mob, and the shield torn
down and trampled upon.
April 17. The Spanish committee of inquiry into
the destruction of the Maine reported that the explo-
sion could not have been caused by a torpedo or a
mine of any kind, because no trace of anything was
found to justify such a conclusion. It gave the testi-
mony of two eye-witnesses to the catastrophe, who
swore that there was absolutely no disturbance on
the surface of the harbour around the Maine. The
committee gave great stress to the fact that the ex-
plosion did no damage to the quays, and none to the
vessels moored close to the Maine, whose officers and
crews noticed nothing that could lead them to suppose
that the disaster was caused otherwise than by an acci-
dent inside the American vessel.
April 18. Congress passed the Senate resolution,
as given above, with an additional clause as follows:








THE PRELIMINARIES. 37

Fourth, That the United States hereby disclaim any
disposition or intention to exercise sovereignty, juris-
diction or control over said island, except for the
pacification thereof; and asserts its determination,
when that is accomplished, to leave the government
and control of the island to its' people.
















CHAPTER III.


A DECLARATION OF WAR.

A LL that had been done by the governments of the
United States and of Spain was indicative of war,
--it was virtually a declaration that an appeal would
be made to arms.
April 20. Preparations were making in each country
for actual hostilities, and the American people were
prepared to receive the statement made by a gentleman
in close touch with high officials, when he wrote:
"The United States has thrown down the gage of
battle and Spain has picked it up.
"The signing by the President of the joint resolu-
tions instructing him to intervene in Cuba was no
sooner communicated to the Spanish minister than he
immediately asked the State Department to furnish
him with his passports.
"It was defiance, prompt and direct.
"It was the shortest and quickest manner for Spain
to answer our ultimatum.
"Nominally Spain has three days in which to make
her' reply. Actually that reply has already been
delivered.
















. .- .


U. S. S. COLUMBIA.







A DECLARATION OF WAR.


"When a nation withdraws her minister from the
territory of another it is an open announcement to
the world that all friendly relations have terminated.
Answers to ultimatums have before this been
returned at the cannon's mouth. First the minister
is withdrawn, then comes the firing. Spain is ready
to speak through shott'ed guns.
And the United States is ready to answer, gun for
gun.
The queen regent opened the Cortes in Madrid
yesterday, saying, in her speech from the throne: I
have summoned the Cortes to defend our rights, what-
ever sacrifice they may entail, trusting to the Spanish
people to gather behind my son's throne. With our
glorious army, navy, and nation united before foreign
aggression, we trust in God that we shall overcome,
without stain on our honour, the baseless and unjust
attacks made on us.'
Orders were sent last night to Captain Sampson at
Key West to have all the vessels of his fleet under full
steam, ready to move immediately upon orders."
The Spanish minister, accompanied by six members
of his staff, departed from Washington during the
evening, after having made a hurried call at the French
embassy and the Austrian legation, where Spanish
interests were left in charge, having announced that he
would spend several days in Toronto, Canada.
April 21. The ultimatum of the United States was
received at Madrid early in the morning, and the gov-








THE BOYS OF '98.


ernment immediately broke off diplomatic relations by
sending the following communication to Minister
Woodford, before he could present any note from
Washington :

Dear Sir:- In compliance with a painful duty, I
have the honour to inform you that there has been
sanctioned by the President of the republic a resolu-
tion of both chambers of the United States, which
denies the legitimate sovereignty of Spain and threat-
ens armed intervention in Cuba, which is equivalent to
a declaration of war.
"The government of her majesty have ordered her
minister to return without loss of time from North
American territory, together with all the personnel of
the legation.
"By this act the diplomatic relations hitherto exist-
ing between the two countries, and all official commu-
nication between their respective representatives, cease.
I am obliged thus to inform you, so that you may
make such arrangements as you think fit. I beg your
excellency to acknowledge receipt of this note at such
time as you deem proper, taking this opportunity to
reiterate to you the assurances of my distinguished
consideration.
(Signed) "H. GULLON."

Relative to the ultimatum and its reception, the
government of this country gave out the following
information:








A DECLARATION OF WAR.


On yesterday, April 20, 1898, about one o'clock P.M.,
the Department of State served notice of the purposes
of this government by delivering to Minister Polo a
copy of an instruction to Minister Woodford, and also
a copy of the resolutions passed by the Congress of the
United States on the nineteenth instant. After the
receipt of this notice the Spanish minister forwarded
to the State Department a request for his passports,
which were furnished him on yesterday afternoon.
"Copies of the instructions to Woodford are here-
with appended. The United States minister at Madrid
was at the same time instructed to make a like com-
munication to the Spanish government.
"This morning the Department received from
General Woodford a telegram, a copy of which is
hereunto attached, showing that the Spanish govern-
ment had broken off diplomatic relations with this
government.
"This course renders unnecessary any further dip-
lomatic action on the part of the United States.

"'April 20, 1898.
"' Woodford, Minister, Madrid: You have been
furnished with the text of a joint resolution, voted by
the Congress of the United States on the nineteenth
instant, approved to-day, in relation to the pacifica-
tion of the island of Cuba. In obedience to that act,
the President directs you to immediately communicate
to the government of Spain said resolution, with the








THE BOYS OF '98.


formal demand of the government of the United States,
that the government of Spain at once relinquish her
authority and government in the island of Cuba, and
withdraw her land and naval forces from Cuba and
Cuban waters.
"'In taking this step, the United States disclaims
any disposition or intention to exercise sovereignty,
jurisdiction, or control over said island, except for the
pacification thereof, and asserts its determination when
that is accomplished to leave the government and con-
trol of the island to its people under such- free and
independent government as they may establish.
"'If, by the hour of noon on Saturday next, the
twenty-third day of April, there be not communicated
to this government by that of Spain a full and satisfac-
tory response to this demand and resolutions, whereby
the ends of peace in Cuba shall be assured, the Presi-
dent will proceed without further notice to use the power
and authority enjoined and conferred upon him by the
said joint resolution to such an extent as may be
necessary to carry the same into effect.
"'SHERMAN.'

"This is Woodford's telegram of this morning:

"'MADRID, April 21. (Received at 9.02 A.M.)
"'To Sherman, Washington: -Early this morning
(Tuesday), immediately after the receipt of your tele-
gram, and before I communicated the same to the








A DECLARATION OF WAR.


Spanish government, the Spanish Minister for Foreign
Affairs notified me that diplomatic relations are broken
between the two countries, and that all official com-
munication between the respective representatives has
ceased. I accordingly asked for my passports. Have
turned the legation over to the British embassy, and
leave for Paris this afternoon. Have notified consuls.
"' WOODFORD.'"

The Spanish newspapers applauded the energy" of
their government, and printed the paragraph inserted
below as a semi-official statement from the throne:
"The Spanish government having received the ulti-
matum of the President of the United States, considers
that the document constitutes a declaration of war
against Spain, and that the proper form to be adopted
is not to make any further reply, but to await the
expiration of the time mentioned in the ultimatum
before opening hostilities. In the meantime the Span-
ish authorities have placed their possessions in a state
of defence, and their fleet is already on its way to meet
that of the United States."
Apiil 21. General Woodford left Madrid late in the
afternoon, and although an enormous throng of citizens
were gathered at the railway station to witness his
departure, no indignities were attempted. The people
of Madrid professed the greatest enthusiasm for war,
and the general opinion among the masses was that
Spain would speedily vanquish the United States.








THE BOYS OF '98.


In Havana, in response to the manifesto from the
palace, the citizens began early to decorate the public
buildings and many private residences, balconies, and
windows with the national colours. A general illumina-
tion followed, as on the occasion of a great national
festivity. Early in the evening no less than eight
thousand demonstrators filled the square opposite the
palace, a committee entering and tendering to the
captain-general, in the name of all, their estates, prop-
erty, and lives in aid of the government, and pledging
their readiness to fight the invader.
General Blanco thanked them in the name of the
king, the queen regent and the imperial and colonial
governments, assuring them that he would do every-
thing in his power to prevent the invaders from setting
foot in Cuba. "Otherwise I shall not live," he said, in
conclusion. Do you swear to follow me to the fight ?"
Yes, yes, we do the crowd answered.
Do you swear to give the last drop of blood in
your veins before letting a foreigner step his foot on
the land we discovered, and place his yoke upon the
people we civilised ?"
"Yes, yes, we do! "
"The enemy's fleet is almost at- Morro Castle, almost
at the doors of Havana," General Blanco added. "They
have money; but we have blood to shed, and we are
ready to shed it. We will throw them into the sea!"
The people interrupted him with cries of applause,
and he finished his speech by shouting Viva Espana "



































































CAPTAIN-GENERAL BLANCO.







A DECLARATION OF WAR.


"' Viva elRey "Long live the army, the navy, and the
volunteers! "

The Congress of the United States passed a joint
resolution authorising the President, in his discretion,
to prohibit the exportation of coal and other war ma-
terial. The measure was of great importance, because
through it was prevented the shipment of coal to ports
in the West Indies where it might be used by Spain.
April 22. At half past five o'clock in the morning
the vessels composing the North Atlantic Squadron put
to sea from Key West. The flag-ship New York led
the way. Close behind her steamed the Iowa and the
Indiana. Following the war-ships came the gunboat
JVfachias, and then the Newport. The Amphitrite, the
first of the fleet, lying close to shore, steamed out after
the Machias, and then followed in order the Nashville,
the Wilmington, the Castine, the Cincinnati, and the
other boats of the fleet, save the monitors Terror and
Puritan, which were coaling, the cruiser Marblehead,
the despatch-boat Dolphin, and the gunboat Helena.
After getting out of sight of land the flag of a rear-
admiral was hoisted over the New York, indicating to
the fleet that Captain Sampson was acting as a rear-
admiral. When in the open sea the fleet was divided
into three divisions. The New York, Iowa, and Indi-
ana had the position of honour. Stretching out to the
right were the. Montgomery, Wilmington, Newport, and
smaller craft; to the left was the Nashville in the lead,








THE BOYS OF '98.


followed by the Cincinnati, Castine, _i/... ,s, Mayflower,
and some of the torpedo-boats.
At seven o'clock in the morning the first gun of the
war was fired. The Nashville, which had been sailing
at about six knots an hour, in obedience to orders,
suddenly swung out of line. Clouds of black smoke
poured from her long, slim stacks, her speed was grad-
ually increased until the water ascended in fine spray
on each side of the bow, and behind her trailed out a
long, creamy streak on the quiet waters.
She was headed for a Spanish merchantman, which
was then about half a mile away, apparently paying no
heed to the monsters of war.
A shot from one of the 4-pounders was sent across
the stranger's bow, and then, no attention having been
paid to it, a 6-inch gun was discharged. This last shot
struck the water and bounded along the surface a mile
or more, sending up great clouds of spray.
The Spaniard wisely concluded to heave to, and
within five minutes a boat was lowered from the
Nashville to put on board the first prize a crew of
six men, under command of Ensign Magruder.
The captured vessel was the Buena Ventura, of 1,741
tons burthen; laden with lumber, valued at eleven
thousand dollars, and carrying a deck-load of cattle.
The record of this first day of hostilities was not to
end with one capture.
Late in the afternoon, almost within gunshot of the
Cuban shore, while the United States fleet was stand-







A DECLARATION OF WAR.


ing toward Havana, with the Mayfower a mile or more
in advance of the flag-ship New York, the merchant
steamship Pedro hove in sight. The Mayflower sud-
denly swung sharply to the westward, and a moment
later a string of butterfly flags went fluttering to her
masthead.
The New York flung her answering pennant to the
breeze, and, making another signal to the fleet, which
probably meant Stay where you are until I get back,"
swung her bow to the westward and went racing for
the game that the Mayflower had sighted. The big
cruiser dashed forward, smoke trailing in dense masses
from each of her three big funnels, a hill of foam
around her bow, and in her wake a swell like a tidal
wave. It was a winning pace, and a magnificent sight
she presented as she dashed through the choppy seas
with never an undulation of her long, graceful hull.
When she was well inshore a puff of smoke came
from the bow of the cruiser, followed by a dull report,
then another and another, until four shots had been
sent from one of the small, rapid-fire guns. The Span-
ish steamer, probably believing the pursuing craft car-
ried no heavier guns, was trying to keep at a safe
distance until the friendly darkness of night should
hide her from view. During sixty seconds or more the
big cruiser held her course in silence, and then her
entire bow was hidden from the spectators in a swirl
of white smoke as a main battery gun roared out its
demand.







THE BOYS OF '98.


The whizzing shell spoke plainly to the Spanish craft,
and had hardly more than flung up a column of water
a hundred yards or less in front of the merchantman
before she was hastily rounded to with her engines
reversed.
A prize crew under Ensign Marble was thrown on
board, and the steamer Pedro, twenty-eight hundred
tons burthen, suddenly had a change of commanders.
April 22. The President issued a proclamation
announcing a blockade of Cuban ports, and also signed
the bill providing for the utilising of volunteer forces
in times of war.
The foreign news of immediate interest to the people
-of the United States was, first, from Havana, that
Captain-General Blanco had published a decree con-
firming his previous decree, and declaring the island
to be in a state of war.
He also annulled his former similar decrees grant-
ing pardon to insurgents, and placed under martial law
all those who were guilty of treason, espionage, crimes
against peace or against the independence of the
nation, seditious revolts, attacks against the form of
government or against the authorities, and against
those who disturb public order, though only by means
of printed matter.
From Madrid came the information that during the
evening a throng of no less than six thousand people,
carrying flags and shouting Viva Espana We want
war! and Down with the Yankees burned the stars



































































PREMIER SAGASTA.







A DECLARATION OF WAR.


and stripes in front of the residence of Sefor Sagasta,
the premier, who was accorded an ovation. The mob
then went to the residence of M. Patenotre, the French
ambassador, and 'insisted that he should make his ap-
pearance, but the French ambassador was not at home.
Correspondents at Hongkong announced that Ad-
miral Dewey had ordered the commanders of the ves-
sels composing his squadron to be in readiness for an
immediate movement against the Philippine Islands.
April 23. The President issued a proclamation call-
ing for one hundred and twenty-five thousand volunteer
soldiers.
In the new war tariff bill a loan of $5oo,ooo,ooo was
provided for in the form of three per cent. 10-20 bonds.
The third capture of a Spanish vessel was made early
in the morning by the torpedo-boat Ericsson. The fish-
S ing-boat Perdito was sighted making for Havana har-
bour, and overhauled only when she was directly under
the guns of Morro Castle, where a single shot from the
fortification might have sunk either craft.. After a
prize-crew had been put on board Rear-Admiral Samp-
son decided to turn her loose, and so she was permitted
to return to Havana to spread the news of the blockade.
During the afternoon the rum-laden schooner Ma-
thilde was taken, after a lively chase, by the torpedo-
boat Porter. Between five and six o'clock in the
evening the torpedo-boat Foote, Lieut. W. L. Rodgers
commanding, received the first Spanish fire.
She was taking soundings in the harbour of Matanzas,








THE BOYS OF '98.


and had approached within two or three hundred yards
of the shore, when suddenly a masked battery on the
east side of the harbour, and not far distant from the
Foote, fired three shots at the torpedo-boat. The
missiles went wide of the mark, and the Foote leisurely
returned to the Cincinnati to report the result of her
work.
At Hongkong the United States consul notified
Governor Blake of the British colony that the Ameri-
can fleet would leave the harbour in forty-eight hours,
and that no warlike stores, or more coal than would be
necessary to carry the vessels to the nearest home port,
would be shipped.
The United States demanded of Portugal, the owner
of the Cape Verde Islands, that, in accordance with
international law, she send the Spanish war-ships away
from St. Vincent, or require them to remain in that
port during the war.
April 24. The following decree was gazetted in
Madrid :
Diplomatic relations are broken off between Spain
and the United States, and a state of war being be-
gun between the two countries, numerous questions of
international law arise, which must be precisely defined
chiefly because the injustice and provocation came
from our adversaries, and it is they who by their de-
testable conduct have caused this great conflict."
The royal decree then states that Spain maintains
her right to have recourse to privateering, and an-








A DECLARATION OF WAR.


ounces that for the present only auxiliary cruisers
will be fitted out. All treaties with the United States
are annulled; thirty days are given to American ships
to leave Spanish ports, and the rules Spain will observe
during the war are outlined in five clauses, covering
neutral flags and goods contraband of war; what will
be considered a blockade; the right of search, and what
constitutes contraband of war, ending with saying that
foreign privateers will be regarded as pirates.
Continuing, the decree declared: "We have ob-
served with the strictest fidelity the principles of inter-
national law, and have shown the most scrupulous
respect for morality and the right of government.
There is an opinion that the fact that we have not
adhered to the declaration of Paris does not exempt us
from the duty of respecting the principles therein
enunciated. The principle Spain unquestionably re-
fused to admit then was the abolition of privateering.
The government now considers it most indispen-
sable to make absolute reserve on this point, in order to
maintain our liberty of action and uncontested right
to have recourse to privateering when we consider it
expedient, first, by organising immediately a force of
cruisers, auxiliary to the navy, which will be composed
of vessels of our mercantile marine, and with equal
distinction in the work of our navy..
Clause : The state of war existing between Spain
and the United States annuls the treaty of peace and
amity of October 27, 1795, and the procotol of January








THE BOYS OF '98.


12, 1877, and all other agreements, treaties, or conven-
tions in force between the two countries.
Clause 2: From the publication of these presents,
thirty days are granted to all ships of the United States
anchored in our harbours to take their departure free
of hindrance.
Clause 3 : Notwithstanding that Spain has not ad-
hered to the declaration of Paris, the government,
respecting the principles of the law of nations, proposes
to observe, and hereby orders to be observed, the
following regulations of maritime laws:
One: Neutral flags cover the enemy's merchandise,
except contraband of war.
Two: Neutral merchandise, except contraband of
war, is not seizable under the enemy's flag.
Three: A blockade, to be obligatory, must be
effective; viz., it must be maintained with sufficient
force to prevent access to the enemy's littoral.
"Four: The Spanish government, upholding its
rights to grant letters of marque, will at present
confine itself to organising, with the vessels of the
mercantile marine, a force of auxiliary cruisers which
will cooperate with the navy, according to the needs of
the campaign, and will be under naval control.
Five: In order to capture the enemy's ships, and
confiscate the enemy's merchandise and contraband of
war under whatever form, the auxiliary cruisers will
exercise the right of search on the high seas, and in
the waters under the enemy's jurisdiction, in accordance








A DECLARATION OF WAR.


with international law and the regulations which will
be published.
Six: Defines what is included in contraband of war,
naming weapons, ammunition, equipment, engines, and,
in general, all the appliances used in war.
Seven: To be regarded and judged as pirates, with
all the rigour of the law, are captains, masters, officers,
and two-thirds of the crew of vessels, which, not being
American, shall commit acts of war against Spain, even
if provided with letters of marque by the United States."
April 24. The U. S. S. Helena captured the steamer
MiguelJover. The U. S. S. Detroit captured the steamer
Catalania; the Wilmington took the schooner Candidor;
the Winona made a prize of the steamer Saturnia, and
the Terror brought in the schooners Saco and Tres
Hermanes.
April 25. Early in the day the President sent the
following message to Congress :

I transmit to the Congress, for its consideration
and appropriate action, copies of correspondence re-
cently had with the representatives of Spain and the
United States, with the United States minister at Ma-
drid, through the latter with government of Spain, show-
ing the action taken under the joint resolution approved
April 20, 1898, 'For the recognition of the independence
of the people of Cuba, demanding that the government
of Spain relinquish its authority and government in the
island of Cuba, and withdraw its land and naval forces








THE BOYS OF '98.


from Cuba and Cuban waters, and directing the Presi-
dent of the United States to carry these resolutions
into effect.'
"Upon communicating with the Spanish minister in
Washington the demand, which it became the duty of
the executive to address to the government of Spain
in obedience with said resolution, the minister asked for
his passports and withdrew. The United States minis-
ter at Madrid was in turn notified by the Spanish
Minister of Foreign Affairs, that the withdrawal of
the Spanish representative from the United States
had terminated diplomatic relations between the two
countries, and that all official communications between
their respective representatives ceased therewith.
I commend to your especial attention the note
addressed to the United States minister at Madrid by
the Spanish Minister for Foreign Affairs on the twenty-
first instant, whereby the foregoing notification was
conveyed. It will be perceived therefrom, that the
government of Spain, having cognisance of the joint
resolution of the United States Congress, and, in view
of the things which the President is thereby required
and authorised to do, responds by treating the reason-
able demands of this government as measures of hos-
tility, following with that instant and complete severance
of relations by its action, which by the usage of nations
accompanied an existing state of war between sovereign
powers.
The position of Spain being thus made known, and































I-..~


PRESIDENT WILLIAM MCKINLEY.








A DECLARATION OF WAR.


the demands of the United States being denied, with a
complete rupture of intercourse by the act of Spain, I
have been constrained, in exercise of the power and
authority conferred upon me by the joint resolution
aforesaid, to proclaim under date of April 22, 1898, a
blockade of certain ports of the north coast of Cuba,
lying between Cardenas and Bahia Honda, and of the
port of Cienfuegos on the south coast of Cuba, and
further in exercise of my constitutional powers, and
using the authority conferred upon me by act of Con-
gress, approved April 22, 1898, to issue my proclama-
tion, dated April 23, 1898, calling for volunteers in
order to carry into effect the said resolution of April
20, 1898. Copies of these proclamations are hereto
appended.
In view of the measures so taken, and other meas-
ures as may be necessary to enable me to carry out the
express will of the Congress of the United States in
the premises, I now recommend to your honourable body
the adoption of a joint resolution declaring that a state
of war exists between the United States of America
and the kingdom of Spain, and I urge speedy action
thereon to the end that the definition of the interna-
tional status of the United States as a belligerent
power may be made known, and the assertion of all its
rights and the maintenance of all its duties in the con-
duct of a public war may be assured.
(Signed) "WILLIAM MCKINLEY.
"Executive Mansion, Washington, April 25, r898."








56 THE BOYS OF '98.

The war bill was passed without delay, and immedi-
ately after it had been signed the following notice was
sent to the representatives of the foreign nations :
A joint resolution of Congress, approved April 20th,
directed intervention for the pacification and independ-
ence of the island of Cuba. The Spanish government
on April 21st informed our minister at Madrid that it
considered this resolution equivalent to a declaration
of war, and that it had accordingly withdrawn its min-
ister from Washington and terminated all diplomatic
relations.
Congress has therefore, by an act approved to-day,
declared that a state of war exists between the two
countries since and including April 2 Ist.
You will inform the government to which you are
accredited, so that its neutrality may be assured in the
existing war."

Before the close of the day John Sherman, Secretary
of State, had resigned; Assistant Secretary William
R. Day was appointed the head of the department,
with John B. Moore as his successor.
The United States squadron sailed from Hongkong,
under orders to rendezvous at Mirs Bay, and public
attention was turned towards Manila, it being believed
that there the first action would take place.
During the evening the tiny steamer Mangrove, a
lighthouse tender, captured the richest prize of the war
thus far, when she hove to the Panama, a big trans-








A DECLARATION OF WAR.


atlantic liner, and an auxiliary cruiser of the Spanish
navy, which had been plying between New York and
Havana.
The Mangrove, Lieut.-Commander William H.
Everett commanding, was cruising along the Cuban
coast about twenty miles from Havana when she
sighted the big steamer, which was armed with two
12-pounders. As the latter came within range the
Mangrove sent a shot across her bow; but the Span-
iard gave no heed; another missile followed without
result, and the third whistled in the air when the two
vessels were hardly more than a hundred yards apart,
Commander Everett shouting, as the report of the gun
died away, that unless the steamer surrendered she
would be sunk forthwith.
The only other ship of the fleet in sight was the
battle-ship Indiana, three miles to the rear. The
Mangrove's officers admit that they expected the en-
emy's 12-pounders to open on them in response
to the threat, but the Spaniard promptly came to.
Ensign Dayton boarded the prize.
The Indiana had seen the capture, and meanwhile
drew up to the Mangrove, giving her a lusty cheer.
Lieutenant-Commander Everett reported to Captain
Taylor of the battle-ship, and the latter put a prize-
crew on board the captive, consisting of Cadet Fal-
coner and fifteen marines.
April 26. The President issued a proclamation
respecting the rights of Spanish vessels then in, or








THE BOYS OF '98.


bound to, ports in the United States, and also with
regard to the right of search.
The United States gunboat Newport carried into
Key West the Spanish schooner Piereno and the sloop
Paquette, which she captured off Havana, while the
monitor Terror took to the same port the coasting
steamer Ambrosia Bolivar. This last prize had on
board silver specie to the amount of seventy thousand
dollars, three hundred casks of wine, and a cargo of
bananas.
April 27. The steamers New York, Puritan, and
Cincinnati bombarded the forts at the mouth of Matan-
zas Harbour. The engagement commenced at 12.57,
and ceased at I.15 P. M. The object of the attack was
to prevent the completion of the earthworks at Punta
Gorda.
A battery on the eastward arm of the bay opened
fire on the flag-ship, and this was also shelled. Twelve
8-inch shells were fired from the eastern forts, but
all fell short. About five or six light shells were fired
from the half completed batteries. Two of these
whizzed over the New York, and one fell short.
The ships left the bay for the open sea, the object
of discovering the whereabouts of the batteries having
been accomplished. In the neighbourhood of three
hundred shots were put on land from the three ships
at a range of from four thousand to seven thousand
yards. No casualties on the American side.
The little monitor Terror captured her third prize,











. 4 7. i ml


U. S. S. PURITAN.


i -4








A DECLARATION OF WAR.


and the story of the chase is thus told by an eye-
witness :
The Spanish steamer Guido, Captain Armarechia,
was bound for Havana. There was Spanish urgency
that she should reach that port. Aboard was a large
cargo, provisions for the beleaguered city, money for
the Spanish troops or officers. The steamer had
left Liverpool on April 2d, and Corunna on April 9th.
"Ten miles off Cardenas, in the early morning, the
Guido, setting her fastest pace, made for Havana and
the guardian guns of Morro. Ten miles off Cardenas
plodded the heavy monitor. The half light betrayed
the fugitive, and the pursuit was begun.
Slowly, very slowly, the monitor gained. It would
be a long chase. Men in the engine-room toiled like
galley-slaves under the whip. -There was prize-money
to be gained. The Guido fled fast. Every light aboard
her was hid.
Reluctantly the pursuer aimed a 6-pounder. It
was prize aim, and the shot found more than a billet, in
the Guido's pilot-house. It tore a part away; the
splinters flew.
"Another 6-pounder, and another. It was profit-
able shooting. The pilot-house, a fair mark, was piece
by piece nearly destroyed. Jagged bits of wood floated
in the steamer's wake.
"The gunboat Machias, which was some distance
away, heard the sound of the firing, came up, and
brought her 4-inch rifle into play, firing one shot,








THE BOYS OF '98.


which failed to hit the Spaniard. This, however,
brought her to, and Lieutenant Qualto and a prize-
crew were put on board."
A cablegram from Hongkong announced the cap-
ture of the American bark Saranac off Manila, by the
Spanish gunboat El Correo.
By a conference of both branches of Congress a
naval bill of $49,277,558 was agreed upon. It stands
as the heaviest naval outlay since the civil war, pro-
viding for the construction of three battle-ships, four
monitors, sixteen torpedo-boat destroyers, and twelve
torpedo-boats.
The U. S. S. Newport captured the Spanish sloop
Engracia, and the U. S. S. Dolphin made a prize of
the Spanish schooner Lola.
April 29. The flag-ship New York was lying about
two miles off the harbour of Cabanas, having just com-
pleted a cruise of inspection. With her were the
torpedo-boats Porter and Ericsson. On the shore
could be seen the white ruins of what may have been
the dwelling of a plantation. No signs of life were
visible. It was as if war's alarms had never been
heard on this portion of the island.
Suddenly a volley of musketry rang out, repeated
again and again, at regular intervals, and the tiny jets
of water which were sent up by the bullets told that,
concealed near about the ruins of the hacienda, a troop
of Spanish soldiers were making what possibly they
may have believed to be an attack upon the big war-








A DECLARATION OF WAR.


ship. It was much as if a swarm of gnats had set
about endeavouring to worry an elephant, and likely to
have as little effect; yet Rear-Admiral Sampson be-
lieved it was necessary to teach the enemy that any
playing at war, however harmless, was dangerous to
themselves, and he ordered that the port battery be
manned.
Half a dozen shots from the 4-inch guns were con-
sidered sufficient, although there was no evidence any
execution had been done, and the big vessel's bow was
turned eastward just as a troop of Spanish cavalry rode
rapidly away from the ruin. The horsemen served as
a target for a 4-inch gun in the starboard battery,
and the troop dispersed in hot haste.
While this mimic warfare was being carried on off
Cabanas, a most important capture was made. The
Nashville, Marblehead, and the Eagle left the station
on the north coast, April 25th, to blockade Cienfuegos,
arriving at the latter place on the twenty-eighth.
They spent the day reconnoitring, and, next morn-
ing, in order to get better information, steamed close
to the mouth of the harbour of Cienfuegos. The Eagle
was to the eastward, and in the van. The Marblehead
was slightly in the rear, and the Nashville to the
westward.
All were cleared for action. Suddenly smoke was
seen rising on the western horizon, and the Nashville,
because of her position, put on all steam in that direc-
tion. Twenty minutes later she fired two shots across








THE BOYS OF '98.


the bow of the coming steamer, which promptly hove to.
She was the Argonauta. Ensign Keunzli was sent
with a prize-crew of nine to take possession of her.
Learning that Spanish soldiers were on board, word
was given to send them to the Nashville immediately
as prisoners of war, and when this had been done
arrangements were made to transfer the passengers
and non-combatants to the shore. The women and
children were placed in the first boat, and under cover
of a flag of truce were soon bound toward the entrance
to Cienfuegos. A second crew took the other passen-
gers and landed them about noon.
The Argonauta had on board Colonel Corijo of the
Third Spanish Cavalry, his first lieutenant, sergeant-
major, seven other lieutenants, and ten privates and
non-commissioned officers. The steamer also carried
a large cargo of arms and Mauser ammunition. She
was bound from Satabanao, Spain, for Cienfuegos,
stopping at Port Louis, Trinidad, and Manzanillo.
Half an hour later the Eagle hoisted a signal con-
veying the intelligence that she had been fired upon by
Spanish boats coming out of the river. She imme-
diately returned the fire with the 6-pounders, and
held her ground until the Marblehead came up. Both
vessels then fired broadside after broadside up the
entrance to the river.
The boats coming down were two torpedo-boats and
one torpedo-boat destroyer. After twenty minutes of
firing by the Eagle, during the last five of which the








A DECLARATION OF WAR.


Marblehead participated, the Spanish vessels ceased
firing.
April 29. A cablegram from St. Vincent, Cape
Verde, reported the departure from that port of the
Spanish squadron, consisting of the first-class cruisers
Vizcaya, Amnirante Oquendo, Infanta Maria Teresa,
and Cristobal Colon, and the three torpedo-boat destroy-
ers Furor, Terror, and Pluton, bound westward, prob-
ably for Porto Rico.
April 3o. The American schooner Ann Louisa
Lockwood was taken by the Spaniards off Mole St.
Nicolas.
The capture of a small Spanish schooner, the Mas-
cota, near Havana, by the torpedo-boat Foote, closed
the record of the month of April.
Anxiously awaiting some word from Manila were the
people of the United States, and it was as if everything
else was relegated to the background until information
could be had regarding that American fleet which
sailed from Mirs Bay, in the China Sea, on the after-
noon of April 27th.
















CHAPTER IV.


THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY.

7 A Y i. Manila, May I. The squadron arrived
at Manila at daybreak this morning. Imme-
diately engaged the enemy, and destroyed the follow-
ing Spanish vessels : Isla de Cuba, Is/a de Luzon, Reina
Christina, Castilla, Don Antonio d'Ulloa, Don Juan
d'Austria, Velasco, General Lezo, El Correo, Marques
del Duero, Isla de Mindanao, and the water-battery at
Cavite. The squadron is uninjured. Few men were
slightly injured. The only means of telegraphing is to
American consulate, Hongkong. I shall communicate
with him.
"DEWEY."

All the world loves a hero, but idolises him when he
performs his deeds of valour without too many prelim-
inaries, and, therefore, when on the seventh of May the
telegram quoted above was flashed over the wires to an
anxiously expectant people, it was as if all the country
remembered but one name, -that of Dewey.
April 25. It was known to the public that the
Asiatic Squadron had sailed from Hongkong on the








THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY.


25th of April to avoid possible complications such as
might arise in a neutral port, and had rendezvoused in
Mirs Bay, there to await orders from the government
at Washington.
April 26. So also was it known that on the next
day Commodore Dewey received the following cable-
gram.
"WASHINGTON, April 26th.
Dewey, Asiatic Squadron: Commence operations
at once, particularly against Spanish fleet. You must
capture or destroy them.
MCKINLEY."

April 27. On the twenty-seventh came information
from Hongkong that the squadron had put to sea, and
from that day until the seventh of May no word regard-
ing the commodore's movements had been received,
save through Spanish sources.
Then came a cablegram containing the bare facts
concerning the most complete naval victory the world
had ever known. It was the first engagement of the
war, and a crushing defeat for the enemy. It is not
strange that the people, literally overwhelmed with
joy, gave little heed to the movements of our forces
elsewhere until the details of this marvellous fight
could be sent under the oceans and across the coun-
tries, thousands of leagues in distance, describing the
deeds of the heroes who had made their names famous
so long as history shall exist.








THE BOYS OF '98.


During such time of waiting all were eager to
familiarise themselves with the theatre of this scene
of action, and every source of information was applied
to until the bay of Manila had become as well known
as the nearest home waters.
For a better understanding of the battle a rough
diagram of the bay, from the entrance as far as the
city of Manila, may not come amiss.'
Twenty-six miles from the entrance to the bay is
situated the city of Manila, through which the river
Pasig runs, dividing what is known as the old city from
the new, and forming several small islands.
Sixteen miles from the sea is the town and arsenal
of Cavite, which, projecting as it does from the main-
land, forms a most commodious and safe harbour.
Cavite was well fortified, and directly opposite its fort,
on the mainland, was a heavy mortar battery. Between
the arsenal and the city was a Krupp battery, at what
was known as the Luneta Fort, while further toward
the sea, extending from Cavite to the outermost por-
tion of Limbones Point, were shore-batteries, for-
midable forts, so it had been given out by the Spanish
government, such as would render the city of Manila
impregnable.
Between Limbones and Talago Point are two islands,
Corregidor and Caballo, which divide the entrance of
the bay into three channels. On each of these islands
'See Appendix, Part A, for general description of the Philippine
Islands and their inhabitants.








THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY.


is a lighthouse, and it was said that both were strongly
fortified with modern guns. North of Corregidor,
nearly opposite, but on the inner shore, is the point of
San Jos6, where was another water-battery mounting
formidable guns. That channel between Corregidor
and San Jos6 Point is known as the Boca Grande, and
is nearly two miles wide. The middle channel, or the
one situated between the two islands, is shallow, and
but little used. The third, which separates Caballo
Island from Limbones Point, is nearly three miles in
width, at least twenty fathoms deep, and known as the
Boca Chica.
All of these channels, as well as the waters of
the bay, were said to have been thickly mined, and
the enemy had caused it to be reported that no
ship could safely enter without the aid of a govern-
ment pilot.
In addition to the vessels of the American fleet, as
set down at the conclusion of this chapter, were two
transports, the steamers Nanshan and Zafiro, which
had come into the port of Hongkong laden with
coal shortly before Commodore Dewey's departure, and
had been purchased by him, together with their cargoes,
in anticipation of the declaration of war.
And now, the details having been set down in order
that what follows may be the better understood, we
will come to that sultry Sunday morning, shortly after
midnight, when the American fleet steamed along the
coast toward the entrance to Manila Bay, the flag-ship








THE BOYS OF '98.


Olympia leading, with the Baltimore, the Raleigh, the
Petrel, the Concord, and the Boston following in the
order named. In the rear of these came the two
transports, the Nanshan and Zafiro, convoyed by the
despatch steamer McCulloch.
The commodore had decided to enter by the Boca
Grande channel, and the fleet kept well out from
Talago Point until the great light of Corregidor came
into view.
Then the crews of the war-vessels were summoned
on deck, the men ordered to wash, and afterwards
served with a cup of coffee. All lights were extin-
guished except one on the stern of each ship, and that
was hooded. All hands were at quarters; all guns
loaded, with extra charges ready at hand; every eye
was strained, and every ear on the alert to catch the
slightest sound.
Perhaps there was not a man from commodore to
seaman, who believed it would be possible for the war-
vessels to enter the bay without giving an alarm, and
yet the big ships continued on and were nearly past
Cbrregidor Island before a gun was fired.
The flag-ship was well into the bay, steaming at a
four-knot speed, when from the smoke-stack of the
little McCulloch a column of sparks shot up high
into the air. In the run her fires had fallen low,
and it became necessary to replenish them. The
firemen, perhaps fearing lest they should not be in
at the death, were more energetic than prudent, and












'N


7'
/


U. S. S. OLYMPIA.







THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY.


thus a signal was given to the sleepy garrison of
Corregidor.
"Perhaps they will see us now," the commodore
remarked, quietly, as his attention was called to this
indiscretion.
A flash of light burst from the fort; there was a dull
report, and in the air could be heard that peculiar sing-
ing and sighing of a flying projectile as a heavy missile
passed over the Olympia and the Raleigh.
The garrison on Corregidor was awakened, but not
until after the last vessel in that ominous procession
had steamed past.
It was the first gun in the battle of Manila Bay, and
it neither worked harm nor caused alarm.
Again and again in rapid succession came these
flashes of light, dull reports, and sinister hummings in
the air, before the American fleet gave heed that this
signal to heave to had been heard.
Then a 4-inch shell was sent from the Concord
directly inside of the fortification, where it exploded.
The Raleigh and the Boston each threw a shell by
way of salute, and then all was silent.
The channel, which had been thickly mined, accord-
ing to the Spanish reports, was passed in safety, and
the fleet, looking so unsubstantial in the darkness, had
yet to meet the mines in the bay, as well as the Spanish
fleet, which all knew was lying somewhere near about
the city.
On the forward bridge of the Olympia stood Commo-








THE BOYS OF '98.


dore Dewey, his chief of staff, Commander Lamberton,
Lieutenant Rees, Lieutenant Calkins, and an insurgent
Filippino, who had volunteered as pilot.
In the conning-tower was Captain Gridley, who, much
against his will, was forced to take up his position in
that partially sheltered place because the commander
of the fleet was not willing to take the chances that
all the chief officers of the ship should be exposed to
death on the bridge.
The word was given to "slow down," and the speed
of the big ships decreased until they had barely
steerageway.
The men were allowed to sleep beside their
guns.
The moon had set, the darkness and the silence was
almost profound, until suddenly day broke, as it does in
the tropics, like unto a flash of light, and all that bay,
with its fighting-machines in readiness for the first
signal, was disclosed to view.
From the masthead of the American vessels rose
tiny balls of bunting, and then were broken out,
disclosing the broad folds of the stars and stripes.
Cavite was hardly more than five miles ahead, and
beyond, the city of Manila.
The Reina Christina, flying the Spanish rear-ad-
miral's flag, lay off the arsenal. Astern of her was
moored the Castilla, her port battery ready for action.
Slightly to seaward were the Don Juan de Austria, the
Don Antonio de Ulloa, the Isla de Cuba and Isla de








THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY.


Luzon, the El Correo, the _i d ; ; del Duero, and the
S General Lezo.
They were under steam and slowly moving about,
apparently ready to receive the fire of the advancing
squadron. The flag-ship Reina Christina also was
under way.
"Prepare for general action! Steam at eight-knot
speed! were the signals which floated from the
Olympia as she led the fleet in, keeping well toward
the shore opposite the city.
The American fleet was yet five miles distant, when
from the arsenal came a flame and report; but the
missile was not to be seen. Another shot from Cavite,
and then was strung aloft on the Olympia a line of tiny
flags, telling by the code what was to be the American
battle-cry : "Remember the Maine," and from the throat
of every man on the incoming ships went up a shout
of defiance and exultation that the moment was near
at hand when the dastardly deed done in the harbour of
Havana might be avenged.
Steaming steadily onward were the huge vessels,
dropping astern and beyond range the transports as
they passed opposite Cavite Point, until, having gained
such a distance above the city as permitted of an evolu-
tion, the fleet swung swiftly around until it held a
course parallel with the westernmost shore, and distant
from it mayhap six thousand yards.
Every nerve was strained to its utmost tension; each
man took a mental grip upon- himself, believing that he







THE BOYS OF '98.


stood face to face with death; but no cheek paled; no
hand trembled save it might have been from excitement.
The ships were coming down on their fighting course
when a shell from one of the shore-batteries burst over
the Olympia; the guns from the fort and from the
water-batteries vomited jets of flame and screaming
missiles with thunderous reports; every man on the
American fleet save one believed the moment had come
when they should act their part in the battle which had
been begun by the enemy; but up went the signal:
Hold your fire until close in."
Had the American fleet opened fire then, the city of
Manila would have been laid in ashes and thousands
of non-combatants slain.
The Olympia was yet two miles from Cavite when,
directly in front of the Baltimore, a huge shaft of water
shot high into the air, and with a heavy booming that
drowned the reports of the Spanish guns.
"The torpedoes!" some one on the Olympia said,
in a low tone, with an indrawing of the breath; but
it was as if Dewey did not hear. With Farragut in
Mobile Bay he had seen the effects of such engines of
destruction, and, like Farragut, he gave little heed to
that which might in a single instant send his vessel
to the bottom, even as the Maine had been sent.
Then, so near the Raleigh as to send a flood across
her decks, another spouting of water, another dull roar,
and the much vaunted mines of the Spaniards in Manila
Bay had been exploded.























,,
5: cl~lg ~p 't



..P :T.-"" ~~"~'- "V ~8~,,*ls~~&-
$-, ~r'-*--~;
~1 ~-


~L~-~~C- -24 -
~h~~LI ~ji;-ce-


U. S. .S. BALTIMORE.








THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY.


The roar and crackle of the enemy's guns still con-
tinued, yet Dewey withheld the order which every man
was now most eager to hear.
The Spanish gunners were getting the range; the
shells which had passed over our fleet now fell close
about them; the tension among officers and men was
terrible. They wondered how much longer the com-
modore would restrain them from firing. The heat was
rapidly becoming intense. The guns' crews began to
throw off their clothes. Soon they wore nothing but
their trousers, and perspiration fairly ran from their
bodies.
Still the word was not given to fire, though the ships
steadily steamed on and drew nearer the fort. Orders
were given by the officers in low voices, but they were
perfectly audible, so great was the silence which was
broken only by the throbbing of the engines. The men
hugged their posts ready to open fire at the word.
A huge shell from Cavite hissed through the air and
came directly for the Olympia. High over the smoke-
stack it burst with a mighty snap. Commodore Dewey
did not raise his eyes. He simply turned, made a
motion to a boatswain's mate who stood near the
after 5-inch gun. With a voice of thunder the man
bellowed an order along the decks.
"Remember the Maine yelled a chorus of five
hundred gallant sailors. Below decks in the engine-
rooms the cry was taken up, a cry of defiance and
revenge. Up in the turrets resounded the words, and







THE BOYS OF '98.


the threatening notes were swept across the bay to the
other ships.
Remember the Maine "
In that strange cry was loosed the pent-up wrath of
hundreds of American sailors who resented the cowardly
death of their comrades. It bespoke the terrible ven-
geance that was about to be dealt out to the defenders
of a detestable flag.
"You may fire when you are ready, Gridley," was
Commodore Dewey's quiet remark to the captain of the
Olympia, who was still in the conning-tower.
The Olympia's 8-inch gun in the forward turret
belched forth, and an instant later was run up the
signal to the ships astern:
"Fire as convenient."
The other vessels in the squadron followed the
example set by the Olympia. The big 8-inch guns
of the Baltimore and the Boston hurled their two hun-
dred and fifty pound shells at the Spanish flag-ship and
at the Castilla.
The Spanish fleet fired fast and furiously. The guns
on Cavite hurled their shells at the swiftly moving
vessels; the water-batteries added their din to the
horrible confusion of noises; the air was sulphurous
with the odour of burning powder, and great clouds of
smoke hung here and there, obscuring this vessel or
that from view. It was the game of death with all its
horrible accompaniments.
One big shell came toward the Olympia straight for
















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THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY.


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THE BATTLE OF MANILA BAY.


the bridge. When a hundred feet away it suddenly
burst, its fragments continuing onward. One piece
struck the rigging directly over the head of Com-
mander Lamberton. He did not wince.
The Olympia continued on. It was evident Com-
modore Dewey was making straight for the centre
of the enemy's line, which was the big cruiser Reina
Christina.
Being the nearest ship, the Olympia received more
attention from the Spaniards than any of the other
vessels.
The water was now getting shallow. Commodore
Dewey did not wish to run aground. He altered his
course when about four thousand yards from the
Spanish vessels, and swung around to give them his
broadside.
A small torpedo-boat was seen to emerge from the
shore near the arsenal, making for the coal-laden
steamers at a high rate of speed. The secondary
batteries on the ships nearest were brought to bear
upon her; it was a veritable shower of shot and shell
which fell ahead, astern, and either side of her. To
continue on would have been certain destruction, and,
turning in the midst of that deadly hail which had
half disabled her, the craft was run high and dry
on the beach, where she was at once abandoned,
her crew doubtless fearing lest the magazines would
explode.
Open with all guns," came the signal as the course








THE BOYS OF '98.


of the American vessels was changed, and soon all the
port guns were at work.
The American fleet was steaming back and forth off
Cavite Bay as if bent on leaving such a wake as would
form a figure eight, delivering broadside after broadside
with splendid results.
All this time the enemy's vessels were keeping up
a steady fire, the smaller ships retreating inside the
mole several times during the action. The forts were
not idle, but kept thundering forth their tribute with
no noticeable effect. The enemy's fire seemed to be
concentrated on the Baltimore, and she was hit several
times.
A 4.7-inch armour-piercing shell punctured her side
on the main-deck line, tore up the wooden deck, and,
striking the steel deck under this, glanced upward,
went through the after engine-room hatch, and, emerg-
ing, struck the cylinder of the port 6-inch gun on the
quarter-deck, temporarily rendering the gun unfit for
use.
In its flight it also struck a box of 3-pounder
ammunition, exploding one shell, which in turn slightly
wounded one of No. 4 gun's crew.
One shell pierced her starboard side forward of
No. 2 sponson, and lodged in a clothes-locker on the
berth-deck; another struck her port beam a little above
the water-line, and a few feet forward of, and above
this, another shell came crashing across the berth-deck,
striking a steam-pipe and exploding behind the starboard















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U. S. S. BOSTON.


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