Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Natural history
 Back Cover

Group Title: Favorite library
Title: Illustrated natural history for young people
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086851/00001
 Material Information
Title: Illustrated natural history for young people
Series Title: Favorite library
Alternate Title: Wood's Natural history
Natural history
Physical Description: 256 p., 4 leaves of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wood, J. G ( John George ), 1827-1889
DeWolfe, Fiske & Co. (Boston, Mass.) ( Publisher )
Publisher: DeWolfe, Fiske & Co.
Place of Publication: Boston
Publication Date: c1898
Subject: Natural history -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Zoology -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Animals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1898
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston
Statement of Responsibility: by J.G. Wood.
General Note: Publisher's catalogue follows text.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086851
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002239951
notis - ALJ0489
oclc - 252756964

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Natural history
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Full Text

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REv. J. G. WOOD, M. A., F. L. S.













CornYaCHT, Sg9A,
YDaWo Co.
DWor.z, Ftsms & Ca.



THIS section includes the apes, baboons, and monkeys. The
name is given to these animals because, in addition to two
hands like those of man;their feet are also formed like hands,
and are capable of grasping the branches among which most
monkeys pass their lives.
Apes are placed at the head because their instinct is mostly
* superior to that of the baboons and monkeys, of whom the former
are usually sullen and ferocious, when arrived at their full growth,
and the latter volatile and mischievous.
The first in order, as well as the largest of the Apes, is the
enormous ape from Western Africa, the GORILLA. The first modern
writer who brought the gorilla before the notice of the public seems
to be Mr. Bowdich, the well-known African traveller; for it is
evidentlyof the gorilla that he speaks under the name of Ingheena.
The natives of the Gaboon and its vicinity use the name Gina,
when mentioning the gorilla. The many tales told of the habits,
the gigantic strength, and the general appearance of the Ingheena,
are precisely those which are attributed to the gorilla.
As to the habits of the gorilla many conflicting.tales have been
told, and many have been the consequent controversies. In order
to settle the disputed questions, Mr. Winwoode Reade undertook a
journey to Western Africa, where he remained for a considerable

\' .... : ... = : "


time. After careful investigation, he sums up the history of the
animal as follows:
The ordinary cry of a gorilla is of a plaintive character, but
in rage it is a sharp, hoarse bark, not unlike the roar of the tiger.
Owing to the negro propensity for exaggeration, I at first heard
some very remarkable stories about the ferocity of the gorilla; but
when I questioned the real hunters, I found them, as far as I could
judge, like most courageous men, modest, and rather taciturn than
garrulous. Their account of the ape's ferocity scarcely bears out
those afforded by Drs. Savage and Ford. They deny that the
gorilla ever attacks man without provocation. Leave Njina alone,'
they say, 'and Njina leave you alone.' But when the gorilla,
surprised while feeding or asleep, is suddenly brought to bay, he
goes round in a kind of half-circle, keeping his eyes fixed on the
man, and uttering a complaining, uneasy cry. If the hunter shoots
at him, and the gun misses fire, or if the ape is wounded, he will
sometimes run away; sometimes, however, he will charge, with his
fierce look, his lowered lip, his hair falling on his brow. He does
not, however, appear -to be very agile, for the hunters frequently
escape from him.
"His charge is made on all-fours: he seizes the offensive --
object, and, dragging it into his mouth, bites it. I heard a great
deal about men being killed by gorillas, but wherever I went I found
that the story retreated to tradition. That a man might be killed
by a gorilla I do not doubt for a moment, but that a man has not
been killed by one within the memory of the living, I can most
firmly assert.
"I once saw a man who had been wounded by a gorilla. It
was Etia, the Mchaga hunter, who piloted me in the forests of
Ngumbi. His left hand was completely crippled, and the marks of
teeth were visible on. the wrist., I a~ked hi% tq show me exactly .




how the gorilla attacked him. I was to be the hunter, he the
gorilla. I pretended to shoot at him. He rushed toward me on
all-fours, and seizing my wrist with one of his hands, dragged it to
his mouth, bit it, and then made off."
The CHIMPANZEE is a native of Western Africa, and is toler-
ably common on the banks of the Gambia and in Congo.
Large bands of these formidable apes congregate together and
unite in repelling an invader, which they do with such fury and
courage that even the dreaded elephant and lion are driven from
their haunts by their united efforts. They live principally on the
ground, and, as their name imports, spend much of their time in
caves and under rocks. Their height is from four to five feet, but
they are said not to reach this growth until nine or ten years of age.
Several young chimpanzees have been imported into this coun-
try, and have shown themselves very docile and gentle.
The ORANG-OUTANG inhabits Borneo and Sumatra. In Borneo
there are certainly two species of orang, called by the natives the
Mias-kassar and the Mias-pappan. Some naturalists suppose that
the Sumatran orang is also a distinct species. This is the largest
of all the apes, as it is said that orangs have been obtained from
Borneo considerably above five feet in height. The strength of
this animal is tremendous; a female snapped a strong spear asunder
after having received many severe wounds. Its arms are of extra-
ordinary length, the hands reaching the ground when it stands
erect. This length of arm is admirably adapted for climbing
trees, on which it principally resides. Mr. Brooke, the Rajah of
Sarawak, gives the following account of the orangs of. Borneo.
There appears also to be a third species, the Mias-rombi:
"The orangs are as dull and slothful as can well be con-
ceived, and on no occasion, when pursuing them, did they move so
fast as to preclude my keeping pace with them easily through a

: i~



moderately clear forest; and even when obstructions below (such
as wading up to the neck) allowed-them to get away some distance,
they were sure to stop and allow us to come up. I never observed
the slightest attempt at defence; and the wood, which sometimes
rattled about our ears, was broken by their weight, and not thrown,
as some persons represent. If pushed to extremity, however, the
pappan could not be otherwise than formidable; and one unfortu-
nate man, who with a party was trying to catch one alive, lost two
of his fingers, besides being severely bitten on the face, while the
Animal finally beat off his pursuers and escaped.
The rude hut which they are stated to build in the trees
would be more properly called a seat or nest, for it has no roof or cover
of any sort. The facility with which they form this seat is curious;
and I had an opportunity of seeing a wounded female weave the
branches together, and seat herself in a minute. She afterward
received our fire without moving, and expired in her lofty abode,
whence it cost us much trouble to dislodge her.
The pappan is justly named Satyrus, from its ugly face and
disgusting callosities. The adult male I killed was seated lazily on
a tree. His proportions were enormous relative to his height; he
was nearly six feet in stature.
"The great difference between the kassar and the pappan in
size would prove the distinctness of the two species; the kassar
being a small, slight animal, by no means formidable in his appear-
ance, with hands and feet proportioned to the body, and they do
not approach the gigantic extremities of the pappan either in size
or power; and a moderately strong man would readily overpower
-one, when he would not stand a shadow of a chance with the
I once- saw a young orang-outang. It was rather spidery in
its development, having a very small and very rotund body, to


-which were affixed very long and slender limbs. Its face was like
that of a very misanthropical old miser, thoroughly wearied of life,
and contemplating surrounding objects with a calm but derisive
pity. It possessed in a high degree the expressive mobile char-
acter of the lips, which appeared to denote its feelings much in the
same manner as do the ears of a horse.
When young, the orang-outang is very docile, and has been
taught to make its own bed, and to handle a cup and saucer or a
spoon with tolerable propriety. For the former occuliation it
proved itself particularly apt, as it not -only laid its own bed-
clothes smooth and comfortable, but exhibited much ingenuity in
stealing blankets from other beds, which it added to its own. A
young orang evinced extreme horror at the sight of a small tor-
toise, and, when the reptile was introduced into its den, stood
aghast in a most ludicrously terrified attitude, with its eyes intently
fixed on the frightful object.
The AGILE GIBBON is a native of Sumatra. It derives, its
name of Agile from the wonderful activity it displays in launching
itself through the air from branch to branch. One of these crea-
tures sprang with the greatest ease through distances of twelve and
eighteen feet, and when apples or nuts were thrown to her while in
the "air, she would catch them without discontinuing her course.
She kept up a succession of springs, hardly touching the branches
in her progress, continually uttering a musical but almost deafening
cry. She was very tame and gentle, and would pernfit herself to
be touched or caressed. The height of the gibbon is about three
feet, and the reach of the extended arms about six feet. The
young gibbon is usually of a paler color than its parent.
The KAHAU is a native of Bqrneo. It derives its name from
the cry it utters, which is a repetition of the word "Kahau." It
is remarkable for the extraordinary size and shape of its nose, and


while leaping it holds that organ with its paws, apparently to guard
it against the branches. Its length from the head to the tip of the
tail is about four feet; and its general color is a sandy red, relieved
by yellow cheeks and a yellow stripe over the shoulders.


BABOONS are distinguished from the apes by their short and
insignificant-looking tails. The MANDRILL is the most conspicuous
of the baboon tribe, is a native of Guinea and Western Africa, and
is chiefly remarkable for the vivid colors.with which it is adorned.


Its cheeks are of a brilliant blue, its muzzle of a bright scarlet, and
a stripe of crimson runs along the centre of its nose. These colors
are agreeably contrasted by the purple hues of the hinder quarters.
It lives principally in forests filled with brushwood, from which
it makes incursions into the nearest villages, plundering them with
impunity. On this account it is much dreaded by the natives, who
feel themselves incapable of resisting its attacks. It is excessively
ferocious, and easily excited to anger, and when enraged, so bound-
less is its rage, that Cuvier relates that he has seen several of these
animals actually expire from the violence of their fury. The
greenish-brown color of the hair of this and other monkeys is
caused by alternate bands of yellow and black which exists'on each
hair. The brilliant colors referred to above belong to the skin, and
fade away entirely after death, becoming paler when the animal is
not in perfect health.
The AMERICAN MONKEYS, or Cebidae, are found exclusively in
South America and are never seen north of Panama. Their tails
are invariably long, and, in some genera, prehensile.
The Coaita is one of the SPIDER MONKEYS, so called from their
long, slender limbs, and their method of progressing among the
branches. The tail seems to answer the purpose of a fifth hand, as
it is capable of being used for every purpose to which the hand
could be applied; indeed, the Spider Monkeys are said to use this
member for hooking out objects where a hand could not be in-
serted. The tail is also of considerable use in climbing among the
branches of trees; they coil it round the -boughs to lower or raise
themselves, and often will suspend themselves entirely by it, and
then by a more powerful impetus swing off to some distant branch.
The habits of all the Spider Monkeys are very similar. They are
extremely sensitive to cold, and when chilly are in the habit of
wrapping their tail about them, so that this useful organ answers


the purpose of a boa as well as a hand. They will also, when shot,
fasten their tail so firmly on the branches that they remain
suspended after death. The great length of their tails enables
them to walk in the erect attitude better than most monkeys. In
walking, they cast their tails upward as high as the shoulders, and
then bend it over so as to form a counter-balance against the
weight of the body, which is thrown very much forward in that and
Most other monkeys. The genus is called Ateles, or imperfect,
because in most of the species the thumb is wanting. The Coaita
inhabits Surinam and Guinea.
The HOWLING MONKE Y are larger and not so agile as the
Spider .Monkeys. These animals possess an enlargement in the
-throat, composed of several valvular pouches, which apparatus ren-
ders their cry exceedingly loud and mournful, from which peculiarity
they derive their name. They howl in concert, principally at the
rising and setting of the sun. They are in great request among
the natives as articles of food, their slow habits rendering them an
easy prey.
The URSINE HOWLER or Araguato, is common in Brazil, where
forty or fifty have been observed on one tree. They generally
travel in files, an old monkey taking the lead, and the others fol-
lowing in due order. They feed principally on leaves and fruit;
the tail is prehensile like that of the Spider Monkeys.
The MARMOSET is a most interesting little creature. It is
exceedingly sensitive to cold, and when in America is usually
occupied in nestling among the materials for its bed, which it
heaps up in one corer, and out of which it seldom emerges
It will eat almost any article of food, but is especially fond of
Insects, which it dispatches in a very adroit manner. It will also
eat fruits, especially those of its native country.


The LEMURS derive their name from their nocturnal habits and
their noiseless movements. The Ruffled Lemur is a native of
Madagascar. It lives in the depths of the forests, and only moves
by night, the entire day being spent in sleep. Its food consists of
fruits, insects, and small birds, which latter it takes while they are
sleeping. This is the largest of the lemurs, being rather larger
than a cat.
The SLENDER LORIS is a native of India, Ceylon, etc. It,
like the lemur, seldom moves by day, but prowls about at night in
search of food. No sooner does it espy a sleeping bird than it
slowly advances until within reach, then putting forward its paw
with a motion slow and imperceptible as the movement of the
shadow on the dial, it gradually places its fingers over the devoted
bird; then, with a movement swifter than the eye can follow, it
seizes its startled prey.


This name is derived from the singular manner in which their
forepaws, or hands, are developed into wings. If the fingers of a
man were to be drawn out like wire to about four feet in length, a
thin membrane to extend from finger to finger, and another mem-
brane to fall from the little finger to the ankles, he would make a
very tolerable imitation of a bat.
The usual food of bats is insects, which they mostly capture on
the wing, but some, as the Vampires, suck blood from other ani-
mals, and a few, as the Kalong, or Flying Fox, live upon fruits,
and so devastate the mango crops, that the natives are forced to
cover them with bamboo baskets, to preserve them from the ravages
of these animals, who would soon strip the fruit trees without these
precautions. Even the cocoa-nut is not secure from their depreda-


The membrane of: the bat's wing is plentifully supplied with
nerves, and is extremely sensitive, almost appearing to supply a-
sense independent of sight. Many bats possess a similar membrane
on the nose, which is possibly used for the same purpose.
The object of the elongation of the finger joints is to give the
animal the power of extending the wing membrane or folding it at


pleasure. When the bat wishes to walk, it half folds the mem-
brane, and assumes an attitude admirably represented in pictures of
the Long-eared Bat. The thumb-joint has no part of the wing
attached to it, but is left free, and is armed with a hook at the
extremity, by means of which it is enabled to drag itself along in
that singular vacillating hobble which constitutes a bat's walk.
There are five tribes, or sub-families, of bats, according to

1 "7


Gray, each tribe including many genera. The Vampire Bat is a
native of South America, where it is very common, and held in
some dread. It lives on the blood of animals, and sucks usually
while its victim sleeps. The extremities, where the blood flows
freely, as the toe of a man, the ears of a horse, or the combs and
wattles of fowls, are its favorite spots. When it has selected a
subject, on which it intends to feed, it watches until the animal is
fairly asleep. It then carefully fans its victim with its wings while
it bites a little hole in the ear or shoulder. 'Tle wound is so small,
and the bat manages so adroitly, that the victim does not discover
that anything has happened until the morning, when a pool of
blood betrays the visit of the vampire.
There have been very different accounts of the vampires from
travellers, some denying that they suck the blood at all, and others
narrating circumstantially the injuries inflicted upon their own
The LONG-EARED BAT is found in most parts of Europe, and
is common in England. It may be seen any warm evening flying
about in search of insects, and uttering its peculiar shrill cry. The
ears are about an inch and a half in length, and have a fold in
them reaching almost to the lips. This bat is very easily tamed,
and will take flies and other insects from the hand. When the
long-eared bat is suspended by its hinder claws, it assumes a most '
singular aspect. The beautiful long ears are tucked under its
wings, which envelop a great part of its body. The tragus, or
pointed membrane visible inside the ear, is then exposed, and
appears to be the actual ear itself, giving the creature a totally
different cast of character.


The former sections have been characterized by the number
and properties of the hands. In this section the hands have been
.modified into feet. At the head of the quadrupeds, or four-footed
animals, are placed, the carnivora, or flesh-eaters, and at the head
of the carnivora, the Felidae, or cat kind, are placed) as being the
Most perfect and beautiful in that .section. The Felidae all take
their prey by creeping as near as they can without observation, and
then springing upon their unfortunate victim, which seldom succeeds
in- making its escape, as the powerful claws and teeth of its enemy
usually dash it insensible to the ground. The jaws and teeth of the
Felida are powerful, and their teeth long and sharp. Their claws-
are necessarily very long, curved, and sharp, and to prevent them
:.ffom being injured by coming in contact with the ground, they are -
retracted, when not in use, into a sheath, which effectually guards-
them and keeps them sharp. There are five claws on the fore-feet,-
and four on the hinder'feet.
The tongue is very rough, as may be proved by feeling the -
tongue of a cat. The roughness is occasioned by innumerable little-.
hooks which cover the tongue, point backward, and are used for the
purpose of licking the flesh off the bones of their prey. The bristles
of the mouth, or whiskers, are each connected with a large nerve,
and are exceedingly useful in indicating an obstacle when the animal
Sprowls by night. Their eyes are adapted for nocturnal vision by
the dilating power of the pupil, which expands, so as to take in every
ray of light.
The LION stands at the head of the wild beasts. His noble
and dignified bearing, the terrific power compressed into his comn-.
paratively small frame, and the deep majesty of his voice, have
gained for him the name of king of beasts." The lion inhabits
Africa and certain parts of.Asia, such as Arabia and Persia and

: J




some parts of India. It varies in external appearance according to
the locality, but there is little doubt that there is but one species.


The roar of the lion is one of its chief peculiarities.
description of it is in Gordon Cumming's Adventures:

The best

18 LION.

"One of the most striking things connected with the lion is
his voice, which is extremely grand and peculiarly striking. It
consists, at times, of a low, deep moaning, repeated five or six .
times, ending in faintly audible sighs; at other times he startles the
forest with loud, deep-toned, solemn roars, repeated five or six times
in quick succession,, each increasing in loudness to the third or
fourth, when his voice dies away in five or six low, muffled sounds,
very much resembling distant thunder. At times, and not unfre-
quently, a troop may be heard roaring in concert, one assuming the
lead, and two, three, or four more regularly taking up their parts
like persons singing a catch."
"As a general rule lions roar during the night, their sighing
moans commencing as the shades of evening envelop the forest, and
continuing at intervals throughout the night. In distant and
secluded regions, however, I have constantly heard them roaring
loudly as late as nine or ten o'clock on a bright, sunny morning.
In hazy or rainy weather they are to be heard at every hour in the
day, but their roar is subdued."
The opinion that lions will not touch a dead animal is erro-
neous, as they were frequently, shot 'by Mr. Cummings while
devouring gnoos, etc., that had fallen by his rifle. Those lions
who have once tasted human flesh are generally the most to be
dreaded, as they will even venture to spring in among a company
of men, and seize their victim. These lions are called Man-eaters.
The Lioness is much smaller than the lion, and is destitute of
the magnificent mane which is so great an ornament to her mate.
As a general rule she is more fierce and active than the male,
especially before she has had cubs, or while she is suckling them.
She has usually from two to four cubs at a time. They are beauti-
ful, playful little things, and are slightly striped. They have no
mane until about two years old. While her cubs are small, the


lioness knows no fear, and will attack a company of men, or a herd
of oxen, if they come too near her den. The cubs are remarkably
heavy for their age.
The lion when young is easily tamed, and shows a strong
attachment to its keeper. Those who have seen lion tamers will
know what influence-man may obtain over this powerful creature.
There is one remarkable difference in the characters of the feline
and canine tribes. If a man is overcome by a wolf or a dog, the
animal ceases not to mangle its vanquished foe until life is quite
extinct. A dog killing a rat is a good instance of this trait of
But if a lion or any other feline animal vanquishes a man, it
contents itself with the victory for some time without making any
attempt to injure him, unless he tries to escape, in which case he is
again dashed to the earth, and probably considerably bitten as a
At the extremity of the lion's tail there is a small hook or claw,
which has been represented as the means by which the animal lashes
itself into fury, using it as a spur. This is impossible, as the claw
or prickle is very small, not fixed to the bone as the claws of the
feet are, but merely attached to the skin, and falls off if roughly
handled. It is not present in all lions, as Mr. Wood only discov-
ered it once out of numerous specimens which he examined.
The TIGER is found only in Asia, Hindostan being the part
most infested by it. In size it is almost equal to the lion, its height
being from three to four feet, and its length rather more than eight
feet. It has no mane, but it is decorated with black stripes, upon
a ground of reddish yellow fur, which becomes almost white on the
under parts of the body. The chase of the tiger is among the most
exciting and favorite sports in India. A number of hunters assem-
ble, mounted on elephants trained to the sport, and carry with them



* .. .-*- 7: .


a supply of loaded rifles in their howdahs, or carriages mounted oh
the elephants' backs. Thus armed, they proceed to the spot where
a tiger has been seen. The animal is usually found hidden in the
long grass or jungle, which is frequently eight or more feet in.
height, and when roused, it endeavors to creep away under the
grass. The movement of the leaves betrays him, and he is checked
by a rifle ball aimed at him through the jungle. Finding that he
cannot escape without being seen, he turns round and springs at
the nearest elephant, endeavoring to clamber up it, and attack the
party in the howdah. This is the most dangerous part of the pro-
ceedings, as many elephants will turn round and run away, regard-
less of the efforts of their drivers to make them face the tiger.
.Should, however, the elephant stand firm, a well-directed ball checks
the tiger in his spring, and he then endeavors to again escape, but
a volley of rifle-balls from the backs of the other elephants, who by
this time have come up, lays the savage animal prostrate, and in a
very short time his skin decorates the successful marksman's howdah.
Tigers are usually taken by the natives in pitfalls, at the bot-
tom of which is planted a bamboo stake, the top of which is sharp-
ened into a point. The animal falls on the point, and is impaled.
The notion that tigers cannot be tamed is erroneous. They can be
tamed as easily as the lion. The coloring of the tiger is a good
instance of the manner in which animals are protected by the simi-
larity of their external appearance to the particular locality in which
they reside. The stripes on the tiger's skin so exactly assimilate
with the long jungle grass among which it lives, that it is impossible
for unpractised eyes to discern the animal at all, even when a con-
siderable portion of its body is exposed.
The LEOPARD is an inhabitant of Africa, India, and the Indian
Islands. A black variety inhabits Java, and is not uncommon
there. Its height is about two feet. This and the following Felidae


are accustomed to live much on trees, and are on that account called
tree-tigers by the natives. Nothing can be more beautiful than the
elegant and active manner in which leopards sport among the
branches of the trees: at one time they will bound from branch to
branch with such rapidity, that the eye can scarcely follow them;
then, as if tired, they will suddenly stretch themselves along a
branch, so as to be hardly distinguishable from the bark, but start

up again on the slightest provocation, and again resume their grace-
ful antics. It is easily tamed, and expresses great fondness for its
keeper, and will play with him like a cat. This animal is exceed-
ingly fond of some scents, especially preferring lavender water, by
means of which predilection it has been taught to perform several
tricks. The Leopard and Panther are considered as the same


The JAGUAR inhabits America. It is larger and more power-
ful than the leopard, which it resembles in color, but has a black
streak across the chest, and a black spot in the centre of the
rosettes. It is fond of climbing trees, and finds little difficulty in
ascending, even when the trunk is smooth and destitute of branches.
It chases monkeys successfully, and is said to watch for turtles on
the beach, and to scoop out their flesh by turning them on their
backs and inserting its paws between the shells. Nor does it con-
fine its attention to the turtles themselves, for it watches them lay
their eggs, and then scoops them out of the sand with its claws.
It often makes fearful havoc among the sheep-folds, and is said to
depart so far from the usual habits of the Felide, as to enter the
water after fish, and to capture them in the shallows by striking
them out of the water with a blow of its paw.
The PUMA, or Mountain Lion, inhabits the whole of America,
where it is held in much dread by the natives. Its color is a uniform
gray, fading into white on the under parts of its body, and this
similarity of color is the reason that the name "concolor" has
been given to it. It lives much on trees, and usually lies along
the branches, where its uniform dusky fur renders it so like the
bark that it can scarcely be distinguished from the branch. Ameri-
cans always speak of this animal as the panther, or "painter," as
it is more familiarly pronounced; and many authors still term it
the cougar, a word contracted from the original elongated unpro-
nounceable Mexican name, "Gouazouara."
The OCELOT, one of the Tiger-cats, is a native of Mexico and
Peru. Its height is about eighteen inches, and its length about
three feet: It is a beautiful animal, and is easily tamed. When in
a wild state it lives principally on monkeys, which it takes by
The domestic CAT was formerly supposed -to be the same ani-



8 L


mal as the wild cat, but it is now proved to be a distinct species,
and the difference is seen at once by the form of the tail. That of
the domestic cat is long and taper, while that of the wild cat is
bushy and short.
The cat is familiarly known to us as a persevering mouse-
hunter. So strong indeed is the passion for hunting in the breast
of the cat, that she sometimes disdains mice and trespasses on
warrens or preserves.
This instinctive desire of hunting seems to be implanted in
cats at a very early age. I have seen kittens but just able to see
bristle up at the touch of a mouse, and growl in a terrific manner
if disturbed.
The cat displays a great affection for her kittens, and her
pride when they first run about is quite amusing. While I was
undergraduate at college, a cat belonging to the baker's depart-
ment formed a great friendship for me, and used to come every
morning and evening to obtain her share of breakfast and tea.
She continued her attention for some time, but one morning she
was absent from her accustomed corner, nor did she return until
nearly a week had passed, when she came again, but always seemed
uneasy unless the door was open. A few days afterward she came
up as usual, and jumped on my knee, at the same time putting a
little kitten in my hand. She refused to take it back again, so I
restored it to its brothers and sisters myself. A few hours after-
ward, on going into my bedroom, I found another black kitten fast
asleep on the bed.
The LYNXES are remarkable for the pencil of hairs which tufts
their sharply pointed ears. The CANADA LYNX is a native of North
America, and is remarkable for its gait. Its methods of progres-
sion is by bounds from all four feet at once, with the back arched.
It feeds principally on the American hare, as it is not courageous


enough to attack the larger quadrupeds. Its length is about three
feet. The Indians sometimes eat its flesh, which is white and
firm, and not unlike that of the American hare itself. Its skin
forms an important article of commerce.
The CHETAH, or HUNTING LEOPARD, as it is sometimes called,


is one of the most elegant and graceful animals known. It is a
native both of Africa and India, but it is only in the latter country
that it is used for hunting game.
The method of employing it is usually as follows: The chetah
is placed in a cart, and taken as near as possible to the place where
antelopes or deer are feeding. When close enough, the hunter takes


the band from its eyes, and directs its head toward the game.
Directly the chetah sees the deer, it creeps off the cart, and makes
toward them as rapidly and silently as it can, carefully availing itself
of the cover of a bush, or stone, precisely as a cat does when steal-
ing after a bird. When it has succeeded in unobservedly approach-
ing the unsuspecting herd, it makes two or three tremendous springs,
and fastens on the back of one unfortunate deer, brings it to the
ground, and waits until its keeper comes up, who induces it to leave
its prey by a ladleful of the blood, which he takes care to have
ready. The chetah is then hooded and led back to his cart. It is
so easily tamable and so gentle that it is frequently led about the
streets by a string for sale.
It is rather larger than the leopard, and differs from it in the
length of its paws, its inability to climb trees, and the crispness of
its fur. It is therefore placed in a different genus from the leopard.
The HYENAS are remarkable for their predatory, ferocious, and
withal cowardly habits. There are several hyenas, the striped, the
spotted, and the villose, but as the habits of all are very similar,
only one will be mentioned. The hyenas, although very repulsive
in appearance, are yet very useful, as they prowl in search of dead
animals, especially of the larger kinds, and will devour them even
when putrid, so that they act the same part among beasts that the
vultures do among birds, and are equally uninviting in aspect.
They not unfrequently dig up recently interred corpses, and in
Abyssinia they even flock in numbers into the village streets, where
they prey on slaughtered men who are thrown out unburied. Their
jaws and teeth are exceedingly powerful, as they can crush the thigh-
bone of an ox with apparently little effort; and so great is the strain
upon the bones by the exertions of these muscles, that the vertebrae
of the neck become anchylosed, as it is called, that is, become
united together, and the animal has a perpetual stiff neck in conse-


quence. "The skull too is very strong, and furnished with heavy
ridges for the support of the muscles which move the jaw.
The hinder parts of the hyena are very small, and give a
strange shambling appearance when walking. The hyena is easily
tamed, and even domesticated, so that the tales of its untamable
disposition are entirely erroneous.
The striped hyena is found in many parts of Asia and Africa,
where it is both a benefit and -a pest, for when dead animals fail it,
the flocks and herds are ravaged, and even man does not always
The CIveTS are active little animals, averaging about two feet
in length. The whole group is celebrated for the perfume which is
secreted in a glandular pouch near the tail, and is of some impor-
tance in commerce. The civet is only found in North Africa,
especially in Abyssinia, where it takes up its abode on uncultivated
and barren hills. It feeds upon birds and smaller quadrupeds,
which it takes by surprise.
The ICHNEUMONS, or MANGOUSTS, well deserve their name of
Creepers, for with their long bodies and snouts, their short limbs
and slender tails, they insinuate themselves into every crevice in
their way in search of their expected food. Few animals are more
useful than the ichneumons. Snakes, lizards, crocodiles' eggs, or
even young crocodiles themselves, form their principal food, and
their activity is so great that, when these sources fail, they are able
to secure birds, and even seize upon the swift and wary lizards,
which, when alarmed, dart off like streaks of green light glancing
through the bushes.
The Egyptian Ichneumon, or Pharoah's Rat, as it is some-
times called, is a native of North Africa, and.is often domesticated
for the purpose of destroying the various snakes, and other reptile
annoyances, which are such a pest in the houses of hot countries.
Its length without the tail is about eighteen inches.



We now arrive at the Dog Family, which includes the Dogs,
Wolves, Jackals, and Foxes. The first of the Dogs is the KOLSUN,
or DHALE, which inhabits Bombay and Nepaul. It hunts in packs,
as most of the dogs do even in a wild state, and has been known to
destroy tigers and chetahs. Let us pass to a more interesting ani-
This magnificent creature was originally brought from New-
foundland. It is often confounded with the LABRADOR DOG, a
larger and more powerful animal. Both these dogs are trained by
their native masters to draw sledges and little carriages, and on that
account are highly esteemed.
The Newfoundland dog is well known as a most faithful
guardian of its master's property. It is very fond of the water,
and will fetch out any article that its master indicates, and lay it at
his feet. Many instances are known of this noble animal saving
the lives of people that had fallen into the water, and must have
perished but for its timely aid. This is one of the largest of the
dogs, as it stands nearly two feet two inches in height.
THE BLOODHOUND.-There are several varieties of this animal,
inhabiting Cuba, Africa, England, and America. They are all en-
dowed with a wonderfully acute sense of smell, and can trace a man
or animal with almost unerring certainty. The Cuban bloodhound
was formerly employed by the Spaniards to hunt down the natives
while endeavoring to escape from their invasions. A few years since,
one of these dogs saved the life of its master, an American hunter,
by boldly attacking a puma which had sprung on him in the dark.
ness, and was lacerating him in a dreadful manner. The sagacious
animal had been tied up at home, but apparently knowing the
dangers of the forests through which its master was about to pass,
he broke his chain, and arrived barely in time to save the hunter
from a horrible death.

1 \.-.




The FOXHOUND and BEAGLE are not very dissimilar in form or
habits. They both .follow game by the scent, and are used in
hunting. The foxhound, as its name implies, is used for hunting
the fox, and enters into the sport with extraordinary eagerness.
The height of the foxhoun'd is about twenty-two inches.
The beagle is used principally for hare hunting. It is much
smaller than the foxhound, and not nearly so swift, but its scent is
so perfect that it follows every track of the flying hare, unravels all
her windings, and seldom fails to secure her at last. Sportsmen
usually prefer the smallest beagles obtainable.
The POINTER is used by sportsmen to point out the spot where
the game lies. It ranges the fields until it scents the hare or
partridge lying close on the ground. It then remains still as if
carved in stone, every limb fixed, and the tail pointing straight
behind it. In this attitude it remains until the gun is discharged,
reloaded, and the sportsman has reached the place where the bird
The group of the MASTIFF dogs is distinguished by the short-
ness of the nose and the breadth of the head. This group includes
the mastiff, the bull-dog, and the absurd little pug-ddg. The
breadth of their heads is caused by the large muscles which move
the jaw.
The English mastiff is generally employed as a house-dog, as
its powerful frame and deep voice are well fitted to scare away
marauders, or to repel them if they approach too near. It is by
far the most sagacious.of the whole group, and exhibits much more
attachment to its master than the others.
The BULL-DOG is proverbial for courage and endurance. Un-
fortunately its social qualities are by no means pleasing, as, although
it has some attachment to its master, yet it is not always safe for
him to disturb it. This dog was extensively used in the cruel sport

..~~' -' .-


of bull-baiting, a recreation now extinct. When opposed to the
bull, the dog would fly at its nose, and there hang in spite of all the
infuriated animal's struggles.
The TERRIERS never grow to any considerable size. There are
several breeds of terriers, among which the English and Scotch are
most conspicuous. These dogs are principally used for destroying


rats or other vermin, and are so courageous that they do not hesitate
to unearth the fox or badger. Otters are also hunted by them, but
prove by no means an easy prey. Terriers are extremely attached
to their master, and are capable of learning many amusing tricks.
The SHEPHERD'S Doo is a rough, shaggy animal, with sharp
pointed ears and nose. It is an invaluable assistant to theshepherd,


as it knows all its master's sheep, never suffers them to stray, and
when two flocks have mixed, it will separate its own charge with the
greatest certainty. It understands every look and gesture of its
beloved master, and drives the flock to any place which he points
The GREYHOUND is the swiftest of all the dogs, and is princi-
pally used in the pursuit of the hare. It has but little delicacy in
scent, and hunts almost entirely by sight. The hare endeavors to
baffle it by making sharp turns, which the dog cannot do on account
of its superior size, and has therefore to take a circuit, during which
the hare makes off in another direction. The hare also has the
property of stopping almost instantaneously when at full speed. It
puts this manceuvre into force, when it is nearing its favorite hiding-
place. It induces the dog to spring upon it, and then suddenly
checks itself. The dog is carried twenty or thirty yards away by its
own momentum, and the hare springs off to her place of refuge.
PRAIRIE DOG.-The title of Prairie Dog has been given to
this animal on account of the sharp yelping sound which it is in
the habit of uttering, and which has, some resemblance to the
barking of a very small and very peevish lap-dog. Every time it
yelps it gives its tail a smart jerk. This peculiar sound is evidently
employed as a cry of alarm; for as soon as it is uttered all the
prairie dogs dive into their burrows, and do not emerge again until
they hear the shrill whistle which tells them that the danger is past.
WOLF.-The wolf looks much like a large shaggy dog, and it
has been thought by many that the first dogs sprung from wolves.
When taken young the wolf may be tamed, and it shows as much
love for its master as the dog does. The wolf is very swift, and
hunts deer and other animals in packs. It is sly and stealthy, and
often prowls about lonely farms, to catch stray sheep, calves, pigs,
or fowls, but is also cowardly and is easily frightened off by the
barking of a dog or the sound of a gun.


a,\ ~



When pressed by hunger it becomes dangerous, and will attack
horses and oxen, and even men. In hard winters packs of hungry
wolves come down from the forests of the Alps and other moun-
tains in Europe and commit great ravages; and many terrible
stories have been told of travellers who have been chased by them
in great forests, especially in Russia and Siberia. It is said that in
Russia more than two hundred human beings are killed by wolves
every year, and a great many thousands of cattle and sheep.
The GREY WOLF of North America is usually gray above and
yellowish gray below, but is sometimes nearly white. It is three or
four feet long, with a tail about a foot and a half long.
Packs of these wolves follow the buffalo herds on the western
plains, feeding on the sick and straggling ones. They also attack
horses, and sometimes men, when very hungry. They were once
plentiful in New England and the other Eastern States, but now
only a few are found in mountainous and thickly wooded parts.
In 1739 Israel Putnam, who afterward became so well known
as General Putnam of the Revolutionary War, began life as a
farmer in the town of Pomfret, Connecticut, forty miles east of
Hartford. That part of the State was then quite wild, and the
wolves were so troublesome that they killed seventy of his sheep in
one night. The mischief was all done by one old she wolf and
her cubs, who had lived in the woods near there for several years.
The hunters killed the cubs, but the old one was too wary to be
caught. She was at last driven by bloodhounds into a den about
three miles from Putnam's house. The hunters tried to smoke her
out by burning straw and brimstone in the mouth of the cave, but
the wolf would not come out, and Putnam, tired of waiting any
longer, for it was then ten o'clock at night, took a blazing torch in
his hand and went down the hole, which was only high enough for
him to crawl on his hands and knees. He had a rope tied round


his legs, and told his friends to pull him up when he gave a signal.
He crawled along more than thirty feet, or six times a man's
length, without seeing anything; but all at once he saw at the end
of the cave the glaring eyeballs of the wolf. She gnashed her
teeth and gave a sudden growl, and his friends, who heard it,
Pulled him out so quickly that his shirt was torn to strips and his
skin badly cut. He then loaded his gun with buckshot, and taking
it in one hand and a torch in the other, went down again. ,As
soon as he came near the wolf, she growled and made ready to
spring at him, but he shot her quickly in the head, and was hauled
out again nearly deaf with the noise, and choked with the smoke.
After the.smoke had cleared away, he crawled down a third time,
took the dead wolf by the ears, and the two were pulled out by the
people above with much joy.
The Indians catch many grey wolves in traps, and also kill
many by surrounding them in a circle, which they make smaller,
little by little, until they get near enough to shoot them.
The PRAIRIE WOLF, which the Mexicans call coyote, is smaller
than the grey wolf, and is much like a jackal. The true wolf has
a howl like that of a dog, but the prairie wolf has only a kind of
snapping bark, whence it is sometimes called the barking wolf. It
lives in burrows on the great Western plains, is very swift, and
hunts in packs.
THE Fox.-This terror of hen-roosts and delight of sports-
men is found in most parts of America, and many other countries.
It varies very much in color and size, according to the country
where it lives.
The habits of this animal are mostly nocturnal. It lies by day
concealed in its burrow, if it be fortunate enough to possess one.
Toward evening it sallies out in search of food, and woe to the
unfortunate hare, rabbit, pheasant, or fowl that comes in its way.


Sometimes he steals into the hen-roost, destroys and carries off
most of its inmates, some of which he devours on the spot, others
he carries home, and the remainder he buries for a future repast.
When irritated, the fox gives out a strong, disagreeable scent,
which lies so long on the ground that it may be perceived for nearly
an hour after the fox has passed. Partly on this account, and
partly on account of its speed, endurance, and cunning, the chase
of the fox is one of the most admired of English sports.

THE Fox.

The WEASELS are easily distinguished by their long slender
bodies, short muzzle, sharp teeth, and predatory habits. They
inhabit almost every part of the world, and procure their food by
creeping on their unsuspecting victim, generally a rabbit, rat, or
bird, and then suddenly darting at it and piercing its neck with their
sharp teeth. Almost all the weasels devour the brain and suck the
blood of their prey, but seldom touch the flesh, unless they are
pressed by hunger.
There are two kinds of MARTENS, na~ed, from their favorite


haunts, the Pine and the Beech Marten. Some naturalists assert
that these two martens are not distinct animals, but only varieties
of the same species. The Pine Marten is common in North
America, where it is much too fond of chickens and ducklings to be


a desirable neighbor. This animal, as well as the sable, is much
sought after on account of its skin, which furnishes a beautiful fur,
not much inferior to that of the sable.
The STOAT, or ERMINE, is smaller than the polecat, but its
habits are scarcely less predaceous. Hares and rabbits fall easy


victims to their little enemy, who despatches them with a single
bite, penetrating the brain. During the winter the stoat becomes
partially white, in northern countries wholly so, except the tip of
the tail, which remains black. In this state it is called the ermine,
and is killed in great numbers for the sake of its beautiful and
valuable fur.
The WEASEL is the least of this tribe. It is exceedingly use-
ful to farmers, as it wages unrelenting war on rats and mice, and in
an incredibly short space of time extirpates them from a barn or
stack. It hunts by scent like dogs, and tracks the unfortunate rat
with the most deadly certainty. It is a most courageous little
animal, and will even attack men, who have found it by no means
a'despicable antagonist, as its instinct invariably leads it to dash at
the throat, where a bite from its long, sharp teeth would be very
THE BADGER.--This harmless and much injured animal (which
is often subjected to such ill treatment that the term "badgering"
a person is used to express irritating him in every possible way)
lives at the bottom of deep burrows, which it excavates, and in
which it passes all .the day sleeping on a very comfortable bed of
hay and grass. When the evening approaches it seeks it food,
consisting of roots, fruit, insects, and sometimes young rabbits.
It is also said to attack the wild bee, and boldly devour the honey
and combs, its thick hair and skin rendering it utterly regardless of
the stings of the enraged bees.
The power of the badger's bite is caused principally by the
manner in which the under jaw is set on. Not only are its teeth
sharp, and the leverage of its jaw powerful, but the jaw is so con-
trived that, when the creature closes its mouth, the jaw locks
together as it were, and is held fast without much exertion on the
part of the badger. Its skin is rather valuable, the hair being


extensively employed in the manufacture of brushes, and its fur
being in some request for holsters. The length of the badger is
about two feet three inches.
The OrrER seems to play the same part in the water as the
polecat and other weasels on the land. Lile the polecat, it is ex-
cessively rapacious, and destroys many more creatures than it can
devour; and as the polecat only eats the brain and sucks the blood,
so the other daintily eats the flakes at the back of the fish's neck,
and leaves the rest for less fastidious animals.
It is extremely interesting to watch the actions of this almost
amphibious creature. It slides noiselessly into the water, turns and
twists about below the surface with the same or greater ease than a
fish, then with a graceful sweep of the body it glides to the surface
and ascends the bank with almost the same motion. While below
the surface it bears a great resemblance to the seal, the method in
which it disposes its hind feet greatly assisting the effect. Its rapid
and easy movements in the water are mostly'performed by the
assistance of its powerful tapering tail.
The otter is easily tamed, and its predatory habits have been
occasionally turned to account, as it is sometimes trained to catch
fish and bring them to shore. The Hindoos have brought the art
of otter training to great perfection, and keep their otters regularly
tethered with ropes and straw collars on the banks of the river.
The BEARS and their allies are mostly heavy, and walk with
the whole foot placed flat on the ground, unlike the cats, dogs, etc.,
who walk -with merely their paws or toes. All the bears are om-
nivorous-that is, they can eat either animal or vegetable food, so
that a leg of mutton, a pot of honey, a. potato, or an apple, are
equally acceptable.
The BROWN BEAR inhabits the .north of Europe, Switzerland,
and the Pyrenees,


In olden times the bear used to be baited-that is to say, the
bear was tied to a pole, and several dogs were set at him, the object
being to see whether the bear could bite the dogs, or the dogs bite
the bear with greater force; but this cruel sport is now happily
The GRIZZLY BEAR, a native of North America, is the most
ferocious and powerful of its family, and is an animal which must
either.be avoided or fought, for there is no medium. If a grizzly
once sees a man, it will probably chase him, and will do so with
great perseverance. An American traveller told me lately that he
had been chased nearly thirty miles by one of these bears, who
would probably have kept up the chase as many miles movie, had
not my informant crossed a wide river, over which the bear did
not choose to follow him.
The grizzly bear is very marvellously tenacious of life. Some-
times, it is said, after a party of hunters have been combating one
of these bears, it is impossible to find four square inches of
sound skin in the animal's body, a ball through the brain or heart
affording the only means of safety to the hunter. It is rather sin-
gular that this bear has the power of moving each claw separately,
as we move our fingers. It is able to overcome and carry off the
enormous bison, and to dig a pit in which to bury it.
The POLAR or WHITE BEAR, called Nennook. by the Esqui-
maux, lives in the Arctic regions, where it feeds on seals, fish, or
even the walrus, but it dares not attack the latter animal openly.
It is a formidable antagonist either by land or water, as it dives
with great ease, and is able to chase the seal amid the waves. As
the seals frequently crawl out of the water upon rocks or fragments
of ice, the Polar bear is forced to swim after them; but lest they
should observe him he makes his approaches by a succession of
dives, and contrives that the last dive brings him directly under the
unsuspecting seal, who is immediately grasped and killed,



Richardson states that these bears are often drifted'from Green-
land to Iceland on fields of ice, and that they find the flocks and
herds so very delicious after a long course of seal diet, that the in-
habitants are forced to rise in a body and put an end to their depre-
dations. To give this animal, who is constantly running over fields
of ice, a firm footing, the soles of its feet are thickly covered with
long hair.


The RACCOON is an animal about the size of a large fox, and
an inhabitant of Canada and other parts of America. It is said to
possess the habit of washing its food before eating it. Its skin is
very valuable, and is much sought after by American hunters. The
food of the raccoon is principally small animals and insects. Oys-
ters are also a very favorite article of its diet. It bites off the hinge
of the oyster, and scrapes out the animal in fragments with its paws.


MOLE. 45

Like a squirrel when eating a nut, the raccoon usually holds its
food between its fore paws pressed together, and sits upon its hind
quarters while it eats. Poultry are very favorite objects of its
attack, and it is said to be as destructive in a farm-yard as any fox,
for it only devours the heads of the murdered fowl. Like the fox,
it prowls by night. When taken young it is easily tamed, but very
frequently becomes blind soon after its capture. This effect is sup-
posed to be produced by the sensitive state of its eyes, which are
only intended to be used by night; but as it is frequently awakened
by daylight during its captivity, it suffers so much from the un-
wonted glare, that its eyes gradually lose their sight.
THE MOLE.-Many ridiculous stories of the mole and its habits
may be found in several authors. This animal is said to be de-
prived of eyes, to undergo unheard-of tortures in forcing its way
through the earth, and to spend a life of misery in subterranean
damp and darkness. But so far from being a miserable animal, the
mole seems to enjoy its life quite as much as any other creature.
It is beautifully fitted for the station which it fills, and would be
unhappy if removed from its accustomed damp and darkness into
warmth and light.
The eyes of the mole are very small, in order to prevent them
from being injured by the earth through which the animal makes
its way; indeed, larger eyes would be useless underground. When,
however, the mole requires to use its eyes, it can bring them for.
ward from the mass of fur which conceals and protects them when
not in use. The acute ears and delicate sense of smell supply the
place of eyes.
Its fur is very fine, soft, capable of turning in any direction,
and will not retain a particle of mould. But the most extraordinary
part of the mole is the paw or hand with which it digs. The two
fore paws are composed of five fingers, armed with sharp, strong


nails, in order to scrape up the earth; and to prevent the accumu-
lated mould from impeding the mole's progress, the hands are
turned outwardly, so as to throw the earth out of its way.
The mole is a most voracious animal, and is incapable of sus-
taining even a slight fast. Its principal food is the earth-worm, in
chase of which it drives its long galleries underground; but it also
will eat insects, bits of meat, and is said sometimes to catch birds,


which it takes by surprise, and then rapidly tears to pieces with its
powerful claws. This ravenous appetite causes it to suffer from
thirst if a supply of water is not at hand. For this reason the mole
always makes a tunnel toward a pond or brook, if there is one near.
If no water is near, it digs a number of little wells, which receive
the rain or dew, and enable it to quench its thirst.
It is a good swimmer, and can pass from bank to bank, or from


the shore to an island, and when the fields are inundated by floods
it can save itself by swimming. The construction of the mole's
habitation is very singular and interesting. Each mole has its own
habitation and hunting ground, and will not permit strangers to
trespass upon its preserves, which it guards by its own claws and
If a strange mole should happen to trespass upon the do-
mains of another, there would be a furious fight, and the con-
queror would devour his vanquished foe. Although each mole has
its own hunting ground, yet there are mostly high-roads, which
connect the different hunting grounds with each other, and which
are used by many individuals in common, the only precaution taken
being that, if two moles should happen to meet, the weaker imme-
diately retreats into one of the numerous side galleries which open
from the high-road, and permits its aristocratical neighbor to pass.
All the passions of the mole seem tt be furious. Even its pas-
sion for work, i. e., search after its food, has something fierce in it.
The animal works desperately for several hours, and then rests for
as many more. The country people say that it works at intervals
of three hours each. The mode of burrowing by this animal is by
rooting up the earth with its snout, and then scooping it away with
its fore feet. I have often. seen this operation performed: The
depth at which this animal works depends almost entirely on the
time of year. In the summer, the worms come to the surface, and
the mole accordingly follows them, making quite superficial runs,
and sometimes only scooping trenches on the surface. But in the
winter, when the worms sink deep into the ground, the mole is
forced to follow them there, and as it cannot fast above an hour or
two, it is forced to work at the comparatively hard and heavy soil,
as it did in the light earth nearer the surface.
Moles vary in color, the usual tint being a very deep brown,


almost black, but they have been seen of an orange color, and a
white 'variety is not uncommon. I have a cream-colored skin in
my possession. There are several moles known-the Shrew-Mole,
the Changeable Mole, the Cape Mole, and the Star-nosed Mole are
the most conspicuous.
THE SHREW-MOUSE.-This pretty little animal is very like the
common mouse, but is easily distinguished from it by the length of
its nose, which is used for grubbing up the earth in search of earth-
worms and insects.
The reader must not imagine that the shrew has any connection
with the true mice.. It belongs to an entirely different class of
animals, its teeth being sharp and pointed, not unlike those of the
mole and the hedgehog, whereas those of the mouse are broad and
chisel-shaped like the teeth of the rabbit. A peculiar scent is
diffused from these animals, which is possibly the reason why the cat
will not eat them, although she will readily destroy them.
Many species of shrews are known, inhabiting various countries.
There are, besides the common.species, the Oared and the Water
Shrew, all three inhabiting England. The formation of their hair,
as seen under a powerful microscope, is very beautiful, but quite
distinct from the hair of the mouse or rat. In the autumn, numbers
of these little animals may be seen lying dead, but what causes this
destruction is not known.
This is one of the numerous animals that have suffered by false
reports, and have been treated with great cruelty on account of those
fables. Rustics formerly believed that the poor little harmless
creature paralyzed .their cattle by running over them, and that the
only way to cure the diseased animal was to place a bough of shrew-
ash on the injured part. The shrew-ash was made by boring a hole
into an ash-tree, and then plugging up in the hole a living shrew-
mouse. By the same process of reasoning a shrew cut in half, and

- .. ~ -. .


placed on a wound supposed to be caused by its bite, was considered
a certain remedy.
The HEDGEHOG is one of the remarkable -animals that are
guarded with spikes. These are fixed into the skin in a very beau-
tiful and simple manner. When the hedgehog is annoyed it rolls


itself up, and the tightness of the skin causes all its spines to stand
firm and erect, bidding defiance to an unprotected hand.
While rolled up, even the dog and fox are baffled by it; but
their ingenuity enables them to overcome the difficulty by rolling it
along until they push it into a puddle or pool, when the astonished
hedgehog immediately unrolls itself to see what is the matter, and

~e~u r


before it can close itself again is seized by its carfty enemy.
The food of the hedgehog consists of insects, snails, frogs,
mice, and snakes. Dr. Buckland placed a snake in the same box
with the hedgehog. The hedgehog gave the snake a severe bite,
and then rolled itself up, this process being repeated until the spine
of the snake was broken in several places; it then began at the tail,
and ate the snake gradually, as one would eat a radish. It has been
known to bore down and eat the roots of the plantain, leaving the
leaves and stem untouched. The flesh of the hedgehog is said to
be good eating, and the gypsies frequently make it a part of their
diet, as do the people in some parts of Europe.
During the winter it lives in a torpid state, in a hole well lined
with grass and moss, and when discovered looks like a round mass
of leaves, as it has rolled itself among the fallen foliage, which adheres
to its spikes. The quill is as it were pinned through the skin, and
retained by the head. The curvature is such that when the animal
contracts itself, the quills are drawn upright, and form a strong and
elastic covering, useful for more purposes than merely defence from
The hedgehog has been known to throw itself boldly from a
considerable height, trusting to the elasticity of the spring for
breaking its fall. It will be seen that when the spines are upright
the shock of the fall would not tend to drive the end of the quill
upon the animal, but inerely spend its force upon the elasticity of
the curved portion.
THE KANGAROO.-In the mole we saw that the power of the
body was placed chiefly in the fore legs. We now come to a family
which has the principal power placed in the hinder part of the body.
In the kangaroos the hind legs are very long and immensely power-
ful; the fore legs are very small, and used more as hands than for
walking; the tail is also very thick and strong, and assists the animal
in its leaps.


The Great Kangaroo inhabits Australia. Its singular forma-
tion, peculiarly adapted to the country, calls forth a corresponding
degree of ingenuity on the part of the natives, who live much on


its flesh. Its method of progression is by leaps from its long hind
legs. Its natural walking position is on all four legs, although it
constantly sits up on the hinder legs, or even stands on a tripod


composed of its feet and tail, in order to look out over-the tops of
the luxuriant grass among which it lives. The leaping movements
are required for haste or escape, the length of each leap being about
fifteen feet.
Hunting this animal is a very favorite sport. The natives
either knock it down with the boomerang, spear it from behind a
bush, or unite together and hem in a herd, which soon fall victims
to the volleys of clubs, spears, and boomerangs which pour in on
all sides. The colonists.either shoot it or hunt it with dogs, a pack
of which is trained for that purpose.
The old man," or boomer," as the colonists call the great
kangaroo, invariably leads the dogs a severe chase, always attempt-
ing to reach the water and escape by swimming. It is a formidable
foe to the dogs when it stands at bay, as it seizes the dog with its
fore legs, and either holds him under water until he is drowned, or
tears him open with a well-directed kick of its powerful hind feet,
which are armed with a very sharp claw. The female kangaroo
carries its young in a kind of pouch, from which they emerge
when they wish for a little exercise, and leap back again on the
slightest alarm. All the kangaroos and the opossums have this
The length of the great kangaroo is about five feet without the
tail, which is about three feet long.
There are many species of kangaroo, the most extraordinary
being the Tree Kangaroo, which can hop about on trees, and has
curved claws on its fore paws, like those of the sloth, to enable it
to hold on the branches.
The OPossvu inhabits North America, and is hunted with
almost as much perseverance as the raccoon, for the sake of its
flesh. When it perceives the hunter, it lies still between the
branches, but if disturbed from its hiding-place, it attempts to


escape by dropping among the herbage, and creeping silently away.
Their flesh when cooked is much like roast pig. When
attacked the opossum looks very fierce, snarls, growls, and will
often bite, but if struck will make believe dead and will not stir if
it is hurt; but it will watch slyly and crawl away as soon as its
enemy is gone. From this comes our phrase "to play 'possum."
Its food consists of insects, birds, eggs, etc., and it is very
destructive among the hen-roosts. The opossum uses its tail for
climbing and swinging from branch to branch as the spider
monkeys use theirs; but the opossum uses its tail in a manner that
the monkeys have never yet been observed to do, that is, making
it a support for its young, who sit on its back and twist their tails
round their mother's in order to prevent them from falling off.
The length of the opossum is about twenty-two inches, and its
height about that of an ordinary cat. When disturbed or alarmed,
it gives out a very unpleasant odor.

We now arrive at the RODENTIA, or gnawing animals, so called
from their habit of gnawing through, or paring away, the substances
on which they feed. For this purpose their teeth are admirably
formed, and by their teeth it is easy to ascertain a member of the
rodents. They have sharp teeth called canine, such as are seen in
the lions and in animals which seize and destroy living animals, but
in the front of. each jaw there are two long, flat teeth, slightly
curved, and having a kind of chisel edge for rasping away wood,
or other articles.
The constant labor which these teeth undergo would rapidly
wear them away. To counteract this loss, the teeth are constantly
growing and being pushed forward, so that as fast. as the upper
part is worn away, the tooth is replenished from below. So con-
tinual is this increase, that when an unfortunate rabbit, or other
rodent, has lost one of its incisors, the opposite one, meeting


nothing to stop its progress, continually grows, until sometimes
the tooth curls upward over the lip, and prevents the wretched
animal from eating, until it is gradually starved to death.
The BROWN RAT, sometimes called the Norway Rat, is the
species usually found in England and America. It was some
years since imported into this country, and from its superior size,
strength, and ferocity, has completely established itself, and ex-
pelled the original Black Rat.
It is at all times difficult to get rid of these dirty, noisy
animals, for they soon learn to keep out of the way of traps, and if
they are poisoned they revenge their fate by dying behind a wain-
scot or under a plank of the floor, and make the room uninhabitable.
The COMnON MOUSE is so well known that a description of its
form and size is needless. It almost rivals the rat in its attacks
upon our provisions, and is quite as difficult to extirpate. It brings
up its young in a kind of nest, and when a board of long standing
is taken up in a room, it is not uncommon to find under it a mouse's
nest, composed of rags, string, paper, shavings, and everything that
the ingenious little architect can scrape together. It is a round
mass looking something like a rag ball very loosely made. When
opened, seven or eight little mice will probably be found. in the
interior-little pink, transparent creatures, three of which could go
into a lady's thimble, sprawling about in the most unmeaning
manner, apparently greatly distressed at the sudden cold caused by
the opening of their nest. A white variety of mouse is tolerably
common, and is usually bred in cages. As it is very tame and
beautiful, it is in great repute as a pet.
The HARVEST MOUSE is much smaller than the ordinary mouse,
a half-penny weighing down two of them when placed in a pair of
scales. Its nest is raised about a foot and a half from the ground,
and supported on two or three straws. It is made of grass, about
the size of a cricket ball, and very compact.


The WATER RAT is a native of England and America, and
frequents the banks of rivers,
brooks, etc. These animals
exist in great numbers round
Oxford, and I have repeatedly
watched t h e m feeding. I
never saw them eating fish, \
nor found fish-bones inside
their holes, except when a
kingfisher had taken posses-
sion; but I have frequently
seen them gnawing the green
bark from reeds, which they *
completely strip, leaving the
mark of each tooth as they .
America is the principal coun-
try where the beaver is found,
but it is also. common on the
Euphrates, and along some of
the larger European rivers, as
the Rhone and the Danube.
The houses of the beaver
are built of mud, stones, and
sticks. They are placed in a /
stream, and their entrance is
always below the surface. As
a severe frost would freeze up as RRVeSTE OUS-.
their doors, it is necessary to make the stream deep enough to pre-
vent the frost from reaching the entr4nces. This object is attained


by building a dam across the river, to keep back the water until it
is sufficiently deep for the beaver's purposes.
The dam is built of branches, which the beaver cuts down with


its strong, sharp teeth, and mud and stones worked in among the
branches. The beavers throw these branches into the water, and
sink them to the bottom by means of stones, and by-continually


throwing in fresh supplies a strong enbankment is soon made.
As many beavers live together in one society, the formation of
a dam does not take very long. By their united efforts they rapidly
fell even large trees, by gnawing them round the trunk, and always
take care to make them fall .toward the water, so that they can
transport the logs easily. The mud and stones, used in the enbank-
ment, are carried between their chin and forepaws. That the pond
may not be too deep, they always leave an opening in the dam to
let the water escape when it rises above a certain height. During
the severe winter their mud-built houses freeze quite hard, and prevent
the wolverine, their greatest enemy, except man, from breaking
through and devouring the inmates. Every year the beavers lay a
fresh coating of mud upon their houses, so that after the lapse of a
few years the walls of the house are several feet in thickness. Many
of the houses are built close together, but no two families can com-
municate with each other, except by diving below the walls and
rising inside their neighbors' houses.
When in captivity the beaver soon becomes tame, and will
industriously build dams across the corner of the room with
brushes, boots, fire-irons, books, or anything it can find. When
its edifice is finished, it sits in the centre, apparently satisfied that
it has made a beautiful structure to dam up the river-a proof that
the ingenuity of the beaver is not caused by reason, but by instinct.
The fur of the beaver, like that of many other animals, consists of
a fine wool intermixed with long and stiff hairs. The length of
the beaver is about three feet and a half.
The COMMON PORCUPINE is found in America, Africa, Tar-
tary, Persia, India, and some parts of Europe. It lives in holes
which it digs in the ground, and only comes forth at night in order
to feed. It eats vegetable substances only, such as roots, bark, etc.
The array of spines or quills with which this animal is covered



forms its principal means of defence. If it cannot escape, it sud-
denly stops, erects all its quills, and runs backward against its
adversary, striking the quills against him by the weight of its body.
Occasionally a looser quill than usual remains in the wound or
falls to the ground, which evidently gave rise to the foolish error
that the porcupine could dart its weapons at its adversary from a


distance. There are two kinds of these quills-one kind long and
curved, the other short, thick, and pointed. These last are the
weapons of defence, as the former are too slender to do much service.
When the porcupine walks, its quills make a kind of rustling
sound, caused principally by those arranged on the tail, which are
large, hollow, and are supported on long, slender stalks,


The Arierican Indians use the quills for ornamenting various
parts of their dress, especially their moccasins or skin shoes. The
length of the porcupine is about two feet, and its spines or quills
are from six to fourteen inches long.
The CAPYBARA or CHIGUIRA is the largest of all the Rodentia.
At first sight, it looks very like a pig, and its skin is covered thinly
with hairs like bristles, which adds to the resemblance. It inhabits
the borders of lakes and rivers in many parts of Southern America.
During the day, it hides among the thick herbage of the banks,
only wandering forth to feed at night, but when alarmed it
instantly makes for the water, and escapes by diving. It is hunted
for the sake of its flesh, which is said to be remarkably good. The
food of the capybara consists of grass, vegetables and fruits. Its
length is about three feet six inches.
The GUINEA-PIG or RESTLESS CAVY belongs to the sub-family
Caviina. It was originally brought from South America. Its
beauty is its only recommendation, as it shows little intelligence
and is never used for food. Children, and particularly school-boys,
are fond of keeping guinea-pigs, as they are wonderfully prolific,
easy to manage, and do not make much noise. They are popularly
supposed to keep off rats, and are therefore patronized in connection
with rabbit-hutches.
The HARE is one of our most common quadrupeds. When full-
grown, it is larger than the rabbit and exceedingly like that animal,
but its color is slightly different, and the black spot on the ex-
tremity of its ears is a simple method of distinguishing it. The
hare does not burrow like the rabbit, but makes a kind of nest of
grass and other materials. In its nest, called a "form," the hare
lies, crouching .to the ground, its ears laid along its back, and,
trusting to its concealment, will often remain quiet until the foot of
an intruder almost touches it.


Innumerable foes besides man surrround this animal. Foxes,
ferrets, stoats, and all their tribe, are unmerciful enemies, and some-
times a large hawk will destroy a leveret, as the young hare is
called. Although destitute of all means of defence, it often es-
capes by the quickness of its hearing and sight, which give it timely
warning of the approach of an enemy. In cold countries the hare
changes its fur during winter, and becomes white, like the Arctic
fox and ermine.
The well-known RABBIT is rather smaller than the hare, but
closely resembles it in form. It lives in deep holes, which it digs
in the ground. The female rabbit forms a soft nest at the bottom
of her burrow, composed of fur torn from her body, hay, and dried
leaves. Here the young rabbits are kept until they are strong
enough to shift for themselves and make their own burrows.
The tame rabbit is only a variety, rendered larger by careful
feeding and attendance.
The JERBOAS are celebrated for their powers of leaping. Their
long hind legs enable them to take enormous springs, during which
their tails serve to balance them. A jerboa when deprived of its
tail is afraid to leap.
The foot of the jerboa is defended by long bristly hairs, which
not only give the creature a firm hold of the ground for its spring,
but also defend the foot from the burning soil on which it lives.
The timidity of the jerboa is very great, and on the slightest alarm
it instantly rushes to its burrow, but if intercepted, skims away over
the plain with such rapidity that it seems to fly, and when at full
speed a swift greyhound can scarcely overtake it.
Grain and bulbous fruits are its chief food; while eating, it
holds the food with its fore paws, and sits upright on its haunches,
like the squirrels and marmots.
The DoRMOUSE is very common in all the warmer parts of

.2<~~t i~itL

j;L.' KY/


~P '2~




Europe. It lives in copses and among brushwood, through which
it makes its way with such rapidity that it is very difficult to cap-
ture. During the winter its lies torpid, but takes care to have a
stock of food laid up, on which it feeds during the few interruptions
to its slumbers. A warm day in winter will rouse it, but during the
cold weather it lies rolled up, with its tail curled round its body.
While in this torpid state, a sudden exposure to heat kills it, but a
gentle warmth, such as holding it in the hand, rouses it without
It lives principally on nuts, acorns, and grain. It brings up
its young in a nest composed of leaves and hay, and seems to be
fond of society in its household labors, as ten or twelve nests have
been seen close to each other.
The SQUIRREL is a very common animal in the woods, where
numbers may be seen frisking about on the branches, or running up
and down the trunks. If alarmed, it springs up the tree with ex-
traordinary activity, and hides behind a branch. By this trick it
escapes its enemy, the hawk, and by constantly slipping behind the
large branches, frequently tires him out. The activity and daring
of this little animal are extraordinary. When pursued, it makes
the most astonishing leaps from branch to branch, or from tree to
tree, and has apparently some method of altering its direction while
in the air, possibly by means of its tail acting as a rudder.
It is easily domesticated, and is very amusing in its habits
when suffered to go at large in a room or kept in a spacious cage;
but when confined in one of the cruel wheel cages, its energies and
playfulness are quite lost. Men often go about with squirrels for
sale, and try to sell old squirrels for young, but this imposition may
be detected by looking at the teeth of the animal, which are nearly
white if young, but if old are of a light yellow. Let the purchaser
beware of very tame and quiet squirrels. These are generally ani-


mals just caught and perfectly wild, but are made sedate by a dose
of opium. The color of the squirrel is usually a deep reddish
brown, and its tail so large and bushy as to shade its whole body
when carried curled over its back.
WooDCHUCK. -A small animal found almost all over the United
States and Canada. It is somewhat larger than a rabbit and is
usually blackish gray on the back and reddish brown below. It digs


deep holes in the ground, with several parts and entrances, and' so
built that the'water cannot run into them. Its food is chiefly plants,
vegetables,- and fruit, and it is often a great pest to the farmer.
Woodchucks are very cleanly in their habits, and make pretty pets
when tamed. In the Southern States they are sometimes called

.- .


The RuMINATA, or animals that chew the cud, include the
oxen, sheep, and goats, deer, giraffe, and camels. They have a
peculiar construction of stomach, which receives the freshly gath-
ered food, retains it for some hours, and then passes it. back into
the mouth to be re-masticated. The Ox is spread widely over the
earth, scarcely any country being without its peculiar breed. In
England and this country, where it is our most-useful domesticated
animal, there are many breeds throughout the States, generally dis-
tinguished by the length or shape of their horns. There is the
"long-horned breed" from Lancashire, England, the "short-
horned" from Durham, the "middle-horned" from Devonshire,
and the "polled" or hornless breed. Each of these breeds has
its particular value; some fatten easily, and are kept especially for
'the butcher. Others give milk and are valuable for the dairy.
The best dairy cow is the Alderney, a small, short-horned animal,
furnishing exceedingly rick milk.
In some parts of America oxen are used to draw wagons, or to
drag the plough. They are not so strong as horses, and their
movements are much slower.
Every part of the ox is of value. We eat his flesh, we wear
shoes soled with his skin, our candles are made from his fat, our
tables are joined with glue made from his hoofs, his hair is mixed
with the mortar of our walls, his horns are made into combs, knife-
handles, drinking-cups, etc., his bones are used as a cheap substitute
for ivory, and the fragments ground and scattered over the field as
manure, and soup is made from his tail.
The young ox is called a calf, and is quite as useful in its way .
as the full-grown ox, The flesh is termed veal, and by many pre-
ferred to the flesh of the ox or the cow, which is called beef; jelly
is made from its feet. The stomach is salted and dried, and is
named rennet. Cheese is made by soaking a piece of rennet in .
water, and -pouring it into a vessel of milk. The milk soon forms




a curd, which is placed in a press, and the watery substance, called
whey, squeezed from it. The curd is colored and salted, and is
then cheese.
The CAPE BUFFALO is a native of Southern Africa. It is
exceedingly ferocious and cunning, often lurking among the trees
until an unsuspecting traveller approached, and then rushing on
him and destroying him. The ferocious creature is not content
with killing his victim, but stands over him mangling him with its
horns, and stamping on him with its feet.
The BiSON or BUFFALO formerly inhabited the plains or
prairies of North America in countless multitudes. Its enormous
and heavy mane, its fierce eyes and lowering appearance, give this
animal a most terrific aspect. The American Indians constantly
hunted the bison, which they called by the name of buffalo.
Their weapons were principally bows and arrows, apparently weak
and small, but which, when wielded by a skillful hand, would
strike the huge bison to the heart. In Catlin's account of his
travels among the North American Indians are many most interest-
ing accounts of buffalo hunts." Mounted on a swift horse, and
armed with a spear and bowand arrows, the Indians kill great numbers
of these animals. They ride close up to the bison, and with the
greatest apparent ease bury an arrow up to its feather in the crea-
ture's body. Indeed, many instances are known where the slight
Indian bow, drawn without any perceptible effort, has thrown the
arrow completely through the body of the huge animal. The skin
is so valuable that every exertion is made to procure it. Of the
buffalo's hide they used to make their wigwams and tents, their
shields, their robes, their shoes, etc. The Indians also sold the
hides to the traders for a considerable sum, so that an Indian can
also measure his importance and wealth by the number of hides
that he takes.


The hunters take advantage of the gregarious instincts of this-
animal, and hunt them when they are collected together in their
vast herds, which blacken the face of the prarie for miles. Some-
times they form in line, and drive the herd to the edge of some tall
cliff, over which they fall in hundreds, those behind pushing on
those in the van; or sometimes they form a large circle, driving
the animals into a helpless and leaderless mass, into which the
hunters spring, leaving their horses, and treading with the skill
of rope-dancers on the backs of the bewildered bisons, whom
they slaughter as they pass, stepping from one to the other, and
driving the sharp blade of their spear through the spine of the
animal whose back they have just quitted.
The principal use of the flesh of the bison is to make jerked
meat"' of it. This is made by cutting the meat into long narrow
slips, and drying them in the sun. The cow is preferred to the bull
for conversion into jerked meat, while the skin of the bull is more
valuable than that of the cow, from the mass of wooly hair about
the shoulders.
The flesh of the bison is tolerable eating, but the "hump "
appears from all accounts to be unapproachable in delicacy. It is
exceedingly tender, and possesses the property of not cloying even
when eaten in excess. The fat also is said to be devoid of that
sickening richness which is usually met with in our domesticated
The cow is smaller than the bull, and considerably swifter.
She is also generally in better condition and fatter than her mate,
and in consequence the hunters who go to "get meat" always
select the cows from the herd.
The YAK inhabits Tartary. Of this animal in a native state
little or nothing is known. The name of grunnienss," or grunt-
ing, is derived from the peculiar sound that it utters. The tail of

-~ -----------





the yak is very long and fine, and is used in India as a fan or whisk
to keep off the mosquitoes. The tail is fixed into an ivory or metal
handle, and is then called a chowrie. Elephants' are sometimes
taught to carry a chowrie, and wave it about in the air above the
heads of those who ride on its back. In Turkey, the tail is called
a "horse-tail," and is used as an emblem of dignity.
From the shoulders of the yak a mass of long hair falls almost
to the ground, something like the mane of a lion. This hair is
applied to various purposes by the Tartars. They weave it into
cloth, of which they not only make articles of dress, but also tents,
and even the ropes which sustain the tents.
The GNOO, or WILDEBEEST, inhabits Southern Africa. At
first sight it is difficult to say whether the horse, buffalo, or deer
predominates in its form. It however belongs to neither of these
animals, but is one of the bovine antelopes. The horns cover the
top of the forehead, and then, sweeping downward over the face,
turn boldly upward with a sharp curve. The neck is furnished with -
a mane like that of the horse, and the legs are formed like those of
the stag. It is a very swift animal, and when provoked, very
dangerous. When it attacks an opponent it drops on its knees, and
then springs forward with such force, that, unless he is extremely
wary and active, he cannot avoid its shock.
When it is taken young, the gnoo can be domesticated, and
brought up with other cattle, but it will not bear confinement, and
is liable to become savage under restraint. There are several species
of this animal, the common Gnoo, the Cocoon, and the Brindled
Gnoo. The size of the gnoo is about that of a well-grown ass, that
is, about four feet in height. Its flesh is in great repute both among
the natives and colonists.
The KooDoo is a native of South Africa, living along the
wooded borders of rivers. It is chiefly remarkable for its beautiful


Shaped horns, which'are about four feet in length and twisted into
a large spiral of about two turns and a half. A bold ridge runs
along the horns and follows their curvature. When hard pressed it
always takes to the water, and endeavors to escape by its powers of
swimming. Although a large animal, nearly four feet in height,
it can leap with wonderful activity. The weight of the horns is
very considerable, and partly to relieve itself of that weight, and
partly to guard them from entanglement in the bushes among which
it lives, and on which it feeds, it carries its head backward, so that
the horns rest on its shoulders.
The GAZELLE inhabits Arabia and Syria. Its eyes are very
large, dark, and lustrous, so that the Oriental poets love to com-
pare the eyes of a woman to those of a gazelle. It is easily tamed
when young, and is frequently seen domesticated in the court-yards
of houses in Syria. Its swiftness is so great that even a greyhound
cannot overtake it, and the .hunters are forced to make use of
hawks, which are trained to strike at the head of the gazelle, and
thus confuse it, and retard its speed, so as to permit the dogs to
come up. The height of the gazelle is about one foot nine inches;
its color a dark yellowish brown fading into white on the under
The CHAMOIS is found only in mountainous regions, especially
'he Alpine chains of Europe and Western Asia. It lives on the
loftiest ridges, displaying wonderful activity, and leaping with cer-
tainty and security on places where the eye can hardly discern
room for its feet. The skin of the chamois is used extensively by
THe ANTELOPE.-The Pronghorn, one of the antelopes of
- North America, is about as large as the common deer, and has
coarse hair, yellowish-brown above, and white on the rump and
under Dart. The hoofs, horns, and end of the nose are black.



The horns, which grow nearly straight up and bend toward each
other at the top, have each a single branch or prong about half
way up, and from this the animal gets its name. The pronghorn
is often seen by travellers on. the Pacific Railway. One will some-
times run beside a train for a mile or two, as if trying to run a race

with it. Its speed is so great that it is almost useless to chase it;
but it is not a hard animal to kill, because it has so much curiosity
that if the hunter waves a handkerchief it will come near enough
to be shot. The Indians lie flat on their backs and kick up their
heels, with a rag or some other thing fastened to them, and the



pronghorns, coming up to see what the strange thing is, get near
enough to be killed with the bow and arrow.
The IBEX inhabits the Alpine regions of Europe and Western
Asia. It is instantly recognized by its magnificent horns, which
curve with a bold sweep from the head almost to the haunches.
The horns are surrounded at regular intervals with rings, and are
immensely strong, serving, as some say, to break the fall of the
ibex when it makes a leap from a height. The height of the ibex
is two feet six inches; the length of its horns often three feet.
The common GOAT is not in niuch request in England and
America, but in some other countries, as Syria and Switzerland,
large herds of goats are kept for the sake of their milk, and in fact
almost entirely take the place of the cow. The most celebrated
variety of this animal is the Cashmere goat, which furnishes the
beautiful fine wool from which the costly Cashmere shawls are
THE SHEEP. -There are many kinds of sheep, among which
the common sheep, the long-tailed sheep, and the Wallachian
sheep are the most conspicuous. Next to the cow the sheep is our
most useful animal. California produces better wool than any
country; for although the wool of the Spanish sheep is finer than
ours, it is much less in quantity. The Merino, as this sheep is
called, is annually conducted from one part of the country to an-
other, and back again.
The Long-tailed Sheep inhabits Syria and Egypt. Its tail is
so large and so loaded with fat, that, to prevent it from being in-
jured by dragging on the ground, a board is fastened to the under
side of it, and wheels are often attached to the'board. The peculiar
fat of the tail is considered a great delicacy, and is so soft as to be
frequently used as butter. The weight of a large tail is about
seventy pounds,


The Wallachian or Cretan Sheep is found in Crete, Wallachia,
Hungary, and Western Asia. Its horns are exceedingly large, and
are twisted in a manner resembling the koodoo. It is very strong,
and extremely vicious and unruly. In this and several other sheep
the fleece is composed of wool and hair mixed. The hair of the
Wallachian sheep is long and silky like that of a spaniel, and of
great length, falling almost to the ground.
THE GIRAFFE.-This beautiful and extraordinary animal is
found only in South Africa. As the gnoo seems to combine the
properties of the antelope, horse, and buffalo, so the giraffe appears
to bear the characteristics of the antelope and the camel. In the
opinion of modern naturalists, it holds a place by itself between
the deer and antelopes. It forms, at all events, a group to which no
other animals belong.
The height of the giraffe varies from thirteen to eighteen feet.
Its beautiful long neck enables it to browse on the leaves of the
trees on which it feeds. It is very dainty while feeding, and plucks
the leaves one by one with its long and flexible tongue.
On its head are two very remarkable projections, closely re-
sembling lorns. These projections are not horns, but only thick-
enings of the bone of the skull, covered with skin, and bearing a
tuft of black hair at the extremity of each. The fore legs at first
sight appear longer than the hind ones, but this apparent differ-
ence is only caused by the great length of the shoulder-blades, as
both pair of legs are of the same length at their junction with the
body. Its eyes are very large and prominent, so that the animal
can see on every side without turning its head. Just over and be-
tween the eyes is a third bony prominence, resembling the project-
ing enlargements of the skull, called horns.
The use of these projections is not very well known, as although
in play the giraffe will swing its head round and strike with it. vet


when it wishes to repel an assailant it has recourse to violent and
rapid kicks from its hind legs. So light and swift are these kicks
that the eye can scarcely follow them, and so powerful are they that
the lion is not unfrequently driven off by them.
The skin of this animal is an inch and a half in thickness, so
that it is necessary for the hunter to make very sure of his aim be-
fore he fires at an animal so well defended. The giraffe has much
difficulty in reaching the ground with its mouth, nor does it often
attempt to do so, unless it is bribed with something of which it is
very fond, such as a lump of sugar. It then straddles widely with
its fore legs, and with some trouble succeeds in reaching the object
aimed at. The first living giraffes, in the possession of the Zoo-
logical Society, were brought by M. Thibaut. He succeeded in
taking four, all of which he brought with him. One of them is still
living. From this stock several giraffes have been born, some of
which are now in England, and others have been sent to other
The tongue of the giraffe is one of the most remarkable parts
of its structure. It is very flexible and capable of great changes of
form, the giraffe being able to contract it so that its tip could enter
an ordinary quill. The animal is very fond of exercising its tongue,
and sometimes pulls the hairs from its companions' manes and tails,
and swallows them-no very easy feat, as the hair of the tail is often
more than four feet long.
The movements of the giraffe are very peculiar, the limbs of
each side appearing to act together. It is very swift, and can out-
run a horse, especially if it can get among broken ground and
rocks, over which it leaps with a succession of frog-like hops.
The giraffes which were born and bred in this country seem very
healthy and are exceedingly tame. They eat herbs, such as grass,
hay, carrots, and onions. When cut grass is given to them, they

74 '





eat off the upper parts and leave the coarse stems, just as we eat
THE CAMEL.-There is much confusion about the names of
the-camels. The Bactrian Camel is distinguished by bearing two
humps on its back, the Arabian Camel by bearing ofly one. The
Arabian camel is sometimes, but erroneously, called the Drome-
dary, as the Dromedary is a lighter variety of that animal, and
only used when dispatch is required. The camel forms the prin-
cipal wealth of the Arab; without it he could never attempt to
penetrate the vast deserts where it lives, as its remarkable power
of drinking at one draught sufficient water to serve it for several
days, enables it to march from station to station without requiring
to drink by the way. The peculiar structure of its stomach gives it
this most useful power. In its stomach are a great number of deep -
cells, into which the water passes, and is then prevented from
escaping by a muscle which closes the mouth of the cells. When
the camel feels thirsty, it has the power. of casting some of the
water contained in these cells into its mouth. The habits of this
animal are very interesting.
The foot of the camel is admirably adapted for walking on the
loose sand, being composed of large elastic pads, which spread as
the foot is placed on the ground. To guard it from injury when-it
kneels down to be loaded, the parts of the body on which its weight
rests are defended by thick callosities. The largest of these cal-
losities is on the chest, and others are placed on the joints of the
The Bactrian camel inhabits Central Asia, Thibet, and China.
The LLAMAS, of which there are several species, inhabit
America, and are used for the same purpose as the camel. When
wild they are very timid, and fly from a pursuer the moment that
they see him; but their curiosity is so great that the hunter often


secures them by lying on the ground and throwing his legs and
arms about. The llamas come to see what the extraordinary animal
can be, and give the hunter an opportunity of firing several shots,
which the astonished animals consider as a part of the performance.
The llamas, like the camel, have a series of cells in the stomach
for containing water, and can go for several days without requiring
to drink. If too heavily laden, or when they are weary, they lie
down, and no threats or punishment will induce them to rise, so
that their masters are forced to unload them. When offended
they have a very unpleasant habit of spitting at the object of their
The fleece of the llama is very long and fine, more resembling
silk than wool. It is very valuable, and is extensively, imported
into this country for the purpose of making cloth and other fabrics.
The fleece of the Alpaca is considered the best, as it is sometimes
twelve inches in length, and very fine. In Chili and peru the
natives domesticate the llama, which in the state of captivity fre-
quently becomes white. It is by no means a large animal, as it
measures about four feet six inches in height. In general shape it
resembles the camel, but has no hump on its back, and its feet are
provided with sharp hoofs for climbing the rocky hills among which
it lives.
The RED-DEER, or STAG, is the largest of our deer. In the
language of hunters, it bears different names, according to the size
of its horns, which increase year by year. All the male deer have
horns, which they shed every year, and renew again. The process
of renewal is most interesting. A skin, filled with arteries, covers
the projections on which the horns rest. This skin, called the
"velvet," is engaged in continually depositing bone on the foot-
stalks, which rapidly increase in size. As the budding horns in-
crease, the velvet increases also, and the course of the arteries is


marked on the horn by long furrows, which are never obliterated.
When the horn has reached its full growth, it cannot be at once
used, as the velvet is very tender, and would bleed profusely if
wounded. The velvet cannot be suddenly removed, as the blood
that formed the arteries would rush to the brain and destroy the
animal. A ring of bone forms round the root of each horn,
leaving passages through which the arteries pass. By degrees,
these passages become narrow, and finally close entirely, thus
gradually shutting off the blood. The velvet being deprived of
its nourishment, dies, and is peeled off by the deer, by rubbing
against a tree, leaving the white, hard horn beneath.
Hunting the stag is a very favorite amusement in many coun-
tries, and packs of hounds, called stag-hounds, are kept expressly
for that purpose.
The FALLOW-DEER are usually seen in parks. One large buck
always takes the lead, and suffers none but a few favorite does to
approach his regal presence, all the other bucks moving humbly
away directly he makes his appearance. They are generally tame,
and will suffer people to come very close to them; but at certain
times of the year they become savage, and will not permit any one
to approach their domains. If an intruder is bold enough to ven-
ture within the proscribed distance, the buck will instantly charge
upon him. They soon become familiar with those who treat them
with kindness, and will eat from their hands.
The REINDEER is found throughout the Arctic regions of
Europe, Asia, and America. The finest animals are those of Lap-
land and Spitzbergen. The Laplander finds his chief wealth in the
possession of the reindeer, which not only serves him as a beast of
burden, but furnishes him also with food and clothing. A Lap-
lander in good circumstances possesses about three or four hundred
deer, which enable him to live in comfort. The subsistence of one


-. f

who only possesses one hundred is very precarious,, and he who has
only fifty usually joins his animals with the herd of some richer
man, and takes the menial labors upon himself.
The reindeer feeds principally on a kind of lichen, which it
scrapes from beneath the snow. During the winter its coat thickens,
and assumes a lighter hue, many deer being almost white: Its
hoofs are divided very high, so that when the animal places its foot
on the ground, the hoofs spread wide, and as it raises the foot, a
snapping noise is, heard, caused by the parts of the hoofs closing
together. When harnessed to a sledge, it can draw from 250 to
300 pounds' weight at about ten miles an hour.
The EUROPEAN ELK inhabits the northern parts of Europe. It
S was considered at one time to be identical with the American Elk,
but naturalists now believe it to be a distinct animal. Its usual
pace is a high awkward trot, but when frightened, it sometimes.
gallops. It is very strong, and can destroy a wolf with a .single
blow of its large and powerful horns. In Sweden it was formerly
used to' draw sledges, but on account of the facility of escape
offered to criminals by its great speed, the use of it was forbidden
under high penalties. The skin of the elk is so tough, that a regi-
ment of soldiers was furnished with waistcoats made of its hide
which could scarcely be penetrated by a ball.
S Like the reindeer, the elk makes a great clattering with its
hoofs when in rapid motion. It is a good swimmer, and is fond of
taking to the water in summer-time.

We now arrive at the PACHYDERMATA, or thick-skinned ani-
mals which do not chew the cud. The first on the list is the
HORSE, an animal too well known in all its varieties to-need much
The Arabian Horse is a model of elegance and beauty. The


1 % O -. 1 I






h 'A

,-i -~-~----




~- ~Bo~B~L~ ~y


.rab treats his horse as one of his family; it lives in the same tent
with him, eats from his hand, and sleeps among his children, who
tumble about on it without the least fear. Few Arabs can be
induced to part with a favorite horse.
The plains of La Plata and Paraguay are tenanted by vast
herds of wild horses. These are captured by the lasso, bitted,
mounted, and broken within an hour, by the daring and skilful
The English Horse, from which the best horses in the United
States have come, has much Arabian and Barb blood in it. The
racehorse is swifter for short distances than the best Arabian horse.
It is much like the Arabian in looks, but is taller and. longer, and
has changed in color. The Arabian horse is generally white, light
gray, or flea-bitten, but the racehorse is more usually bay and
chestnut. The changes have probably come from the difference in
the climate and in the way the horses are brought up. The Amer-
ican racehorse is descended from the English racehorse, and is
therefore also of Arabian blood.
The Godolphin Arabian, Flying Childers, Iroquois, and Fox-
hall are four of the most celebrated racers.
The fastest mile ever run by a racehorse in the United States
up to 1894 was made by the horse Salvator in one minute thirty-
five and one-half (I.35 X) seconds.
The Trotting.Horse of the United States and Canada is the
fastest in the world.' It is not a thoroughbred horse, or a horse of
pure racing blood, like the racehouse, but is generally a descendant
of a cross between the racehorse and some common breed; but a
few thoroughbred racing horses have been taught to trot very fast.
It is not usually as tall as the running horse, and is sometimes
small. There is also a good breed of trotting horses in Russia,
called Orloff trotter, which is faster than common horses, but not





so fast as the American trotter. The fastest mile ever trotted in
the United States up to 1894 was made at Galesburg, Illinois, by
the mare Alix in two minutes and three and three-quarter ('2.3 .)
Draught Horses, or horses used for drawing heavy loads, are
raised in many countries. In France the Percheron breed has been
noted for hundreds of years. Many of them are to be seen in
Paris, where they are much used for drawing omnibuses and busi-
ness wagons, and some of them are used in the United States.
They are large, heavy horses, with large heads. In England the
breeds called the Suffolk, the Cleveland Bay, and the Clydesdale
are noted for their size and strength. The Flanders horse, of Bel-
gium and Holland, is very large, heavy, and strong. Many of the
great horses used by brewers in London and Paris are of this
All these breeds are called heavy draught horses, because they
are used in the heaviest kinds of trucks and large wagons. There
are also light draught horses, for drawing lighter loads, which are
not quite so heavy in the body and are quicker in their motions.
The carriage horse is of a lighter and more elegant form than
the common draught horse, but is generally large and strong. The
saddle horse should be a little smaller than the carriage horse, and
should be graceful and active in all its movements. It should be
taught not only to obey the rein, but to understand every motion
of its rider.
Ponies are found in many countries. Among the most noted
are the Shetland ponies, raised in the islands of the same name,
north of Scotland, where they are called Shelties. Some of these
little horses are not much larger than a great dog, but they are very
strong, and will carry a man with ease. The Indians of the west-
rn part of the United States have a breed of ponies which are very



hardy and strong. One of them will travel all day long with a
heavy man on its back.
THE Ass.-The humble and hardy ass is scarcely less service-
able to man than the more imposing horse. In this country, where
it meets with harsh treatment, is scantily fed, and dnly used for
laborious tasks, it is dull and obstinate.; but in the East, where it
is employed by rich nobles, and is properly treated, it is an ele-
gant and spirited animal, with good action and smooth coat.
The ZEBRA is found in South Africa. This beautiful animal
lives in troops among the mountains, shunning the presence of
man. It is easily distinguished by the regular stripes of brownish
black with which its whole body is covered, even down to the
hoofs. It is very wild and suspicious, carefully placing sentinels to
look out for danger. Notwithstanding these precautions, several
zebras have been taken alive, and some, in spite of their vicious
habits, have been trained to draw a carriage. In all probability it
might be domesticated like the ass, as the black cross on the back
and shoulders of the latter animal prove the affinity between them.
The voice of the zebra is very peculiar.
THE ELEPHANT.-Of this magnificent animal, whose form is
familiar to every eye, two species are known, the Indian and the
African. The -anatomy of the huge quadruped is well worthy
of consideration. Its head and tusks are so very heavy that
no long neck would bear them; the neck is therefore very
short. But this shortness of neck prevents the elephant from put-
ting its head to the ground, or from stooping to the water's edge.
This apparent defect is compensated by the wonderful manner in
which its upper lip and nose are elongated, and rendered capable
of drawing up water or plucking grass. In the proboscis or trunk
there are about forty thousand muscles, enabling the elephant to
shorten, lengthen, coil up, or move in any direction this most ex-



traordinary organ. The trunk is pierced throughout its length by
two canals, through which liquid can be drawn by suction. If the
elephant wishes to drink, after drawing the liquid into its trunk, it
inserts the end of its proboscis into its mouth, and discharges the
contents down its throat; but if it merely wishes to wash itself or
play, it blows the contained liquid from the trunk with great vio-
lence. Through the trunk the curious trumpet-like voice of the
elephant is produced. At the extremity is a finger-like appendage,
with which it can pick up small objects. In order to sustain the
muscles of the jaw and neck, the head must be very large; were it
solid, it would be very heavy. The skull is therefore formed of a
number of cells of bone, forming the necessary expanse without
the weight, leaving but a very small cavity for the brain.
The Indian Elephant is almost invariably taken from its native
haunts and then trained. The Indian hunters proceed into the
woods with two trained female elephants. These advance quietly,
and by their blandishments so occupy the attention of any unfortu-
nate male that they meet, that the hunters are enabled to tie his
legs together and fasten him to a tree. His treacherous com-
panions now leave him to struggle in impotent rage, until he is so
subdued by hunger and fatigue that the hunters can drive him home
between their two tame elephants. When once captured he is
easily trained.
In captivity, it is very docile and gentle, but sometimes when
provoked, will take a very ample revenge. Of this propensity, many
anecdotes are told. The tusks and teeth of the elephant furnish
exceedingly fine ivory, which is used for various purposes, such as
knife-handles, combs, billiard-balls, etc.
All elephants are fond of the water, and sometimes submerge
themselves so far that nothing but the tip of the proboscis remains
above the surface. In a tame state, the elephant delights in con-


cealing itself below the water, and deluging the spectators with a
stream sent from its trunk.
The African Elephant is distinguished from the Indian Elephant
by the markings of its teeth and some differences..n form.
The TAPIR forms one of the links connecting the elephant
with the hog. The snout is lengthened into a kind of proboscis
like that of the elephant, but it is comparatively short, and has no
finger-like appendage at the extremity,
The Common Tapir is spread throughout the warmer regions
of South America. It sleeps during the day, and wanders about
at night in search of its food, which consists of watermelons,
gourds, and other vegetables. It is very fond of the water, and can
remain below the surface for a considerable period. It is a very
powerful animal, and as it is furnished with a very thick hide, it
plunges through the brushwood, breaking its way through any obsta-
cles that may oppose its progress. Its disposition is gentle, but
when annoyed it sometimes rushes at its antagonist, and defends
itself vigorously with its powerful teeth. The jaguar frequently
springs on it, but is often dislodged by the activity of the tapir, who
rushes through the bushes immediately that it feels the claws of its
enemy, and endeavors to brush him off against the thick branches.
The height of the American Tapir is from five to six feet. The
Malay Tapir is somewhat larger, and is known by the grayish white
color of the loins and hind quarters, which give the animal an ap-
pearance as if a white horse-cloth had been spread over it.
THE BOAR.-The animals composing the Hog tribe are found
in almost every part of the globe. Their feet are cloven and ex-
ternally resemble those of the Ruminants, but an examination of
the bones at once points out the difference.
The Wild Hog or Boar inhabits many parts of Europe, es-
pecially the forests of Germany, where the chase of the wild boar is



a-common amusement: In our Southern States the woods are full
of half wild ones. Its. tusks are terrible weapons, and capable of
being used with fatal effect. They curve outward from the lower
jaw, and are sometimes eight or ten inches in length. In India,
where the boar attains to a great size, the horses on which the
hunters are mounted often refuse to bring their riders within spear
stroke of the infuriated animal, which has been known to kill a
horse and severely injure the rider with one swoop of its enormous
The DOMESTIC HOG scarcely needs any description. It is by no
means the unclean and ffithy animal that moralists love to represent
it. It certainly is fond of wallowing in the mire, as are the ele-
phant, tapir, etc., but no animal seems to enjoy clean straw more
than the hog. 'We shut it up in a dirty narrow crib, give it any
kind of refuse to eat, and then abuse it for being a dirty animal and
an.unclean feeder.
The BABYROUSSA inhabits the Molucca Islands and Java. It
is remarkable for possessing four tusks, two of which proceed from
the upper jaw, and do not pass out between the lips, but through
an aperture in the skin, half way between the end of the snout and
eyes. The sockets of the two upper tusks are curved upward, and
give a singular appearance to the skull of the animal. It looks a
ferocious animal, nor do its looks contradict its habits, as it is very
savage, and cannot be hunted without danger. Yet when taken
young it can be tamed without much difficulty, and conducts itself
much after the manner of a well-behaved pig.
THE RHINocEROS.--There are, apparently, six species of this
formidable animal, inhabiting various parts of Asia and Africa.
They can be distinguished from each other by the number and
shape of their horns, and the color of their bodies. Their habits
are much alike.



The rhinoceros is always a surly and ill-tempered animal, and
is much given to making unprovoked attacks on man and beast, if
it should happen to fancy itself insulted by their presence. Their
chief peculiarity, the so-called horn, is a mass of fibres matted to-
gether, and closely resembling the structure of whalebone. Their
feet are divided into three toes, encased in hoofs. The horn is not
connected with the skull, but is merely a growth from the skin, from
which it can be separated by means of a sharp penknife. Being
made of very strong materials, it is employed in the manufacture of
ramrods, clubs, and other similar implements. When properly
worked it is capable of taking a very, high polish, and is often cut
into drinking-cups.
The organs of scent of the rhinoceros are very acute, and as the
creature seems to have a peculiar faculty for detecting the presence
of human beings, it is necessary for the hunters to use the greatest
circumspection when they approach it, whether to avoid or kill, as
in the one case it may probably be taken with a sudden fit of fury,
and charge at them, or in the other case, it may take the alarm and
The upper lip is used by the rhinoceros as an instrument of
prehension, with which it can grasp the herbage on which it feeds,
or pick up small fruit from the ground. The very tame rhinoceros
in the Zoological Gardens will take a piece of bun or biscuit from
a visitor's hand by means of its flexible upper lip.
THE HIPPOPOTAMUS.--There is, in all probability, but one
species of hippopotamus. It inhabits Africa exclusively, and is
found in plenty on the banks of many rivers in that country, where
it may be seen gambolling and snorting at all times of the day.
These animals are quiet and inoffensive while undisturbed, but
if attacked, they unite to repel the invader, and have been known
to tear several planks from the side of a boat, and sink it. They

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