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 Introduction
 Fact sheets
 Back Cover














Group Title: Know, Inc.
Title: Know, Inc. Vol. 5. No. 2.
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086943/00001
 Material Information
Title: Know, Inc. Vol. 5. No. 2.
Series Title: Know, Inc.
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publisher: Know, Inc.
Place of Publication: Pittsburgh, Pa.
Publication Date: May 1974
 Subjects
Subject: Feminism -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Women -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Magazines -- Pennsylvania -- Pittsburgh
Genre: Periodicals   ( lcsh )
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Bibliographic ID: UF00086943
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 187449034

Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Fact sheets
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Back Cover
        Page 21
        Page 22
Full Text




FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT:

Anne Pride
241-4844
SKN OW inc. P.O. Box 86031 / Pittsburgh, Penn. 15221
FREEDOM OF THE PRESS BELONGS
TO THOSE WHO OWN THE PRESS!


May, 1974
Volume 5, No. 2
Again, there has been a long lag between bulletins. Currently, we are working on a project
which we hope will help the time lag. It does take us a while to put together the information
for a bulletin and, of course, to print it. But one of the biggest jobs has been to label and
sort into zip code order and bundle for mailing. Within the next month or so this will all be
done by a computer (at least the sorting will; we will still do the labeling and bundling). The
computer will also be responsible for keeping the mailing list current. Nobody could possibly
move more often than feminists and we find that there is a good day's work each month on the
mailing list to bring it up to date. As our subscribers near 2,000, the tasks have become
monumental.
This isn't a new idea. We began to foresee problems three years ago and started to investi-
gate possibilities of computers then. Even then it was obviously the way we should move,
but at that point the work and expense proved to be too much of a stumbling block. Finally,
after three years, here we are. We hope it will mean increased service for our subscribers
and an easier time of it for us.
From the 'in-basket:' Mardy Freeman/334 N. Vassar/Wichita, KS 67208 is editing an an-
thology of women's writing and art. Titled Red War Styx, it should be ready to be introduced
in July at the New York Book Fair. Send material to her..... PEOPLE ABOUT CHILD CARE
is a newsletter dedicated to the spread of the parent cooperative child care movement. Bi-
monthly at $3. 00/yr. and $10.00/institutional. $. 50 for trial issue. Please enclose payment.
Make checks payable to Child Care Organizing Group and mail to P. O. Box 7412, Kilby
Station, New Haven, CT 06519...... NOW Conference on the Masculine Mystique, June 8-9,
1974, at New York University. Write: Warren Farrell/2111 Jefferson Davis Highway/
Arlington/VA 22202...... The Human Affairs Program is an academic program within Cor-
nell University which combines community organizing with student field work. HAP is looking
for a full time staff person to work in-the area of women. Half time teaching/half time organ-
izing. 12-month salary is $9,170. Especially interested in people with some years' experi-
ence in organizing and/or the women's movement, and are interested in older people (not
immediately post-college). Academic credentials are welcomed but not required. Send
resume to Dan Leahy and/or Bunny Cramer, Human Affairs Program/330 Sheldon Court/
College Avenue/Ithaca/New York 14850 (607)-256-3445...... A major organization of working-
class women, active in neighborhood concerns, has been formed in Washington, D. C. The
group, known as The National Congress of Neighborhood Women, will focus on specific prob-
lems of women in these communities. The Congress is a Women's Project of The National
Center for Urban Ethnic Affairs/4408 Eighth St. N. E. /Washington/D. C. 20017...... Fromn
the Women's History Research Center, Inc. A new series of the Women's History Library's








Herstory Microfilms are now available. The 40-reel double set of 35mm microfilms in-
clude journals, newspapers and newsletters from women's organizations. One set, The
Herstory 1 Update, covers the period 10/1/71 to 6/30/73. The second set covers the
same period and includes titles which began after October 1, 1971. Herstory 1, available
from Bell and Howell. Herstory 2 can be ordered directly from the Women's History Re-
search Center, Inc/2325 Oak Street/Berkeley/CA 94708...... The University of Colorado
is offering a two-week, intensive course from July 29 August 9, entitled Perspectives
On Women. Address inquiries to the Bureau of Conferences and Institutes/Academy 217/
970 Aurora Avenue/University of Colorado/Boulder/CO 80302...... Speaking of Women,
Inc. /5612 Sonoma Road/Bethesda/MD 20034 is a feminist owned and directed corporation
which believes that women's knowledge and talents must be recognized and utilized by the
agencies of government, business and society. The new company will work aggressively
to make known the learning and abilities of feminist speakers and artists, seeking out
forums where they should be heard. They are also planning workshops for women who
wish to speak but need to develop their skills...... Sandi Raspante writes for Radio Free
People/133 Mercer Street/NY 10012 that they are looking into recording non-sexist, po-
litically progressive stories and folk tales for children. If you have suggested material
write her...... Eight women in Suffolk County, Long Island, New York are working together
to organize a national bi-monthly newsletter on Consciousness Raising. For two issues of
CONSCIOUSNESS UP, send $1 to Consciousness Up/Box 453/Smithtown/LI/NY 11787......
The High School Speaking Project (Part of the Women's Liberation Center of Nassau County)
have put together a syllabus to be used for introducing high school students to issues in-
volved in the Women's Movement. The syllabus contains a detailed unit of study, an anno-
tated bibliography, suggested follow-up activities, a history of the American Women's
Movement and the Long Island Women's Movement, and important data/statistics relevant
to the status of women today. The cost for the syllabus is $7. 50 (plus 50 for postage/
handling). All money goes to the Women's Center which is non-profit. Contact Eleanor
B. Newirth at the Women's Center/14 West Columbia Street/Hempstead/NY 11550......
From Alison R. Drucker/916 East Gorham/Apt. 3/Madison/WI 53703, "I am a graduate
student at the University of Wisconsin Madison, specializing in East Asian and Women's
History. I am just beginning to work on a dissertation to be titled 'Rising in the East: the
co-option of the Chinese women's movement by the Communist Party.' I need help locating
materials and other persons working on comparative women's movements and/or women in
the Third World, especially in the Far East. Can you provide me with any leads to these,
or any leads to fellowship or employment opportunities for those working on women's his-
tory?" ...... Faculty appointment for fall of 1974. University of Wisconsin Milwaukee/
Department of Urban Affairs: A position in the general fields of urban economics and
regional science. The position involves teaching, research and community service in an
interdisciplinary program leading to an M.A. degree. Candidates should have a strong
interest in urban policy analysis and an interest in a joint appointment in the School of
Business Administration. Position requires Ph. D. degree in economics, business admin-
istration or related fields (or a firm expectation of completed degree before beginning term
of appointment). Salary $12,000 $14,000. Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer.
Contact Professor Greer/Dept. of Urban Affairs/Bolton Hall 668/University of Wisconsin -
Milwaukee/Milwaukee/WI 53201...... The Elizabeth Cady Stanton Publishing Company
announces publication of the first WOMEN'S RIGHTS ALMANAC 1974. A unique 544-page
resource and reference guide is about and for all women. Order for $6. 95 from Elizabeth
Cady Stanton Publishing Company/5857 Marbury Road/Bethesda/MD 20034.





I would appreciate your mentioning in your bulletin about the
following articles, etc.


ELIMINATING SEXISM FROM THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS
THE ASTROTURF SYNDROME. . .
PANTS POWER IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS
(the politics of pants)
ELEMENTARY PRINCIPALS COMPARED BY SEX
(Short summary of research
comparing principals in the
state of Washington)


$1.25
.50
1.50


.50


42 hand made posters on loan
(suitable for display in colleges
or high school classes or for
workshop display)
SEX STEREOTYPING, FACTS ABOUT WOMEN, ETC. $10.00
return by insured mail, please


SEXIST LANGUAGE MAY BE COMFORTABLE
BUT IT IS DANGEROUS TO CHILDREN


FEMINIST UNIVERSE.


. .(poetry)


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DIRECTOR OF WOMEN'S STUDIES. Appointment to be effective
July 1 or September 1, 1974. Principal responsibilities
will be the evaluation and coordination of existing
courses in the area of Women's Studies and initiation
and encouragement of new courses. The Directorship will
be a full-time position associated with an academic
appointment in one of the traditional departments in
which the successful candidate will undertake part-time
teaching and research as well as develop a Women's Studies
program. Applicant should have demonstrated academic
competence in some area of Women's Studies and preferably
have had some administrative experience. Application,
curriculum vitae, and supporting material should be sent
to Office of the Provost, 101 Administration Building,
University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221. An
Equal Opportunity, Affirmative Action Employer.


EN HAVE NO HISTORY?
Carry some.around with you


Susan' B. Anthony
on a great big 100% homespun cotton
tote bag. 15 x 12 x 2V2. Big enough to
carry legal briefs, overnight things,
whatever. $6.95
NATIONAL WOMEN'S POLITICAL CAUCUS
1302 18th St. N.W. Washington, D.C. 20036
All proceeds go to further the goals of
women through politics
Buy through your local caucus or
send check to: N.W.P.C.
P.O. Box 7536
Seattle, WA 98133
Postage 600 per bag
SWashington State residents add 37e-sales tax


QUEST
a feminist quarterly


a new journal of
political analysis and
ideological exchange


Spring 1974
PROCESSES of CHANGE
Summer 1974
$, FAME and POWER
Fall 1974
The SELFHOOD of WOMEN
Winter 1975
WOMEN and SPIRITUALITY

Enclose a check or money order to:
Quest: a feminist quarterly
P.O. Box 8843
Washington, D.C. 20003

$ 7.00/year (4 issues) individuals
$12.00/year institutions
$ 8.00/year Canada and Mexico
$10.00/year overseas
$ 2.00/sample copy


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January 1, 1974
Olivia Records
P.O. Box 1784
Main City Station
Washington D.C. 20013

Dear Editorsi
As feminists we realize how very important control of our own media
is to us. Such publications as yours are giving women access to the
"printed word". We believe that music, the "recorded word", will be
just as important so we would like you to please print the following
letter. Thank you very much

For Olivia Records,

Helaine Harris

Dear Sisters:
We are a group of lesbian feminists creating a record company called
Olivia Records. There are hundreds of women across the country who
are creating women's music, music that reflects our experiences, thoughts,
and emotions, and is another part of a growing women's culture. We feel
that these women should have access to the recording industry and so be
able to be heard in all our communities. Olivia Records is being
created for just this purpose, a national women's recording company. We
are intPrestpdr in hi-h quality -"i.v' that is not oppressive to women; music
that can he, but does not have to be, overtly political; music that comes
from and speaks to all facets of oitr lives.
Olivia R-rords will become as independent as possible from the male-
supremacist economic system. We will employ only women and will provide
those jobs for each other at living wages. We recognize the importance
for working out class, race, and age differences among all employees, and
it is important that Olivia be a non-oppressive institution in which people
can grow and create. It will be operated on a collective basis, in
which musicians will control their music, and other workers will control
their working conditions.
We will set up our own distribution system and our records will be
available to large numbers of women throughout the U.S. and Canada. Any
profit made on the sale of the records will go back into the company.
No one will get rich at Olivia, but everyone will earn a decent wage,
working at something we are creating for ourselves and future feminists.
Olivia Records needs engineers, producers, promotionists, financial
managers, distributors, musicians, lawyers, accountants, etc. We need
your help. If you are a musician, send us a tape (cassette, reel-to-reel)
of your work. Or just send us a letter and tell what you do or where your
interest might lie.
We have just finished producing our first record, a 45 rpm of Meg
Christian and Cris Williamson to be used for fund-raising, which will he
available soon. We start producing our first LP in the next few months,
so get in touch with us as soon as you read this. We look forward to
hearing from you.
Ginny Berson and Helaine Harris
for Olivia Records
Write tot
Olivia Records
P.O. Box 1784
Main City Station
Wash., D.C. 20013








"8 Fact Sheets: Statistics on Effects 25808
of Racism and Sexism in the United States"


Collected by
U. S. Civil Rights Commission
February 1973


FACT SHEET 1: POVERTY AND PUBLIC ASSISTANCE

Mexican Puerto
White Black American Rican

Percentage of families headed
by women 9% 32% 14% 29%

Percentage of female headed
families in poverty 27% 57% 66% 65%

11% of all families = female headed
37% of all poor families = female headed

Women's earnings as percentage of men's:

1955 63.9%
1970 59.4%

57% of all black working women are not covered by Fair Labor Standards Act
Unemployment:
Group Percent Unemployed

minority teenage women 35. 5%
minority teenage men 28.9%
white teenage women 15.2%
white teenage men 15.1%

minority adult women 8.7%
minority adult men 7.2%
white adult women 5.3%
white adult men 4.0%

Median annual income for year round full time workers (1970):

white men $9373.
black men $6598.
white women $5490.
black women $4674.
94-96% of all jobs paying $15, 000 or more per year are held by white men.







Fact Sheet 1


15 million people receive public assistance: (1972)


8 million
2 million
1 million
3 million


children under age 16
aged persons
totally & permanently disabled or blind
mothers of dependent children
able bodied males


AFDC Families:

Race:


White
Black
Other racial and
ethnic minorities


Number of children:

One
Two
Three
Four or more

Female headed:

Able bodied male in
household:


48%
43%

9%


30%
25%
18%
27%

76%


5%


Public assistance payments (maximum)


to a family of four:


Mississippi


New York, New Jersey,
Massachusetts, Connecticut


Federal poverty line (1972)


$ 700/year


$3600/year


30-50 million people
$4000/year for a family of four
25 million people


On public assistance


58%
15%
1/2%
1/2%
1%


page 2


15 million people








FACT SHEET 2: MORTGAGE FINANCE


U. S. Savings and Loan League survey question: "How much weight do you give
to a working wife's income in considering an application for a mortgage?"

Response from 400 large savings and loans:

full credit 28%
more that 50% 14%
non response rate to item 21%
non response rate to other items 1%

D.C. Commission on the Status of Women and Women's Legal Defense Fund
survey of mortgage lenders:

would count 100% of wife's income
if she's a "professional" 67%
would count 100% of wife's income
if she's a "non-professional" 34%

Federal Home Loan Bank Board study:

65% of savings and loans use marital status as a factor in evaluating loan
applications.

National Bureau of Economic Research study results (1970):

No demonstrable relationship between marital status and mortgage loan risk.

Key factors in default risk (according to major studies):

Characteristics of the loan itself, especially loan to value ratio NOT characteristics
of borrower (sex, age, family, and marital status)

1964 study results:

Loans to families in which husband's income = 100% of family income had a
slightly higher likelihood of being delinquent than loans to families in which
husband's income = only a portion of family income.

Over 50% of married women worked in paid jobs in 1972.
40% of the work force is female.
75% of women who work for pay have no husband or a husband who earns less than
$700/year.





Fact Sheet 2


Percent of married women, husband present, in the labor force (1970):

Black, Spanish speaking, Native
American, Asian American and
Total White other races/ethnicities

39.2% 38.2% 49.8%

65% of white families = homeowners (1970)
42% of minority families = homeowners (1970)
63% of nation's housing units are owned by their occupants.

All Nonwhite
Income Groups Homeowners Homeowners
(196) (Percentage) (Percentage)

Under $3000/year 43% 33%
$3000-$6000 50% 36%
Over $6000 67% 55%
Over $8000 80% 67%

42% of white homeowners had no mortgage on their property (1960)
58% of minority homeowners had no mortgage on their property (1960)

Housing environments of nonwhite households, with incomes of $8000-$10, 000/
year were worse than for white households with incomes of $2000-$4000/year.


page 2








FACT SHEET 3: MILITARY SERVICE

Under present regulations, men in the armed services are assigned on the basis
of their tested abilities and qualifications.

Less than 1% of draft eligible men are assigned to combat units. At the height of
U. S. involvement in Vietnam, 14% of U. S. servicemen were engaged in ground
combat.

The armed services provide job training and experience in numerous occupations,
education, and veterans benefits, including job preferences in government and out.

Draft deferments for fathers now exist and have existed since World War II.

Representation of women in the services is limited by a 2% quota. Women
comprise 1.9% of military personnel (July, 1972).

Eligibility standards for women are more stringent than for men:

Women must have a high school education, higher test scores, and must
provide character references. A woman must be 18 in.order to enlist; a man
must be 17.

Parental consent is required for a woman under 21; and for man under 18.

434 army military occupational specialties are open to enlisted women; 48 are
closed to enlisted women.

177 specialties are open to women officers; 188 are closed to women officers.

No law prohibits the army from assigning women to combat (or any other) duty.
The army has closed to women specialties which are combat oriented, by
regulation.

Both the Navy and Air Force are prohibited by law from assigning women to
vessels and aircraft in combat.

Army, Navy, Marine Corps:

By law, women officers are considered for promotion separately from men.

Enlisted women and men are considered together for promotion.

Congress now possesses the power to include women in any military conscription.

As of May, 1972, over 720 American servicewomen were in Southeast Asia.





Fact Sheet 3


page 2


Servicewomen and women veterans have not been entitled to all service and
veterans benefits; benefits have often been unequally applied to servicemen and
servicewomen. (On base housing and housing allowances, health benefits, etc.)

The Supreme Court invalidated this unequal treatment in the Frontiero decision
(1973).

Women in the Service:

Army Navy Marines Air Force

1945 156,447 86,000 18,409
1970 16,724 (1.2%) 8,609 (.1%) 2,418 (1.0%) 13,654 (1.7%)









FACT SHEET 4: HOUSING AND FEMALE HEADED FAMILIES

Percentage of female headed families
below the poverty level

All 34%
Black 54%
Puerto Rican 65%
Mexican-American 66%'
White 27%

These female headed families include 9 million children.

Female heads of families increased by 33% in the last decade.

Title VI does not prohibit discrimination on the basis of sex, marital status,
or dependents.

There are no housing programs particularly geared to the needs of female-headed
families.


Census data on female headed households in urban communities:

UNITED STATES

Total White Black

in households 197,426,514 173,069,807 21,898,395


female heads
of household






in households

female heads
of household


5, 539,073



Total

144,648,360


4,526,572


4,138,756 1,334,203

URBAN

White Black

124,940,109 17,859,851


3,309,836 1,167,796


Spanish speaking

9,134,467


278,956



Spanish speaking

8,031,363


260,982





Fact Sheet 4


Data on female-headed households (U. S. Summary):

7.8 million one-person female headed households

3.7 million are homeowners

4.1 million are renters

6.3 million two-or-more person female headed households

3.0 million arc homeowners

3.3 million are renters

Female heads of two-or-more person households:

Black 431,000 are homeowners

1,000,000 are renters

Spanish
speaking 89,000 are owners

210,000 are renters


page 2









FACT SHEET 5: EMPLOYMENT AND EARNINGS


No. of women in labor force Percent

minority women 4.1 million 44% of minority workers
(13. 2% of all working women (1971)
all women 32 million 38% of all workers
working mothers 12. 2 million (1970)
8.7 million (1960)

Increase in number of working women:

Women accounted for 3/5 of the increase in civilian labor force between 1960 and
1970.

The number of working mothers has increased eightfold since 1940.

Age:

50% of all women 18 to 64 are workers.

Unemployment:

Minority teenage women 35. 5%
Minority teenage men 28.9%
White teenage women 15.2%
White teenage men 15.1%
Minority adult women 8.7%
Minority adult men 7.2%
White adult women 5.3%
White adult men 4.0%

Representation of women in general occupation groups:

Women as
Occupation Group percentage of group

Professional and technical workers 39%
Nonfarm managers, officials,
proprietors 17%
Clerical workers 75%
Craftspersons and forepersons 4%

Workers not covered by Fair Labor Standards Act include:

45% are women
57% of all employed black women
all domestic workers
(50% of all poor female heads of families worked as domestic workers in 1970)






Fact Sheet 5


Median annual earning of full time year round workers:


Year

1970
1965
1960
1955


Women

$5,323
$3,823
$3,293
$2,719


Men


Women's earnings as percent of men's


$8,966
$6,375
$5,417
$4,252


59.4%
60 %
60.8%
63.9%,


Women earn, on the average, $3.00 for every $5.00 earned by similarly employed
men (3/5 of men's income).

Table 63 Median Income in 1966 of Persons, by Educational Attainment, Sex
and Color
(Persons 25 years of age and over)


Educational
Attainment


Total

Elementary school
Less than 8 years
8 years


High school
1 to 3 years
4 years


College
1 to 3 years
4 years
5 years or more


Women
Total White Nonwhite

$1,926 $1,988 $1,561


1,190
1,009
1,404

2,368
1,913
2,673

3,569
2,827
4,165
6,114


1,236
1,055
1,416

2,421
1,960
2,700

3,519
(1)
(1)
(1)


993
932
1,303

2,057
1,698
2,475

3,964
(1)
(1)

(1)


Men
Total White


$6,128 $6,390 $3,665


3,488
2,784
4,518

6,576
5,982
6,924

8,779
7,709
9,728
10,041


3,731
2,945
4,611

6,736
6,189
7,068

9,023
(1)
(1)
(1)


1Not available.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce,
Population Reports, P-60, No. 53.
Husband-wife families:


Bureau of the Census:


14% are poor if the wife does not work
4% are poor when wife does work
7.4% of husband-wife families have wife as chief breadwinner
(3.2 million out of 44 million families). (1970)

5. 7% of husband-wife families had wife as chief breadwinner in 1960.


Nonwhite


2,632
2,376
3,681

4,725
4,278
5,188

5,928
(1)
(1)
(1)


Current


page 2









FACT SHEET 6: WOMEN IN PRISON


Increase in arrests of women for:

Percent Increase (1960-70)

violent crimes 69%
total crime rate 74% (compared to 25% for men)

Ratio of arrests--male to female-- = 6:1

Arrests of women as percent
of total arrests Offense

17% serious (Crime Index) offenses
19% property arrests
10% violent crime

Women Prisoners:
Total No. of Prisoners Number of Women Prisoners
Federal prisons 21,000 1,000

state, county, local
institutions 17-19, 000 (no reliable statistics)

total prisoners 1/3 million 18-20,000 (est.)

Data on women in Federal prisons at Alderson, West Virginia and Terminal Island,
California

Age:
under 30 50%
15-24 34%
Marital & family status:
married, separated, divorced,
widowed mothers 80%
Work on outside:
expected to work upon release
for self support 90%
(Alderson): had earned less
than $60/week on most
recent job 34%
less than $70/week 50%
more than $100/week 15%
previously spent time in
prison 66%









Fact Sheet 6


In June, 1973, the New Jersey Supreme Court struck down the system providing
indeterminate prison terms for women and ordered that women be given minimum-
maximum sentences as are men.

According to the Women's Prison Association surveys:

Women prisoners in New York City:


Race/ethnicity
Black
Puerto Rican
Whitw


Number


Percent
74%
13%
9%


Women prisoners nationwide:


Number of women in:
State institutions
2957
County and city jails
2390
Private agencies
449
TOTAL
4796


Black
1422

697


Puerto
Rican
7

3


307 10

2426 20


Mexican
American
96

118


White Other
1242 32


0 122


214


2040


117

7

216


Jails for women:

1 federal reformatory
28 state institutions for women
24 facilities for women, under the control of wardens of state prisons for men.

Starting salaries for correctional officers:


Women


Men


$6510-$8721


$7177-$9618


Many jails for women (such as Muncy in Pa.) had no black staff, though 47% of
prisoners were black; more were from urban environments.


Staff was white and rural (1970-71).


page 2









FACT SHEET 7: EDUCATION


Women are:

50.4% of high school graduates
43.1% of college graduates
11.6% of Ph. D. s earned between 1960 and 1969

85% of elementary school teachers
19.6% of elementary school principals (compared to 56% in 1950)
50% of secondary school teachers
1.4% of senior high school principals (compared to 3% in 1971, 6% in 1950)
25% of community college faculties
14% of 4 year college and university faculties
13.4% of college faculties with Ph. D.

College faculty members:


Number

57,297
197,633


Women
Men


Percent

22.5%
77.5%


Women faculty members by rank:


Percent of faculty


Instructors
Assistant Professors
Associate Professors
Full professors


36.8%
36.4%
17.1%
9.7% (compared to 25. 5% of men)


Women were:


1930
1970

1930
1968


47 % of undergraduates
38 % of undergraduates

28 % of Ph. D. s earned
12.6% of Ph. D. s earned


Earnings gap between male and female faculty members:


Type of
Institution
Universities
2 year colleges
4 year colleges


Average Salary
Women Men


$12,325
$11,862
$11,601


$15,829
$12,889
$13,496


Women Earned
$3, 504 less than men
$1,027 less than men
$1,895 less than men


Blacks hold an estimated 1% of Ph. D. s.





Fact Sheet 7


Earnings gap: Deans of Men and Women (average salaries) 1971-72

Deans of men $14,421
Deans of women $12,848

Financial aid grants:

Amount to women students (average) $518
Amount to men students (average) $769

College enrollment:

1970 3,250, 000 women
4,650,000 men


High School Graduates:

Women: 50% go to college
Men: 80% go to college

Women = 75-90% of well qualified students who do not go

Median school years completed (1970) by persons 25 and

Census year Total White Black
M F M F M F
1970 12.1 12.1 12.1 12.1 9.4 10.0


to college,

older:

Spanish
M
9.9


speaking
F
9.4


page 2









FACT SHEET 8: CHILD CARE


Working mothers with children under 18


Number of mothers in labor
force seeking work

1. 5 million


12.7 million


Number of mothers
Percentage with children under 6 Percentage


10%
22%
30%
40%


14%
20%
32%


4.4 million


Since 1950, the percentage of mothers who work outside the home has almost doubled.

Children (under age 18) of working mothers


Number of
children

15.7 million
26 million


Number under
age 6

4 million
5.6 million


Number in poverty or
close to poverty line


2 million (825,000 in
fatherless families)


Child care arrangements


Type of care


in own home
in own home
in own home
latchkey
in home
another' s home
another's home

group child care
facility


for preschool children (Child Welfare League Survey, 1968):


Caretaker


Percentage of children


father
siblings
other relatives
self
others
relatives
neighbors, friends,
or babysitters
"professional" child
care workers


23%
12%
17%
7%
14%
12%

11%

3%


Available child care in licensed centers:


Number of slots available


Year

1971
1972


Number of preschool children of non-employed mothers living in poverty
2. 5 million.


905,000
700,000


Year

1940
1950
1960
1972


Year


1960
1971





Fact Sheet 8


Users of child care centers by income and type of center (1970):

Developmental Comprehensive
Family income Custodial centers centers centers

under $4000 18% 16% 59%
$4000-$8000 54% 39% 24%
over $8000 28% 45% 17%

Federally assisted child care programs:

Federal funds help provide service for 5% of economically disadvantaged children.

Families with yearly income just above the poverty line ($4000-$800) do not
qualify for Federally assisted child care.

Amount of Federal spending for child care programs*:

1970 520 million
1973 969 million

*includes: day care, Headstart, ESEA (Title 1) preschool programs.

In 1970, 6 million more women worked than during World War II.
In 1970, licensed day care centers had 1/6 their World War I capacity.

In 1971, black and white, male and female headed families with working mothers
had fewer children than families (black and white, male and female headed) whose
mothers did not work outside the home.

Results of National Council of Jewish Women survey of child care centers:

Total enrollment capacity (1970): 625,000 children.

Quality of care:

Good Fair Poor

Nonprofit centers 38% 51% 11%
Proprietary centers 15% 35% 50%


page 2





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