WOMEN AND HUMAN RIGHTS
Selected Bibliography/ 1980
1. General issue
M.H. Guggenheim, "The Implementation of Human Rights
by the UN Commission on the Status of Women,"
Texas International Law Journal 12: Spring/Summer, 1977
M.H. Guggenheim, "U.S. Participation in International Agreements
Providing Rights for Women" (with E.F. Defeis), Loyola
University Law Review (Los Angeles) 10: 1-71 (December, 1976).
P. Ireland, "International Advancement and the Protection of
Human Rights for Women," Lawyer of the Americas 10:
j.TauBenfeld,..R.F, and. R.J,, "Achieving thr Human Righkis of Women,"
Hman':Rights 4: 125-169 10975)
V. Van Dyke, "Human Rights and the Rights of
Journal of Political Science 18:
725-41 (November, 1974)
2. Women as a specific subset of a category of oppressed persons
"Ukrainian Women in Soviet Prisons"
"Women Political Prisoners in the USSR (1975)
"Women's Voices from Soviet Labor Camps"
World Council of Churches Human Rights Documentation
"Violation of Human Rights of Women and
Children in Latin America" (1979)
"Women in Prison" (by Margaret Traxler,
United Nations, "The Effects of Apartheid on the Status of Women
in Southern Africa" A/CONF.94/7 (1980)
"The Role of Women in the Struggle for Liberation
in Zimbabwe, Namibia and South Africa" A/CONF. 94/5
"Women in Prison:
How We Are,"
Black Scholar 9: 8-15
3. Differences in kind:
abuse of women; access to resources; the public sphere
Hosken, "The Hosken Report: Genital and Sexual Mutilation
of Females" Women's International Network, 1979
WOMEN AND HUMAN RIGHTS/ 2
"Burn Her and Try Again" (wife burning in India), Economist
272:59 (July 14, 1979)
"Women and Social Violence" (with bibliography) by Elise
Boulding, International Social Science Journal 4: 801-15 (1978
B. Access to resources: the right to an adequatee standard of living"
The 1948 Universal Declaration implicitly assumed that women
would achieve an adequate standard of living through their
relationships with their husbands. The literature on access
to resources is the literature of the field of women in development
(see WID resource center list). An excellent bibliography in
this field is Mayra Buvinic, Women and World Development: An
Annotated Bibliography (Overseas eveTopment Council, 1976)
C. The public sphere
One of the most difficult changes to make is the.-revolution
that gives women equal access to political resources and
effective participation in political life, a problem which
even socialist regimes have found it difficult to solve.
For an excellent critical introduction to this field, including
cross-national comparisons, see the various Political Science
review essays in SIGNS: A Journal of Culture and Society.
List of materials distributed:
Selections from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
and "Human Rights in Jeopardy"
Distribution of Resource Center Material (list of publications
available from the Women in Development Office, AID)
S*'' y Draft resolutions on "fundamental freedoms guaranteed to individuals" ;
"Conditions in which women are detained"; and "refugees"
"Female Circumcision a Topic an UN Parley" NYT July 18, 1980
"Amendment on Sexism Makes Gains at Conference" NYT July 28, 1980
"US Will Offer Racism Motion at Copenhagen" NYT July 22, 1980
"US Not Expected to Endorse Plan Drawn Up at Women's Conference"
NYT July 30, 1980
Section from the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms
of Discrimination Against Women
UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS (1948)
(1) Men and women of full age, without any limitation due
to race, nationality, or religion, have the right to marry and
found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage,
during marriage, and at its dissolution.
(2) Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full
consent of the intending spouses.
(3) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of
society and is entitled to protection by the Society and the State.
Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable
limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.
(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for
the health and well-being of himself and of his family...
(2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and
"Human Rights in Jeopardy" (Address by Assistant Secretary of State
for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs Patricia M Derian) 1979
"While no international body has yet codified the idea, a growing
consensus believe that a woman's control over her own fertility,
her own body, thus her own destiny, is a basic human right. Women
of all cultures, religions, and conditions recognize and want that right."
"The principal human rights include integrity of the person (freedom
from torture, cruel or degrading treatment, psychiatric abuse); basic
human needs (minimal nutrition, health care, shelter, education); civil
and political liberties (freedom of thought and press, worship, assembly,
movement and political participation)."
"A recent and terrible revelation is the extent of victimization of
children over the full range of human rights violations and atrocities....
Children have proved useful to torture technicians. The children themselves
are tortured or sexually violated in order to elicit information or
confessions from the latter..."
"A final word on abuses against children. A traditional folk practice,
virtually unknown in the West, but widespread in Saharan Africa and in
the Arabian peninsula is the ritual mutilation of young girls' genitalia.
Misnamed as female 'circumcision,' the procedure is much more severe than
its male counterpart. The major reason for this ancient and ongoing
practice is to insure the prospective husband's 'property rights"(...virginity)."
.- li A ScLA S -iI -T --
Department of State
COPENH 04785 201446Z
INFO PPCE-0D PPPB-02 PPEA-01 PPIA-02 IDCA-81 W/ID-01 ES-01
AAID-B1 MAST-01 POPR-01 /812 A3 6
INFO OCT-B1 AF-i1 ARA-IS EA-12 EUR-12 NEA-07 ADS-90
SSO-01 SS-15 NSCE-00 AID-07 WCW-03 RP-10 L-03
.------------------050175 201452Z /66
0 190850Z JUL 8B
FM AMEMBASSY COPENHAGEN
TO AMEMBASSY SINGAPORE IMMEDIATE
SECSTATE WASNDC IMMEDIATE 0942
INFO USMISSIO[1 USUN NEW YORK IMMEDIATE
UNCLAS COPENHAGEN 4785
FROM USDEL HID-DECADE CONF 016
S/S ALERT 10
DEPT PASS NSC AND SAID
E 0 12065: K/A
TAGS: OCON, OVIP, OREP SHUM,
SUBJ: UN MID-DECADE CONF FOR
WOMEN- RESOLUTION ON REFUGEES
REF: COPENHAGEN ;762 NOTALL)
1. USDEL PLAKS TO INTRODUCE RESOLUTION ON REFUGEES AND
SEEKS SINGAPORE'S SUPPORT ALONG WITH OTHER NATIONS.
SINGAPORE DEL, AMB DAVID MARSHALL, (SINGAPORE AMB TO PARIS)
SEEMS INTERESTED IN JOINING THAILAND, PERU, PAKISTAN AND OTHER
CO-SPONSORING. HOWEVER HIS REPEATED DIFFICULTIES WITH COMMERCIAL
TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS HERE LED TO HIS REQUEST THAT
AMEIBASSY SINGAPORE FORWARD RESOLUTION TEXT TO SINGAPORE
2. MARSHALL TOLD USDEL MARY KING TODAY
QUOTE. I CAM SEE NO OBJECTION AND CONSIDER IT WOULD BE
HELPFUL IF ASEAN MEMBERS COULD SUPPORT IT UNQUOTE.
3. MARSHALL ASKS MESSAGE BE TRANSMITTED ASAP TO FORMING.
INCO M ING
COPENH 04785 201446Z 026403 AID4155
FIRST ASYLUM, PERMANENT RESETTLEMENT OPPORTUNITIES OR FINAN-
STRONGLY URGES THE UNITED NATIONS6IGH COMMISSIONER FOR
REFUGEES TO ASSURE FULL IMPLEMENTATION OF ITS MANDATE TO
PROTECT VOMEN AND CHILDREIN)AND FURTHER STRONGLY URGES STATES
RECEIVING REFUGEES TO PROTECT THEIR LEGAL RIGHTS AND WELL
DEMANDS THAT GOVERNMENTS BRING TO JUSTICE THOSE WHO ABUSE
REFUGEE WOMEN AND CHILDREN AND TAKE EVERY STEP POSSIBLE TO
R~fEWL _SUCH ATROCITIES.
URGES THE UNHCR, UNICEF AND OTHER BODIES WITHIN THE UNITED
NATIONS SYSTEM TO SET UP THE PROGRAMS NECESSARY TO ASSIST
THE SPECIAL NEEDS OF WOMEN AS REFUGEES, ESPECIALLY IN THE
AREAS OF HEALTH, EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT.
RECOMMENDS THAT THE UNHCR ESTABLISH SPECIAL HEALTH AND
NUTRITIONAL PROGRAMS PARTICULARLY WITH REGARD TO PREGNANT
AND LACTATING WOMEN.
REQUESTS THAT FAMILY PLANNING INFORMATION AND METHODS BE
AVAILABLE ON A VOLUNTARY BASIS TO BOTH MEN AND WOMEN
REQUESTS THE UNHCR TO WORK WITH HOST-COUNTRY GOVERNMENTS TO
ENCOURAGE THE PARTICIPATION OF WOMEN IN THE ADMINISTRATION
OF REFUGEE ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS, INCLUDING DISTRIBUTION OF
FOOD AND OTHER SUPPLIES IN FIRST-ASYLUM COUNTRIES AND IN THE
DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT OF TRAINING AND ORIENTATION PROGRAMS
IN FIRST-ASYLUM AND RESETTLEMENT COUNTRIES.
URGES THE UNHCR AND COUNTRIES OF FIRST ASYLUM AND RESETTLE-
MENT TO DEVELOP SELF-HELP PROGRAMS THAT ACTIVELY INVOLVE
URGES THAT THE U.N. HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES, IN
COOPERATION WITH OTHER U.N. AND NON-GOVERNMENTAL AGENCIES,
DEVELOP AND IMPLEMENT A PROGRAM OF FAMILY REUNIFICATION
INCLUDING SPECIAL PROGRAMS FOR REUNITING UNACCOMPANIED
RECOMMENDS THAT THE UNHCR INCREASE THE NUMBER OF WOMEN AT
ALL LEVELS OF ITS STAFF, AND THAT IT ESTABLISH A HIGH-LEVEL
POSITION FOR A COORDINATOR FOR WOMEN'S PROGRAMS. IN ADDI-
TION TO ENSURING THAT REFUGEE PROGRAMS MEET THE SPECIAL
NEEDS OF REFUGEE WOMEN, THIS OFFICE SHOULD COORDINATE THE
COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA AND CONDUCT CASE STUDIES ON
WOMEN REFUGEES. END QUOTE.
4. TEXT FOLLOWS IN DRAFT (MODIFICATION OF TEXT
DRAFTED BY S/REF BEFORE DEPARTURE OF USDEL).
5. (BEGIN TEXT. RECOGNIZING THAT REFUGEE PROBLEMS EFFECT EVERY'
CONTINENT AND PLACE SPECIAL BURDENS ON DEVELOPING COUNTRIES,
AWARE THAT THE SUBSTA.LIALJiajORITY OF REFUGEES IN MOST
BEARING IN n6D10 THAT WOMEN REFUGEES SUFFER MORE RADICAL
CHANGES IN ROLES AND STATUS THAN MALE REFUGEE
RECALLING ITE SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS OF WOMEN REFUGEES, ESPE-
CIALLY PREGNANT AND LACTATING WOMEN, WOMEN WITH SMALL
CHILDREN AND WOMEN AS HEADS OF FAMILIES AND HOUSEHOLDS,
DEEPLY CONCERNED THAT EXISTING REFUGEE ASSISTANCE DOES NOT
ADEQUATELY ADDRESS THE SPECIAL NEEDS OF REFUGEE WOMEN AND
AWARE OF THE EFFECTS OF SEPARATION OR DEATH ON RFFUGFF
FAMILIES, ESPECIALLY REFUGEE WOMEN AND CHILDREN, AND
SHOCKED BY REPORTS OF PHYSICAL ABUSE OF REFUGEE VOMEN .Al.
URGES THAT ALL NATIONS APPLY THE PRINCIPLES OF THE
CONVENTION AND PROTOCOL RELATING TO THE STATUS OF REFUGEES
10 REFUGEES WHEREVER THEY FIND THEMSELVES, WITHOUT DISCRIMI-
NATION AS TO SEX, RACE, AGE, RELIGION OR COUNTRY OF ORIGIN.
CALLS UPON ALL NATIONS WHO HAVE NOT YET RATIFIED THE
CONVENTION AND PROTOCOL RELATING TO THE STATUS OF REFUGEES
TO DO SO.
URGES ALL STATES TO RECOGNIZE THEIR RESPONSIBILITIES TO
SHARE THE SWIDEN OF REFUGEE ASSISTANCE WHETHER IN PROVIDING