• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Population
 Marital and family status
 Education
 Labor force participation
 Income














Title: Women of Spanish origin in the United States
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086880/00001
 Material Information
Title: Women of Spanish origin in the United States
Physical Description: 17 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Women's Bureau
Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Labor, Employment Standards Administration, Women's Bureau
Place of Publication: Washington
Publication Date: 1976
 Subjects
Subject: Hispanic Americans -- Economic conditions   ( lcsh )
Spanish Americans (Latin America) -- Economic conditions -- United States   ( lcsh )
Hispanic Americans -- Social conditions   ( lcsh )
Latin Americans -- Economic conditions -- United States   ( lcsh )
Women -- Economic conditions -- United States   ( lcsh )
Women -- Social conditions -- United States   ( lcsh )
Genre: federal government publication   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086880
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 02473410
lccn - 76603171

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Population
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Marital and family status
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Education
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Labor force participation
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Income
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
Full Text



Women of Spanish Origin
in the United States

U.S. Department of Labor
Employment Standards Administration
Women's Bureau
1976











CONTENTS


Page


INTRODUCTION . . . . . .

POPULATION . . . . . . .
Number of Persons . . . . .
Age . . . . . .. . .
Residence . . . . .. . .


MARITAL AND FAMILY STATUS . . . .
Marital Status ............ .
Heads of Families and Households .. .....
Children in Families and Households Headed by Women
Residence of Families . . . .


EDUCATION . . . . . . .
Educational Attainment . . . . .
School Enrollment . . . . . .


LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION . . . .
Employment and Unemployment . . .
Occupations of Employed Women . .


Work Experience of Married Women and Women Heads of Families .
Working Mothers . . . . . .

INCOME . . . . . . . .
Income of Persons . . . . .
Income of Families . . . . . .
Low-Income Level . . . . . .














INTRODUCTION


Recent population and employment statistics have revealed the
following facts:

--There were 5.5 million women of Spanish origin 1/ in the United
States in March 1974.

--Forty-four percent of all Spanish-origin women 20 years of age
and over, or an average of 1.4 million women, were in the civilian
labor force during the third quarter of 1975.

Like other women, Spanish-origin women work primarily because of
compelling economic need. Consider, for example, that the median income
of Spanish-origin women 14 years of age and over was only $3,065 in 1974.
About 51 percent of families headed by women of Spanish origin had in-
comes below the low-income level in 1973. In fact, the median income of
all families headed by persons of Spanish origin was only $9,559 in 1974--
substantially lower than the $13,356 median of white families but higher
than the $7,808 median of black families.

Increasing unemployment and inflation have adversely affected the
economic status of Spanish-origin women and other women workers. Their
unemployment rates continued consistently high during the third quarter
of 1975. The unemployment rate of Spanish-origin women workers 20 years
of age and over was 11.2 percent, considerably higher than the 7.7-per-
cent rate of white women workers but lower than the 13.0-percent rate of
black women workers. During the second quarter of 1975, the rate of
Spanish-origin women was 12.3 percent, while the rates of white women
and black women workers were 7.5 percent and 11.4 percent,respectively.

Even among employed Spanish-origin women in March 1974, most worked
in generally low paying jobs such as operatives, clerical workers, and
service workers outside the home. Only small proportions were profes-
sional and technical workers, nonfarm managers and administrators, or
craft workers.

These facts substantiate the need to increase efforts to improve
employment opportunities and services for Spanish-origin women, some of
whom also are confronted with special problems due to language barriers.
Efforts should be strengthened in the areas of training and counseling;
in opening up nontraditional jobs to women; and in providing resources
such as child care, adult education, medical services, and consumer in-
formation. Given the opportunities needed for education, job training,
and employment, women can make even greater contributions to the
Hispanic community and to the Nation.


1/ Women of Spanish origin are primarily those who indicated their
origin is Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or
some other Spanish origin. Women living only in the continental United
States are covered in this report.











POPULATION


Number of Persons

A report from the Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce,
indicates that in March 1974 nearly 10.8 million persons, or about 5.2
percent of the United States population, were of Spanish origin.2/

About 5.5 million persons, or 51 percent of the Spanish-origin
population, were women. The 3.2 million Mexican-origin women were the
largest group of Spanish women, making up 58 percent of the total
Spanish-origin woman population.

Table l.--Women of Spanish Origin, by Type of Origin, March 1974

As percent
of total
Number Percent Spanish-origin
Type of origin (in thousands) distribution population

All Spanish-origin women 5510 100.0 51.0
Mexican 3,196 58.0 49.5
Puerto Rican 830 15.1 53.6
Cuban 362 6.6 52.5
Central and South American 364 6.6 51.6
Other Spanish origin 757 13.7 54.1

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census:
Current Population Reports, P-20, No. 280.

Age

The Spanish-origin population is relatively young. In March 1974
the median age was only 20.1 years as compared with 28.5 years for all
persons. The median age of Spanish-origin women was 20.9 years, while
that of all women was 29.6 years. Women of Cuban, Central or South
American, and Spanish origin other than Mexican or Puerto Rican had the
highest median age (24.3 years); Mexican women had the lowest (19.7 years).
The median age of Puerto Rican women was 20.4 years.

More than half (52 percent) of Spanish-origin women were between
the ages of 18 and 64 years. Nearly as many (44 percent) were under
age 18, and 4 percent were at least 65 years of age.

2/ This estimate is based on sample data and, hence, is subject
to sample error. The estimated number of Spanish-origin persons could
range from 10.5 million to 11.1 million. (See "Persons of Spanish Origin
in the United States: March 1974," Current Population Reports, Popula-
tion Characteristics, P-20, No. 280, Bureau of the Census, Social and Eco-
nomic Statistics Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, April 1975).


- 2 -








Table 2.--Spanish-Origin Population, by Age and Type of Origin, March 1974


Total Mexican Puerto Rican Other 1/
Age Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men


Number (in thousands) 5,510 5,285 3,196 3,259 830 717 1,483 1,309
Percent 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Under 18 years 44.1 47.4 46.2 49.7 45.0 48.6 39.2 40.7
18 to 64 years 52.0 49.5 50.3 47.3 53.0 49.8 55.1 54.7
65 years and over 3.8 3.2 3.5 3.1 1.9 1.1 5.7 4.5

Median age 20.9 19.3 19.7 18.1 20.4 18.9 24.3 23.5


1/ Includes persons of Cuban, Central or South American, and other Spanish origin.

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census: Current Population
Reports, P-20, No. 280.








Residence

Nearly 6 out of 10 Spanish-origin women (3.2 million)lived in the
5 Southwestern States of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico,
and Texas in March 1974. Most of these women were of Mexican origin
(85 percent). In fact, of all women of Mexican origin in the United
States, almost 9 out of 10 lived in these 5 States.

Persons of Puerto Rican origin were heavily concentrated in the
New York-New Jersey area, according to 1970 census data. Persons of
Cuban origin lived primarily in Florida, particularly in the Miami and
Tampa areas.


MARITAL AND FAMILY STATUS

Marital Status

Married women (husband present) accounted for nearly three-fifths
(56 percent) of the 3.6 million Spanish-origin women 14 years of age
and over in March 1974. Of the remaining women, 27 percent were single,
7 percent were married (husband absent), 6 percent were widowed, and 4
percent were divorced.

Heads of Families and Households

Families and households headed by women generally experience special
problems due to low income and high incidences of poverty. Among the
Spanish population, about 1 out of 6 families (411,000 families) was
headed by a woman in March 1974.3/ One-third of Puerto Rican families,
14 percent of Mexican families, and 14 percent of families of other
Spanish origin were headed by women.

More than one-fifth (21 percent) of the 2.7 million Spanish-origin
heads of households 14 years of age and over were women.


3/ A family is a group of two or more persons who reside together
and are related by blood, marriage, or adoption. A primary family is a
family which includes among its members the head of the household. A
secondary family is a family which lives in the same dwelling unit with
a primary family, but which does not include among its members the head
of the household (examples are guests, lodgers, or resident employees).

A household consists of all the persons who occupy the same dwelling
unit, which may be a house, an apartment or other group of rooms, or a
single room. A head of household is a person who heads a primary family
or is the primary individual who lives alone or with nonrelatives in a
dwelling unit. A head of family may be the head of a primary family or
the head of a secondary family. The male is always the household head
or the family head in a husband-wife family and in a family where there
is no wife, according to the Bureau of the Census definitions.


-4-








Table 3.--Families With Spanish-Origin Head, by Type of Family,
March 1974


Spanish-Origin
All Puerto
Type of family families Total Mexican Rican Other 1/


Number (in thousands) 55,053 2,365 1,359 382 625
Percent 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Families with female head 12.4 17.4 14.4 33.2 14.1
Husband-wife families 85.0 79.3 82.2 64.1 82.2
Other families with male head 2.6 3.3 3.4 2.6 3.7


1/ Includes families with head of Cuban, Central or South American,
and other Spanish origin.

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census: Current
Population Reports, P-20, No. 280.


Children in Families and Households Headed by Women

Many Spanish-origin women who head families or households must support
not only themselves but, like other women in similar situations, have the
added responsibility of providing for their children or other dependents.
Spanish-origin families headed by women in March 1974 had an average of
3.8 members compared with 4.2 members in husband-wife families. The
average number of persons in all families headed by women was 3.2.

Among the 4.9 million Spanish-origin children under the age of 18,
18.2 percent were living with their mothers only. Families headed by women
had an average of 2.2 members under the age of 18. Where both husband and
wife were present, the average number of members under 18 in Spanish-
origin families was 1.9. The average number of persons under age 18 in
all families headed by women was 1.5.

Although Mexican-origin families tended to be slightly larger than
other families of Spanish origin, both Mexican and Puerto Rican families
headed by women had an average of 2.4 members under age 18. Families
headed by women of other Spanish origin had an average of 1.6 members
under 18 years of age.

Residence of Families

Most Spanish-origin families live in metropolitan areas. Among
families headed by women of Spanish origin, 86 percent lived in metro-
politan areas in March 1974. Of these 352,000 families, almost 3 out of
4 lived in central cities.


-5-








Families of Puerto Rican origin were more likely to live in central
cities than were either Mexican or other Spanish-origin families.


EDUCATION

Educational Attainment

Women of Spanish origin, like men of Spanish origin, are making
significant progress in closing the gaps between their levels of educa-
tional attainment and that of the general population. In March 1974
the median years of school completed by Spanish-origin women 14 years
of age and over was 9.8, while that of Spanish-origin men was 10.0.

Evidence of gains in educational achievement is reflected in the
increasing proportions of Spanish-origin persons who have completed 4
years of high school or more and a corresponding decline in the propor-
tions who have completed less than 5 years of school. For example,
among Spanish-origin persons 25 to 29 years of age, 50.1 percent of the
women and 55.1 percent of the men had completed 4 years of high school
or more. In comparison, among persons of Spanish origin.55 to 64 years
of age, only 16.1 percent of the women and 19.0 percent of the men had
a high school education or better.

On the other hand, only 9.6 percent of Spanish-origin women 25 to
29 years of age and 8.4 percent of the men had completed less than 5
years of school. However, the proportion of women 55 to 64 years of
age who had completed less than 5 years of school was 29.4 percent,
while that of men was 30.3 percent.

The median years of school completed by Mexican-origin women 14
years of age and over was 8.9; by Puerto Rican women, 9.5; and by other
Spanish-origin women, 11.6. Of Spanish-origin women 25 years and over,
28 percent of Mexican and 29 percent of Puerto Rican women had completed
12 or more years of school. Fifty-one percent of Cuban, Central or South
American, and other Spanish-origin women had a high school education or
better. Mexican women (26 percent) and Puerto Rican women (20 percent)
were more likely to have completed fewer than 5 years of school than
were women of Cuban, Central or South American, and other Spanish
origin (8 percent).


- 6-







Table 4.--Spanish-Origin Persons 25 Years of Age and Over With
More Years of School and Less Than 5 Years of School,
by Sex, Age, and Type of Origin, March 1974


12 or


Women
Age and years of Total Puerto
school completed Spanish Mexican Rican Other 1/ Men


Number (in thousands) 2,370 1,295 350 725 2,121

Completed 12 or more years
of school (percent)

Total, 25 years and over 34.9 27.7 29.1 50.5 38.2
25 to 29 years 50.1 44.2 40.9 72.9 55.1
30 to 34 years 47.5 41.9 (2/) 59.1 48.7
35 to 44 years 37.5 30.0 27.2 58.1 39.2
45 to 54 years 28.2 18.4 17.2 40.2 32.2
55 to 64 years 16.1 9.1 -- -- 19.0
65 years and over 12.1 4.8 (2/) 22.3 14.8

Completed less than 5 years
of school (percent)

Total, 25 years and over 19.5 25.8 19.7 8.3 19.2
25 to 29 years 9.6 11.9 9.7 4.7 8.4
30 to 34 years 7.4 10.1 (2/) 1.7 11.9
35 to 44 years 16.7 22.4 18.5 3.9 15.9
45 to 54 years 23.0 30.2 29.0 10.0 23.3
55 to 64 years 29.4 40.8 -- -- 30.3
65 years and over 49.1 64.0 (2/) 27.1 45.3


1/ Includes persons of Cuban,
Spanish origin.
2/ Base less than 75,000.

Source: U.S. Department of Cc
Population Reports, P-20, No. 280.


Central or South American, and other



onmerce, Bureau of the Census: Current


- 7 -








School Enrollment

Of the 3.1 million Spanish-origin females 3 to 34 years of age
in October 1973, 50.1 percent were enrolled in school, including 4.0
percent at the college level. Among those 5 to 19 years of age,
enrollment peaked at 99 percent in the 10- to 13-year-old age group
and then dropped to only 75 percent at ages 16 and 17.


Table 5.--Percentage of Spanish-Origin Females 3 to 34
Enrolled in School, by Age, October 1973


Years Old


Female Percentage enrolled in school
population Below
Age (in thousands) Total college level College level


Total, females
3 to 34 years 3,052 50.1 46.1 4.0
3 and 4 years 211 14.0 14.0
5 and 6 years 203 88.9 88.9
7 to 9 years 342 98.3 98.3
10 to 13 years 445 99.1 99.1 --
14 and 15 years 237 92.5 92.5
16 and 17 years 237 74.9 73.0 2.0
18 and 19 years 197 32.9 10.8 22.1
20 and 21 years 185 19.4 1.7 17.7
22 to 24 years 276 9.2 -- 9.2
25 to 29 years 378 3.9 .4 3.5
30 to 34 years 340 1.3 .4 .9


Source: U.S. Department of Commerce,
Population Reports, P-20, No. 272.


Bureau of the Census:


LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION

Employment and Unemployment


During the third quarter of 1975, an average of 1.4 million Spanish-
origin women 20 years of age and over were in the civilian labor force,
representing 43.9 percent of all such women in the population. The pro-
portions of white and black women in the labor force were higher at 44.9
and 50.9 percent, respectively. Thirty-seven percent of the Spanish
work force 20 years of age and over were women. Of all women aged 20
years and over in the labor force, 4 percent were of Spanish origin.


- 8 -


Current








The current economic situation has had its effects upon women
workers of Spanish origin as it has on other groups of workers. The
unemployment rate for Spanish-origin women 20 years of age and over
increased to 11.2 percent during the third quarter of 1975, up from
7.5 percent for the corresponding period in 1974. This current un-
employment rate is considerably higher than the 7.7-percent rate of
white women workers, though it is somewhat lower than the 13.0-percent
rate of black women workers. The unemployment rate for Spanish-origin
men 20 years of age and over was 9.2 percent, as compared with a lower
rate of 5.7-percent for white men; black men had an even higher rate
of 11.8 percent.

About 480,000 young Spanish-origin women and men aged 16 through
19 years, or 52.1 percent of all such persons in the population, were
in the civilian labor force during the third quarter of 1975. Their
unemployment rate was 26.1 percent, greater than the 17.1 percent
rate for white teenagers, but less than the extremely high rate of
36.9 percent for black teenagers.

Among Spanish-origin women 16 years of age and over in March 1974,
those of Cuban, Central or South American, and other Spanish origin
were more likely to be workers than were women of Mexican or Puerto
Rican origin. Their labor force participation rates were 50 percent
(Cuban, Central or South American, and other Spanish origin), 40
percent (Mexican), and 34 percent (Puerto Rican).


Table 6.--Employment Status of Spanish-Origin Women 16 Years of Age
and Over, by Type of Origin, March 1974


Puerto
Employment status Total Mexican. Rican Other 1/


Total (in thousands) 3,325 1,877 483 965
In civilian labor force
(in thousands) 1,400 757 163 480
Percent in labor force 42.1 40.3 33.7 49.7
Percent unemployed 9.8 9.7 9.8 9.9


1/ Includes women of Cuban, Central or South American, and other
Spanish origin.

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census: Current
Population Reports, P-20, No. 280.


- 9 -








Occupations of Employed Women


Employed women of Spanish origin are more likely than all women
workers to be concentrated in low paying, low-skilled occupations.
Almost one-third of Spanish-origin women workers were operatives,
including transport (30 percent) in March 1974. Nearly as many
(28 percent) were clerical workers, while 23 percent were service
workers. On the other hand, only 6 percent were professional and
technical workers; 4 percent, sales workers; 3 percent, nonfarm
managers and administrators; and 2 percent, craft workers. Smaller
proportions were nonfarm laborers or farmers and farm managers.

The occupational status of all women workers differed somewhat.
The largest proportion was composed of clerical workers (35 percent),
while only 13 percent were operatives, including transport. The
second largest group was made up of service workers (21 percent),
followed by professional and technical workers (16 percent). About
5 percent were nonfarm managers and administrators and 2 percent were
craft workers. Seven percent were sales workers and 1 percent or less
were laborers (farm and nonfarm) and farmers or farm managers.

Among men of Spanish origin, the largest proportion consisted of
operatives (27 percent), followed by craft workers (18 percent). The
next two largest groups were service workers (12 percent) and nonfarm
laborers (11 percent).

In 1970, among women of Spanish heritage 4/ employed as opera-
tives, large numbers were sewers and stitchers (60,000), assemblers
(28,000), and packers and wrappers, except meat and produce (25,000);
only about 4,000 worked as transport equipment operatives. Those
employed in clerical work were largely secretaries (65,000), typists
(35,000), bookkeepers (28,000), and cashiers (24,000). Largest numbers
in service work were in food service (64,000), health service (37,000),
personal service (35,000), and cleaning service (32,000). In profes-
sional and technical work, large numbers were teachers, except college
and university (34,000), and registered nurses, dietitians, and
therapists (18,000).

Women of Puerto Rican origin were largely employed in March 1974
as operatives, including transport (38 percent). Women of Mexican
origin and other Spanish origin were more likely to be employed as
service workers than were Puerto Rican-origin women.


4/ "Spanish heritage" is a composite term used to designate several
population groups identified in various ways in different parts of the
country. The population groups were identified as either persons of
Spanish language or Spanish surname, or persons of Puerto Rican birth
or parentage.


- 10 -






Table 7.--Employment of Persons of Spanish Origin, by Major Occupation
Group, Type of Origin, and Sex, March 1974 1/

(Persons 16 years of age and over)


Total women Men of
All of Spanish Puerto Spanish
Major occupation group women origin Mexican Rican Other 2/ origin


Number in civilian labor
force (in thousands) 35,321 1,400 757 163 480 2,408

Number employed (in thousands) 33,200 1,262 683 147 433 2,236
Percent 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Professional, technical
workers 15.5 6.0 4.5 8.8 7.6 6.7
Managers, administrators 4.9 2.9 1.6 4.8 4.2 7.3
Sales workers 6.7 4.0 4.0 2.0 4.4 3.0
Clerical workers 34.9 28.3 27.5 26.5 29.8 7.0
Craft workers 1.7 2.1 1.6 4.8 2.1 17.6
Operatives, including transport 12.9 30.2 29.3 38.1 28.9 27.0
Nonfarm laborers .9 1.1 1.2 1.4 1.2 11.4
Farmers and farm managers .3 -- -- -- -- .4
Farm laborers and supervisors 1.0 2.6 4.2 2.0 .2 7.4
Service workers 21.2 22.9 26.1 10.9 21.7 12.0


1/ A more detailed listing of occupations of women of Spanish heritage may be found in the
1970 Census of Population Report, "Detailed Characteristics, U.S. Summary."
2/ Includes persons of Cuban, Central or South American, and other Spanish origin.

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census: Current Population Reports, P-20,
No. 280.








Work Experience of Married Women and Women Heads of Families

Married women of Spanish origin were less likely than either white
or black wives to have had some work experience during 1970 (latest data
available). They were also not as likely to have worked year round full
time. For example, about 42 percent of Spanish-origin wives worked at
some time during the year, compared with 50 percent of white wives and
63 percent of black wives.

Spanish-origin women who headed families were also not as likely as
white or black women family heads to have had some work experience in
1970. About 47 percent of Spanish-origin women who headed families
worked at some time during the year, compared with 61 percent of white
women and 62 percent of black women family heads.

Larger proportions of Cuban or other Spanish-origin wives than of
Mexican or Puerto Rican-origin wives had had some work experience in
1970. This trend existed also among Spanish-origin women who headed
families.


Table 8.--Work Experience
1970, by Race


of Wives and Women Family Heads During
and Type of Spanish Origin


Spanish origin
Family status and Total Total Puerto
work experience white black Total Mexican Rican Other 1/


Wives:
Number (in thousands) 39,533 3,016 1,564 833 218 513
Percent who:
Worked at some time
during year 50.0 63.3 41.8 38.9 33.5 49.9
Worked full time
year round 20.1 28.1 14.2 11.0 14.2 19.3
Women family heads:
Number (in thousands) 4,055 1,433 311 114 110 87
Percent who:
Worked at some time
during year 61.0 61.7 46.9 54.4 23.6 66.8
Worked full time
year round 34.2 26.0 23.5 23.7 12.7 36.7


1/ Includes Women of
origin.


Cuban, Central or South American, and other Spanish


Source: Manpower Report of the President, March 1973.


- 12 -








Working Mothers

More than one-fourth of Spanish-heritage mothers of children under
age 6 were in the labor force in 1970. Their labor force participation
rate was 28 percent--the same as that of white mothers but less than
that of black mothers (48 percent).

As is true for all mothers, the proportion in the labor force was
higher among Spanish-heritage mothers of school-age children than among
those of preschoolers. Forty-four percent of these mothers of children
aged 6 to 17 years were in the labor force, compared with 49 percent of
white mothers and 60 percent of black mothers.


Table 9.--Labor Force Participation Rates of Mothers, by
Race, Spanish Heritage, and Age of Children, 1970


Children No children
Children 6 to 17 under
Race and Spanish heritage under 6 only 18


White women 28.4 49.0 41.5
Black women 47.6 59.8 43.4
Women of Spanish heritage 28.4 43.5 41.7


Source: Manpower Report of the President, March 1973.


INCOME 5/

Income of Persons

The median income in 1974 of all Spanish-origin women 14 years of
age and over was only $3,065. In 1973 the median income of Puerto
Rican women was highest ($3,593), while that of Mexican women was lowest
($2,270). The median of other Spanish-origin women was $3,067.


5/ Data on income include that of women who worked part year or
part time, and are, therefore, not comparable to earnings data on
persons who worked year round full time.


- 13 -








Table 10.--Income in 1973 of Spanish-Origin Women 14 Years of Age
and Over, by Sex and Type of Origin, March 1974


Total Puerto
Income Spanish Mexican Rican Other 1/


Total (in thousands) 3,575 2,022 526 1,027

Total with income
(in thousands) 2,154 1,177 295 681

Percent 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Under $1,000 21.0 25.4 10.5 17.9
$1,000 $1,999 18.0 19.0 13.2 18.4
$2,000 $2,999 15.9 17.7 15.6 13.1
$3,000 $3,999 12.1 11.5 18.3 10.3
$4,000 $4,999 10.3 9.1 13.6 11.2
$5,000 $6,999 12.9 10.6 18.3 14.5
$7,000 $7,999 3.3 2.8 3.1 4.4
$8,000 $9,999 3.8 2.2 4.7 6.2
$10,000 $14,999 2.1 1.5 2.7 2.9
$15,000 $24,999 .4 .1 .3 1.0
$25,000 and over .1 .1 -- .1

Median income of women $2,652 $2,270 $3,593 $3,067


I/ Includes women
other Spanish origin.


of Cuban, Central or South American, and


Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census:
Current Population Reports, P-20, No. 280.


Income of Families

The 1974 median income of families headed by persons of Spanish
origin was $9,559, considerably lower than the $13,356 median of white
families but higher than the $7,808 median of black families. In 1973
families of Cuban, Central or South American, and Spanish origin except
Mexican and Puerto Rican had the highest median income ($11,191).
Mexican-origin families had a median income of $8,435, while Puerto
Rican families had the lowest median income of all Spanish families
($6,779).


- 14 -










Table ll.--Income in 1973 of Spanish-Origin Families,
by Type of Origin, March 1974


Total Puerto
Family income Spanish Mexican Rican Other 1/


Number of families
(in thousands) 2,365 1,359 382 625

Percent 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Under $2,000 4.4 5.0 5.5 2.4
$2,000 $2,999 4.8 5.5 5.0 3.2
$3,000 $3,999 6.5 5.9 12.8 3.7
$4,000 $4,999 7.3 6.9 10.2 6.2
$5,000 $6,999 14.9 15.5 18.6 11.2
$7,000 $7,999 7.8 8.1 9.2 6.2
$8,000 $9,999 12.3 13.8 9.9 10.2
$10,000 $14,999 23.7 23.4 16.0 29.3
$15,000 $24,999 15.6 13.9 10.7 22.4
$25,000 or more 2.8 1.9 1.8 5.3

Median family income $8,715 $8,435 $6,779 $11,191


1/ Includes families with head of Cuban, Central or South
American, and other Spanish origin.

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census:
Current Population Reports, P-20, No. 280.


- 15 -










Low-Income Level

About 22 percent of all persons of Spanish origin had incomes
below the low-income level in 1973.6/ These included 34 percent of
persons of Puerto Rican origin, 23 percent of Mexican origin, 13
percent of Central or South American origin, 8 percent of Cuban
origin, and 13 percent of other Spanish origin.

The likelihood of being poor was very high for families headed
by women and for women classified as unrelated individuals.7/ The
median income of families headed by women of Spanish origin was
only $4,800 in 1974. Nearly three-fifths (57 percent) of persons
in families headed by women of Spanish origin were poor in 1973.
The proportions ranged from 24 percent for those of Cuban origin to
67 percent for those of Puerto Rican origin. Among women unrelated
individuals of Spanish origin, 42 percent had incomes below the low-
income level in 1973.


6/ The low-income concept used in this report, formerly called
the poverty level, classifies families and unrelated individuals as
being above or below the low-income level, using cutoffs adjusted to
take into account such factors as family size, sex and age of family
head, number of children, and farm-nonfarm residence. In 1973 the
low-income thresholds for nonfarm families ranged from about $2,247
for an unrelated individual to $7,435 for a family of seven or more
persons. The threshold for a nonfarm family of four was $4,540.

7/ Unrelated individuals are persons who are not living with
any relatives.


- 16 -









Table 12.--Income Status of Spanish-Origin Persons in 1973, by Type of Origin


Total Central or
persons of Puerto South
Family status Spanish origin Mexican Rican Cuban American Other


All Income Levels (numbers in thousands)

Total 10,795 6.455 1,548 689 705 1 398
Persons in families 10,269 6,192 1,470 659 646 1,301
With female head 1,534 765 481 56 77 155
Unrelated individuals 526 263 77 30 58 97
Female 214 87 28 18 26 54

Percent Below Low-Income Level

Total 21.9 23.5 34.1 7.5 13.4 12.5
Persons in families 21.5 23.0 34.4 7.0 12.8 11.4
With female head 57.4 58.5 67.4 23.8 33.1 45.4
Unrelated individuals 29.9 34.0 28.5 (1/) (1/) 28.1
Female 42.0 49.8 (1/) (1/) (1/) (1/)


1/ Base less than 75,000.


Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census:
No. 98.


Current Population Reports, P-20,




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs