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 Title Page
 Introduction
 Major characteristics of HABS
 Use of HABS for research
 Potentials of HABS
 Notes
 References
 Appendices
 Appendices














Title: HABS: a research tool for social science and area studies
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Introduction
        Page 2
    Major characteristics of HABS
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Use of HABS for research
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Potentials of HABS
        Page 16
    Notes
        Page 17
        Page 18
    References
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Appendices
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Appendices
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
Full Text











BEHAVIOR SCIENCE NOTES VOLUME 8, NUMBER 2 1973
Human Relations Area Files, 2054 Yale Station, New Haven, Conn. 06520


HABS: A Research Tool
for Social Science
and Area Studies1

Hesung C. Koh*








BEHAVIOR SCIENCE NOTES VOLUME 8, NUMBER 2 1073
Human Relations Area Files, 2054 Yale Station, New Haven, Conn. 00520



HABS: A Research Tool

for Social Science

and Area Studies1


Hesung C. Koh*


In comparative research we all face common problems-
whether we are concerned with a worldwide comparison
of all known cultures in order to test generalizations about
human society or with an intensive comparison of two or
more cultures, carefully controlled to delineate the unique-
ness of a given culture. Among these common problems,
the difficulties encountered in evaluating and selecting
documents which are relevant, comparable to each other,
reliable, and at the same time readily accessible are indeed
serious and require the urgent attention of the scholar-
user. This is especially so because, despite the rapidly
growing volume of literature, the number of documents
that one can effectively utilize at one time is relatively
constant.
The Human Relations Area Files Automated Biblio-
graphic System (HABS) was designed in 1965 to alleviate

*Hesung C. Koh (Ph.D. in Sociology) is currently Director of Systems
and Development and also of East Asian Area Research at the Human
Relations Area Files. Mrs. Koh has been Research Associate at HRAF
since 1961, and until 1970 she was also associated with the Sociology
Department, Yale University. Dr. Koh's teaching (at Boston University
and at the Yale Law School), research, and publications have been in the
fields of sociology, East Asian studies, comparative research, and auto-
mated bibliographic control for social science and area studies. The HABS
(HRAF Automated Bibliographic System) was developed under her
direction.








Behavior Science Notes


some of these research problems2 by adapting the basic de-
sign of the computerized cataloging methods that had been
developed in the field of medicine.3 HABS is a set of prin-
ciples, methods, and procedures, which are combined
with codes and computer programs to provide a way to col-
lect, organize, store, manipulate, and retrieve bibliographic
data.
The main purposes of this paper are (1) to describe the
major characteristics of the HABS system and (2) to present
some of the capabilities and potentials of HABS as a re-
search tool for social science and area studies.

Major Characteristics of HABS
User Orientation
Unlike many other existing computerized bibliographic
systems, HABS was not originated by a computer expert,
nor was it developed at a library. The HABS system was
originally designed as the result of frustration encountered
in using the existing mechanisms of bibliographic control
for research and teaching. For this reason, the needs of in-
formation users took primacy over all other considerations
in the design of this system. These needs are clearly re-
flected in the comprehensiveness of the frame of reference,
the interdisciplinary orientation, the nonconventional ap-
proach to analysis, and, above all, the provision of objective
standards and mechanisms for evaluating and selecting
data, i.e. data quality control.
Comprehensive Frame of Reference
HABS can handle within a single frame of reference both
coded and free-form information of a descriptive, analytical,
and annotative nature, and can at the same time provide data
quality control.
Cross-Cultural and Interdisciplinary Orientation
The intellectual design of the system is intended to han-
dle data from all world cultures, written from any disci-
plinary orientation. ,


2, 1973








HABS: A Research Tocl


Comprehensive and Compatible Method of Description
HABS' standard method of description is comprehensive
in scope and internally compatible in citation style for dif-
ferent kinds of data. It is possible to handle descriptive ci-
tations for all types of documents, including journal articles,
chapters in books, and materials from both historical and
contemporary periods. The method is also suitable for either
machine or manual handling.4 (For further details on HABS'
descriptive information, see Appendix I.)
Multifaceted and Integrated Analysis Approach
Two of the major characteristics that are unique to HABS
are i's approach to classification and indexing and its abil-
ity to provide for data quality control. (By data quality
control, we mean a systematic means of evaluating the-re-
lii.';lity of recorded data on human behavior a-Id social
phenomena, such as that originally e:.la':.ed by 13aoul
Naroll [1962].) HABS is also unique in its ability to integrate
more than one type of classificat.'n approach and nore
than one diL-eSsincaal analysis, as well as concepts which
c:e uniqo' to one society and culture and other, which are
generic to all cultures. All these different approaches, di-
mecz:ons, and levels are integrated within the KABS anal-
ysis system.
Multidimensic,ial analysis. Sources processed by HABS
can be analyzed in terms of at least three major variables,
i.e. subject, time, and area. In addition, each source can
be identified in terms of its unit (or units) of reference,
which may be either geopolitical or cultural. This approach
to analysis can handle documents which contain information
on different topics, from two or more cultures, covering dif-
ferent time periods. Once stored, the codes for area, subject,
time, and unit of reference can also be used separately or
in any desired combination or order in bibliographic re-
trieval.
Multilevel analysis. Each major variable (e.g. area, sub-
ject, or time) can be classified in both broad and specific
terms. Approximately forty major subject headings, such as
"religion and philosophy" or "family and kinship," can be







Behavior Science Notes


used to account for the major categories of information on
a society or culture. In addition, more specific topics are
classified by the Outline of Cultural Materials (OCM) cate-
gories, with further subdivisions.5 Another dimension of
analysis, the time period covered, is classified according
to major historical periods significant to each culture (e.g.
colonial period, dynasty, etc.) and also according to the spe-
cific time focus in the standard Western calendar system.
The third major dimension of analysis, the rrea studied, is
identified and classified In terns of its geo aphic region
(e.g. Asia, Africa, North America), country, -ubunit (e.g.
province, state, etc.) and also its culture and/or subgroup
(e.g. ethnic group), using standard country and culture codes
(such as those in the Outline of World C'! ures (C'OC).3
Generic ard unique concepts. In the HABS classication
apprcrch, concepts which, are unique '- F i: ia: society
or culture (e.g. '!aiku in Japan, .Rc5 S.-.'- in na, or Griot
in West Africa) arc accounted for, as .ve11 -: ner'c con-
cepts, /-,hich are applicable to data on man;y or all sccf ties
and culture (e.g. decision-making, comrn.unity evclo:-
ment, etc.). From the former type of ,pproacL., inrd.xes a
generated of specific key terms, place names, personal
names, etc.; whereas the latter approach provides indexes
of general key terms, major subject headings, OCM classi-
fications, etc. Time periods and areas covered are also
classified both by categories significant to each culture and
by "universal classification" categories.
Structured and semistructured analysis. HABS can make
use of one or more predetermined sets of categories and can
also use another kind of classification approach, in which
index terms are freely drawn from the documents them-
selves. Key terms drawn from such documents are grouped
into a number of different types, such as topical key terms,
personal names, place names, or ethnic group names. Thus,
the general type of information to be indexed by key terms
is predetermined and specified, but not the actual concepts
or terms.
Data Quality Control and Annotations
Among the numerous problems encountered in using


2, 1973








HABS: A Research Tool


recorded data, that of-establishing their reliability comes
first in importance. Establishing an objective criterion for
measuring the reliability of data is one of the most chal-
lenging intellectual problems in information control, and,
indeed, can be said to have stimulated the birth of HABS
(see Koh 1966). As a way of coping with this problem, cer-
tain key variables which may detect systematic bias have
been delineated (see Koh 1966: 157-59). These variables
are used to form a checklist for processing annotations, and
some of them-such as author's discipline, data nature,
data source, research language, etc.-have been coded to
serve as data quality control handles in retrieval (see Ap-
pendix I).
Since all recorded data are first observed (and/or heard
or read) and then classified and organized before they are
finally written, it is possible for errors or bias to enter dur-
ing any one or more of these processes. A special effort is
made in our analysis system to detect any systematic bias
through the examination of such questions as who wrote
the sources, on what subject, why, how, under what condi-
tions, and with what results, plus how the source is rated
among the author's peers, and what are considered to be
the strengths and contributions of the source in terms of
the existing literature in the field. For this purpose, an an-
notation worksheet, which contains nearly fifty detailed
questions under such categories as the author's background,
unit identification, subject of investigation, objectives,
research method, etc., has been designed (see Appendix I).
A summary annotation in paragraph form can be derived
from this worksheet (or checklist) and then can be compu-
terized.

Varied Types of Output
HABS has developed computer programs for four differ-
ent types of output. These are: (1) index form, which may
be used with either a nonannotated or a complete citation
form, with both analysis and annotation; (2) abbreviated
citation form, organized by two or more control variables,
with each citation containing only a few essential elements







Behavior Science Notes


(e.g. author, title, and year published); (3) nonannotated
standard citation form, including information on library
location and language of the document; and (4).complete
citation form, including analysis and annotation. Further-
more, each of these basic types can be varied according
to the user's needs and specifications.
The various kinds of indexes that HABS can produce
at present may be roughly divided into three main types:
The first is an index by author, title, periodical, series, or
publication year, which can be generated as a byproduct
of processing the basic descriptive citation information
and may therefore be called a descriptive index. The sec-
ond, a subject index, includes various topical indexes7
(using both predetermined classification categories and
key terms), a geographical subjects index, a personal and
corporate subjects index, a temporal subject index, and an
ethnic group index, all of which are results of both the class-
ification and indexing processes. The third type is a coor-
din&ae index that is used for data quality control (e.g. an
author index of primary sources written by ethnologists
on the Lapps, a subject index of articles on Asia arranged
by author's discipline, or by the time period studied). (See
the HABS Experimental Bibliography, Human Relations
Area Files, 1971, and An Analytical Guide to the Journal
of Asian Studies .. Association for Asian Studies, 1972.)
This third type of index is produced by combining the
basic elements of both descriptive citations and analytical/
data quality control variables.
The abbreviated citation form is designed to provide an
economical way of producing specialized bibliographic
lists for browsing; whereas the nonannotated standard ci-
tation form is provided for standard bibliographic reference
compilation. The complete citation form, which includes
analysis and annotation, is most useful in examining the
form, content, and quality of a document. Therefore, the
information in this citation may be used with the other
types of output mentioned above.
To date, HABS has produced nearly fifty different vari-
ations of output to serve the needs of many different users


2, 1973








HABS: A Research Tool


and to produce bibliographies in several types of format
(see Appendix II for examples).
Flexibility of Design and Capability to Produce "Tailor-
Made" Bibliographies
Like other computerized systems, HABS, can help alle-
viate the tasks of searching, copying, and the constant shuf-
fling and reorganizing required by traditional bibliographic
research and compilation. Once stored in machine-readable
form, data can be used many more times and in many dif-
ferent ways, e.g. in the production of cumulative indexes,
updating of published bibliographies, and in the prepar-
ation of specialized bibliographies. Unlike other existing
systems, however, HABS also provides a means to search
bibliographic information on a carefully defined geo-
graphic sector or on a subculture of a limited time period,
as well as data on either broad or specific topics, including
those that are unique to one culture. In addition, HABS
provides a means of selecting quality sources in terms of
such objective characteristics as author's discipline, num-
ber of years in the field, source of data, etc.
Compared to other computerized bibliographic systems,
HABS offers greater flexibility for input, retrieval, out-
put, and also for future system development. This flexibil-
ity is due partly to the mechanical techniques that are
used for data storage and retrieval and partly to the intel-
lectural concepts embodied in the analytical and data
quality control variables. Each information category or ele-
ment is uniquely identified by a code, and each information
element of every descriptive citation is compatible to func-
tionally similar elements of other material types (i.e. mono-
graphs, journal articles, dissertations, etc.). The
bibliographic information categories (i.e. author, title, sub-
ject, etc.) are further grouped into four types-descriptive,
analytical, data quality control, and processing.:(See Appen-
dix I: Table of Information Categories and Control Vari-
ables in HABS.) And finally, HABS is equipped with
synthesized, general-purpose, computer programs. These
features of HABS make it possible for users of the system








Behavior Science Notes


to organize, sort, and display data in many ways and also
make it relatively easy to change the output format.
Because of the flexibility of the system, it is not neces-
sary at one time to use all its capabilities nor to process all
three types of information, i.e. descriptive, analytical, and
annotative. Any portion of HABS' input or output design
or any depth of analysis can be utilized to suit the needs
of an individual researcher, project or institution. The
nine bibliographies produced by HABS so far are all dif-
ferent in scope, depth of analysis, and output form. (See
References B: Publications on HRAF'S Automated Bib-
liographic System [HABS].)
One of the major advantages of a computerized biblio-
graphic system is its capability to produce "tailor-made"
bibliographies. All the information categories and variables
listed in the Table of Information Categories and Control
Variables in HABS (Appendix I) can be used for sorting,
either separately or in combination. Some information ele-
ments and/or categories can be either printed or suppressed,
or can be used for printing but not filing. Once the data
base is established according to HABS input specifications,
it is possible to generate bibliographic citations of various
types and depths in list, table, or card form. The size of the
printout can also be varied, from a 3- x 5- inch library
card to a full page, either in single or multiple columns.
Uses of HABS for Research
The principles, methods, and procedures of HABS can be
used for the publication of bibliographies and for estab-
lishing and maintaining automated bibliographic retrieval
systems. In addition, information processed by HABS can
be utilized for bibliographic and substantive research and
can also be used as a tool for teaching and research in com-
parative and cross-cultural studies and for area studies.
In the following pages, I would like to explain how data
processed by the HABS method can be used as a research
tool. Examples are drawn largely from my own use of the
Korean Social Science Bibliographies processed by HABS
at HRAF. (Since the HABS system was first developed in


2, 1973








HABS: A Research Tool


the course of HRAF's Korean Social Science Bibliography
Computerization Project, bibliographies on Korea at HRAF
have been analyzed and coded more extensively in some
respects than other bibliographies processed by the HABS
method. For this reason, we cannot as yet expect similar
types of retrieval capabilities for other cultural bibliog-
raphies processed by this method at HRAF.)
Bibliographic Research
Obtaining relevant, comparable, and accessible data.
There are three initial problems that are encountered in
documentary research. The first is that of finding out what
has already been written on the subject. The second is the
task of finding relevant data that are accessible to the re-
searcher. This task is particularly important in the selection
of a research topic or of .sample cultures for cross-cultural
studies. In comparative cross-cultural research, when the
number of units compared (e.g. country, culture, etc.) be-
comes larger, or when units compared are fairly complex
(e.g. industrialized society or highly stratified community
etc.), the problem of finding relevant data becomes even
more problematical. The third problem of the researcher
is to find information that is not only relevant but also com-
parable. This requires some sort of mechanism for re-
trieving data on a carefully defined geographic sector or
subculture, representing a limited time period.
How can HABS help to cope with this problem of finding
relevant data on a specific geographical and/or cultural unit
of a specific time period? An example from my own exper-
ience may serve as an illustration: Recently, as a general
conference commentator, I was asked to evaluate twelve
papers written by scholars from varied disciplines on tra-
ditional Korean society and culture. (The aim of the con-
ference was to define Korea's cultural identity in com-
parison with those of Japan and China.)8 The titles of some
of these papers were as follows:
1. "The Traditional Power Structure and Local Government
System in Korea"
2. "The Military Tradition"


Koh









Behavior Science Notes


3. "The Land Ownership and Tenancy"
4. "A Study of Korean Sijo Vocabulary-Toward a Study of
Korean Poetic Diction"
5. "The Religious Tradition: Buddhism"
My first task was to find out what other writings were
available on these topics. Since all twelve topics were
concerned with traditional Korea, the first printout we gen-
erated was a bibliography on Korea, organized by major
time periods and by major subject headings. Five bibliog-
raphies of the various dynasties before 1910 were pro-
duced, according to such broad categories as religion, the
military, polity, economy, literature, etc. Through this
printout we obtained bibliographical references to such
general topics as "military tradition." References to some
specific topics were retrieved through the index of general
key terms; still others (such as sijo, a unique form of Korean
poetry) were retrieved through the index of key terms
specific to Korean culture. Finally, to gather relevant
sources on local government and power structure and on
land ownership and tenancy, we used the following topi-
cal indexes: Major Subjects; OCM; Library of Congress
Subject Headings; Key Term, General; and Key Term, Spe-
cific. For local government, we first consulted bibliog-
raphies on the polity of pre-1910, sorted by major subject
headings and major time periods covered. In addition, the
OCM index was used to search under such categories as
local officials (628), territorial organization (630), territorial
hierarchy (631), towns (632), districts (634), and provinces
(635). Furthermore, the general key term index was searched
for such concepts as local government, local administration,
local officials, etc. Since the author of the paper on local
government included a few institutions unique to tradition-
al Korea, these terms were also checked, using the index of
specific key terms. The Library of Congress Subject Head-
ings Index was consulted for both local government and
land ownership references.
In order to examine some of the documents mentioned
in these bibliographies, the information -on the holding
library that was included in the HABS descriptive citation


2, 1973








HABS: A Research Tool


was used, so that the documents could be obtained through
interlibrary loans. The information on the language of the
document, another coded description, was also helpful as
an indication of how accessible the data would be to me
personally, in view of my inability to read some of these
languages.
Selecting reliable sources. The fourth challenging task
in documentary research is that of evaluating and select-
ing the "best sources" available. In order to do so, it is
of critical importance that the trustworthiness of the data
in documents be carefully assessed. For this task, HABS
offers as handles over a dozen different quality control
factors. Each of these data quality control factors, such as
author's discipline, language used, etc., is in turn subdivided
by numerical codes ranging from 5 to 210. Thus, the user
can define his own standards of "best" or "most desirable"
or "most trustworthy" in terms of the -HABS data quality
control codes. He may, for example, request a listing of
all e*hnographies on Lapp society, written by ethnologists
or folklorists, which are based on one or mere years of field-
work, in which the indigenous language was used for re-
search. Or he may ask for the most recent articles or books
on Korean women, which combine fieldwork and documen-
tary research, and which are authored by native women
anthropologists or sociologists and are based on primary
sources written in Korean, Chinese, Japanese, and English.
Even when such data quality control factors as these are
not coded, he can use the various combinations of the HABS
descriptive and analytical codes and the variable that deals
with field information to select sources which are com-
paratively more reliable than other existing sources.
Another example of my own use of HABS to evaluate
a paper on "The Traditional Power Structure and Local
Government System in Korea," at the conference on Korean
tradition mentioned above, may serve as an illustration.
For this task, first, an abbreviated citation list was gener-
ated, which contained only title, author, material type
(i.e. monograph, journal article, dissertation, etc.), year
published, and the identification number of the document


Koh








180 Behavior Science Notes 2, 1973

in the HRAF Korea Project data. These abbreviated entries
were first sorted by major subject heading, then further
sorted by time period covered, and finally by the language
of the document. With this abbreviated bibliographic cita-
tion list, together with the author index and the complete
citation printout, I was able to obtain answers to the follow-
ing questions: (a) What other publications has this author
produced on the same subject? (b) On what other topics
in the field of Korean society and culture has the author
published? (c) Which aspects of the subject (e.g. local gov-
ernment of traditional Korea) have also been studied by
other authors? In answer to these three questions, I learned
that the author in question had written more on the political
structure of Korea than had any other scholar. Furthermore,
he had written on many different time periods, while other
writings on local government were limited to earlier histor-
ical periods. In addition, judging from the key concepts oc-
curring in the titles of these documents, it seemed that the
writings of other authors on local government were largely
made up of descriptions of various offices. Closer examina-
tion of other sources related to local government, through
the use of the HABS complete citation with analysis and an-
notation, revealed that other similar works on Korean local
government of traditional periods were mostly descriptions
of various local offices, and that the author in question was
the only one to provide a functional analysis of various local
government structures. This indirect measure of reliabil-
ity may not distinguish whether or not one source is trust-
worthy, but it offers an objective and comparative basis
for evaluating the quality of the source in relation to the
available literature in the field.
Additional research and development on data quality
control factors are now going on at HRAF. Codes for the
following data quality control factors are being developed
and/or refined through testing: author's discipline, role
of researcher, sex of researcher, research language used
(which is further differentiated in terms of fieldwork and
documentary research), data nature, data level, data source,
and others. (For further information on coded information









HABS: A Research Tool


on data'quality control, see Appendix I.) Once the codes
for these data quality control factors have been refined by
further empirical testing with adequate samples of cross-
cultural materials, the users of the HABS data bank may
ask much more complex questions than is now possible.
Substantive Research
The usefulness of HABS beyond the field of biblio-
graphic research rests on the area of research known as the
sociology of knowledge. I would like to describe briefly
the way in which I have used HABS data on Korea to gen-
erate a set of hypotheses on the sociology of knowledge,
through the comparison of the writings on Korean society
and culture that have been produced by Korean, Japanese,
and Americans (see Koh 1973). This study was initiated
because so few propositions on the sociology of knowl-
edge have been tested in complex, non-Western cultures
and societies, like those of Korea and Japan, that existing
propositions on the sociology of knowledge cannot be
utilized effectively to solve the data quality control prob-
lems that are encountered in working with documentary
resources on East Asia.
My major question in this paper was: Under what condi-
tions do the national and cultural differences of authors
have a bearing on the systematic bias of the data produced
by them? Through the use of HRAF Korea Project data
processed by the HABS method, answers to the following,
more specific, questions were acquired: (1) What are the
dominant topics dealing with pre-1945 Korean society and
culture that were studied by Korean, Japanese, and Ameri-
can authors in their writings issued between 1880 and
1966? (2) Are there differences in the patterns of topical
selection among these three groups of authors? (3) Were
there any differences or similarities among their choices
of subject and temporal inquiries? (4) Did their subjects
of interest shift in time and with respect to where their
studies were published? (5) What sociocultural factors are
related to the topical selections and temporal focuses
of these authors, and which among these factors seems


Koh








Behavior Science Notes


to be the most dominant variable?
A description of what combinations of data elements of
the HABS system were selected and how they were used
would require more extensive discussion than can be war-
ranted in this paper. It may suffice to say that our prelim-
inary inquiries have been productive. These inquiries
were completed with the use of the basic bibliographic
printouts already mentioned above, without resorting to an
elaborate computer program of statistical analysis. The use
of HABS led, first, to the most relevant, broad categories of
variables, such as nationality, place of publication, etc., that
needed to be examined, and, second, to such specific vari-
ables as the nature of the relationship between the author's
country and country studied (e.g. colonial relationship, inde-
pendent and friendly nations, etc.). Third, this inquiry led
me to question some of the major propositions of the sociol-
ogy of knowledge. For example, Robert Merton's hypoth-
esis (Merton 1970: 363), that the "more differentiated the
society, the greater the range of audience, the greater the
variation in the foci of scientific attention, of conceptual
formulations, and of procedures of clarifying claims of knowl-
edge," seems to me to need some qualification. Perhaps
the following conditional statement should be added to
Merton's hypothesis: "given that the structure of the infor-
mation dissemination channel (e.g. the publishing industry)
is held constant." This addition seems appropriate to me
because those who control the channels of information dis-
semination and who serve as the "gatekeepers of knowl-
edge" in a totalitarian country will be quite different
from those in a country where individual freedom is en-
joyed. Furthermore, the degree of freedom for publishing,
with specific reference to censorship and funding, is
closely related to the power and economic structure of the
society and ultimately to its cultural values.
Finally, this inquiry produced my own major hypoth-
esis, which is a multivariate proposition and more com-
plicated than any I have so far considered. This hypothesis
states that in a society where the national goal has primacy
over family, occupational, or any other group or institu-


2, 1973








HABS: A Research Tool


tional goals, the topics of knowledge selected are most
closely related to the national goal. In contrast, in a society
where the individual goal has primacy over those of the
family or nation-even if only in an ideal structure-the
topical selections are oriented toward the "audience"
for whom these writings are intended. Thus, in such a
society, the climate of opinion in which a work is publish-
ed becomes the most dominant factor affecting topical
choice. (See Koh 1973: 20-21.)
This particular inquiry represents only one of the many
ways in which data processed by the HABS method can be
used for research into the sociology of knowledge. I would
like to stress particularly the importance of such develop-
ment in the fields of the sociology and anthropology of
knowledge, because here the researcher must know, above
all, which data quality control factors are of critical impor-
tance under which conditions in order to benefit fully from
HABS. For example, the length of time required for an ade-
quate field observation of bridge building may not be the
same as that required to observe the religious beliefs of an-
other culture. Furthermore it seems obvious that when the
topic of study is population policy, the sex of the author
may not be as critical as when the subject is the status of
women. It is hoped that our present efforts to develop and
implement HABS' data quality control codes will also
sharpen the scholar's"'awareness of the urgency of develop-
ing the whole field of the sociology of knowledge.

Potentials of HABS
In view of the rapid technological development of elec-
tronic devices and the increased use of on-line communica-
tion methods in human and social science, it is not unreal-
istic to consider the potential use of data processed by the
HABS methods through an interactive communication sys-
tem. Furthermore, a preliminary investigation of whether
or not HABS principles and procedures can be applied to
the tasks of describing, analyzing, storing, and retrieving
theoretical propositions, their component variables, defini-
tions, and methods of testing, has already been made, with








Behavior Science Notes


positive results. We hope, therefore, that the HABS sys-
tem will become an even more powerful tool for social
science research in the near future, by becoming an inte-
grative part of a theoretical information control system.
The potentials and the ultimate usefulness of HABS pend a great deal upon the imagination and the ability of
the user-researcher, as well as on the amount and quality
of the data that are analyzed and stored. Further refinement
and development of the system is needed, but we are op-
timistic that the overall intellectual design of HABS will
remain useful to scholars both in the social sciences and
in area studies, to which HRAF itself is dedicated.9





NOTES


SThis is a revised version of a paper prepared for the Third Human
Relations Area Files Cross-Cultural Conference, held at HRAF head-
quarters October 7-8, 1971.
2 For further discussion of the problems of using recorded data for
comparative research, see Koh 1966: 146-59.
3 The HABS system was first launched in 1965 by adopting for the pro-
cessing of bibliography concerning social science resources on Korea the
basic design of the former Columbia-Harvard-Yale Medical Libraries
Computerized Cataloguing Project (CHY), which later developed into
the Yale Bibliographic System (YBS). During the past several years, both
the intellectual design and the computerized procedures of HABS have
been further developed and refined in the course of processing cross-
cultural and interdisciplinary bibliographies at HRAF. In addition,
this system was tested for its usefulness for Asian studies information
control as a part of the Association for Asian Studies' pilot project to
automate its annual bibliography. The HABS system was developed with
the National Science Foundation grants GN-492, 821, and 892.
The problem of handling descriptive data (such as author, title, etc.)
in a consistent manner seemed at first to be unimportant and even irrele-
vant to scholarly research. We soon found, however, that there were no
citation rules for handling in a compatible manner language materials
that were published in both the Western and non-Western worlds, nor
fr documents of both contemporary and historical periods. Moreover,
none of the existing systems had citation styles for journal articles or
chapters in books that were compatible with those for monographs, series,


2, 1973









HABS:' A Research Tool


etc. In order to process cross-cultural and interdisciplinary bibliograph-
ies, we had to develop our own citation rules, a task which turned out
to be a major undertaking in itself.
The three major reference sources consulted for the HABS citation style
were: Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, Chicago, 1967;, A Manual of
Style, 12th edition, Chicago, 1969; and bibliographies in College and
Research Libraries.
SThe Outline of Cultural Materials (Murdock et al. 1971) is a topical
outline consisting of over 700 categories "covering all aspects of man's
cultural habitat." These categories have been tested at HRAF for the
classification of data on more than 280 different cultures of the world.
In HRAF's Korea Project, OCM categories were used with further sub-
divisions, represented by five-digit codes, to account-for topics that are
more specific than those represented by the three-digit category codes.
Ancestor worship (769.05), civil service (647.04), law codes (671.05), and
archeological sites of artifacts (172.05), for example, are subdivisions
of the following categories: cult of the dead (769), administrative agen-
cies (647), legal norms (671), and archeology (172), respectively.
*The Outline of World Cultures (Murdock 1972) is a classification
system of the ethnic and sociopolitical units of the world.
7 So far we have produced five different topical indexes. The first three
indexes-Major Subjects with Subdivisions, Outline of Cultural Materials
(OCM), and Library of Congress Subject Headings--are produced by
applying predetermined classification headings. The two additional top-
ical indexes, General Key Term and Specific Key Term, are drawn with-
out such pre-established classification categories. Unlike KWIC or
KWOC indexes, which are generated automatically by computer from
key words appearing in the title, these indexes are composed of key
concepts in the documents themselves, which are assigned by a re-
searcher.
a Conference on Traditional Korean Society and Culture, held at the
East-West Center, University of Hawaii, June 7-11, 1971.
SI wish to thank Robert O. Lagace, Frank M. LeBar, Frank W. Moore,
Timothy J. O'Leary, and Elizabeth P. Swift for help received through-
out the development of this system and for reading the earlier version
of this paper and making valuable suggestions for revision. I am also
indebted to Raoul Naroll for his intellectual stimulation in.connection
with the data quality control aspect of the system development, for
his continued support for the HABS system in general, and also for his
critical comments and suggestions on the earlier version of this paper.
Special thanks are due to various project staff members, and particu-
larly to Joan Steffens, whose work for the past several years has contrib-
uted toward both the development and the operation of the system. My
thanks go to Frederick Kilgour, David Weisbrod, John Dow, George Be-
dell, and all the others who made it possible for our intellectual design
to be implemented to an automated system. My sincere gratitude goes
also to the late Clellan S. Ford and to Frank W. Moore of HRAF for their
steady support and continued guidance, and to Gordon Ward, Randall
Worthington, and James Joy of the National Science Foundation for their
interest and support.


Koh









Behavior Science Notes


REFERENCES


A. General

American Library Association
1967 Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, Chicago.
19- College and Research Libraries, Chicago (published by the
Association of College and Research Libraries).
Merton, Robert
1970 "Paradigm for the sociology of knowledge," in James E. Curtis
and John W. Petras, The Sociology of Knowledge: A Reader,
New York, Praeger.
Murdock, George Peter
1972 Outline of world cultures, 4th edition, revised, New Haven,
Human Relations Area Files.
Murdock, George Peter, et al.
1971 Outline of cultural materials, 4th rev. ed., 5th printing
with modifications, New Haven, Human Relations Area Files.
Naroll, Raoul
1962 Data quality control-a new research technique: prolegomena
to a cross-cultural study of culture stress, New York, Free
Press of Glencoe.
University of Chicago Press
1969 A manual of style, 12th edition, revised.


B. Publications on HRAF's Automated Bibliographic System (HABS)
Koh, Hesung C.
1966 "A social science bibliographic system: orientation and frame-
work," Behavior Science Notes 1: 145-63.
1967a "A social science bibliographic system: computer adaptations,"
American Behavioral Scientist 10: 2-5.
1967b "Social science and Korean studies, resources," Behavior
Science Notes 2: 31-54 (reprinted in C.I. Eugine Kim and
Changboh Chee eds., Aspect of social change in Korea, Kala-
mazoo, Michigan, Korea Research and Publications: 245-72.)
1968 "Chonj a kigye soge hanguk hak [Computerized bibliographic
system]," Wolgang Chungang (October 1968): 235-38 (in Korean).
1969a "An automated bibliographic system: HABS," in "Toward
an Automated Comprehensive East Asian Bibliographic System,"
Special Conference Supplement to Behavior Science Notes 4:
70-80.
1969b "On the analysis and control of data quality for comparative
research: a computerized system," Proceedings of the Vllth
International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological
Sciences 2: Ethnology, Tokyo, Science Council of Japan.
1969c "Some potentials for social science research on Korea: a com-
puterized bibliographic system," Proceedings of the Conference


2, 1973










HABS: A Research Tool


on Korea held at Western Michigan University April 6-7, 1967:
206-19.
1971a "Toward an integrated information system for Asian studies,"
Newsletter of the Association for Asian Studies 16: 12-27.
1971b "Bibliographic service for Asian studies," Asian Studies Pro-
fessional Review 1, no. 1: 99-104.
1972a "Automated bibliographic control for Asian Studies: a co-op-
erative model," in Enid Bishop and Jean M. Waller, eds., In-
ternational co-operation in Orientalist librarianship, Can-
berra, National Library of Australia: 152-64.
1972b An automated bibliographic control system for Asian studies:
HABS, paper presented at Session IV, International Bibliog-
raphy and Information Controls for the Humanities and Social
Sciences, the International Congress of FID, held at Budapest,
Hungary, September 14, 1972 (to be published in its Pro-
ceedings).
LeBar, Frank M.
1969 "The social sciences, information retrieval, and the library:
some recent trends and future prospects," Rice University
Studies 55: 45-54.


C. Publications Produced by HABS
Association for Asian Studies
1971 Bibliography of Asian Studies, pilot project, March 1971 [pre-
pared and published by the Office of Information Systems;
Director of Information Systems: Hesung C. Koh; Associate
Editor: Thein Swe; Editorial Analyst and Coordinator: Joan
Steffens], New Haven.
1972 An analytical guide to the Journal of Asian Studies, vols. 25-30
(1965-1971), pilot project II, February 1972 [Hesung C. Koh,
Project Director; Joan Steffens, Coordinator; Kuang-chou Li,
Analyst], New Haven.
Human Relations Area Files
1969 HRAF source bibliography [prepared by Joan Steffens and
Timothy J. O'Leary], New Haven, Human Relations Area Files.
1971 HABS experimental bibliography (Copper Eskimo and Lapps)
2 vols., prepared by the HRAF staff, New Haven.
Koh, Hesung C.
1968 Social science resources on Korea: a preliminary computerized
bibliography, 2 vols., New Haven, Human Relations Area Files.
1971 Korea: an analytical guide to bibliographies, Hesung Chun
Koh, editor; Joan Steffens, assistant editor, New Haven, HRAF
Press.
Pelzer, Karl J.
1971 West Malaysia and Singapore: a selected bibliography, New
Haven, HRAF Press.
Trager, Frank N.
1973 Burma: a selected and annotated bibliography, New Haven,
HRAF Press.










188 Behavior Science Notes 2, 1973

D. Research Based on HABS Data
Koh, Hesung C.
1972 "Perspectives on Korean society and culture: an inquiry into
the sociology of knowledge," Munhak kwa chisong 3, no. 2:
255-66 (Korean translation).
1973 Comparative perspectives of Korean, Japanese, and American
writers on Korean society and culture: an inquiry into the
sociology of knowledge, a paper presented at the University
Seminar on Korea, Columbia University.


E. Publications in Process
Koh, Hesung C.
Korea: studies on family and kinship: an annotated and analy-
tical guide.
HABS handbook.
Murdock, George Peter, and Timothy J. O'Leary
Ethnographic bibliography of North America, 4th ed., revised.










HABS: A Research Tool


APPENDIX I
Table of Information Categories and Control Variables in HABS


Coded or Fixed Field Information


Information in Natural Language


DESCRIPTION


Identification number (mutually ex-
clusive ID no. for each document)
Material type(e.g. monograph, map,
manuscript, journal article)
Language of title
Call number/ name of library
Country of publication
Bibliography (e.g. no bibliography,
bibliography with text)

*Summary (e.g. English Summary...)
*Illustrations
*Document type (e.g. yearbook, text-
book, etc.)
*Number of pages
Publication year


Author (vernacular, character, and
romanization)
I fTitle paragraph (vernacular title, ro-
manized title, English title, or
translated title)
Author statement
Imprint
city of publication
publisher's name
year published
Collation
page, illustrative matter, size
Series statement
Notes
Language of document
Location of document (i.e. name
of holding libraries)
Other notes
Cataloging source


* Categories not fully tested
**When it becomes final, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
geographic area code will be used in place of these two codes. The ANSI
code will be made up of continent, region, country, state or province,
etc.
t Not in machine-readable form
#tFor monographs only. The handling of journal articles and other ma-
terial types will be described in the forthcoming HABS Handbook,
under "HABS citation style."










Behavior Science Notes


APPENDIX I (continued)

Table of Information Categories and Control Variables in HABS


Coded or Fixed Field Information


Information in Natural Language


ANALYSIS


UNIT STUDIED, nature of (e.g.
area, country, culture, ethnic
group)
**AREA CODES
Area (e.g. Africa, Asia)
Country
Subunit (e.g. state, province)
CULTURE CODES
Culture classification code (e.g.
Murdock's culture cluster)
Outline of World Cultures (OWC)
code, with subdivisions
UNIT FOCUS (e.g. total society,
community, individual)
TEMPORAL CODES
General time period studied (in
terms of major historical period
significant to each culture, such
as dynasty, colonial period)
Modification of general time peri-
od studied (e.g. exact, ca.)
Specific years studied (e.g. begin-
ning year, ending year)
Modification of specific years
studied
*FIELD DATE (first year, last year,
modification of information)
*TIME IN FIELD (number of
months in the field)
SUBJECT CODES
Major subjects (broad subject
headings, such as religion, econ-
omy, family and kinship)
Outline of Cultural Materials
(OCM)


UNIT STUDIED (i.e. name of eth-
nic group, nation, subculture unit,
overseas community, etc.)

TOPICAL COVERAGE
Major subjects heading (up to
three headings)
Library of Congress subject head-
ings (for monographs and seri-
als only)
Key term, general
Key term, specific (i.e. concept
unique to the culture studied)

GEOGRAPHICAL COVERAGE
Name of continent, region, coun-
try or city, other type of com-
munity, or specific place

ETHNIC GROUP
TEMPORAL FOCUS
Time period covered (e.g. Yi dy-
nasty, early)
Specific time period covered
Field date
Publication years covered (in case
of bibliography)

BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION
on person or institution covered


* Categories not fully tested
**When it becomes final, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
geographic area code will be used in place of these two codes. The ANSI
code will be made up of continent, region, country, state or province,
etc.
f Not in machine-readable form
f For monographs only. The handling of journal articles and other ma-
terial types will be described in the forthcoming HABS Handbook,
under: "HABS citation style."


2, 1973










HABS: A Research Tool


APPENDIX I (continued)

Table of Information Categories and Control Variables in HABS


Coded or Fixed Field Information


Information in Natural Language


DATA QUALITY CONTROL AND ANNOTATION


AUTHOR'S DISCIPLINE (e.g. an-
thropology, economics)
*RESEARCHER(S), role of (e.g.
scholar/researcher, missionary)
RESEARCHERSS, sex of

*RESEARCH LANGUAGE
Language used for documentary
research (including language pro-
ficiency, use of language of the
unit studied, name of other lan-
guages used)
Field language (including author's
native language proficiency, use of
native language, use of contact
language, author's proficiency of
contact language)

DATA NATURE (primary source,
secondary source, etc.)
DATA LEVEL (primarily descrip-
tive, primarily analytical, theo-
retical, speculative, etc.)
PRIMARY DATA LEVEL (e.g. im-
pressionistic account, systematic
observation report based on field-
work)
SOURCE OF DOCUMENTARY
STUDIES (e.g. mainly primary
source, mainly secondary sources,
both)
*MAJOR STRENGTH OF DOCU-
MENT
QUALITY CODE (local option)
OPTIONAL QUALITY CONTROL
CODES


ANNOTATION
Summary annotation in paragraph
form/source of annotations
(obtained from the annotation
checklist)
tAnnotation checklist includes the
following:
Author (birth and death date, sex,
training, status-race, nation-
ality, role, research language
facilities, previous works and
experiences, etc.)
Research team composition (e.g.
wife, interpreter, assistant)
Objectives (i.e. goals, hypothesis,
propositions, etc.)
Unit identification (name, alter-
nate name, geographical loca-
tion, major characteristics, etc.)
Time (time period covered, field
date, time lapse between the
field work and the publication)
Research method (method and
techniques included, source
documents, degree of docu-
mentation, research language
used, etc.)
Condition of research (author's
definition of the situation,
source of financial support, etc.)
Conclusions
Evaluation (single sentence com-
ment to characterize the source
as to objectivity, consistency
etc.)
Other comments
Reviews
Annotation source


* Categories not fully tested
**When it becomes final, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
geographic area code will be used in place of these two codes. The ANSI
code will be made up of continent, region, country, state or province,
etc.
t Not in machine-readable form
ttFor monographs only. The handling of journal articles and other ma-
terial types will be described in the forthcoming HABS Handbook,
under "HABS citation style."










Behavior Science Notes


APPENDIX I (continued)

Table of Information Categories and Control Variables in HABS


Coded or Fixed Field Information


Information in Natural Language


PROJECT CONTROL AND PROCESSING


Category code (category of informa-
tion)
Sequence code (sequence of IBM
cards within each category)
Transaction of data code (e.g. add,
delete)
Author statement in the title
Language of title
KWIC index (yes or no)
Nature of information (e.g. reference
and explanatory information)
Number of unit analyzed
Unit order number
Hyphen control
Nonprinting signs such as A # 4
to delineate, suppress, or print
only a portion of certain informa-
tion elements, e.g. to generate
automatically a short title from
the regular title


Author cross-reference (coauthor,
editor, compiler, translator, al-
ternate names, alternate spellings)
Title cross-reference (alternate title,
conventional title)
Series cross-reference
Substitute filing statement

tInitials of cataloger/date processed
Initials of analyst/date processed
t1nitials of annotater/date processed
SInitials of keypuncher/date proc-
essed
SInitials of editor/date processed


* Categories not fully tested
**When it becomes final, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
geographic area code will be used in place of these two codes. The ANSI
code will be made up of continent, region, country, state or province,
etc.
t Not in machine-readable form
HFor monographs only. The handling of journal articles and other ma-
terial types will be described in the forthcoming HABS Handbook,
under "HABS citation style."


2, 1973














Appendix II

HABS Output Samples













APPENDIX II A-1

Complete Citation with Analysis and Annotation
from

Social Science Resources on Korea

000530 akor *okor 111 50000 n 19C419496L31

Author Kmn, Tu-hon. C q 5 1 03- .
Title yaragraph Romanliod ttlu & characters l21) .. Choon kaJok chedo ySn lu ttt f t(.)1
English translation' (216) (Study on the family .yl.e. In Korea).
Author statement (217) L y Too-hun el*.
Imprint __ Seoul, Oryu Munh-asa, 1949.
Collntion [02__ p folil. geral. table. 21 c..
Series Hl3an3uk -unhu. ch'on'gsc 12.
Notle L.aguage of the document. Library locations, Korern. CtY.CU-E.nii-iY.
Othur notes. Tllle nd table of contents *loa In Engllih.
Includes blbllographlcal references.

Major s-hjdcts Law--flt ly.
Religion and philosophy.
(Personal and corporate subject) Valures.
(Goographical subject) Polity.
Soclocultural change.
Cataloging source CUL.S.UC*& 4
[614.00 50s.0 764.00 601.00 42.00 597.00 709.09
OCM catogorics with docimalizod subd),visons >94.OC 577.00 613.00 178.00 171.00 765.00
[Clans. Morrlagr. Funeral. Kinship tvrnlnology.
Key yords, genoral Inherltance. Adoption. Cenraloyy. F-dlll rlits.
Ancestor rorship. Morcs. Divorce.
Key yords specific to *ho culture SBja.
Lao of Succession--Addresssc ersay, lectures. .
Library of Congress classification Inherlt nce and succssion. Fornly life surw...y.
LClano and cln syst-,. Pites and cereconleo. Co
Annotation "This work, consldered e major contribution to the field.
-coprisesc nleo chapters, 'Clan.' *Hellcgions,*
*Relotlves.,* The Continuity of Lineage.'
cfeOillene eFamily Traditions.' *WeddingsnO
Funeral Cerreonlese, and 'The Process oT Lollapse of
the family :y1 tem.' MI'i61.
"An exhaustive, sytc..l*tic explanation of the Korean
fa0lly yclte*; frce tOhe historical a veill a* froe the
*oclnloylcar point of vIcw. Giv.*. spcill attention to
At. ,ngllsi translation epoorlng In parentheses d.istinulshing between the Chinese and Koreon fomily
Is quoted fro te title oao of the source. A hyst'mie .hich are often mist.k0nly equated. The first half
trar nlotion e;peorlng In Orackots has boon I devoltd to the structure and funct on of the f:aily;
sukPlled by HRAr Koreo project tof f for this the second discusses household eores marriage, i ourning
btillography. ane. teor orI hip and the decay of the patriarchal folily
ynlti. The otuly Io carefully docucentd d eontnl an n
lnglih tablo or contts." UC'^I. i.









HABS: A Research Tool


APPENDIX II A-2

Explanation of Codes


Code


DESCRIPTION
Identification number
Material type
Language
Country of publication
Author statement in title paragraph
Key word in context this book?
Contains bibliography?
ANALYSIS
Topical code-Subject
Topical code-Unit focus
Topical code-Analytical di :ension
Geographical code-General
Geographical code-Specific
Geographical code-Nature of unit
Temporal code-Dynasty
Temporal code-Nature of information
Temporal code-Beginning year
Temporal code-Ending year
Temporal code-Publication year
DATA QUALITY CONTROL
Data nature



Data source

Data level


Quality


530
a monograph
kor Korean
sokor South Korea
1 yes
1 yes
1 yes

f family and kinship
5 family or kin group
0 undifferentiated
0 total Korea
0 undifferentiated
0
n all historical periods
i incomplete
unspecified
1948 1948
1949 1949

6 systematic study based
on fieldwork and doc-
umentary research,
with statistics
5 both primary and sec-
ondary sources
3 analytical and interpre-
tative report
1 excellent


Koh


Explanation










196 Behavior Science Notes 2, 1973







APPENDIX II B
Complete Citation
from the
IIABS Experimental Bibliography
(Copper Eskimo and Lapps)



16J Jackson, Frederick George. The great frozen land
(Bolshaia zemelskija tundra) narrative of a winter journey
across the tundras and a sojourn among the Samoyads..Ed. by
Arthur Montefiore. London and New York, Macmillan, 1895.
1a, 297 p. iilus., fold. maps.


S.Bibliography Publication Date Citation Source
] Country of Publication (Arctic Bibliography)
Language of Publication
1.Haterial Type

A nal I s:
18g-3 1894


i Date o Coverage Field Langige
S3.Nature of Unit Focus Evaluation
PSF Cluster Nunber '6.Sources of Secondary Wcrk
9.Sub-unit "S.Primary Data Level
(Skolt + Kola Lapps, etc.) 4.Data Nature

Russia/U.S.S.R, Kola Peninsula/ Field date--1893-1894.


Nation of Coverage Specific Geographic location




Code Explanation
1. a monograph
2. 0 no bibliography
3. 0 total culture
4. 1 primary source
5. 1 impressionistic: traveler, explorer or journalist account
6. 0 not applicable
7. n natural or physical scientist
8. 6 unknown, but used an interpreter











HABS: A Research Tool


APPENDIX II C-I

An Analytical Guide to the Journal of Asian Studies, cols. 25-30

Additional Information Stored In
Data Bank in Coded Form

Code Explanation
DFSCRIP1T VE LEADER
Material rnpe z Jocrnal article
Language of title eng Enghsh
Country of publication usa United States
Contains bibliography? I Yes
Publication year 1970

QUALITY CONTROL LEADER
Data n.:ure 2 S'condary -':ce
Pnriarv data level 0 Not ap,';-able
Sources of secon-.y work 3 Documentzry no.aicth uut
both pirmarw' nd secon-
dary sources
Dicipline rf au;:orfs) 43 Companic ; ;te-."

ANAL )SIS LEADER ([GeC:: '}
Pnmrnary ar Al East At
Prirmry country i.7 J,.pn
Pnrmry wmaor subject -.- L L-w
General tirm period for cr'.:
Beinnng year 0700
Ending year 1745
Nature of information c Circa

ANALYSIS LEADER (Specific to e.h a- rc? i 1
Area Al Eist
Country JAP 1';rn
Representative time period
Begln :11 year 0700
Ending year 1745
Nature of informnSon c Circa
Area Al East !?.->
Cientry CHA China
Representative time period
Beginning year 0700
Ending year 175
Nature of information c Circa


ANAL.YSIS (Specific to each cultural unit
Area
Country
OCM (Outlne of Clltumrl Materds)
Category codes


Arme
Country
OCM Category codes


East Asia
Japan

legal norms
Cultural goals
Acculturatioin nd culture
contact
Offenses and sanctions
Glossary

East Asia
China
Legal norms
Acculturation and culture
contact
Offenses and antction










Behavior Science Notes


APPENDIX II C-2

An Analytical Guide to the Journal of Asian Studies, vols. 25-30
Guide to Information in Complete Citation

IDENTIFICATION NUMBER
Volume: article number

DESCRIPTIVE CITA 77ON
Authir. Title paragraph. (Title. Author statement. Journal citatic:.) Cata-
loging source. IS. = original source/

ANAL YSIS
Cointrv (Representative time period):*
CHINA (700ca.-1745 ca.):
t':jor subject headings (Specific years)
MS: Law. Intercultural relations-China-J-pan (700-930, 1694-1745).
Key terms. general (Specific year)
KG: Law codes.
..:e periods (Specific years)
TP: T'ang dynasty (7G0-900).
Ch'in3 dynasty (1694-1745).
C- :nitr (IRepres-nt:tie tirn pr.zc ';:
J:; ?A4 (7'0 ce.-1745 ca.):
'3o suj-ct !:a'dings [Gp::cific yea..)
::S: history (16?-'%745). Law. Int-rcltur:' r!:tions-J.-p.-C.'::
(70-9CO, 1Q4-1745). Hum=,nities -nd Science (164-.1745).
Key terms. .,-ic,. (Specific yea3y
;G: Reform. .ustice. Jurisprjdc..ce. FPnal code. !..- co-es. L,".! ;'-
tor;,.
Key terms specific to the culiure (Specific years)
KS: Ritsury6 (700-9,0 ca.). Lu ling (7G3-9C0 ca.).' Ritsury ,a,!u
(700-1970 c .). Ming Code ;i Japan (1691-1745). T'an3 Code ir, Jrpar.
(700-900, 1694-17'5). Ch'ing Code in Japan (1694-174,5). Chir: -e I-
studies in Japan (700-1970 ca.). Kujfkta csadsamgaki. Kyr:.b.
Personal names (Specific years,
PSN: Yosiirrune (1705-1745). Ofa. Sorti (1721-1725). Oyfo, Ho':::ci
(Ka-i) (1723). iMaeda, Tsur.mori (1706-1724).
Place names (Specific ye:,n
PLN: Wakayana han (1694-1716). Kznaz.-:.-a lhn (1705-1721).
Time periods (Specificyears)
TP: Tokugarra period (1694-1745 ca.).
Ethnic groups (Specific y=7rs)
Bibliography
Bib: yes
Discipline of authorss)*
Disc: Comparative Legal Systems
*When there are no specific years given after an index term, the representative
nme period applies.
"When there is more than one author, the discipline of the second author is
listed below that of the first.


2, 4973









HABS: A Research Tool


30:2 Henderson, Dan Fenno.
Chinese legal studies in early
18th century Japan: scholars and
sources. Journal of Asian
Studies, 30, no. 1 (November
1970): 21-56.
S.
CHINA(700ca.-1745ca.):
MS: Law. Intercultural
relations--China-Japan (700-900,
1694-1745). KG: Law codes. TP:
T'ang dynasty (700-900). Ch'ing
dynasty (1694-1745).
JAPAN(700ca.-1745ca.):
MS: History (1694-1745). Law.
Intercultural relations--Japan-
China (700-900, 1694-1745).
Humanities and Science (1694-
1745). KG: Reforms. Justice.
Jurisprudence. Penal code. Law
codes. Legal history. KS:
RitsuryB (700-900 ca.). LU ling
(700-900 ca.). Ritsuryagehu
(700-1970 ca.). Thing Code in
Japan (1694-1745). T'ang Code in
Japan (700-900, 1694-1745).
Ch'ing Code in Japan (1694-
1745). Chinese legal studies In
Japan (700-1970 ca.). Kujikata
osadamegaki. Kyoh5. PSN:
Yoshimune (1705-1745). Ogyu,
Sorai (1721-1725). OgyU, Hokkei
(Kan) (1723). Maeda, Tsunanorl
(1706-1724). PLN: Wakayama han
(1694-1716). Kanazawa han (1706-
1724). TP: Tokugawa period
(1694-1745 ca.).
Bib: yes
Disc: Comparative Legal Systems


Koh




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