• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 The educational system
 Identification of training...
 Women in the public sector
 Policy implications
 References
 Tables
 Appendix
 List of officials interviewed














Title: Women and their professional future
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086903/00001
 Material Information
Title: Women and their professional future an assessment of training needs and training programs in Morocco
Alternate Title: Assessment of training needs and training programs in Morocco
Physical Description: 59, 44 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Youssef, Nadia Haggag
United States -- Agency for International Development. -- Office of Women in Development
Publisher: Office of Women In Development, Agency for International Development
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Publication Date: 1978
 Subjects
Subject: Women in community development -- Morocco   ( lcsh )
Women -- Employment -- Morocco   ( lcsh )
Women -- Morocco   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Morocco
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: by Nadia H. Youssef.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086903
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 09995738

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    The educational system
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Identification of training needs
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
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        Page 21
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        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
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        Page 43
        Page 44
    Women in the public sector
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Policy implications
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    References
        Page 60
    Tables
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Appendix
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
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        Page 103
    List of officials interviewed
        Page 104
Full Text













WOMEN AND THETR PROFESSIONAL FUTURE:

AN ASSESSMENT OF TRAINING NEEDS
AND TRAINING PROGRAMS IN MOROCCO









PREPARED FOR: A.I.D.
EAR EAST/TECH
ASHINGTONJ D.C.




June 1978






DISTRIBUTED BY:

OFFICE OF WOMEN IN DEVELOPMENT
AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
ROOM 3243 NEW STATE
WASHINGTON, D.C, 20523




0 .


WOMEN AND THEIR PROFESSIONAL FUTURE:

An Assessment of Training Needs
and Training Programs in Morocco




by

Nadia H. Youssef
ICRW
Washington, D.C.


The views and interpretations in this
publication are those of the author
and should not be attributed to the
Agency for International Development
or anyone acting in its behalf.








TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page
I. Introduction 1

II. The Educational System 5

Illiteracy Rates 6
Pfimary.School Education 7
Secondary Education 10
A Profile of Secondary School Students 12
University Education 14

III. Identification of Training Needs 16

A. Existent Training Centers 16
B. Common Themes With Respect to Training Needs 20
1. Priority Group 21
2. Needs for Trained Personnel 25
Social Worker 25
Paramedical Personnel 30
C. Particularistic Training Needs 37

1. Educational Counsellors and Planners 37
2. Middle Level Technical and Management Needs 39
3. Supportive Assistance for
School/Grade Completion 40
4. Supportive Assistance to Graduate Students 41
5. Training through Correspondence Courses 42

IV. Women in the Public Sector:

Opportunities for and Constraints
Against Upward Mobiltiy 45
V. Policy Implications 53

References

Tables

Appendix


List of Officials Interviewed









I. INTRODUCTION

The immediate objective of this exploratory trip to Morocco

was twofold: a) to investigate ways and means through which to

promote the entry of a larger group of women into the public
sector and social service agencies and to upgrade those women who

are currently employed into more responsible positions, b) to

identify local training organizations which operate or have the

potential of operating training programs for women in areas

appropriate to local development needs.
In pursuing these objectives, three separate though inter-

related lines of enquiry were pursued.

A. Identification of local development needs for specific occupa-

tional specialization or skills as articulated by responsible
officials in the different Ministries, the public and private

sectors. Assessment of the degree to which these articulated needs,
if and when met in womanpower training can, in actuality, be absorbed

by the labor market.

B. Assessment of the dynamics of the formal educational system
in Morocco, with view to understanding:

1. the relationship which specific training programs in such

areas as might be recommended for women would bear to the formal
educational structure in terms of an equivalency. This relates

to the problem of educational recognition.




2


2. initial identification of the particular educational

level within the formal educational structure for which different

training needs might be provided.

3. Assessment of the extent to which training programs for

women identified as most appropriate for local needs will have

equivalency on an administrative basis in order to ensure the

integration of such trainees into the sliding scale of salaries

in the public and private sectors.

C. Focus on the reality of the educational process insofar

as Moroccan women are concerned, in order to identify those segments

which are structurally the less advantaged and for whom it has been

up to now least possible to be integrated into the development

process.

-Specifically, I sought answers to questions such as the following:

a) With respect to the formation of new trained personnel: Are

there 'real' needs for trained personnel in areas other than those

which are currently provided by a formal educational system? How

far are these "current" needs, if and when supplied, guaranteed

employment/labor market absorption on a long term basis? To what

extent are such needs specific to any one organization as opposed

to nation-wide needs? What, if any, are problems of getting women -

entrance and advancement wise into these new areas? Are there

any constraints, legal, familial,financial, operating to prevent

women to make an entry into the areas recommended? To what extent

and degree does the training of such personnel carry the potential

of advancing women into responsible positions in which they

are able to participate in decision-making processes?




3


b) With respect to the promotion of women currently employed: At

what level are most of the women currently working employed? Is

such type of employment commensurate with their educational status?

What are the dynamics of occupational upward mobility within the

public and private sector? Are women and men equally beneficiaries

of the upward mobility process? Do men and women have equal access

to supportive structures which promote upward mobility?

An attempt was also made to identify local training organiza-

tions with view to exploring how best to improve their capacity to

develop, design and operate training programs for women in areas
identified as important for local development needs.

Organization of Report


*This report is organized as follows: Section II highlights some

of the realities of the educational system by way of stressing the

educational marginality in Morocco which is produced by failure and
withdrawal at all scholastic levels. Section III entitled 'Identification

of Training Needs' deals first with common themes thet emerged in dis-

cussions regarding particular areas of training for which there is
national need and identification of the particular segment of the

female population which is in greatest need to participate in any pro-

jected training program.
This is followed by a listing of some particularistic needs for

training and supportive assistance which were articulated by specific

organizations or individuals.

In Section IV a brief review is made of the opportunities for

and constraints working against the promotion of women in the Civil Service.

Emphasis is given in this discussion to existent mechanisms which might be








maximized to work more favorably in the interest of women's upward

mobility in the public sector.

The report ends with a brief discussion of what might be the

policy implications of the different types of training programs.





S5


II. THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

Approximately 46% of the population in Morocco (18 million)

is under age 15; 56% is below age 20. With a current CBR of 45/1000

and an estimated GRR of 3.6, and a projected population of 40

million by 2000, one can only envisage the expansion of this very

youthful base as.characteristic of Morocco's demography for some

time to come. Hence, the importance of understanding the realities

of the educational process in Morocco and the impact of this reality

upon strategies devised to integrate larger portions of the population

into the educational and occupational process.

Morocco is unfortunately characterized by a striking educational

marginality. This marginality is manifested at several levels:

high illiteracy rates

-- high drop out rates (withdrawal)

high failure rates

high repeater rates

Withdrawal, failure and repeater problems exist at all educa-

tional levels and permeate the educational system throughout. The

result has been the creation of large segments within the population
who find themselves in "in-between" levels. Such type marginality is

particularly acute in a country such as Morocco where the residues
of the French elitist attitude towards an academic-oriented education

and the importance of the "diploma" or the "certificate" are deeply

entrenched.




6


The educational marginality can be summarized in the following way:


1
Illiteracy -
( 971)


2
Primary
School











Secondary
School


Total Population 10+ 75%

Urban Population 54%

Rural Population 87%

Reaches 54.5% of children aged 7-13.

Attendance of rural population is 39.2%.

Among those who have a Primary Certificate only 10%

succeed without repeating.' One ha!f of those attending

school in rural areas will not complete their primary

Education. About one half of those who are in the

final year of primary will enter secondary school.

Among all those who enter the first year of primary

education, the percentage who reach the.final year

of the secondary level is 2%. Approximately 30% of

those who begin the second-level education are expected

to complete the final year of their secondary schooling.


A. Illiteracy Rates


Between 1957-1975 the number of primary schools increased from
3
487,000 to 1,547,000 and of secondaryschools from 27,000 to 486,000.

Despite serious efforts to eradicate illiteracy through the expansion

of the formal and nonformal educational system the percent of population

among those aged 10 and over is still high. The 1971 data place the

illiteracy rate of the total pop 10+ at 75%. Urban/rural and male/female

differentials are striking. Urban illiteracy is 54%; rural is 87%.

Among urban women the illiteracy rate is 68%, as compared to 98% in

rural areas. Urban males are illiterate in 38% of the cases as compared
4
to 75% in rural areas.


-~ a





7





5
B. Primary School Education

It is estimated that primary schooling reaches only one half

of the school age population (7-13). Some critics argue that in

actual attendance terms only 66% of the pupils in primary schools

fall within this age range which means that only 36% of the age group

categorized as a primary school population is being affected by
schooling. School attendance at the primary level differs by

residence and by sex. For example, the attendance rates are 76%

in urban areas, 85% in-Casablanca; anywhere between 23% and 39%

in average rural areas and 12% in the most depressed areas of the

country such as Tensift.

The national figures show that since 1969-1976, girls comprise

one-third of the primary school populations. The sex differentials

in attendance are not as striking in urban as in rural areas. In

urban areas the attendance rate is 81% for boys and 70% for girls.
The corresponding figures in rural areas are 61% for boys and 18%

for girls.

One problem is to get school-age children into schools, the
next is to have them remain there.

Attrition and repeating takes place at all levels in primary
schooling, particularly during the 1st year and the 5th (terminal)

year. An article highly critical of the primary education system has

estimated that among every 100 who have completed the primary level,

only 10% succeed without repeating;

26% succeed having repeated once;

42% succeed having repeated twice (or more).




8


The attrition rates through withdrawal are very high, particularly

in rural areas. Several statistics are cited, none of which can be

confirmed. Some estimates place the drop out rate during the first year

primary at 23%. (21% for boys and 28% for girls) It is also estimated

that over 50% of those who enter 1st year primary in many.ruralareas, ,re

not expected to reach the final year. The corresponding percentage

for urban areas is much less. Similarly, in the case of rural areas,
large .numbersaf boys and girls who are enrolled in the last year of

primary school drop out. Failure and withdrawal rates are particularly high

during this last year. If one considers that only 39% of rural children

are attending school and only one half of these will complete the

primary school cycle, then in actuality only 19% of the rural population

attains a primary education

The 1975-76 official statistics do not show "withdrawal" rates
6
over the years. They do show for each one of the five grades, the

percentage within that school year who are "repeaters" and who withdraw

within the academic year. This of course does not take into account

the failure rates of those who do not return. Even so, the statistics on
"repeater" :rates are revealing. Of those!enrolled in the first three

years of primary school, the proportion who are repeating a year is

in each case 25%; in the 5th year primary, it is 50%. There are no

sex differentials. Within the period of the scholastic year, the
percentage of students who have withdrawn during the final year is indi-

atedto be 18%. A glance at the performance over previous years,

indicates that since 1972, withdrawal rates within scholastic years

have declined; but the "repeater" rate at each grade level has remained

stable. Though I have no figures to substantiate this, it appears

that "withdrawal" is more frequent in rural areas; repeating grades





Page
9
Missing
From
Original





Page
10
Missing
From
Original





11


an entrance exam. The crucial questions are: What proportion of

the secondary school population can be realistically absorbed in

the Faculties? What proportion of University graduates can be

accommodated in the labor market?

Distinction has to be made between reaching and completing

the 7th year of secondary school and obtaining the Baccalaureate diploma.
Some students achieve the former but among these many fail

to acquire the latter. It is interesting to note thdt lack of

success in passing the final Baccalaureate exam is generalized
A
to the extent that a level referred to as "au niveau bachot"

(i.e., Bachot-level) is an institutionalized category. This level

is meant to refer to persons who have reached the 7th grade

(terminal year) at the secondary level but have not passed the

Baccalaureate exam. The French secondary school system actually

awards a diplonm attesting to successful completion of secondary

school studies (as distinct from obtaining the Baccalaureate).

Unfortunately, it was not possible to locate longitudinal

studies based on cohort data which would trace attrition of a

group of secondary school students as they proceeded throughout

successive years. Systematic data collected on either microor.-macro

levels on attrition rates by virtue of withdrawal or failure during

the seven years of secondary schooling was likewise not available.

Some assessment of "losses" incurred and of the magnitude of

repeaters in the secondary level career is possible through official

statistics provided by the Division of Statistics and Evaluation

of the Ministry of Education's Department of Plan. The data is for








1976 and cross sectional time series information is limited.

By tracing changes in enrollment figures for each successive year

during the seven year program, one is able to gauge the magnitude

of losses incurred in a student body as it moves from the first year

of secondary school to the completion of the first cycle ((Brevet)

and to the 7th terminal year (2eme cycle). Any assessment of

losses made on this basis assumes a follow-through longitudinal

framework which the data available does not obviously represent.

The enrollment figures available represent separate populations at

different periods in their secondary school careers.

The "repeater" rates provided by these statistics present the

same problem in that they are not based on longitudinal data.
7
A Profile of Secondary School Students i

Enrollment The female component among the student body of the

secondary school system has increased over the past ten years.

The latest figures 1976-1977, show women comprising 35% of all

secondary school students as compared to 26% in 1968-69.

Close to 95% of the attendance is in public schools for both

males and females. In private schools girls are more heavily
represented in the student body, where they constitute 45% of the

total.

Among the different regions female students are least visible

in the Sahara and Southern provinces (20%); they are most heavily

represented in the Central and Northwest regions (38%).





13


When one looks at possible male and female differences

in enrollment for each specific year it is clear that the general

male/female ratio (65 to 35) continues to be maintained for

each of the first four years. The ratio who are female drops

slightly in the second cycle for example, in the terminal year
enrollment, the percent who are female is 27.8%. (Table 1)

Earlier it was mentioned that in Morocco one component of

educational marginality was the "repeater" rate. This has

apparently declined in secondary school levels over the past five

years. In 1972-73,for example, 25% of all those enrolled were
"repeaters"; by 1976 the percentage was down to 16%. For both

male and female students the percentage who are "repeaters"

among those enrolled is particularly high in the last grade of

each cycle. In 1976, for example, the percent who were repeaters
among all those enrolled in the 4th year of the first cycle was
26% in both the case of male and female students; amongst those

in the terminal 7th year the percent among the enrolled who
were repeaters was 33% (see table 2).
The "loss" in the student body during successive school
years at the secondary level is pronounced in the 2nd cycle. The
following statistics are calculated on the basis of comparing

enrollment figures during each of the seven years, rather than on
longitudinal and cohort data. In this comparison it is evident
that the female student is more prone to drop out of the system.





14

Students who reach the 4th year C.first cycle) represent 73%

of the number of those enrolled in the first year of the secondary school

level in the case of males and 63% in the case of females.

Among those enrolled in the 4th year one expects 66% of the
males and 59% of the females to enter the 2nd cycle, i.e., the 5th year.

Among the number who begin the 2nd cycle 5th year one expects

76% of the male students and 64% of the female students to reach

the 7th year. If we consider the total "secondary school career",
the number enrolled in the terminal year (7th grade) represent 37%

of the male students enrolled in the first year and 24% of the

female students enrolled in the first year. (Table 2 )

8
D. University Education

Statistics are available on the number of students attending the

University system in Morocco. These are broken down by sex, nationality,
and student status. During the 1976-77 academic year, there were
43,307 Moroccans enrolled in the University System, 8,816 (or 20%)

were women. Thirteen thousand.university students were employed
full time in the Government; among these 11667 were women.

-.. -. Moroccan women comprise 30% of the student body in the Humanities,

25% in the Medical Sciences, 15% in the Physical Sciences and in Law.
Among each 100 students in Engineering four were women. In the
Humanities women tend to favor English Literature and History/Geography;

in the School of Law, women are more heavily concentrated in

Juridical Sciences and in Political Economics.








It.is said that attrition rates are high in all faculties,

particularly during the first year. :I have no data on this. The

number of "repeaters" is made available and shows to be significant.

Slightly more males than females repeat one or more years during

their University careers. For example, the 1976-77 data show that

of the 34,491 male students enrolled, 34.3% were "repeaters"; among

the 8,816 women students, 28.8% were "repeaters". It is particularly

among.the group of part time students who are employed full time in

the civil service where repeater rates are high: 49% of all male and

43% of all the female student body in this group are repeating one or
9
more years.
Serious consideration is now being given by those in charge of

introducing educational reforms to "recruit" all students who have

abandoned their university studies during the first or second year.

The purpose is to train this group to become instructors in the 2nd cycle

of secondary schooling. The current requirements are such that only

those who have a Unive-rstty-degree (B.A.) and a diploma from a

Teachers Training College are eligible to teach at the 2nd cycle

grades of secondary schools. The scarcity of instructional staff

in absolute numbers and the heavy dependence upon foreign teachers
in relative terms, have instigated some revision of the requirements

necessary to teach at this level. This should also be seen as a

further step taken by the government to bring some of the "marginals"

into the mainstream of economic and professional life.








III. _IDENTIFICATION OF TRAINING NEEDS

Before we proceed to discuss the different training needs that have been

identified by Moroccans representing the public and private sectors

and the academic world, it is necessary to mention a few facts

about the existent system of vocational/professional training in

that country which lies outside of the formal educational structure.

A. Existent Training Centers

Morocco is characterized by a proliferation of Training Centers.

Each Ministry, most banks and other major public and private large

scale enterprises maintain their own Division/Department of

"de Formations Professionelle". These Centers hold seminars,

workshops, and refresher courses periodically to upgrade

the efficiency of the work-output and theoretically at least -

to provide improved mobility opportunities to their employees.

Most of these Training Centers do not carry out "programs"

except for those that are administered by the Ministry of Labor's

Office de Formations Professionelle et de la Promotion du Travail.
"Programs"of study are more likely to be carried out by Higher
Institutes which in many cases are attached to a specific Ministry.

" (See Appendix VII) Examples of such Institutes are the Regional

Pedagogical Centers, the Higher Institute of Commerce and Business

Administration, the National Institute for Training in Accountancy

and Secretarial.. rk, the National School of Public Administration,

the Institute for Training of Assistant Inspectors, the Higher

Institute of Tourism, the School of Library Service, the Center

for Journalism Training, the Paramedical Schools, and the:Municipal

School of Applied Arts. These programs vary in terms of their








requirements and range in duration from 2 to 4 years.

Of recent concern to the Government of Morocco have been the

status and operation of the Ministerial Vocational Training Centers

because of the fragmentation and duplication of efforts that are

involved. Fragmentation, because each of these Training Centers

provides "training" in areas which are strictly specific to

Ministry needs. On the other hand, within this supposed Ministry-

specific-needs approach there is a great deal of unrecognized

overlap between one Ministry and the other.

The Ministry of Labor (now named Ministry of Labor and of

Vocational/Professional Training) has been given the mandate to

form and head an Interministerial Commission for Vocational Training

(Commission Interministerielle~imr la Formation Professionelle).

The main objective of this Commission is to establish a unified

training policy -- both technical and vocational -- which would'bring

those who have abandoned their schooling into the main stream of

the working force. There is mention that the Ministry of Labor

proposes to carry out a similar coordination in the private sector,
as well.

It is not possible to estimate the form in which such a

restructuring will take place or the time duration involved.

For the time being some Ministries are still talking about

their "own" training and the importance that such training be
geared to Ministry-specific needs. There are both advantages and

disadvantages inherent in such an approach. Clearly, trainees in

Ministry-specific training courses can be assured of immediate

employment (if new to the Ministry) or of upward mobility within

the system (when already employed in the Ministry). The disadvantage,

however, is that such training can in reality be so specific or is




18


erroneously perceived to be so, that it is considered obsolete outside of

that Ministry. Hence, it becomes unrecognized by other Ministries or

organizations. The result is that the men and women trained in these

Centers are unable to find employment outlets in other private or public

organizations. They are able to use the skills they have acquired only in

the Ministry in which they have been trained.

It can be argued, of course, that this approach should not be

problematic as long as the training functions of these Centers are

directed at.and limited to workshops, refresher courses, seminars, etc.

The situation differs however when Ministerial Divisions of Vocational

Training expand their activities to run Vocational/Professional Training

"Programs" of certain duration, which will 'graduate' a new staff of

specialists. For then, the training provided, investment made and diploma

received would be recognized and legitimized by that Ministry alone.

This point needs to be underlined. Some of the training needs for

women which are articulated by Moroccans involve the formation of new

categories of trained personnel. These are defined by the government in
terms of meeting specific Ministry-needs. Hence the training component

involved is seen as geared towards Ministry-specific functions only.

Unless such training programs can be guaranteed a formal equivalency

which will integrate them into the legitimate structure of other Ministries

and of the Civil Service grade system the benefits, insofar as the

participant trainees themselves are concerned, will be severely limited.

Such integration and consequent recognition by other Ministries and by

the Civil Service grade system are possible if newly proposed Training Prograr





19


are established under the tutelage of several (not one) Ministries.

This will_ensure_that the newly_trained personnel will not be perceived

_ from the point_of view of belonging to one specific Ministry and that

the "graduates" have alternative options for employment.

A deep seated problem in Morocco -- as well as in other

developing countries -- is the structural and ideological separateness

between vocational training and the formal educational system.

Residues of French elitism in the formal educational structure

uphold the granting of prestige to academic-oriented education
only. The emphasis placed by the Moroccan Government upon

"middle-level" training, vocational skills, and even recent

interest in introducing educational reform to integrate the so-

called "drop-out" population into the mainstream,appear to

leave the formal-education ideology untouched. The creation of
linkages between vocational/professional training ard formal

education will be a lengthy process. "Formal" recognition by

the Ministry of Education of training programs which have substance

would grant equivalency to some "diplomas". Perhaps the Planning
and Coordinating Board responsible to set up such training programs
might include in their structure representatives from the Ministry

of Education. Apparently each Ministry has the right to request

'equivalency' from the Ministry of Education for any training program

that it sponsors.








B. Common Themes with Respect to Training Needs

The following discussion regarding training needs for women

in Morocco will be divided into two parts. The first section

will deal with common themes that recurred in discussions held

with highly placed government officials,. University and secondary

school educators, heads of training divisions in different sectors, and

middle-level employees. The first of these common themes refers

to the particular segment of the population who is identified by
Moroccans as the priority group for participation in a special

training program. This is followed by identification of two

specialized areas of training for which there is tremendous
national-need, and which, at the same time, were considered to

be "appropriate" professional areas for women to pursue. Training

programs in these areas will involve rather large scale projects

which AID may deem appropriate to pursue.

A second section deals with particularistic needs. These refer

to training needs articulated either by specific organizations or

those which were mentioned by fewer individuals. These training

needs reflect select areas specific to situations and types of

supportive assistance. They involve a more heterogeneous population

of beneficiaries. The fact-that such training needs and supportive
assistance were mentioned by fewer people should in no way detract
from their importance. In fact, they suggest areas which may be

considered appropriate for the projected Training Program. for

Women to pursue.





21


B. 1. Priority Group:

There was almost complete consensus among the Moroccans I met --

be they government officials, educators in private or public sectors,

male or female, -.thatby.far the most vulnerable group in need of

special training are men and women who have reached the final

year of secondary level schooling but have not succeeded.ia

passing the Baccalaureate exam.

Concentration on this female population as a priority group

for any training program will clearly be effective in expanding the

volume of women gaining entry into/access to employment. More critical

is the fact that this particular group,under current conditions,

finds itself structurally in a very disadvantaged situation. They

are the unemployed, underemployed and if employed hard to advance.

By contrast, persons who have passed the Baccalaureat have free

access to all Faculties in the University (only the Faculty of

Medicine requires competitive entrance exam). Similarly the Baccalaureate

group enters into the administrative scale structure at Grade 7

and has chances of mobility in the public sector.

Singling out the pre-Baccalaureate-level group as participants

will allow them to profit from a specialized training they do not
have access to and will enhance their chances to become a sought-

after commodity in the structure of labor market demands. It is

important to underline the fact that Morocco is now becoming more

and more committed to "salvage" men and women who withdraw from

the educational process at different levels through appropriate

training programs. The program of the Office de Formation

Professionelle et de la Promotion du Travail represents an example

of this endeavor. (More recently I was told by the official who





22


heads the Parliamentary Commission for National Education concerns

that they are considering "recruiting" men and women who have

dropped out during the first or second year of their University

studies, to prepare them through a short Teachers Training Program

to join the ranks of second-level secondary school instructors.

Currently, only those who hold a B.A. in addition to a one year

course at L'Ecole Normale Superieure (Higher Institute for Teachers

Training) qualify to teach students in the last three years of

secondary schooling. The current shortage of teaching staff at

this level and high dependency on foreign personnel has instigated

the need to revise the hierarchical structure of educational require-

ments.)

The "marginality" of the men and women who have reached the

final stages of secondary level education is critical. Age-wise

they have gone through 18 and 14 years of schooling. Yet, within

the public sector, where tight and inflexible rules regulate the

equivalency between educational attainment iand administrative

sliding scales, the "bachot level" category is admitted to
Grade 4, 5, which is designated as a-typist category.

The chance-. for upward mobilty is up to Grade 6, which corresponds

to "secretary". Some people mentioned particular cases of individuals

who were able by virtue of seniority in the system to be promoted

to Grade 7 and Grade 8. This may, in fact, be technically possible

through seniority (the Baccalaureate level enters at Grade 7), but,

in reality, unlikely to be experienced by many women. Grades 7, 8

correspond to Translater and Senior Secretary.








The private sector claims flexibility and promotion through

work performance rather than educational diplomas. Yet the director

of the Training Division at the Banque Marocaine du Commerce

Exterieure -- after some probing -_did admit that, in general, hiring

practices there observed more or less the same correspondence between

educational attainment and occupational category. In the private

sector, however, the salaries are expected to be higher and individual
performance at the job more likely to be rewarded than in the

public sector.

I was able to meet several Moroccan women who worked in banks

and other private or semi-public enterprises. Most were women who

had reached final years of secondary school but had not succeeded

in the Baccalaureate examination. These women were all working as

typists; few were performing other lower level clerical jobs.

They did not perceive of an opportunity to.be doing anything_else

as long as they-worked. Clearly banks and other private-semi-private

organizations provide an important outlet for the pre-Baccalaureate

group. Amongst all female employees at the Banque Marocaine du Commerce

Exterieure (Casablanca),one of the largest private sector enterprises,

75% were employed as typists and as clerks.

Highly placed officials in the Civil Service Division (Ministry
of Administrative Affairs) likewise informed me that the largest

proportion among all women workers in the public sector are "au

niveau bachot." Unfortunately the necessary data is not available
to assess the degree to which the heavy representation of'this

educational category is in direct proportion to the educational
attainment of the urban female population in general.







I have not made a systematic study of all the vocational

outlets accessible to men and women who do not hold the Baccalaureate

diploma.

The Admission Requirements published for the different

Training Institutes'in Morocco (see Appendix VII) indicate that in

addition to all those who'have the Baccalaureate diploma, persons
having reached the terminal year of secondary level schooling
(7th year) are eligible to apply to the following Institutes

through a competitive exam: -the Paramedical Schools, the Applied

Arts Institute, the National 'Institute for the Training of

Accountants & Secretaries, and within the Regional Pedagogical
Centers, only" the"science" and "physical education" sections.


I was unable to find out the extent to which availability of

such opportunities/options were known to, and taker advantage of by
men and women who do not have the diploma. When I asked around

about what can women who are not'Bacheliers' do if they do not want to be

typists, I was told "they marry" or "become hairstylists in

fashionable places which require knowledge of French".








. B 2. Needs for Trained Personnel:

The following discussion deals with needs for trained personnel

as these were articulated by responsible officials in the different

Ministries, directors of Training Divisions and Centers in the

public and semi-public sectors, educators and other Moroccan men

and women.

(Assistant) Social Workers


A common theme underlying most discussions on the subject of

training programs for women was the urgent need expressed for trained

personnel in what is referred to as "Assistantes Sociales". The

dictionary translates this term into the English "Social Workers;"

I hesitate to equate the two, because the American concept of Social

Worker is more commensurate with the French Travailleur Social.
High officials in four Ministries expressed dire needs for

personnel trained as (Assistant) Social Workers. These are Labor,

Youth & Sports, Social Affairs (a new Ministry created out of Entraide)

and Plan. The Ministry of Social Affairs was the only one who

referred to the category of personnel needed as travailleurs sociaux.
In Morocco there is at present no Training Program in Social

Work. Social workers as a professional or pre-professional occupational

category do not exist. The Faculty of Sociology does not have a
"major" in this area. Though some people may be assigned "case"

work loads (such as was mentioned by the National Phosphate Co.,)

they have not received any training in this field. An abortive

attempt to train a special category of social workers for the

Ministry of Health whose scope of work would focus on health-related
aspects was begun in 1966 by the Paramedical School (Ministry of Health).




26
26


The training was discontinued a few years later.. According to the

Director of the Paramedical School, the "social worker" category

of personnel was obsolete because of the overlap between the course

content and job description assigned to them and the training
received and work activities performed by other paramedics -- i.e., the!

Secretaire Medico-Sociale, etc. The few persons who 'graduated' with

this title were called upon in field situations to deal

with "social problems" not related to health (i.e. family problems,

work, unemployment, etc.).which they were in no way prepared to do.
Insofar as the Director'of the Paramedical School is concerned, the

Ministry of Health does not need a 'specialized' personnel in this

branch, given the training and work scope of other paramedic staff.

I was unable to query further whether this opinion reflects the view

of the Ministry of Health officials in general.

At present both the Ministry of Labor and the newly formed

Ministry of Social Affairs (ex Entraide) are in the process of

developing their own (and separate) Institutes.for the training of

social workers. The content of the training and curricula design

(though by no means finalized) will be oriented to meet Ministry-

specific needs. Thus in the case of the Ministry of Labor, (assistant)

social workers will be trained in labor problems, unemployment
compensation, industrial-relations, medical aspects related to work,

etc., etc. The Ministry of Social Affairs is likely to continue

defining its function more in line with a welfare-orientation since

it is still concerned with servicing the poor, the disabled and

the handicapped. The training of their (assistant) social workers

is expected to be geared towards case-work approach.









The National Institute of Labor and Social Training

Under the instigation of Mme Aisha Benomar,.Chef..du Service

Sociale, the Ministry of Labor has since 1968 been requesting the

establishment of an Institute to train social workers, provide

refresher courses, organize workshops and seminars. This request

has finally been granted and the National Institute of Labor and

Social Training is projected to begin functioning in September 1978

under the tutelage of the Ministry of Labor. Ministry of Labor

officials including the Secretary General, the Cabinet Chief, the

Director General, Office de la Formation Professionelle et de la
Promotion du Travail and the Head of the Social Service Department,

are very keen on developing curricula and programs for the following

kinds of training: (See Appendix I)

1. Supplementary training for Inspectors, Comptrollers,

Paramedical personnel attached to the Ministry of Health.

2. Focused training for the following categories of personnel:

Heads of Employment Bureaus.

Heads of Public/Social Relations Bureaus,

Staff of the. Social_SecurijtyAdmini station.
3. Specialized training in Social Work.

4. Refresher courses for all personnel.

5. Organization of regular seminars, workshops and conferences

to discuss issues related to employment insurance, social

security, medical aspects of employment, etc.








At this point the Ministry of Labor sees the function of

the Institute as training (Assistant) social workers within the

specific context of the Ministry's needs. At a later date,

they may consider the possibility of using the Institute as a ground-

work for the training of a more generalized category of social

workers as might be needed by other Ministries.

Consensus on the subject of who is eligible to participate

in this training program was not absolute. Mme Benonar, who will

be responsible for the Institute, insists that admission
must be competitive and open only to those who have the Baccalaureate
diploma. Other highly placed officials appeared to indicate

that assistant social workers could be.recruited from among that

group who had reached the final years of secondary school, without

having obtained the Baccalaureate.
Mme Benomar's argument is that as a new "profession",social

work must carry with it sufficient prestige and respect. Neither

of these will be extended if recruitment is done from among the

pre-Baccalaureat category. As currently envisaged by Mme Benomar,
a two year program will be set up to train "Social Workers". This

in itself is expected to be an incentive to women since the duration

is shorter than the 4-year University-program.

It will be interesting to see what the final outcome will be

with respect to admission criteria. The Ministry of Labor under
its newly designated functions is in charge of promoting training

opportunities and consequent employment for Moroccans below the

Baccalaureat diploma level.








This new Institute proposes to launch its activities in

September 1978 with Refresher/Upgrading courses for Ministry of

Labor Inspectors. Officials are very keen on developing as

quickly as possible a curricula and recruit a full time instructional
staff for the Social Workers Training Program. Initial contacts

have been made with ILO to provide part time instructors, and

curricula development experts. The University of Rabat will
apparently provide part time instructional staff as well.
Mme Benomar is particularly keen on introducing courses on
research methods and data collection into the curricula, and on

obtaining commitment for full time instructional staff.

The Institute for Social Workers of the Ministry of Social Affairs

.This Ministry has officially requested the Ministry of Plan to

approve the establishment of an Institute of Social Work to be

attached to the Ministry of Social Affairs, which will provide for

the training needs of its employees. The Ministry of Plan is
expected to approve this request and provide the physical
structure for such an Institute. The Secretary General of the
Ministry of Social Affairs has approached AID/Morocco several times

requesting technical assistance at all levels to develop such
a training program as promptly as possible. The urgency of such
a request was also mentioned to me by the Secretary General'and his

immediate staff.

Administrative matters related to "social affairs" were
previously the responsibility of the Ministry of Labor. The newly





' *30


established Ministry of Social Affairs is functioning with

personnel previously attached to Entraide. Such personnel is

probably not trained in social/case work type activities. Hence

the personnel training needs of the Ministry of Social Affairs

have been articulated at different levels.

a. A well trained personnel oriented towards a "social-work"

perspective in the ranks of the Ministry.

.b. Middle level training in "social work" for the 25 Regional

Directors of the Social Centers. This staff has usually

reached the level of the last years of secondary school.

They have a great deal of experience but lack technique.
Both these needs can be provided by the Institute.

c. A specialized and focused training in social work and

management for the ten women who hold supervisory positions in

the Ministry. Some of these women have reached this rank

through seniority; others by University education. Con-

ceivably, the kind of training that is being discussed for

this group would entail study in the United States.


Paramedical Personnel

Expanding the training .of women in the paramedical field was

mentioned in numerous discussions as a priority both from the view-

point of national needs and because such a specialization is seen

appropriate for women to pursue. 1It is only recently that women
in Morocco have marked an entry into the ranks of the paramedics.









At present the training of paramedical personnel which includes

specialization in both technical and nursing areas is provided for

by the Paramedical Training Center of the Ministry of Health. A

Morrocan woman is the Director of this Center. Three levels of

trained nursing personnel exist: the Nurse's Aide level, the

Registered Nurse and the Specialized Registered Nurse (Midwifery,

Nursing Education and Psychiatric Nursing). There are approximately

26 schools for Nurses Aides and 8 schools for Registered Nurses.

The Nurse's Aide School is open to women and men who have completed

the first cycle of secondary schooling (4th year-Brevet level).

The program calls for a two-year training course. The Registered
a
Nurses Program extends over two years and is open to all candidates
b
who have the Baccalaureat diploma,- by competitive entry exam

to those who have reached the terminal year of secondary schooling

(7th year);and by competitive entry exam to Nursets Aides who have

a 3 year seniority. Lastly, there is an additional 2 year program

of specialization which graduates Specialized Registered Nurses

(Midwifery, Nursing Education and Psychiatric Nursing). This program
is open on a competitive basis to all Registered Nurses.

The Paramedical Training Center lists a very impressive array

of specialization areas which it claims to provide training in. In

addition to nursing the training program is slated as "graduating"
numerous categories of health/medical personnel both on the

technician and specialist levels. These range anywhere from

Medical Secretaries, Laboratory Technicians, to Specialists in

Nutrition, Obstetrics, Anesthesia, etc. Conditions for admission

to the "technician" level are the Baccalaureat or by competitive

exam for those who have reached the final year of secondary school.








"Technician-level" personnel can move up to the category of

"Specialists" by competitive exam and successful completion of an

additional two year program. Amongst the numerous specializations,

women figure more prominently among Laboratory Technicians, Obstetric

and Nutrition Specialists and Paramedical Instructors. No statistics

were available to ascertain the exact number of paramedic staff,

nor the female proportion in each.
No person outside of the Ministry of Health. was able to

evaluate the training of paramedics in areas other than nursing.

With respect to the latter, the general consensus is that despite

the growth in Morocco's training capacity the supply of trained

nurses is far below the demand. Medical dispensaries in rural
areas are often unstaffed; a newly built 6 story hospital in

Rabat can only service two floors because of the lack of nursing

personnel. In addition to scarcity, most Moroccans I talkedto, are

anywhere from skeptical to outright angry at the poor quality of

nurse's training and the lack of commitment of male and female
nurses towards the poor, most particularly, patients in rural areas.

Women's visibility in the field of nursing is very recent.

In 1970 there were only four women in the Nurse's Aide School.

By 1973, close to one half of all students were female. Unfortunately,
10
it is mostly among Nurses Aides where women have marked their entry,

rather than in-the senior categories-
Breakdown by sex for the nursing staff was not available.

The scarcity of trained personnel in this area can be gauged by the

following statistics. In 1975 there were 1432 Registered Nurses in
Morocco. The graduates for 1976 and 1977 were estimated at 488 and

553, respectively. There has been hardly any increase in the number








of Specialized Registered Nurses. Between 1975-1977 anywhere between
11
21 and 35 Specialized Nurses,were graduated. A sex breakdown
of current (1977-78) enrollment in the Nursing schools was obtainable.

The Nurse's Aide Program shows 1259 women and 945 men enrolled in

the first year, and 773 women and 612 men in the second year. Women
would appear to "drop out" more frequently than men when enrollment
in consecutive years are compared. In the Registered Nurses Program,

there-are almost as many males (116) as females (124) in the first
year. Second year enrollment indicates a "drop" in women. Only

45 women are registered as compared to 103 males. Amongst technician-

level paramedic trainees, enrollment in the first year shows 129 males
and 80 females. In the second eyar there are only 60 males and. 27 females.

It is said that recruitment into and persistence within the

ranks of the paramedic profession ae low because of the lack of

prestige extended to this work, particularly since this is translated
into a low salary scale. The Director of the Paramedical Training
Center is the first, though by no means the only, person to state

that entry into this field is considered the last resort for men
and women. At the same time, and perhaps because of this, the
paramedical field remains one of the few training and occupational
outlets for men and women who discontinued their secondary education
at. the completion of the first cycle (Brevet-level) and/or those

who reached the secondary school terminal year without obtaining the
Baccalaureate diploma.

The Ministry of Health is blamed for the low salaries allotted
to paramedics. The Civil Service system places paramedics into a








definite sliding scale of salaries which is commensurate with their

educational level. Where paramedics lose out; according to the

Director of the Training Center, is that they are placed at the

bottom step of the grade-level and are not granted the usual
premiums and intra-scale mobility which others benefit from.
Officials in the Ministry of Administrative Affairs have confirmed

this.
The decision to downgrade paramedics in this manner rests

within the power of the Ministry of Health. This means that the
Civil Service Division officials cannot do much about it. What is
interesting to note is that female recruitment into this area seems

to be problematic because women of that educational level have other

alternatives as compared to men, namely becoming typists. The

increasing number of "marginals" who have dropped out of the secondary
school system is making it increasingly difficult for the men to
have options for advancement training wise. If they seem to persevere

more strongly in the paramedic field, as reflected in the cited enrollment

figures, it may mean that this has indeed become the last resort.

Needs for Paramedical Personnel in the Ministry of Labor

This background information has been elaborated upon because
of current interest on the part of the Moroccan government to
develop new Paramedical Training Programs.
According to the Secretary General of Labor, the scarcity of paramedical
personnel is so critical that immediate measures other than those adopted

of the Ministry of Health need to be taken. (Appendix II)








The Ministry of Labor report has estimated that by the end of

1977, a total of 11,972 paramedics had been trained amongst whom are

9269 nurses and other (medical) health aides, 2557 Registered Nurses

and 146 Midwives. In proportion to Morocco's population, the

ratio of population to paramedics is stated as follows:

For every 1500 inhabitants there is one paramedic.

For every 7000 inhabitants there is one Registered Nurse.

For every 2500 women (ages 18-49) there is one mid-wife.

The Ministry of Labor is particularly concerned about the way

in which scarcity of personnel may:

a) Prevent the private enterprises from complying with the

legislation requiring that health/care services be provided

for their employees.

.b) Prevent the Social Security Administration from

providing for each one of its members and their dependents

the legislated hospitalization care and outpatient clinical health
services.

In response to these two basic needs, the Ministry of Labor is

very keen to undertake the training of paramedical personnel under

its own aegis by establishing two separate nursing schools. These
are expected to train and graduate 730 Nurses Aides and Registered

Nurses to be distributed in the following way:

100 Nurses to be assigned to the private sector so that appropriate

medical/health care services be guaranteed to their employees.

130 Nurses to be attached to the Polyclinic in Casablanca to meet

hospitalization needs of Moroccans who form part of the

Social Security Administration. The proposed 300-bed clinic in







Casablanca is the first of a chain of polyclinics which the

Administration of the Caisse Nationale de Securite Sociale
intends to set up all over Morocco.

The linkage between the concerns of the Ministry of Labor and

the Social Security System is very firm. It is personalized in

the fact that the Secretary General of the Ministry of Labor is also
the Director General of the Social Security Administration.
There appears to be no "perceived" problem among highly-placed
officials connected with the Vocational Training Division of the

Ministry of Labor concerning the training of paramedical personnel
outside of the Ministry of Health. The definition of personnel is
seen in terms of the functions of the particular Ministry who acts

as the employer rather than in relationship to a generalized

profession or sub-profession. In this case, since the nurses will be
dealing with a. Ministry of Labor 'clientele' they are perceived to
'belong' to this Ministry. I tried but did not succeed to bring up the
matter of whether or not the proposed training for paramedic needs

has stimulated reaction on the part of the Ministry of Health and if so,
what might be some of the problems that the newly trained nurses could
encounter when they later apply to work in the Ministry of Health.




37





C. PARTICULARISTIC TRAINING NEEDS:


1. Educational Counsellors and Planners

Some officials connected with the Division of Plan at the

Ministry of National Education emphasized the need to train women

in the field of educational counselling. The purpose in training

such counsellors was seen not so much as a means towards creating

a specialized personnel. Instead the function of such counsellors

was seen as crucial in encouraging, promoting and systematically

monitoring school entry, attendance and scholastic performance of

girls in rural areas.

Such recommendations for training are linked with strong

concerns about high illiteracy and poor school attendance in

rural areas. Illiteracy levels among rural women 10+ are 98%;

among males 75% (1971).

The proposed setting up of special Educational Centers in

each of the 32 provinces is recommended by some officials in the
Planning Division of the Ministry of Education as the only way of

S"reachingout into_rural areas" and embarking upon systematic

research into factors contributing to depress school attendance

rates. The idea is to train female Educational Counsellors who

with a support staff would be assigned in each province to carry
out education-oriented research, counselling and case work among

pupils and their families with a view to making effective recommen-

dations. Such recommendations for the training of Educational

Counsellors as were discussed, call for concerted efforts to








recruit only those women who are "committed" and highly motivated

to live and work in the provinces.

Given the emphasis that was placed on a Woman's Training

Program, one of the officials in charge of Planning (Ministry of

Education) mentioned that investment in training female educational

counsellors might be viewed in terms of its long range repercussion

on raising the status of women, if such Counsellors were specifically

assigned the task of researching and promoting the entry of
young girls into the educational process. Certainly one could see

that if a sufficient number of female Educational Counsellors are

trained, their assignment would cover educational issues related

to both girls and boys in rural areas. Motivation and commitment
are seen as major traits to be considered in recruiting women for

such positions. I was told that the educational level required for

such training would not exclude women who did not have the

Baccalaureatediploma as long as they had reached the final year of

secondary schooling.

In addition to Educational Counsellors, a need was also

expressed by persons connected with the Plan Division for a specialized

training for women in Educational Planning. This was seen as appropriate
for women who have the Baccalaureate diploma and who would

be sent to the United States for further studies. The content of

the training that was suggested is a melange between elements of

rural sociology, sociology of education, educational planning,

counselling, social statistics, research methods, etc.

The expressed need for such a "specialization" falls in

direct line with projected plans to establish "Centres de

Formation de Conseilleures en Planification d'Education." Just








how widespread such "centers" would be is not known. What is

important to consider at this juncture.is that the Division of

Planning at the Ministry of Education includes young, dynamic

people who appear to be highly motivated in their objectives

to bring about changes in the educational process.

2. Middle Level Management and Technical Needs


The Head of the Training Division at the'Office de Commerciali-

zation et 1'Exportation (one of the largest public sector enterprises

in Casablanca) is very keen on developing and promoting professional

training for women employees in the following areas:

a. Marketing with special emphasis on commercial distribution

and international marketing of food and agricultural products.

b. Statistical Techniques and Computer Programming.

c. International Rules and Regulations on Imports and Exports,

with particular focus on maritime regulations, insurance, etc.

d. Middle-Level Administrative Training in Personnel Management,

Accountancy and research compilation.

(Appendix III lists projected training needs for 1978 as an

illustration of the specific subject areas in which women

would be included.)

The training system of the OCE currently involves sending
employees abroad for training at I.L.O. and F.A.O.; and holding

in-house seminars, workshops and refresher courses. Appendix IV

lists the different training areas offered, by sponsoring organizations,

location, duration, number and classification of beneficiaries. I

was unable to get information on how many female employees have been
participants in such training. It is important to~note-that the present








person in charge of training is young, dynamic and in search of

qualified personnel regardless of sex. He is also very keen on

developing and promoting the Training Division with view to offering

more substantive training in-country. This has not been possible

up to now because of the lack of experts. Lecture halls and other

facilities related to the holding of training sessions are all

available. The OCE has access to good foreign language instructors

(particularly English) and can at any time arrange for language

training for its staff. They appear to be very keen on upgrading

women and quite honest in stating that the bulk of training

provided to female employees up to now has been directed at typing

(Arabic), language instruction (English, French, Arabic) and

secretarial training. This may again be due to the fact that the

overwhelming number of women employees are at the Baccalaureate-level;

there are few who actually have the Baccalaureateand about 20

University graduates. These two groups are perceived of as the

main beneficiaries of any specialized-type training that would be

available in the future.

3. Supportive Assistance for School/Grade Completion

There is an overall concern in Morocco for the high "drop out"
rate of girls and boys at all grade levels. Some Moroccans feel

that the priority area in any projected training program should

be to provide supportive assistance to help young women complete

their formal education. The emphasis was again placed, though

not exclusively, on young women who have not succeeded in obtaining

the Baccalaureat diploma.









Any supportive assistance in this direction would involve

intervention and coordination with the formal educational system,

which may be difficult to work through. One possibility suggested

was to set up "specialized centers" in different neighborhoods

where young women could receive remedial education to be prepared

to pass their Baccalaureat exam (or any other). Whether or not

the establishment of such centers as exclusive female domains

would be acceptable is questionable. If there is resistance to

this notion, then it might be possible to locate these "centers"

close to secondary schools for girls (some are still sex segregated)

to ensure that a considerable proportion of the participants be female.


4. Supportive Assistance for Graduate Students

.Some academics in the Social Sciences (University of Rabat)

are very concerned with difficulties confronted by (part-time)

graduate students who hold full time jobs in the government in completing

their degree requirements. Fellowship grants could be offered to such

students particularly to women working towards the equivalent of an M.A.

or Ph.D. degree.in Morocco.

Such fellowship grants would "free" this group for full time

involvement in their graduate studies and research, and accelerate

completion of their graduate degrees. The 1976-77 University statistics

indicated a total of 13,008 Government employees who were part-time

students; amongst these 1667 were women. I am unable to assess how many

amongst them were actually doing graduate work and at what level.




S4


What is very noticeable however is that among those who are

employed and continuing their University education the percentage

who fail and have to repeat the year once or twice is very high.

For example, during 1976-1977 the "repeater" rate among "full time"

students was 27% among males and 25% among females. Among the

employed who were only part time students, the corresponding percen-

tages were 49% and 43%.


5. Training Through Correspondence Courses


In 1973 the Government of Morocco launched a campaign to promote

education through international schools offering correspondence courses,

This promotion is being done by Le Programme Special de Formation

(see Appendix V.). The immediate objective of such a program is

to reach out to segments of the population who reside in areas remote

from educational/training centers. Specifically, the aims of the
Special Training Program were stated to be directed at:

a) providing refresher courses

b) re-conveying civil service and military personnel back to

their previous position before they are placed on retirement.

c) training unemployed youth who have attained a certain educational

background level.

Since its experimental phase in 1972, the Special Training Program

has associated itself with the L'Ecole Universelle de Paris. The first
training phase included 632 trainees selected from among civil and

military personnel. The correspondence-course method has since carried

out two more yearly programs (1976, 1977) and begun planning their

1978 program.








The Special Training Programme administration states its intention

to register 1000 candidates yearly; amongst these 200 slots are reserved

for a)unemployed youth registered in different Employment Bureaus and

b) children of Resistence Leaders who did not complete their schooling.

Priority in the selection of training areas is given to preferences

expressed by the candidates. Up to now the demand has been heaviest

for accounting and bookkeeping and for scholastic preparation for

final-years of secondary schooling (particularly for those majoring

in technical areas). It is difficult to predict whether or not

diversification in training demands will occur in the near future and

the direction this would take. (See Appendix-VI for distribution

of trainees by subject matter in the first program launched).

It is apparent that the major obstacles to overcome remain those

of equivalency. Some of the certificates delivered by L'Ecole

Universelle are not recognized in Morocco; some of the exams in

Accounting and Bookkeeping which candidates prepare for through the

correspondence course are not given in Morocco.

If and when issues related to equivalency and recognition of
such exams and diplomas both from the "educational" and the

"administrative" structures are successfully dealt with, it may be

possible to envisage promoting the entry of more women candidates

into the yearly quota. It is almost certain that yearly selection

of participants does not technically exclude women. Unfortunately

there are no statistics which show the sex distribution of those who

have benefited from the Special Training Program up to now.





44 '


Certain immediate possibilities suggest themselves insofar as

women are concerned, Women, particularly those who cannot displace

themselves geographically, can be encouraged to make use of correspondence

courses to prepare for completion of their secondary school studies

and the passing of the Baccalaureate exam.

Another advantage to be gained by women through correspondence courses

is to assist them in studying and preparing for competitive examinations.

Competitive examinations are required for admission to almost every

training program; it is also the most important mechanism through which

to gain access to promotion. Access to the correspondence-course system

may prepare women candidates more effectively to succeed and thus qualify

for admission in educational and training institutions, particularly those

women who are disadvantaged by virtue of their geographical location.

.It appears that the government would now like to branch out to

associate with other institutions providing such services. Mention

was made by an official of this Training Program that the University

of Wisconsin had been instrumental in providing such correspondence-

course training services to Venezuela.









IV. WOMEN IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR:

Opportunities for and Constraints Against Upward Mobility


Published information on the structure of the female work force

in Morocco is limited to the 1971 census data. At that time one

third of all women reported as economically active were in the

agricultural sector. Among the non-agricultural female work force,

the single largest category was reported to be in domestic service (17%).

There were more female domestic servants than factory workers in the

textile industries (13%) and the food industry (2.5%). Within the

past seven years there have undoubtedly been some increases in the

number of women employed in the industries; the manner in which this

increase compares to an equally high expected increase in the supply

of domestic servants is unknown. In Morocco as well as in other

developing societies, domestic service remains a major outlet for

unskilled women in need of work. In fact, I have come across young

women with the brevet certificate who were domestics in foreign homes.

In 1971, the number of women employed in the government totalled

approximately 27,700, or 46% of the economically active female population.

The bulk of these government employees were in teaching (15,200)

and in health related services (7,800). Within the primary school

system, the proportion among all employees who were women was 25%.

In the secondary school system the corresponding percentage was 30%.

One third of all the personnel in health-related fields was female.

Banks and Insurance companies also absorb a substantial number of

women: The female component in these two sectors ranks between 25%
12
to 30%."









Mobility Within the Ranks of the Public Sector


The Ministry of Administrative Affairs which is responsible for

civil service in Morocco has no data which cross-classifies civil

servants by sex, educational attainment, occupational category, grade

and salary scale. Therefore, there is no hard data available to

evaluate whether or not sex differentials exist in employment and

renumeration practices in the public sector.

Overt sex discrimination -- even if intended -- would be hard to

implement, because of the tight interrelationship between level of

educational attainment, occupational categorization, grade level

and the sliding scale of salaries. A particular grade is designated

for each educational level and this in turn will determine the occupa-

tional category into which one is situated. Educational level would

appear to be the determinant factor. Mobility within fixed limits is

technically possible through seniority, competitive exams and higher

educational attainment.

There are 11 grades and several intra-grade steps in the

civil service structure. A Primary Certificate,

plus one or two years of typing qualifies a person to enter to

Grade 2 in the position of "clerk." Mobility over the years is

possible up until Grade 4 through seniority and satisfactory performance,

even if no higher educational level fis attained. Persons having

reached the final years of secondary schooling without obtaining the

Baccalaureatequalify to enter to Grade 5 in the category of "secretaries".

Mobility is possible, in rare cases up until Grade 8. Having obtained

the Baccalaureat qualifies entry to Grade 7, to the rank of Senior

Secretary. One year of University attendance corresponds to Grade 8,





47


with the title of Administrative Assistant; 2-years of University

attendance qualifies for Grade 9. This group usually hold an

Intermediary Diploma and go in for secondary school teaching (1st cycle).

A University degree entitles entry to Grade 10. This corresponds

to positions of Assistant Administrators, Superintendents, Bursars,

and secondary school teachers (2nd cycle). Grade 11, corresponds to

upper levels of administrative and executive responsibility. There

are very highly placed officials whose status is not determined by

any grade level.

Among the several men and women employed in and outside of the

government, there was a general consensus that women are disadvantaged

only with respect to mobility which involves promotion from Grade 10

to Grade 11. The underlying causes for this disadvantaged position

were.explained in several ways. Most of the women, particularly those

in Scale 10, and several men, attributed the difficulty to deeply

entrenched social and cultural norms that dictate that men only can

be placed in positions of power and authority.

Male officials, some of them top ranking, explain the low visibility

of women in proportionate terms. They argue that only few slots are

available at the highest grade and that in terms of absolute numbers,

educational attainment and seniority, many more men as compared to

women qualify for promotion to Grade 11. Since there are no statistics

available on the distribution of civil servants by sex, educational

attainment, length of service and grade level, I am unable to confirm

or challenge whether indeed the distribution of men and women in

Grade 11 is commensurate with all these factors. The estimate given

by several male and female officials is that there are no more than





48


six to eight women in the government who are in Grade 11. Some male

officiaTs have cited this number with great pride; other male officials

lament this fact. I was told by an official that even in the Ministry

of Education in which female representation is high because of teaching,

women are not appointed to posts involving responsibility. In this

Ministry,of the approximate 150 upper level positions involving

administrative and executive responsibility, only one is filled by

a woman. The general opinion is that women holding University degrees

who are in the administrative ranks of the civil service tend to remain

in the same grade/step into which they were initially hired.

It is difficult to know how much of the fault lies in the system

and how much in women themselves. Several women and men whom I talked
-- with blamed the women for not making much effort to "get ahead". On

the.other hand, women working in the government are said not be be

interested in their work and little motivated to exert efforts to

perform more than the minimum requirement. To strive for promotion,

or to take advantage if and when it occurs is seldom seen. The same

point was emphasized by the Director of the Training Division at the

Banque Marocaine du Commerce Exterieure (private sector). In that Bank,

one of the largest in Morocco, very few women have been promoted to

upper level executive positions. Once they reach that plateau, however,

they keep very low profiles, avoid taking over responsibility and/or

making important decisions.

My general opinion is that the majority of the women who have
completed their University studies particulary the Humanities) prefer









to go into teaching rather than into the administrative ranks of the

civil service because of more flexible work hours and longer vacations.

The grade system for instructional staff in the public educational

system is, of course, commensurate with the rest of the civil service

sliding scale of salaries. But what may be happening is that there

are fewer women with University degrees who are in the administrative

ranks.

If this is true, there may in fact be a low supply of women in the

administrative ranks who can qualify for promotion to Grade 11. (A

University degree is an essential condition for entry to Grade 10 and 11.)
The crucial issue is whether or not institutional mechanisms

exist in Morocco at present that can be mobilized to promote women

into positions of responsibility and leadership. If such mechanisms

exist, do women have access to them? And, lastly, how can such

mechanisms be best optimized to accelerate women's upward mobility

in the system?

Earlier I mentioned that most (if not all) Ministries, and public

and private enterprises provide through their own training divisions

training sessions, workshops, seminars, refresher courses, etc. Some

of these are in-house training sessions. Some are held in other

Institutes. Others involve.the sending of employees abroad (I.L.O.,

FAO, etc.) Participation in such "training" is meant to "upgrade"

not only efficiency levels in work performance but likewise the

employee's status on the job.

There is one important coordinating structure which provides for

Civil Service training needs at the upper management and executive

levels. This is the Ecole Marocaine d'Administration which functions




50


under the aegis of the Ministry of Administrative Affairs. This

High Institute performs three major functions which bear relevancy

to the issue of women's mobility:

a) Providing a 3-year program leading to a degree in Public

Administration which qualifies entry to Grade 10 in the

Civil Service (positions of Assistant Director, Superintendent, etc.).
b) Providing additional training and refresher courses for

civil servants in Grades 10 and11.

c) Training its own instructional personnel.

The Institute did not have available statistics on the participants

who attended the previous seminars and workshops. The Institute's

Director's estimate is that very few women attended.

The 1977-78 enrollment figures in the Public Administration School

which is administered by the Institute shows 468 Moroccan male and

46 Moroccan female students amongst whom there are 197 male and 8 female

civil servants.

Refresher courses, in the form of Workshops and Seminars are

held frequently in this Institute. From January to May this year,

seven such seminars were held, each with 25 to 30 participants.
-- _._. The Director of this Institute is U.S.-trained, young and extremely

dynamic. He is keen on developing the training sessions in such a

way as to cover a greater diversity of subjects, and is conscious

of the relationship participation in such training sessions should

bear upon the individual's status on the job.

More important, the Institute's Director is receptive to finding

ways and means through which to optimize women's participation in

these training sessions. In this connection several possibilities

were discussed:








a. Each Ministry selects the employees who are to participate in

any one of the Institute's training sessions. It is possible to

continuously request -- though not possible to impose -- that a

certain percentage of the participant slots be given to women.

b. The Institute can structure its training sessions around content-

areas which are known to be highly associated with specialization

and responsibilities involving women. For example, the bulk of female

civil servants are in Education, Health and Youth and Sports. This

should automatically assume a high participation of women.

c. The Institute can schedule training sessions in such a way as to

least inconvenience women's participation. Women are subjected to

constraints related to their family responsibilities or to cultural

norms which impinge upon their behavior in public places. Such con-

straints can often prevent their participation in training sessions.

Much discussion with men and women revolved around the issue of

women's realistic "ability" to take advantage of mechanisms that

may exist even in _the_present to help their advancement in the admin-

istrative structure.

It is difficult to assess whether the constraints under which

women are said to be functioning are real or perceived by male employers as

an a prioriassumption. The Director of the Training Division at the

Banque Marocaine du Commerce Exterieure agreed that it is not realistic

to expect women employees to participate because a) some training

sessions are scheduled on a continuous basis throughout the day without

mid-day interruption, which means that employees who are married and

have children cannot attend since they are expected to be home for lunch.

b) Some training sessions are scheduled after-work hours and run into

late evening hours. Both married and unmarried women find difficulty

in their family accepting the notion that they are out in the streets





52


that late. c) Some seminars and workshops are held in lecture or

conference halls in hotels. There is strong objection among men

to accept that their daughters, sisters or wives will spend time

in such public places. d) Almost all training sessions are

held in city areas (Casablanca, Rabat, etc.). This excludes to a

large degree the participation of female employees working and residing

in the provinces, since they will not be allowed to travel to and
remain in the city alone for an extended period of time.

One other institutional setting exists in Morocco which carries
some potential in upgrading women who hold clerical related jobs

in the governmental administration. This is the network of

Les Centres de Formation Administratives which are really Junior

Administrative Schools. Eight such centers have been established in

Morocco with a recruitment potential of 300 slots among which 15% are

reserved for personnel employed in the government.

These Centers are associated in most people's minds with typing/
shorthand schools. The administrators insist that the training
component extends beyond this to subject areas such as administration,

real estate, financial matters, etc.

In operational terms, training in such Centers carry the potential
of upgrading persons in Grade 3 or 4 to higher levels. With sufficient

seniority established, a diploma from this institute would apparently
allow a person to be eligible for the rank of Senior Secretary (Grade 7).










V. POLICY IMPLICATIONS

I. The information presented in this report highlights two important

types of training needs for women in Morocco which have policy implica-

tions. Hopefully, the identification of these different types of needs

will be useful in suggesting directions for future training projects

envisaged for.women in that country.

With respect to the first pattern. Discussions with officials

in the various Ministries have identified two major areas of specializa-

tion which are appropriate for -- but not exclusive to -- women to

pursue and for which there appears to be great national need: These are

the areas of social work and the paramedical professions, particularly

nursing. Both the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs are very keen on

developing training programs in these areas.

With respect to the second pattern. Discussions with officials

and educators have also identified what I refer to as "particularistic"

needs. These needs are specific to organizations and involve a more

heterogenous population. I refer specifically to the needs expressed for

specialized training in educational planning, in the different categories

of middle-level technical personnel (such as identified by L'Office

de Commercialization et Exportation) and in social work and management

for the few women who hold supervisory positions in the Ministry of Social

Affairs.

Up to this juncture I have identified areas of specialized training

for women in Morocco on the basis of national development needs and

specific requirements articulated by officials and employers in Morocco.








It is now important to evaluate the extent to-which providing women

with this kind of training will enhance their chances of being

included in the development process as both a participant and a

beneficiary.

A. The benefits for women derived from a plan of action designed

to provide training in social work and in the paramedical fields can

be evaluated at several levels:

1. Both these areas are semi-professional. They are perceived

as integrated types of jobs linked to men and women alike.

This is important because optimizing women's entry into social

work and the paramedical fields may be an important mechanism

towards their integration into the occupational process side

by side with men, as opposed to promoting sexual differentiation

in the labor market.

2. Both areas fall clearly within the boundaries of what in

Morocco is culturally accepted and defined as types of work

deemed appropriate for women to pursue.

3. Given that such training would be geared towards preparing

women in fields such as social work and medical assistance,

such a plan of action can be .seen as having positive repercussions

upon a wider population of women. Specifically, the existence

of such trained personnel carries the potential of being an

effective means through which a larger population of women can

be "serviced". This is particularly true with respect to

assistance provided by nurses/other paramedics to women at large.








Social workers, too, can play a vital role in addressing

themselves to improving the condition of working women,

women on welfare, disabled women, etc.

4. The theme underlying most of the discussion in this:report

has emphasized the need to provide training opportunities

for women who are structurally disadvantaged because of their

educational marginality. Opening up the field of social work --

even on a junior level -- to women who have completed all but

the Baccalaureate diploma, will enhance the opportunity of an

otherwise marginal group to become integrated into the mainstream

of productive life and into a recognized professional type

employment.

B. However, in any projected.plan to establish training programs for

women in areas such as social work and the paramedical fields, caution

must be exercised with respect to the following:

1. Neither social work nor nursing are to be perceived of as

occupational categories which, in and by themselves, will

advance the mobility of women into strategic positions of

administrative and executive responsibility. Training women
in such areas will ."expand" the number of female civil servants

who are in professional or semi-professional positions.

If women are to be encouraged to respond to national development

needs by filling in new occupational needs (social workers), or

alleviating the scarcity in others (nurses), then there must be

some assurance that women's rights will be protected.








The example of the paramedics in Morocco is a case in point.

Little occupational prestige is extended to this profession;

the salary scale within the grade system that is earmarked for

paramedics is kept by the Ministry of Health at the lowest level

possible. Clearly if women's interests are considered,

there is little purpose in establishing a training program to
"graduate" women into an occupational category which is structurally

disadvantaged, even when there are great pressures to do so because

of national development needs.

2. With respect to the "training" and 'graduation' of social

workers, the following must be emphasized. Any training program

established for this purpose should define social work as a legiti-

mate subject matter with definite concerns and boundaries, and one

which is to be viewed as a "profession" from the occupational

viewpoint. Otherwise, social workers will be equated with clerical

staff, and given tasks to perform which employees at lower grade

.levels can carry out. As a consequence of this, the category of

"social workers" will be soon defined as "obsolete".

3. The dangers of planning training programs within Ministry-

specific Training Centers and limiting the components of such

training to segmental Ministry-needs and functions have been

mentioned earlier. Such an approach obviously is counter productive

to the formation of a generalized category of professional social

workers. Hardly any of the officials seemed concerned about this

point however. Their interest was clearly directed at training

their staff to fulfill specific functions which fall within the





57


Ministry's domain of responsibilities.

If women are to be beneficiaries of any type of training that

is provided by a Ministry then it is essential that such training

programs be organized, coordinated and sponsored under the tutelage

of several Ministries. This will ensure a more diversified "input"

into the desired substance and course content and guarantee that such

a training be 'recognized' by several, rather than one administration.

Unless participants are able to utilize the training they receive

to search for alternative sources of employment in the future, they

will find themselves in a "locked-in" status totally dependent upon

the needs and whims of one particular Ministry.

The same argument applies, of course, to the paramedical field.


C.1 The benefits derived for women from any plan of action designed

to provide them with training in fields such as educational planning,

educational counselling, statistical techniques and programming,

international marketing, and personnel management seem to be more

evident. This is because the areas delineated involve a select group

and require training at a professionally higher and thus more specialized

level. More importantly, the types of specialization identified carry

intrinsically the possibility of "placing" female recipients of such

training into rather strategic positions within their administration.

SClearly such positions are not expected to involve high level adminis-

trative and executive responsibility.


2 There is an obvious problem in accelerating the process whereby

women in Morocco will gain access to positions which involve decision

making and participation in policy formulation. Whether this is due to









proportional scarcity in number (as compared to men) or to strong

resistance on the part of men to place women in top-level administra-

tive positions is difficult to determine, although the latter seems

to be highly likely. Under current conditions there is only one

mechanism through which women who are sufficiently motivated to seek

promotion can work towards upward mobility in the public sector. This

is by participating in the seminars, workshops and refresher courses

organized by the Ecole Marocaine d'Administration for Civil Servants

in the two upper most grades of the administrative scale.

Other mechanisms which provide vehicles for upward mobility are
"advanced" degrees, or short term participant training courses outside

of Morocco. In many cases these are not 'realistic' options for women,

either because of family responsibilities, or language difficulties.

Hence it is important to seek ways and means to maximize the number of

female participants in each and every one of the training sessions

organized by this Institute insofar as women civil servants are concerned

or by any other institute insofar as women employees in semi-public and

private sectors are concerned. It has up to now been too easy for

responsible administrators to explain away the absence of women from

the high ranks by referring to women's lack of motivation to seek

promotion through accessible means.

II Depending on what the immediateipriorities are with respect to

training goals and in light of the information discussed in this

report, two important groups can be identified as beneficiaries of

training programs designed to prepare women for productive employment:

A. If training goals are towards promoting working women into more

strategic positions within the administrative structure, then the








. training provided should be limited in number, highly srlective.

responsive to specific organizational needs, and directed at a

group of women with solid educational backgrounds.


B. If training goals are towards increased female economic

participation in the public sector and in social service

agencies, then training programs in fields such as social work

and nursing should be encouraged. Participation in such programs

carry the potential of expanding the sheer number of women in the

civil service, and of enlarging the group of women who are in

professional occupational categories. Such trained personnel is

also important because of the "services" it can provide to women-

at-large.


C. If training goals are directed, as they are now beginning

to be in Morocco, to salvage women and men who have not completed

their studies and integrate them into the mainstream of economic/

productive life, then the beneficiaries of training opportunities

should be the women who have finished their secondary schooling

but have not obtained the Baccalaureate diploma.









REFERENCES


1. Data on illiteracy rates is cited from: El-Mernissi, Fatima, et. al.
"Country Report on Women in North African Countries" Report I Morocco.
Paper presented to the Economic Commission for Africa, Addis Ababa, n.d.


2. Daoud, Zakya. "Enseignement Primaire:
LAMALIF, Na. 95, Casablanca: Mars 1978.

3. "Quarterly Economic Review of Morocco."
Intelligence Unit Ltd. London 1978.


Inegalite et Deperdition."


The Economist.


The Economist


4. El-Mernissi, op cit.

5. Much of the information cited in this section is taken from Daoud, op cit.


6. Direccion de la Planification, Ministere de 1'Enseignement Primaire
et Secondaire. Statistiques deT 'E"seignement Primaire 1976-77. Maroc, 1978.

7. Direccion de Ta Planification, Ministere de l'Enseignement Primaire
et Secondaire. Statistiques de 1'Enseignement Secondaire 1976-77. Maroc, 1978.

8. Division de la Planification. Service des Statistiques et Evaluations.
Minister de 1'Enseignement Superieure. Le Maroc Universitaire.
Maroc, 1978.

9. Ibid. ----- -----

10. Syncrisis: The Dynamics of Health. XII Kingdom of Morocco. Division
of Program Analysis. Office of International Health. U.S. Public Health
Service, 1977.

11. Ibid.

12. El-Mernissi, op cit.
"Al Bayane" daily paper. May 1. Special Issue, 1978.







Student Enrollment in Secondary

Schools by Grade Level and Sex.

Morocco 1976-77


Grade Level

First Cycle

1st Grade

2nd Grade

3rd Grade

4th Grade

TOTAL


Second Cycle

5th Grade

6th Grade

7th Grade

TOTAL


Total Enrollment



110,719

101,762

79,827

76,650

368,958



48,863

31,475

35,398

115,736


Source: Direccion de la Planification, Ministere de 1'Enseignement Primaire et
Secondaire. Statistiques-de I'Enseignement Secondaire 1976-1977.
Maroc, 1977. Table 1.1.I, p. 18.


Table 1.


Male



69,337

65,652

52,048

50,765

237,802



33,589

21,973

25,537

81,099


Female



41,382

36,110

27,779

25,885

131,156



15,274

9,502

9,861

34,637


% Female
of Total



37.3

35.5

34.7

33.7

35.5



31.2.

30.1

27.8

29.9







Number and Percent of Secondary School Students Who Are
Repeaters by Grade Level and Sex. Mdrocco 1976-1977


Grade Level

Brevet Level
First Cycle

1st Grade

2nd Grade

3rd Grade

4th Grade

TOTAL

Baccalaureat Level

Second Cycle

5th Grade

6th Grade

7th Grade

TOTAL


Enrollment

Males Females


69,337

65,652

52,048

50,765

237,802




33,589

21,973

25,537

81,099


41,382

36,110

27,779

25,885

131,156




15,274

9,502

9,861

34,637


Males


8,578

7,449

7,720

13,730

37,477




3,629

1,903

8,537

14,069


Repeaters
% of total
Males Enrolled


12.3

11.3

14.8

27.0

15.8




10.8

8.6

33.4

17.3


Females


4,179

3,403

3,973

6,567

18,122




1,557

771

3,290

5,618


Source:
Computed from:

Direccion de la Planification. Minister de I'Enselgnement Primaire y Secondaire. Statlstiques
de l'Enseignement Secondalre 1976-1977. Maroc, 1977. Tables 1.111; 1.1.A.


Table 2.


" '~''


% of total
Females Enrolled


10.0

9.4

14.3

25.4

13.8




10.2.

8.1

33.4

16.2











APPENDIX




APPENDIX I


Z7N S T I T U T



-o0o-


D&nomination : Intitut National du Travail et de la Formation
Social.


Implantation : Rabat

Origine du project f :


Project soumis par le service des Affaires
Sociales et retenne lors du plan 1968-1972
pusi reprise dans le cadre du plan 1972-1977..


Cadre institutionnel : 1'intitut sera place sous la tutuelle du
Minist&re dn Travail et de la Formation
Sprofessionnelle.

Codt du project : 1.530.000 DB

Achat du terrain a 60.000 DH

Construction : 1.270.000 DE

Equipment 1 200.000 DH

But de 1'Institut : A/ Compliment de formation pour :
lea future inspecteurs du travail
lea futnre inspecteurs adjointa du travail
lee contr8leusr dn travail
le personnel permndical (infirmiers, assistan-er
sociales) en place dans les services midicaux
dn travail.


B/ Formation pour i
- les attach6s sociaux
- les visitenaes sociales
- les chefs du bureau d'emploi
- les agents des bueaux des affairs sociales
et bureau d'accueil
- les agents de prevention de la CJ..S.S







-2-


lea agents de prevention de la C.N.S.S
Slea administrateurs de matzelles
Sle personnel des entrep*ises
lee chefs du personnel
les membres de comit&a d'hygiene et de saicurit& du travail.

les membres dos instances representatives du personnel
des entreprises.

C/- Recyclage destieni aux fonctionnaires on place :

Dl6gu6es d travail
Inspecteurs du travail
Coatrleurs du travail
SAttaches sociauz
personnel do aI C.N.S.S
personnel de la mutualit& etc...


D/ Perfectionnement : (saiinaires, conferences etc...)
destines anz agents aen place, dana certain domain -
d'activit6 : saieurit& du travail, ascurit& aociale, midecina
du travail etc....)


Objectif immidiat Promulgation d'un statute de fonctionnement de
1'institut National du Travail.
Affectation du personnel d'administration et
d*'enseignement.
conception dee programmes de formation
conception des programmes de collaboration arec
lea dipartements intereasis.-







-' ROYAIJME DU MAROC ; .. ""
S ......; .. ,-.-.u *...j. -,
SMNISTERJE DU TRAVAIL ET.DES AFFAIRS '.:;, .?..-;. -; -.







;... ; .-" .- .. "-. .- '.; -- .. -.-N 0 T E..- .
SEstiations des besoins en personnel paramdical pour le ..
fonctionnement d*un regime de soins mndicaux et lsactivit '
des services me dicaux du. travail. -- "


Cette etude a pour objet d'estim.n les besoins en person
nel paramedical necessaire pour assurer le fonctionnement nor-
mal d'un regime octroyant des soins medicaux aux travailleurs-
et 1 leurs families ainsi que celui des services midicaux du tra.
Sva il

1*) Regime des soins de santd.

Lrevaluation recherche passe au prealable par une esti-.
mation de la population des assures et des autres ayants droit..-
Cette estimation est basee sur les statistiques disponibles a la -
Caisse Nationale de S4curitA Sociale et prend come hypothese.'
que le regime protegerait non seulement les travailleurs assure
mais aussi les categories suivantes :

'" 7- '" a) les enfants des assures;
'' b) les spouses des assures;
c) lea bindficiaires de pensions d'invalidite et de vieilles.
se, leurs 6pgouses et leurs enfAnts ainsi que les binefi-
ciaires de pensions de veuve et leurs enfants.

D'apres les donnees statistiques, on peut estimer que"-
pour un travailleur assure il y a, en moyenne, 2, 7 autres per.
sonnes gui auront droit aux soins de sante soit un nombre total-
de personnel protegees depassant 1 million.

Sachant, .d'aprbs les indications tirees des statistiques
de la Caisse national des organismes de prevoyance social, .
que les fr6quences des diff6rents actes medicaux est d'environ-
11 000 consultations et visits et 3 700 journ4es d'hospitalisatiom
par 1 000 assures actifs, on peut fixer 1'ordre de grandeur du vc
lume des soins de sant6, 1 3 millions de consultations et visits
chez les omnipraticiens et chez les sp4cialistes et a 1 million de
Sjournees dthospitalisation.






-.-- .'


~- :...
-~r.




ZIA-- -A 5"
..,-..-.s .. *^. .
Compte tenu du nombre moyen de consultations pouvant
atre accomplices par un mddecin (13 000 consultations par an) et
du taux moyen d'occupation des lits dshopitaux (environ 80%) on
Speut estimer qu'il faudrait environ 400 medecins travaillant a
temps plein pour donner les soins de sante adequats et efficaces
aux personnel protdg6es par la nouvelle branch de la security
social. Ce nombre se r6partirait en 250 medecins pour fournir
assistance medical aux assures et aux ayants droit non hospi-
talises et 150 medecins pour donner les soins dans les, hopitaux..

Lshospitalisation devant avoir lieu, en principle, dans lesi
hopitaux publics relevant du Ministere de la Sante Publique, on
peut considered que les besoins en personnel paramedical seront
satisfaits. .

SPar contre, les soins aux maladies non hospitalises seron
donn6s, en principle, dans les dispensaires propres a lPorganis-
me gestionnaire et par son propre personnel medical et paramd-
dical. .:- '

Pour assurer le fonctionnement des dispensaires de la s&
curit6 social, on vient de voir qu'il faudra environ 250 medecin.
et si on estime qu'en moyenne, chaque medecin devra Etre assis;
t6 de deux infirmiers oux infirnmieres on peut conclure que le re-
crutement du personnel paramedical devra porter sur un effectif
de 500 agents.

2) Services medicaux du travail

Aux terms du ddcret n" 2-56-248 du 18 rejeb 1377 (fe-
vrier 1958) portant application du dahir n* 1-56-93 du 10 hija
1376 (8 juillet 1957) organisant les services medicaux du travail,
ces services quzils soient drentreprises ou interentreprises, doil
vent s'assurer temps complete le concours drinfirmiers ou dain
firmnires dans les conditions suivantes :

a) pour lea etablissements industries et les entreprises de tr-an
ports de voyageurs et de marchandises :

un infirmier ou infirmibre pour 200 salaries et plus;

deux infirmiers ou infirmieres pour 800 a 2 000 salaries;

un infirmier ou infirnmiere par tranche de .' 1500 salaries
au dessus de 2 000 salaries.

b) pour les etablissements commerciaux:

un infirmier ou infirmiere pour 500 salaries et plus

deux infirmiers ou infirmibres pour 1 000 salaries et plu.










'-'.'..-'-- Selon le repertoire des 4tablissements 4tabli par le Se-
S '. critariat d'Etat au Plan et au Dsveloppement regional, les eta-
blissements du secteur priv6 assujettis la reglementation rel;
.;..t : tive la m6decine du travail. et repondant aux conditions quanti:
Strives indiquees ci-dessus se repartiraient ainsi :

160 4tablisaements industries ou commerciaux auraient un ef-
fectif excedant 200 ou.500 salaries;

1- '16 4tablissements compteraient un' effectif superieur 1 800 ou
1 000 salaries;

3 4tablissements disposeraient d'un effectif sup4rieur 1 2 000 s
larids.

Les services mSdicaux du travail de l'ensemble de ces
6tablissements devraient done stassurer les services k temps
-" ccomplet dtenviron 220 infirmers et infirrnibres pour se confor-
... mer aux prescriptions 1lgales..

SOn peut consider que faute de pduvoir recruiter un per
sonnel param=dical en quantity suffisante en raison d'une p4nur
de cette catdgorie professionnelle, ce nombre theorique nest p
atteint. Sans grand risque d'erreur, on peut estimer que pour s
tisfaire l'objectif 1igal, la formation de personnel infirmier de.
vrait porter au moins sur une centaine d'agents de cette qualifi-
cation.


















. ...






NOTE SJ2 LES BESOINS EN PERSONNEL PARAMEDICaL
DES SERVICES EDIOAUX PRICES ET SEMI-PUBLICS.




Ala veille de i'independance, I'infrastructure midicala du
pays 6tait trbs rudimentaira at mal r1partia. Beaucoup de r6giornna
disposaient pas du moindea 6tablissement sanitaira j d'autrea taint
pourvues de dispensaires sans madecins avec un personnel paramedical
insuffisant an quantity comma an quality. Lea services medicaux publics
ttalent alors presque d6faillants.

Pour parer a catta situation, la Ministre de la Santa Publique
n'a cassa de d6ployer as consid6rableo efforts an vue d"assurer las sons
madicux, at de veillor sur la sant6 de la population. Cas efforts se
traduisent par la multiplication des h6pitaux, centras de santd. dispen-
.saires, united de fabrication do products pharmaceutiques, contras de
formation professionnalle, etc... Os mame. le nombra du personnel para-
mndical n'a caso d'augmenter pour attaindrea au dabut du Plan Quinquen-
nal 1973-1977, 4.420 agents y comprise las auxiliaires at las aides
sanitaires. L'Etat a redouble d'afforts durant catta pdriode quinquennala.
Ainsi, le Minist&ra de la Santa Publique a pu rQaliser la formation de .
7.552 agents paramddicaux i ca qui ports le nombra total de catta catigoria
professionnelle au 30/4/1977 & 11 972 (9.269 aides sanitaires 2.557 infir-
miers dipl~ns d'Etat et 146 sages femmes). Ainsi. le ?rto ne dispose
actuallament que :

d'un agent pama-Adical-pour 1.500 habitants ;
d'un infirmier diplirr d'Etat pour 7.000 habt. i
d'une saga-famma pour 25.000 fammes (entra 18 at 49 anal

On constata done qua le personnel paramedical don't dispose
la pays eat loin d'attaindre un chiffre suffisant. capable d'aesurer lea
soins dana des conditions satisfaisanteas touts la population. De plus.
la rdpartition de ca personnel fait 1'objet d'une dbparit6 regionals tras
mal dquilibrde.

11 saavara que lea besoins des services adicaux publics an
personnel paramndical sont loin d'ttre satisfaita at qua beaucoup d'efforts
rastant b fair dans la formation de ce type de personnel. Et caci, s'af-
firma davantage lorsqb'on prend an consideration la croissance dimographique
de pays at son evolution socio-aconomique.

Las services mddicaux privds, qui complitant las services publics.
no disposent que de 462 infirmiers dipl6mns d'Etat, dtant donna qua tous
les infirmiars formAs par las soins do l'Etat sont acheminds vers les secteur
public.

Par ailleurs, la personnel param4dical priv4, outra son insuf-
fisance, est 'Marti A travers le pays. Ainsi, par example, 7 provinces
n'ont aucun infirmier diploma d'Etat at 9 autrea ont an un nomnbr variant
antre 1 at 4.

En vue d'estimar las besoins on personnel paramddical ndcassaire
pour assurer le fonctionnement normal d'un regime octroyant des sons
madicaux aux travaillaurs st & laurs families ainsi qua calui des services
mndicaux du travail, une 6tude a Wtd faita par la Minist&re du Travail at
des Affaires Sociales. copiese ci-jointe).




... oe *

Ctta dtuda indique qua pour so conformer aux prescriptions
du dacrat n* 2-55-248 du 18 rajab 1377 (fdvrier 1958) portant application
du dahir ne 1-56- 93 dd 10 hija 1376 (B Juillat 1957) organisant las
services mddicaux du travail. las dtabliasemants industrials at commerciaux
auquals cas dispositions s'appliquunt doivent recruter. uno contained d'in-
Sfirgiers au Moins.

SI "' L'6tude prcitbe indique tgalement qua pour 1 assure a la
1i! C.N.S.S. correspond an moyanne 2,7 proteges at qua pour assurer les soins
mdicaux aux affilids de cat organisme at a leurs ayants droit, don't sl
I; n nombre tatal est estimA a plus de Imillions 11 faut 400 m~declas dont 150 ,
S donneralent des soins aux maladas hospitalisds dans las hopitaux publics
at pour lesquels an peut consider qua las basoins en person l! paramd-
dical meraisat satisfaits, la rest, soit 250 assuraraient des soins aux
maladaa non hospitalisas dans lea dispensairea propres & 1'organisma
gestionnaira at par son propra personnel paramedical. Et si *on considbra
qua cheque rpdecin dolt Otra assist par 2 infirmiers, 11 faudra racrutar
500 agents pararrdicaux.

Par allieurs, pour assurer 1'hospitalisation do ses affilia
at de leurs ayant d:cit. la C.N.S.S. ouvrira prochainnement une polyclU-
nique de 300 lits a Casablanca i las basoins immndiats pour son fonction-
nemeanta'lbvent a 130 infirmiers toutascatdgories.

Las conclusions prcitaes ainsi qua callas des contacts pria"
par 1'O.F.P.P.T avec d'autras services mddicaux privas at semi-publics
laissent entandre qua las besoins an personnel paramedical son noarmes
at qua lai rcherche da nouvelles formulas do formation de catte-catagoria
pofessionnelle a impose.

~sOans ce sans. 1'O.F.P.P.T. organism public ayant pour mission
do prendra an charge la formation professionnelle destinea rdpondra aux
besoins-hationaux.so propose W bntreprsndra la formation du personnel'
paramedical.
L'ouverture d'une cole pour la formation d'infirmiers Bravatdo'.
d'Etat'at l'achat d'une seconds pour la formation d'Infirmiars Oiplmd .
d'Etat s'imposent si -n considrea que 1'OFPPT. dolt fairs .;:
face aux besoins imm~diats des secteurs priv6 at semi-public, qui sont
centre autras :

100 infirmiars pour las entreprises privies en vue de so
conformer-sux prescriptions do la legislation de la mndecine du Travail '

500 infirmiers pour apportar des soins mndicaux aux maladae .
non hospitalisds affili6s -la C.N.S.S. at a laurs ayants droit ;

130 infirmiers attaches $ la polyclinique de la C.N.S.S.chargs4
d'apporter las soins ndcassaires aux maladies affili6s & cat organism at
a laurs ayant droit

Soit au total. 730 infirmiers.

A ca chiffra, ii y a lieu d'ajouter las besoins pressant ressentis
par las cliniques. lea laboratories d'analyses m6dicales, l'ouverture
de ces 2 icoles, constituera une tape vers un d6veloppement croissant de
la formation du personnel paramedical. En effat, catta darniAra doit con-
naltra un assor conform au d6veloppement docio-aconomique du pays at
& son evolution drmographique./.








. .. t 1' ,,;--.,- -.. APPENDIX III
i ..,


* '-I


-oOo- PROGRAMMB G
r~~r--a-- -


offi. e de 5ihJ34r4t'o;



GENERAL ANNEE 1978 -ogo-


FORMATION DE BASE


Anglais
Arabe dactylo
Expression arabe

Fran aiss
SecrEtariat


COMPTABILITE

Interne
CAP Bancaire
Brevet bancaire
I.T.B.


) Ecole des Banques
(


"Gestion Pinancires I.S.C.A.E.
Analyse de bilan
RUgularisation des comptes de gestion
Analyse d'exploitation


TOTAL


COMMERCIAL

Distribution commercial ( Agnon )
Distribution commercial interne
stage ( ASMAK )
Distribution commorciale aspect juridique
du contract international

Marketing international (PC)
Plan de D6veloppement CFC


TOTAL


U


,.-T .-' -


NOMBRE


20


TOTAL













Programmation R.A.M.
Transport
Assurance ( Maritimes)

Connaissance du partenaire stage Comanar |

Mgthodologie de Ptcho ( Office da Pbch) :

L*aspect Maritime du Juridique ( stage :
1 Llyod's)

Statistiques

ContrOle
EPballage
Normalisation

Gestion de stock
S6cu.rit6
Approvisionnement
Technique de cultures sous-serres
Seainaires techniques ( cole Hassania)
Informatique


TOTAL

PERSONNEL
Gestion da Personnel ( Chef de personnel,
gestion)
D616gation du travail,
Infirmerie
Formation

TOTAL

Documentation
D6bat/S&minaire
Visites/rEception stagaires


TOTAL GENERAL


NOMBRE


20
ii
--).-




20
10.

10-

2


1


15
15
15

3
2
2
2 *

2
12








20
1
6







C
































-oOo- 1-t


ROGRAMMHE


TRIENNAL t8- -o0o-


DE IA FORMATION
-a---- --**
















-
U


-'I


~


is ~~,,







-Oo- PROGRANMB GENERAL TRIENHAL -oOo-


PORMATION DE BASE \ I' I'.
Anglais 60
Arabo : dactylo/expression arabe 60

* i COMPTAB ILITE
Interne 75
CAP Bancaire 95
Brevet 15
I.T.B. 21

S Frangais 60
Droit Social 30
Droit Commercial 30

Ii ARi TIG/COMMERCIAL

Avignon 1
Asmaa
O.I.T. distribution amrketiin 14
ISCAE 20
Institute Commercial France
Systrme de distribution & lI'xportatio
Cegos Somifos D6veloppement 5
CPC ( M4arketing) 5

PERSONNEL
GBSTION : CHEF Di PLRSONNiL

0.I.T. Personnel 3
Formation O.I.T. 3
GiF DCP ( commandement )
GEFDCP ( Personnel J 4
Centre de formation et conseil ( nestiou ) 4
COSUMAR ( Organisation du travail ) 4
ChGOS Paris ( formation ) 4
Delegation do travail 20
CNSS CIMR 4
Infirmorie 2
Assistance social 5
S Gestion Personnel (OCP)
(commaadement mnthode- de gestion ) 6
TECHNIQUE
; Institut Anverrois de maritime 2
Stage RAM 8
Seainaire maritime Carrimage) 20
Transport 20
S6minaire : defense maritime, assurance maritime 10




-4r
-I

.7-i

::w -


* L ` ~-r-- -':
-J. ` -.,- .
I..


- 2-


Coxmanav
Asaak
Mdthodologie de pOche
Juridique maritime
Statistique
ContrOle
EBballage, conditionneamnt
Normalisation
Informatique
Primeurs, agrumes Cmaladies at conditionnement/
technique, moderne


RELATION INTER-PERSONNEL
I Coimmunication
O.C.E. Perspective
-SUcurit6
ApproTisionnement
Stocks
Conducteurs de clarks
Douane


TOTAL


MON EVALUEE MAIS ESTIMiE SLULEMEiT :

Diner d6bat
Stagiaires A 1'O.C.B. (accueil)
Visites
S~minaires durant campagies
; Technique de culture sous-serres
Hassania Scole
Perfoctionaement cenxtryle (2) (USA)
Surgellation
Organisatiou


(Cai fornie)


TOTAL GNIIRAL


Documentation livres


TOTAL ESCOMP1.









APPENDIX IV

-o000 FORMATION FORMELLE (EXTI;F.l ") -OOoOO


. 4 &4 y'Si4 rSM*iZ.


Si t NOlBRE DE BENEFi |
S T iH E E t ORG/IIISITEUR a LIEU t DUREE t CIAIRE ET NI.TURE s PERIOD I
i -------------------------- ----------- ------ ------- ----------------------------- -----------


a Arabe (dactylo)

SCLP Bancaire

SBrevet

SI. T. B.

t Frangais


t Miniature du travail

t Ecole de banquet


* H U

I Mission Frangaise -
t Office Harooain de
t Formation


Distribution commercialeo Chambre de commerce
I d'Avignon


g Gestion Financibre


SInfirmerie




SJuridique
1 maritime
I


a 14S.C.A.E.


Ecole dlasaistance
mddicale


Defense maritime
Comaraf Comanav


CASA

1


n







SAvignon


' CASA



spar corres.
Spondance


a CASA
l


s I
1 9 mois I
Sat
sanno-sacolaire
I 3

I I

Sa
i a
I I
:3 mois

a a
i 1 an
I -
t t
1 3 j ois I
t I

I a
t 6 mois a
3 I
a a

8 t
1 senaine
t I
a a


Ncn cadres
t
n II g

Cadres et N.Ca
a
Cadres


Non cadres


Ctdres

t

I


Non cadres I


Cadres


10ann6e-scolaire

9 w 11
SI a

I I

7 I n "t
a a
S

30tOCT.NOV.DEC. r
Sanne-oolalr

1 aannde-eoolaire


3 1


r-Mai-Juin


a I
tann6e-scolaire
I r


S I

SJ
' 1 Ji


SI I I I I
--------------------------------------------------------------------------c----I------------------------------


t *


I


I
1
t


I
1


I










-oOo- SEHJINAIRES EXTGIIHES -oOo-
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
T H E M E ORGANISATEUR I LIEU DUREE aNOiDRE DE BENEFI- a PERIOD
a a CIAIRES ET NATURE
t----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- --------


a



(I
a

a
a

I
I

a
a







I
a
I






t
8

8


.A.

.C.P

t oc


Statiatiques

Gestion du personnel

Distribution commercial,
aspect juridique, contract
international

SystAmo do distribution &
lioxportation

Plan do dvveloppement

Formation

Sccuritd
Approvisicnnement
Stocks
l;arketing International
Techniques agricoles
Secretariat
Analyso do bilan
RAgularisation de comptes
Analyse dlexploitation


a I.NS.E

G.EP.D

Institu
a Franoo


CNUCED


C F C

CEGOS-O:
tion Pr
M Ninistb:
n

I Centre L
SEcole Hi
Office


I *
n
l


P I

mmeroial do a









ae do Forma-
isionnelle
lu travail

U + CFC
'ma&ion Consell I
Lnia
orme. Profeo -
M M
n *
a n


a


RABAT

CASA

PARIS



GENEVE


Casa

PARIS
CASA
CASA
CASA
CASA
CASA
RABAT
CASA

n
M


ffic
ofes
re d


i For
assa
de F


3 jours

24 ours

10 jours



5 jours


4 juurs

4 jours
4 jours
2 jours
2 jours
3J / 2j
3 jours
4 jours
4 jours
2 ours
4 jours
4 Joura


a Cadres



I "


a








Non cadres
a n
a "


Agents

H
I


t&
t a
I I
aFdv.Juint
I f
aSeptemibre

t I
I I

sOctobro a
t I

t Mal I
I 3
Mai I

a Hai a
SIa
I Fivrierl
8 I
FdSv Mat
I Mai I
I S
tAvril-Mai

I I

I !
I I
I t












-oOo- SEHINAIRES INTERNES -oOo-
-------~------~~---



www ----- ----------------------------- ---I--------------------------

T H E M E ORQANI TEUR LIEU DUREE NIRE DE ENEFI- PERIOD
S1 t a CIAIRES ET NATURE t
t--------------------------------------------------- -------- --------------------------------
St I t 3 3 t
SAssurances(maritimes, a O.C.E, CASA :10 jourst Cadres 10 a Septe!rir
ttransport) a a

I Transport 0.C,E, a CASA a 3 Jeurst Cadres moyenat 20 1 Septembre
I I r I 3 t
t Contr8le O.C.E, a .CASA 5 jourst Cadres moyensa 15 a Mai Juin
t 3 I I t I
SEmballage O.C.E. CASA 1 5 joursl Cadres moyenas 15 "
Sa .t I
I Normalization 0.C.E. t CABA t 5 jourst Cadres moyenst 15 "
St I I t
t D414gation du travail a O.C.E. a CASA t 2 jourst Cadres moyenst 20 t Octobre

t a I a a a a a
I a a a a a a a
------------------------------------------------------ -------------------












-oOo- STAGES EXTERNES -oOo-



-------------------------- -----------,,,~-- -------------- ,----------------------------~------------------ -----
a a I I j NOMBRE DE BENEFICIAIRES a I
S T H E V E ORGANISATEUR LIEU DUREE I ET NATURE I PERIOD
S------------------------ ------------------I----
Sa I I I I I
t Commorcialiation interne JSMAK X CASA 15 Jours a Non cadres a 10 a Juin .
I $ I a a t a
* Programmation R A H CASA 1 15 joure a Cadres et N. cadres 8 1 Septembre '
a a a I a a a
STechnique de transport I COMANAV 'I CASA 1 15 jours a 10 Septembre
Set laritimo a 8
a a I a a a a a
S~Mthodologie de p6che O N P a CASA a 15 Jours Cadres 2 a "

STechnique de culture I Fermes espagnolest a 4 1 Juillot
soue serre a a

SI ------------------------------------------ ----------













-oOo-. FORMATION FONRELLE (IITBE-.:I) -oOo-


TH E H E


Anglals

Arabe (expression)

Comptabilitd


Informatique


I 8
ORANISATEUR I LIEU I DUREE
------ ------ ------ --- -- -


i O.C.E.professeur I CASA 9 mnia
a u sin de 1'tffioe
0 O. C. E. CASA 9 mois

S i* 0. C. E. CASA a 9 mols


S 0. C. E..18'H CASA 9 mois

II I


I NOIBRE DE BENEFICIARIES
t ET NATURE


sCadres at N. Cadres
I #

SnU


I PERIOD I
8 t


I I
t 20 lannge scelaireo
I I I
1 10 tOct.Nov.Dic.
S I
: 25 slaiJuin.Oct. a
i tNov.D6, .

a 12 iFv.Hars.Avrill
t I
I I t
t I


----- ----------------------------------------- --C------C------------------'


------------------ -- --- -- -- --- -- -- --- -- -- --- -- --


---- ---- ---- ---- --- ---- ---- ---- -- ---




APPENDIX V


5:" -L''..IAT GENMIEL
Ic mOGRMAME SPECIAL JJ TOhTE JJ UR
j .'OiATIO :

-o0o- ROG-AMME SPECIAL IE FOBIATIO --0o-


^~~~ -- *r
.o

Le Programme Spcial de Pormation trouve son oriins'dans la Lettr
Royale adrese & Monsieur le Premier Ministra' l I6-I2-72 (-copie on annexed I)!
La Lettre Royale pose explicitemment le problem de la demographic
at de l'insuffisance des debouchdas t saggere d'abandonner lea former clas-
siques d'enseignement en adoptant "des Programmes r4volutionnaires do nature a
permettre non seulement la formation mais aussi le perfectionnemaen 6t le reoo--
r -"olseget-a- cadres"a c I .- --.-. ;- -
Lea objectifs da Programme Special de Formation se difinissent d'o-
res et daj& come suit :
Le recyclage t le perfectionnement
-La. reconversion des fonctionnaires civil at militairesa la veil-
le do loer mise en retraite.
La formation dea jeunes ayant un certain nivean scolaire maia
qui sont an ch8mage.
Dans une reunion tean.e le 23 Decembre 1972, sons la pr4sidence d:
Honsieur le Premier Ministre, il a 4tA ddcid. de ratenir la formula Ecole Uni-
verselle .pour l'execution da-cette operation st de limiter le nombre des can-
didata A 500 personnel dans une premiere phase experimental.
L'idde lanode par SA MAJESTE LE. RI, est une innovation an la ma-
tiire, en ce sons qa'elle fait appel, pour la premiere fois,au Maroc, A une
methods d'enseignement qui sort dea "sentiers battus".
En effet, 1'enseignement & distance a donn= dans la plupart des pags
des resultats, aujourd'hui incontestables dans le domains de la Foramtion .
PREIER PROGRAMME ( Stade experimental) -)
L'6tude par correspondence se distingue des artres methods d'ensei-
gnement en ce qu'elle.,laisse une grandma liberty" i'eu'diant qui vent pourasi-
vre son instruction en tous lienu et a tons moments : tonte personnel s'inscri-
vant & des. oours par correspondence, n'est pas oblige de se rendre un cer-_.
tain endroit A& ne hour precise pour poursuivre son instruction.
L'exp~iience des Ecolas Internationales dans ce domain nous indiqae
que dans le monde enter, il existed des gens qui veulent divelopper leurs
connaissances sans avoir A so d6placer : tel employ de Bureau aimerait savoir
ce qu'il pourra fire pour amdliorer la quality do son travail et apprendre
de nouvelles techniques,, afin de povoir, prtendre bien f 'ir n avenir '"
mailleur .










Dans un monde moderns oi lea techniques se perfectionnent cons---
tamment n : ne pent contester l'interit que reprdeente l-enseignement par
correspondence dans les domains de la Formation, do recyclage et de la
reconversion .
Cest ainai qu'ane premiere phase experimental portant sur 632
candidate civil at militaires a etd lancee an -ag
r' m -Th''rI Eo dif T-iverselI~de dnPaa ..ri.... .
-L'4valuation do cette experience a 't6 examin- e an course d'unl
rdanion tenue le 21 Janv--. =a Sihge du Dfpartement de Monsieur Ie Premier.
Ministry et groupant tons les organismea concerns A 1'issue de cette
reunion il a 6t6 decide dU. poursuivre le Programme Special de Formation sur
an miller de candidates, an y introdisant certain amenagements, notammeaOvi
L'installation "BRabat d'une succursale de l'Ecole Universelle
at son adaptation progressive an programmes marocains .
L'orgsanisation pdriodique de S&minaires de contr8le de connaia-
sances '
La participation des candidates pour 50% dn montant des cours,
remboursable an cas do succs asx examens at concourse prdpares _
Lee facilities consenties anx candidate quant anz modalitds de
pavement ( dtalement sur pluaieurs mensaalitds preleveas direo-
tement par le S.O.M.).
La gratuity des course & 1'intention des non-salaries selection-
nds par le Minisatre dn Travail.
Le Gouvernement de SA AJESTE LE P a decide d'accorder A cette
operation an interFt particulier concritis4 par :
La signature d'une convention entr e s CGovernement Marocain et
l'Ecole Universelle ( I2-7-I975).
-LI
L'inscription I la loi do finances des credits annuals reserve
an Progranme Sp4cial de Formation.
Le daunilme Programme a fonctionnd en I976 sr 1024 candidate
don't 20I non salaries .
A chaque ann4e budg4taire, mille nouvea-x candidates sent inscrits
pour b6ndficier des advantages consentis. Dans ce nombre une place eat rdser-
vee 200 candidate sans travail, provenant, d'une part' de jeunes gens en
quate d'emploi, et inscrits aupr&s des. diffrentsaburea r d plasement-dt *.
Royaume, et d'autre part, d'enfants de RUsistants ayant quitt4 1'Ecole.
Ces candidate non salaries, beneficient de la grat-itd' total des
course.
Actuellement le troisibme Programme lancd an tire de 1'annie
I977( conformement & la oirculaire de MTonsieur le Premier Minis-
tre nb 227 du 7 Janvier 1977) est an voie d'achevement
Le quatribme Programme, pour 978,. est en instance de lancement
OBClTIOm2I'T' .

.. C.haqe ldpartement Ministdriel a dt4 inrit.. a-designer an fonction-
naire responsable de la conduit dn Programme Sp4cial de Formation

7,P










as sein do ce D6partement. Il doit notamment :


Centraliser les fiches de candidature et les comptabiliser avanrt
de lea presenter la commission de selection et d'orientation i


Assurer et controller la remise des course et devoirs anr candi-
data do son administration .


Tenir un fichier refltantzr'l'assidnitd et Ie travail des 414veas
So tenir an liaison permanent avec le Service Programme Sp6-
cial de Fomation desormais attach an Ministbre dn Travail et de la For-


nation Professionnlle .
SELECTION EL ORIEtATION DESS CANDIDATES
Celle-oi est composde des responsables du Service Programme Sp6-
cial da Formation ave la. participation da responsible d4signd anprBe do cha;
que administration concende .
1I eat tena compete, en premier lieu, da d4sir da candidate tout en
oherchant dans la measure di possible, A l1 satisfaire en lui attribuant le .
oours approprid, son niveau et & sea aptitudes .
Lea formalitns d'inscription & 1'Ecole Universelle sent ensuite :
effactudes L'6l4ve regoit, quelques temps aprbs, son colia individnel
contenant la totality des course, manuals, plans d'6tude, conseils pddagogi-
ques ainsi que les impriaes n6cessaires pour l'envoi de sea devoirs. C'est
ainsi que la preparation pent avoir une dur4e infdrieure on sup4rie re an
temps moyen imparti & cat effect. Tant qu'il na' pas termin4 entibrement sea
course et devoirs, le candidate continue A Stre QBve de IrEcola Universelle.
L 'NSI
L'ENSEIGriEMEF.
Les preparations demanddes sont tris diversifides d'an Programme
A 1'autre. En g"ndral, lea enseignements lea plus demands concernent lee
6tudes comptables et 1& preparation an Baccalaurnat. I eat difficile de
pr4voir a 1'avance les quantitis st lea types d'enseignements qui seront
demanded.
DIFFICULTES RENCOF RES
Certain problbmes sont apparus lors du ddroulement des derniers
Programmes, notamment
L'absence da travaax pratiques lorsqa'il s'agit d'un enseigne-
ment technique. Lea course dispenses a distance sont uniquement thdoriques
st ne penvent, A enx seuls, contribuer A la formation de I'1ilve.


Le manque de saances de soutien concernant lee antres disci-
plines : Les dl6ves ont besoin, do temps en temps, do as trouver en presen-
ce do lers professeurs pour recueillir de vive voix, lee conseils don't
ils ont besoin at surtout des reponses L leurs nombreuses questions
C'est pourquoi il est privu pour pallier ces inco. -vnients,. des
saances pdriodiques de regroupementa pour chaque discipline -
Le coQlt de 'e-tains- course mame r4dnit do 50%-se-troav- encore
trop61lev4 pour la, bourse da 'betit'. fonctionnair, *
Une participation de' 'Etat un pen plus oonsdquente eat sollici-
tde at permettrait' A in grand, nombre de petite fonctionnaires de s'adonner
S*- _____.-- 1..- ---_-


a deso4tuese qui laereTain t, jusqu a k aen~,_1naLC D
-. *... ~- -*- *...f.A. ._.S-
_______________ 4
s .


f


F











(4)


La participation du candidst ramen4sde 25 da prixglobal des
course serait trds bien accueillie .

En ce qui concern certain examens at dipl8mes, lee candidate
rencontrent d'4normes difficult s solvent insurmontables.

Ces difficulties sont de deaa sorts :

Ie)- Certaina examens de comptabilit6 n'existant plus an Maroc,
tels 1'aptitude, le probatoire at les certificate dn Diplame des Etudes
Comptables Supirieures (D.E.C.S.) organisda auparavant par le Bureau des
examens de la N.U.C.F., ont 6td transfdrds an France depuis 1975.


1 serait alors souhaitable de pr4pararer ces examens an Maroc.
Cela apporterait un dnorme soulagement & ces candidate .

20)- Certaines preparations ne d6bouchant sur aucun examen of-
ficiel sont sanctionndes par un certificate d6livr6 par I'Ecole Universel-.
le -

Le fonctionnaire don't 1'objectif essential est d'am4liorer sa si
tuation administrative, cherche & exploiter ce document pour lequel il a
consent d'importants sacrifices Or, l'Administration lui present une .
fin do non recevoir .

C'est pourquoi, pour dviter de pareilles deceptions, il serait
souhaitable d'envisager une procddnre d'homologation on d' qulivalence
de ces document par une commission qui si&gersit an Ministere des
Affairs Adminmsatratives ./.


* "C-


*~ *
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e p l de ormatio
- ., i


APPENDIX VI
iRepartition dea COndidate par preparation u -- l
------ ; ------- c.*z ,~y o ^*-*"^-


9 61


7 17


3 Btudes 3colairee Etude tudea *
S_______ Univereid 4 Agricolese 4
S* a, O 0 i
2e. Litt 2eC. Sc; ,ol Idus. 0 v 0 *
S- --
4) o e o o o -p 0 c o
e6e r. 56 er e6e Te 5e6 or 1 o U 0


D.N 7 46 13 27 5 34 13 28 7 5 1 3 8 3 6 2 11 2 7 7 9 10 2 7 11 3 1 278



T.P 21 10 2 19 29 28 4 9 1 24 3 6 7 7 2 6 171



AG 12 32 44



Ti. 5 3 2 1 15 1 9 3 1 2 42



CO 1 2 1 12 2 2 1 1 2 24


Total


12pl 24


89o20


161 7


211 41








mItI r tKm : SS i'gtWslta. sPT PnIIAIJF
-~ t 3 Ctt~,iI 1
a. COBY 88 J^^1 fi--1
c^jjgm -j ^j i~liSSJ~mSJri


Table stattieUque do* cadli4tate rtenti
gt prIparatlin et par 4dparteuent


i*T~ L WCZC


'--~ ---- i-j- --- -- -- a- -- -- -- ----






I r.atUt* A
,aqcns oaiI4 e ,, W Fill '. F 3 SP 1 A AN 9. 0 A LF o3.






Werfoottionwn.at COlturs1 ^ 1 t ^ b I D 3 >

Commerce- Sr.ritartt I h.3 { A A A A j i 3

Il8tllrrle AeoArla A <
.- .

Relations Publlque *t I t
Journal
starliars I arUUq 3 ues

. Mttl T. 4 t 3 1 f

j .artl -t.re 21 3 2


it, III


311 46. 15.


)I


, 12.


41 41.i. 4)








.., APPENDIX VII '

Les 6tudes dans les dcoles, centres et instituts.



LES CENTRES PEDAGOGIQUES REGIONAUX


Los booine du Maroc on professeurs sont consd6rable eat
pour satisfaire te besolne des lyc6oe et colleges on enoeignant du
ler cycle, une nouvelle tormule lance on novembre 1970 soua
forms de quelques unllt pllote elat acluellement miss on application
II s'sgll de Ia formule C.P.R. (Centres P6dagoglques Rdglonaux).

LES SPECIALISATIONS

Leo professeurs du premier cycle, peuvent 'actuelement
6tre forms dana dix disciplines ditl6rentea.
Math6maliques (Rabat. Casablanca, Fa. Uoekne Oulda.
Marrakech, Tanger, El Jadida, Agadlr, T6louan at Saft).
*- Scincos Naturelles (Rabat, Casablanca. Marrakech *I
Fie)
Fes)
S-' Phylque-Chlmle (Rabat, Casablanca. Tanger et Sal)
Leltres Arabes (FRa. Oulda. Marrakech. El Jadlda. Agadlr
Makn6s el F6a).
Lettrea Francalse (Rabat. Casablanca. Fie. Meknhs.
Oulda, Marrakech. Tanger, El Jadlda, Agadlr, T6touan et Sail)
Hlilolra-goographle on arabe (F6s, Agadir, Moknaa Wt
Oudal
Dseain (Rabst el Tanger)
ArU Minagenr (Rabal)
S--Education physique ea sports (Caa)
Technologle (Casa)
Le Centres d'El Jadlda et de Ttouan osnt prowlsores. L."a
61tve prolesaaurs d'EI Jadlda seront transl6r6a par Ia suite Ca-
sablanca., oux de T6iouan A K6nllra,

CONDITIONS D'ADMISSION
.. ,
Leo candidate dolvent r6pondre aux cril6res de rocrulemeni
ci-sp.rs :
Etre de nallonallll marocalne
r- Elre g80 de 17 oana u molns et de 38 oan au plus
Souscrlre I'ngagement doe ervir I'enselgnement pendant
8 ans aprs oIexamen de sortle
Avoir is niveau requls
Le niveau requle ; le niveau demand& est different selon
ee disciplines.
Sciences ; sur titre pour lea bachellers sclentlItquea et


sur concour pour lee 646vas syant lsclub6s i 7me AS dans cj
-- Uttl6ature : Bur concourse pour ls b eloutls 6-

Oessin : baccalaurdal oules aneos ou D.T.M. Arts Ap-
pllque6 + xamen obatoire dd in.
-4Erfutlw c yalqto t spoPhTu :
Sur tilr pour. le bacheliere toutes s6dla D.T.M. +
examen probstoira de I'E,P.S.
O Bur concourse pour lea dl6vae du ntveau do Ia 76me
SAS + examen probatoire de I'E.P.8.
Ars Mnagers : baccalaurdat loutes series ou D.T.M. +
examen prpbatoire.
Tochnologie : Sur tlire pour lea bachellers sclentniques
el Is tUlulaires du baccalaur6at do lechnlcien. :
Remarque : les concourse ont lieu en Juln de I'ann6a en
count.

DUREE ET REGIME DES ETUDES

d rjurfe do la formation des prolesseur du ler cycle
st do onas Les 6l6ves sont externs at bd6nt6clent chacun d'une
allocation '-rfaltaire menauellt do 727.38 DH. Les candidate fonc-
tionnairo conservent leur trllement pendant lour s6Jour au C.P.R.

PERSPECTIVES DE PROMOTION

Les laur6ats des Contres Pidagoglques R6gloneux. peuvent
acc6dor au grade de prolesseurs du second cycle lorsqu'lls attei-
gnent le 46me 6chelop do leur grade el aprbs avoir eflectud une
ann6 de stage de formation gindralo organls6e A leur Intention.

DES PROJECTS D'AVENIR

Des proelt seont l6tbor6a par to Minlsltre de I'Enseigne:
ment Primalr et Secondalre pour:
former de* professeur lormateurs natlonaux dans les
C.P.R.
Crder doe Centres do Documentation Pdagoglque qui
auront pour rb6l I'6lude de* probl&mes p6dagoglques et la rdnovallon
des ml6hodes d'pnselgnement.


- 48









LES CARRIERS COMMERCIALS


L'INSTITUT SUPERIEUR DE COMMERCE ET D'ADMINISTRATION

DES ENTREPRISES


L'Institut Supdrieur do Commerce et d'Administration des
Enlreprisae, cr66 par tl dahir du .27 lulllet 1972, dispense un eon
seignemant sup6frlur do type nouveau, ayant pour objectil ta for-
mation de cadres polyvalents susceptible d'occuper des posted do
responsabllit6 at I term. do diction dans lea entreprlses publiques
mixtes ou privies. Lensetgnrment prodigu6 par 'ISCAE est un en-
seignemenl risolument tourn6 vera 'entreprisl. II comprend 2 cycles
do formation :un cycle normal d'une durI6 de 4 anneos el un cy-
cle sup6rieur do gestion d'uns dur6e de 18 moli.

CYCLE NORMAL


CONDITION D'ACCES

Le cycle normal eat louvr par vole do concourse aux can-
didalts e candidates lilulakes du baccalaur6al do I'onseignement sw*
condaire.
Touteloi. lte lives des classes terminates peuvent par-
tcipsr au concoun maie lour admission dilinllive & IISCAE *ls
conditionn64' par our succiAs u baccataurial. C'oet Inal) qua les
demanded d'nscription dolveni Mir envoy6es au secretarial de
I.S.C A E. vanrt Ia fin du moist de mal de cheque annie pour la
sesaQin de Juan *t tvant a fin du moist d'aoft pour Ia session de
seplembre.

ORGANISATION DES ETUDES

La formation au cycle normal do I'.S.C.A.E. dure 4 an.
durant telquels 'ltudlant revolt un enseignement aclil reposant sur
la participation de chacun, te utilisant des proc6d6a pidagoglques
moderns,. tells qua le course dialogues. les travaux pratiques, les.
O4udes de crs. lei stages at los visiies d'entroprase.
SLa premiere annie eBt un complement de lormatlon g6-
n6tile. une preparation aux nouvellos m6thodes p6dagogiques el
une introduction I'6tudo do getlion de I'entreprise.
La deuxi6me ann6e asl conaacrde & I'acqulaltion des
concepts el doe techhlques de gestlon do base, n6cessalres a une
comprihenaion de la structure do I'entreprise et des relations veoc
son environnement (comptabilt6. m6thodes quantitative, sciences
humaines. dronl. economls),


A la fin de la 26me anneo, i6tudiant effetue un stage
dana une entreprise au Maroc en position d'ex6culant (ouvrier. em-
ploy6) I risue duquel II pr6sente un rapport de stage aur I'enre-
prise oi tol stage a 616 elfectu6 at Bur le type do travail r(alis6.
La tIUolla& ann6e eat consacrie essenllelleenmot I'ana-
lyse de lonctllons do I'entrepris (marketing. finance. contrile do
gestion, production oto...), I son nvironnement sciencet humalnes
at organlsatlon, micro-4conomle, droll des aHfalres) at I'tlude doe
m6thodes quantitalives (Inlormallque. recherche op6rationnolle).
Un stage d'informallon au Mairo ou l1'6lranger eat otc-o
tui par les 6tudiants en fin d'annad
La 44me ann6e eat coneacr6e & lrpprotondissement des
connatisances acquires. Elae comprend un enseignement do tronc
common at des options do pre rodalsatlon : Goaston Financlre.
Gestion Commercialo. Organisation. Elkl eat consacre ausasi un
travail personnel de recherche correspondent I'option choisle.

SANCTION DES ETUDES

A It tin du cycle, t.S.C.A.E. dilivrt ;
Soil le dipt6me do Ilnstitut SupArieur de Commerce aux
CliveS syant donna satisfaction au- conr6le permanent, aux examens
partlelt at aux mimolire de tin do stages.
Solt to certliicat d'ancien &lave do l'institut. aux lives
ayant auivi r6gulliroment lee course du cycle normal at qul ont perdu
te drolt au redoublement, ainas qu'i coux qu ont 616 empachts pour
des ralsona excptionnelles do sublr Is conlrble do sortie.

REGIME DES ETUDES

Les candldata admit i rI.S.C.A.E. peuvent benillcltr d'une
bourse'de I'nseignament supr6leur. augment6e dventuallemont d'un
complement do bourse.
Its peuvent 6 tr aussi bourlters d'un organism priv6 ou
ffectuer lours eludes sans bourse.
L'I.S.C.A.E. est dot& d'un Internal pouvant accuidlir une
proportion dlev6e de sea ltudianls,
L'enseignoment L II.S.C.A.:, osl disponsi an Iranceis mais
doux Ipreuves pont obligatoirea : I'rab atl 'anglals.


- 49 -


I:.
r-f





. j.c out'tHl1UM Ui r ubtitUN


Co cycle a'adresse aux diplom6s de I'enseignemont supe-
rieur, cadres des entreprises at des administrations.

II offre & see 61ves uno formation aux techniques avanc6es
de geltion (management) r6pondant aux besolnm on malltre d'orga-
nlsaton; do gestion, de direction at de d6veloppemenl, sinal qua
I'6panoulsaement do laura capacit6a de refloexon, d'actlon at d'appro-
londissement de loura axp6rlances pereonnelles.

ORGANISATION DES ETUDES

Deroulement

Ouvert aux cadres de formation sup6rlure at d'expirlences
diverses. Io C.S.G. etl conqu on deux phases talea6e sur trols se-
mostrea :

t1re phase :

Miars Juillet (ler semostre)

acquisition doe connasances indispensable dans
It domilnes du management at do 'onvlronnement
aconomique at social ;

ntralnement aux malhodes d'analyse et do decision
2&me phase ;

Octobro Favrlsr (26me semastre) :

Approlondlisament dos connaissances acquises ou souhai-
tAes at pr6parallon I la recherche.


















50


Mars Juillet (36me somestre) :

Recherche ippllqu6e aux domalnes choisis, dabouchant sur
Io r6daction d'dn m6moire.

Demarche :

Conque do lacon & r6pon.a: aux exigences do niveau at
do quallt do la formation, dans une optique dynamique liant ls
d6veloppement des connalssances el celul dea capacit6e propres
dans I'exerclce d'clvllit6s multiples, ella proc6de per:

-- eaminalres do haul niveau, do formation g6n6rale at
de recherche, organlae6 do faeon a permeltre I'exarclce paraltlle
d'une actlvll6 professionnelle ;

assistance technique at p6dagogiqua permanent, sous
forms d'anlmatlon at d'encadrement individual par des enselgnents
at geslionnaires quallli6s. comma support & I'effort at & 'initiative
personnel Indispensables dans le processus de formation envisag6e.

DEBOUCHES-

La C.S.G., sanctionn6 par un dipl6me d'Etal de 36mo cycle
prepare directement a :

o'exercice de tonctions do responsebilt6 at de direction
dons lea entreprises priv6es. publiques et semi-publiques. et dans les
administrations,

Is cardire d'naseignoment dans les institutions de for-
mation ap6trloure, de consell st de formateur dens lea entreprises
et autres organisillons.










INSTITUTE NATIONAL DE FORMATION DES CADRESEN COMPTABILITE ET SECRETARIAT
i i i i ii i


Cr66 an 1988. I'lnstitut National do Formation des Cadres
on Comptabilitl et Secr6tarlat (I.N.F.C.C.S.) assure Ia formation d'Inas
.tructeur dans dilf6ernts domalnes -nolamment. Is complabilil6. Is
dactylographle. Ia st6nographla.


CONDITIONS D'ADMISSION


Ladmission so fall patr vole do concourse qut a lieu au
moist do Julllet i I'lnstitut parml lea candidatl dos 2 sexes Ag6a
de 20 ans du niveau do Is t7me ann6i secondalre routes series.


OUREE ET REGIME DES ETUDES


La dur6e de formation lat de 2 ann6es.

Los 616ves pouvent 6tre internee ou externe. l'laternal eat
surtout ouvert aux 16ves non originalros do la ville stiga de lnsti-
tut. ,

rLe 616veo peuvont b6n6ftcler d'une bourse monsualli d'un
montant de 276 DH. aco rd6e par 'Oltlce do la Formation Profes-
sionnalel at do Ia Promotion du Travail, an contrepartie do It sous-
cription d'un contract d'ongagement do servir I'administratlon durant
4 ans.


DIPLOMES ET DEBOUCHES


Lea itudes sont sanctionn6ae per Ia Certifical d'Aplltude
P6dagogique et do Perfectionnament Technlque. certlficat qut donna
acc6a dan I'admlnistratlon & I'6choll de ramuniration n* B.



1


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IL


SL'E.NA.P. assure Il formation
S .'adminlltratlt dens daux oycl..d'6tude
at. lurs-adjolnt) at Is cycle sup6rlou
q'


LE CYCLE NORMAL


CONDITIONS ADMISSION

Pour accAder au cycle normal d I'E.N.A.P. cheque candidate
ou candidate dolt :
6tre do nallonalit6 marocalne
6tre apt& physiquement
Itre ag1 de 17 an* au molns et de 30 anM au plus
6tro tltullre .du baccalaur6at do l'ens6lgnaomnt secon-
daire ou dun dlpl6me equivalent. .
rdusalr au concourse d'entr6e ouvert aux bachellers el aux
loncllonnalreo justllant do 6 ann6oe d'anclennel6, class6t
h I'chelle 7, .
L*admisoln n'eot d6tlnltlve qu'api6s Is signature d'un con .
trial do servir I'admlnlstratlon pendant 8 ans. Cheque iludiant re-
colt on contrepartle do ce contract, uno Indemnll mensuello fortefl
talre do I'ordro de 500 DH.

CONTENU DES ETUDES

La dur6e total do Ia formation eat do 3 ans. Lea 6tudlants
regolvent pendant lea deux premi res ann6ea, une formation g6n4-
rtle jurldlque et iconomlque.
La 36&m annie oat consacr6e & Ia spiclallaotion done I'une
des sections cl-apr&s :

Si 52 -


. ,.* + .* ) '- .. :.


.
..


do coo d0ou types d. oadres
i:; Is cycle normal (admlnls-
ir jadmlnllrateuts), ,, .


L'ECOLE NATIONAL ADMINISTRATION PUBLIQUE .



S Cr66o en 1948. 1o'.NA,P. a louloursn u pour mlsioon I -
SIormation deo cadres supdritUrp detlini6o travaillor danl IAdmlnla-
SIrallon Publique on' quallli d'Ldmlnistriteurs ou d'adminlstlrteurs-
adjoin X C E E N Ft

DEUX CYCLES, PEUX .NIVEAUX DE FORMATION


. .. .* t
1


'. *'. .- .

1 '. .
+. ''


--







SSdcloa d'AdmirnlsraUton QG6n6al (droll admlnlrtralil sp6-
clal, droll public aconomique, organuation- admlnistratlve oomparde
eto.,.)
I Section Dlplomatique (relations Intrnatlonales, droll In-
ltrnatlonal public, relations 6oonomlques internatlonalel toc...)
SSection Economlque *I Finanlbre (techniques do plani-
ficallon, comptabltit6 national, finances sp6cales eto...).
Section Judlclaire proceduree p6nale, procedure civlle.
drolt musulman, droll notarial etc.,). ,
section Postalt (Inlormatlque, contr6le do gestion, orgoa
nlistlon gin6rale et moyene da* services doe P.T.T.).
Section Soclalt (droll du.Lravall, rlglementatlon du tra-
vail, a6curit6 social etc...),
Section foncl6re (droll commercial. droll musulman. 16gis-
latlon fonclare).
L'enseignement ete donnr sounds orme do course magistraux
dlsponas par dea profeseurs d'Unversit6. do oonldrences et de
travaux pretiques dlrlgbs per de hauts ionctlonnalres rompus aux
acllvli6s d I'admlnlstratlon.
A la fin do cheque amn d'ltudes. rl6udint suit an stage
obligaloire de deux mols et dolt prdsenler un rapport do stage au
Directeur de I'"cole.

NOMINATION ET AFFECTATION DES LAUREATE

Aprtb roblentlon du dlple du cyct normal d I'E.N.A.P,, .
los lauratle sont a&lect6s auprbs des divers ervlct adminlslratll ,
par lea solne de rautorit6 gouvemementaleo charge de Ia Fonction
Publique. .. .. .. : .
S''.. Lour situation au solu de I'ldminltrallon ea( call r6serv6e
aux foncllonnalres do I'6chelle administrative .do r6munration n* 10.

LE CYCLE SUPERIEUR .


CONDITIONS D'ADMISQION ;::. ...

L'accbs au cycle rup6let aI lieu par vole dae onpouri :
ouvart aux loncllonnalres appartennt aux cadreo auxquals donna .
acc6a le dipl6me du cycle normal, ustllnllt. de .4 ann6ss au.moln.. 'i
Sdo service elont trola arnndea n qual!ti da itulairo dany I'yr de :..

:'" .- : .':(DUREE ET' SANCTION: D: ETUDES: '

La dur6e des 6tudes dans I cycle sup6trlur est de 10 minol ; ,. -,, .:
i. mlslon aux 6preuves do ce cycle con6rte au candldii le grade ,.- --'
d'adminlstrateur. Sa r6munhrallon so f lt sur Ia base de I'dchelle ad-
mi nistrative n 11. ,









7r


La stage ot rqu :

-. alt & 16cole doe ImpO6t & Casablanca
- sol A I'Ecol Nationale des Dousnes & Paris
- soltl rEcole Nationalo d Tsor Par......

REMUNERATION


L'nupe~cteu-edjolnt eat recru I' 6chel de r6munmration
administralive s a. .; uat

PERSPECTIVES D'AVENIR

La MinlstOer des FRnances projetlt Ia creation d'un Ins-
titut do Formation pour Cadres Financiers. co qui parmettra la dia-
parltlon do Iactualle procedure do formation qul sert remplaceO par
un ensalgnament ouvert directement aux lyceens Inlaroessa qui pour-
ront accader col Elablissoment comma c'est Is cao d'lnslltult oq
d'Ecoles d6pendant d'autres Ministbres .


-- 54-


v urrnivitu ut:b INSPECTEURS ADJOINTS



A a dilf6ronco due autree Opartemient Miniat6leils. Io Ml-
nisat6r dos Finances no dispose pasl & 'hure actuello d'6tablisso-
mont .d forrlltion qul' utl et propro'. '**
Copondant certainly cat6gorloo do tyc6ons, peuvont 6tIr
S recrut6s at rcevolr' uno formation au sain doe sarvloes techniques
do tour lieu d'affctrtion ou blen alors dan doe 6coles *u Maisr
ou on Ffrnc*. .

CONDITION DE RECRUTEMENT

L'omplol d'inspctlou-edJobil e ouvet amu cndidatr des
: deux MX titutares soll-du baclatuedat toutasei. oIo %oll du D.T.M.
, pr6s rtuasite au concours organtl6 par le.Minisltre do* Finances.

DUREE ET LIEU DES STAGES

La dur6 doe stagee eat variable. EBls s itm entree molt
et 2 ans.


;r

'.I

I


:









LES CARRIERS DU TOURISM




V6rtlable Indulsrle capable non asulemoen do procurer des
devises II oonomli, male encore do crrer dos emploli nouveaux
per lea Investissements auxquels *ote donned lieu, Is tourlame. do par
son d6veloppement n6cesstl Ia mis on cuvro do techniques d'avanl-
garde. ausnl blen sur le plan do I'lnrastructure gue do celul do I'or-
ganisatlon des profesaloria louiltiquos at h6lell6rea. Pour permetire
a r6valorsatllon de cee profession*, li Maroo accord une attention
partlculirae Isa formation des cadres n6cessaires ce secteur.
L'lnlillul Sup6reur do Tourisme do Tanger cri6e cot allot. a so-
cufll as promlire promotion en Octobre 1972.


L'INSTITUT SUPERIEUR DE TOURISM DE TANGER


QUEL EST L'OBJECTIF DE L'INSTITUT ?

SFormer doe cadrea comp6tent dana le technlquoe do
production at do vented, I'accuel, I'aminagement et I'adminltration
du swcltur du tourism*.

SFormer des gestlonnatlres ompus aux techniques moder-
nos do oeatlon at capable d'auumer plalnement lea diverse res-
ponsabillitd pouvant lou dtre confl6eo ; Dirocteur d'h6tels, contr6-
loura hilellars. Economy. G6rantl...

QUELLE EST L'ORGANISATON DES ETUDES? i

Doux eltions existent au seln do cot Intitut ;
.. .

La sectlon touristrn avyo 3 options (techniques do pro-'*
ductlon, scouelo, admlnlitrallon. l amdnagement) et tI section gea-.
lion hOtellbre. .

Cae 3 options comportent ls m6me horalre habdomadaire
pour lea s6ances de pratique professlonnelle ; vlsltes, conferences,
eludes do oas, exercice our is terrain.
S: .L'enaelonamant eel assur6 sous form@ do cour thorlques
d'une part et dae tages prallques d'autre part Los 6ludlanlt b6n6-
: client ainsl d'une formation g6ndrall at d'une formation ep6clalla6e.

SLa durf des itudes tel dq deux anp6 os.

55 -


QUEL EST LE CONTENU DE L'ENSEIGNEMENT ?-
I ""


* Section Tourm :


Lo 6tudes dan cortt section compoortnt


un nsign.ment g 6l .. .. :.:..: ::
S un enatignement tochnologlu .'..q .:: ; ..
des stag. .
a) Option accull pr6paro ae techniciene qui accuslllsont
94 gulderont leI tourist.
Le programme port. esientlollomenl sur 'hltlolre, rlart, Isa
g69graphlI. langue... .
b) Option technique do production *t do vent ;.pr6par .
It technicians qul eront chTrgos d. la confection tI do It venti'
do prpdult textile marocaln. ..
Le programme ports *amntlellement ur l g4dgraphloi r'6
:conoml. l 6 technlques d'agence (bllletterle l orfalls, IltndralTs...)
I marketing lI ls ratlllstiques...
o) Option adminltrallon et emdnaooment. : pr6par e les~ ch.:.
.' nlolen qul eront charges, di la conception *e do 1organlatlon '
:4d implanttllons tourlitlques d'une r6glon ou d'no sitatlon.

Le programme compared osentlallument ;. Iographi. 4cQ' ..
nomle ginirale at do ioentrprles, 6conomle tourmtique. droll. '


"II
I
: Fl

-j
.t


'..


,






* &ctlon goution htietllbre ESdCIE DAEI


,.*' .?. ., .


* A


S La scolarit6 comporle dans catte section cheque anno ; La crton d'un second cycle :
-- un enselgnae ent g6n6ral px6 sur lee languos 6trangbres, Dens Is cadre du plan qulnquennal en cour.. H *at prhvu
(A.lemnd, Espsgno), Anglets) '6oorqorle, Ila 16gslation, Ia pompt -.: 14 6 on du secnd yl qulo cre l pra longemn t norUal d
; h'.>u".. ".., ... ... ., ;',,c_-.r,. d P Pd
blIt e atmatiqus. ....... lt..Le but doe cycl sore de preparer doe cadres d'un haul ni-
S- un certain nombre da stage obllgatolre elfectu6i dan ... veau do formallon qul teron( destln6a aux carrlires du Tourisme solt
ls grand h6toal, dane lea clubs, lea villages de vacancos lea ohal-. ".' dans la socteur public, solt dans le secleur prlv6.
nee h6tell6res... La cr6atlon d'une section p6dagoglque ;
k 0Son objectlf sera d'assurer Ia formation do cadres ensel-
QUELLES SONT LES CONDITIONS D'ADMISSION ..:: gnantsa p6cla ll6a dana ts domains du touriame et d'organisor doe
Pour Ia section Tourlsme :, .. ; '' pages de recyclage & I'ntenton des onsaegnants d6j on exercise.
r ;. s.., ,.. .. ,- L. creallon d'une section d'anlmation
Ella sera charge de la formation d'anlmateura qul auroni
.tre opta phyalquament et avoir une prsepntatlon agrable .I..:. la reoponsabllit6 do I'anlmallon dans lea entreprlsaa h6lell6res.
atre a6 de 18 an* au moins at 25 ansa u plus .
=. =I ..| L .. | ...= -- ...** ...* t L _, '


- 6tre titulaire du baccalaur6at
q( uell* quen soft
Pour la sootion gestion h6tellare : '


- are aple physiquemen t t avoir uno presentation agrdable
- Atrs Ag de plus do 16 an* at do moins do 25 an '
- ltr tlitulaire du diplme do fin d'6tudea d'une "cole h6tallre
ou d'un lyc6e technique htoeller
- satislaire aux 6prouvea du concourse d'entr6a.

QUEL EST LE REGIME DES ETUDES ?

L'lnlltut eat dot6 d'un Internal pouvant accuellllr lea 6tu-
dlants des deux sections. Lea ltudiants at 6tudlantes ont la posslbl-
1116 de bindficler do bourses do I'nsoelgnement auprlour dans la
measure o~ Ils e'angagent k server le Ministere du Tourslme pendant
-una dur6e de B ina h laur sortle do l'natltut. II paul leur 6tre accor-
d6 des complimints do bouraes.

SANCTION DES ETUDES ET DEBOUCHES,

Lea Dlpl6mes : les tudes sont sanctionn6ea, solt par
le DiplOma Sup6rleur d'6tudes touristiques, soil par le Dipl6ma Su-
p6rleur do gestlon h6tell6re. Lee laur8als do Ia section tourism pou-
vent poursulvri dea 6tudes plus pouss6ee dans certain Instituts
strangers at notamment frangais.
Lea ddbouch6s : En raison du ddveloppement du Tourlsme
au Maroo, lea d6bouch6s sont nombreux at dlverslfl6..' C'ast ainal
quo lea diplm6s do Is section tourism, peuvent tout ausal blen
fair carrire dans lee agences de voyages quo dens ls compagnles
de tvriiport, los organlames do tourlsme. lea socidte6 d'am6nago-
ment ii.'... Los dipl6m6s de la section goatlon h6tellere peuvant
pour tu" part, rempllr doe fonctions do directeurs, do grants. de
chefa de ,arsonnal, de comptsblea dana lea h6toel, clubs at villages
doe vst: eto...


MODALITE D'INSCRIPTION

La demand d'lnscrlptlon devront Atre areeasies I& Di-
vision do Ia Formation Protesalonnelle at de I'Orlenlatlon D6panemenl
du Tourism, 9, Avenue Mansour Eddehbl RABAT.


* 58 -


PERSPlICTIVES D DAVENIR


..
1.1 I i





LES CARRIERS DE L'INFORMATION



L'ECOLE DES SCIENCES DE L'INFORMATION



BIBLIOTHECONOMIE, DOCUMENTOLOGIE, ARCHIVISME

S La rentr6e Unlverltalre 1074-756 dimarr6 evep ouver-
ture d'un nouvel- tablisaement d'neIlonerment supdreut I'Ecole
des 8clences do Ilnformation (E.8.1.). qul assure ous Is tutelle du
SBecrtarlat d'Etat au Plan at au Qveloppomont Rglonal. Is Forma- .




LE.8.I. a pour but de former un vMDilti8le corps do ..lecni-
cles de finformallon capable de prendre en charge 14 response-
bilnd do Is ges*lon. doe Iexploltation et de l'enrlchlasement du patrol*
mlane cultural at documnentalr, notamment lea biblloth6ques *t coan
tes do documentation.

ORGANISATION ET DUREE DES ETUDES

Doux cycles dtlo ude exist ent u liln do co tt icole :;

Un cycle maoyn d'une o dor 3 idtes e ac essll ble au.
titulalres du baccalauriat toutel "dles, sprls .leur admisslosr au
concours d'*nl t r6e. ,.^
Un cycle auprdour do 24: mnle, ouvort pardo le d
concourse d'une part aux licencl6s at Ipnginours d'appllca t in el da'-
re part aux titulares du dlpl6me dlnformallstals dllvr par ME.S.I.
Lmo lten dolvent avoir accompll on plus de dipl6mr 4 an p6d d *exar-
cic dane un service public, semi-publlo qu prvO ; Ile second s an. .'
fus do dou.,~n .:"... ..

PROGRAMME ET METHODS EUE ,
.L..omb*qpde oin thdori.qu.es do trav.ux prad:
q.-ues .. q u st d taboratoloi pnrmot & cheque 6tudlarit d6tre capable Is
Dane le cycle moyon, roneelon dment ee 4i. en' re n:.do se: tude d mianrn ri& t e s Ischeo qul fu erae ddvolue
,t u2me anndes sur les techniques do blblloth6conomle at do coleon n tent quo techniolon do I'nlormation.
ose doe information : n S36me ann6e our is spiclallsatlon dmns un :.. : ..
des domaines cholal par Iltudlant hive oum tallon 9iqa. F~''I E P. ETUD. ,
n -~6,blbliloth qus publ.ue.s etc -...
.I, Lne cycle supirleur' complti tI formation antirleure do'u ..a. L'.. na pae dInternat.egitale sea iiveoft la ppalbil
r6tudiane done lee disciplineo opllon ot pouts* d; ns ales de a noe tt ux dbndond loe o Citwei.. -
m spicla"lsa U elloattr : :


.. . ..... .,. ,.t ..! -; d ': ...






.u..u. >,ai4 oe soulcrirl un engagemani'de lervir le So.
or6ltarla d'Etat au Plan ot au .D6voloppement RTglonal pendant une
dur6o do hult .ans & leur sortie do 1'6cole, les -ludlanli do I'E.8.1.
peuvent obtenir une bourse d'ludes.
Les 6tudlants de I'E.8.I. no sonr. aulorlat6s redoubler qu'u.
no asula lols pendant la scolardlt.

DIPLOMES

A I'laue do lour formation, las dtudlants du cycle moyen
syest satllfall aux dtillrentms xamena orgaplia6 par I'E.S.I. durant
lfur scolarlt6 obtlannont ia dipl6me d'inlormatiales. Le cycle sup6-
re r oat sanctlonn6 par le diplt6m d'informatllsts ap6clallsa.

PERSPECTIVES DE CARRIER

Lea besolna on millare do te hnlclons des sciences de F'in
(onrmeon sont conslddrables. D'sprbs une 6lude offcltu6a on
1971 dana lea dit6rents secteurs, los baeolns Immidists sont do
I'ordir de 1500 cadres.
Lea laur6ats de IE.8.I. ont done blen des posslbllitda do
travail dans lea administrations publlques, loe organismes sami-
publics el lea entreprlaes priv6se. De mrme qu'lls pouvent preparer
un diplmoa suplrleur on r6lnt6grant le cycle sup6triur'aprai 3 ann6es
d'exerclce.




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