• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 List of abbreviations
 Glossary
 Africa
 Asia
 Latin America
 Oceania
 Back Cover














Group Title: International research document ; 7
Title: A Compilation of age-specific fertility rates for developing countries
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 Material Information
Title: A Compilation of age-specific fertility rates for developing countries
Series Title: International research document
Physical Description: iv, 154 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: United States -- Bureau of the Census
Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census :
For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off.
Place of Publication: Washington
Publication Date: 1979
 Subjects
Subject: Fertility, Human -- Developing countries   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: "Prepared under a resources support services agreement with the U.S. Agency for International Development, Development Support Bureau."
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Bibliographic ID: UF00086810
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 21651269

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
    Acknowledgement
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    List of abbreviations
        Page 3
    Glossary
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Africa
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
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        Page 30
        Page 31
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        Page 33
        Page 34
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        Page 37
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        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Asia
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
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        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
    Latin America
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
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        Page 128
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        Page 131
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        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
    Oceania
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
    Back Cover
        Page 155
Full Text


tga lr
(UrmESI


A Compilation
of Age-Specific
Fertility Rates
for Developing
Countries
International Research
Document No.7


U.S. Department of
Commerce
BUREAU OF THE CENSUS


Prepared under a resources support services agreement with the
U.S. AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Development Support Bureau





ISP-RD-7


International
Research
Document
No. 7


A Compilation
of Age-Specific
Fertility Rates
for Developing
Countries











Issued December 1979


U.S. Department of Commerce
Luther H. Hodges, Jr.,
Under Secretary
Courtenay M. Slater,
Chief Economist

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS
Vincent P. Barabba,
Director






















BUREAU OF THE CENSUS
Vincent P. Barabba, Director
Daniel B. Levine, Deputy Director
George E. Hall, Associate Director
for Demographic Fields

POPULATION DIVISION
Meyer Zitter, Chief












ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This report was prepared in the Population Division under the general direction of Samuel
Baum, Assistant Chief for International Demographic Statistics. It was organized and edited
by Paul R. Campbell under the supervision of Ellen Jamison, Chief, International Demo-
graphic Analysis Branch. Data were compiled by staff members of the International Demo-
graphic Analysis Branch: Amara Bachu, Paul R. Campbell, Sharon E. Kirmeyer, Michael K.
Roof, and James F. Spitler; and the International Data Evaluation Branch: Glenda S. Finch,
Frank B. Hobbs, Peter D. Johnson, Roger G. Kramer, Sylvia D. Quick, Patricia M. Rowe, and
Peter O. Way.
Clerical assistance was provided by Claire R. Dewberry, John R. Gibson, and Mary S. Malachi.
Typing of drafts and final copy was done by Donna M. Coppage and Gordon MacMahon.
This report was prepared under a Resources Support Services Agreement with the Develop-
ment Support Bureau, Agency for International Development.




Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

A Compilation of age-specific fertility rates for
developing countries.

International research document ; no. 7)
Supt. of Docs. no.: C 3.205/6:7
"Prepared under a resources support services agreement
with the U.S. Agency for International Development,
Development Support Bureau."
1. Underdeveloped areas-Fertility, Human.
I. United States. Bureau of the Census. II. Series.
HA42.157a no.7 [HB90] 301.32'08s [312'.1'1724]
79-607986


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington,
D.C. 20402. Stock No. 003-024-02131-5


c ^


















Contents

introduction. ...........................................................
Abbreviations ..........................................................
Glossary ......................... .......... .. .. ........... ...........

COUNTRY RATES BY REGION


Africa


A lgeria ....... ....... ... ...... ..
Benin ................. .........
Botswana. .......................
Burundi .................. .......
Cam eroon .......................
Central African Republic .............
Chad. ...........................
Comoros ........................
Congo......................... .
Egypt. .. .......................
Ethiopia ........................
G abon..........................
The Gam bia ......................
Ghana..........................
Guinea .........................
Ivory Coast ......................
Kenya..........................
Liberia ... . .. .. .. .. ..
Libya ,.......... ..............
Madagascar.......................
M alaw i .........................
Mali...........................
Mauritania ........ .. ...........


Afghanistan .
Bahrain . .
Bangladesh. ....
Brunei .......
China
Taiwan .....
Cyprus ......
Hong Kong....
India. .......
Indonesia. ....
Iran ........
Iraq ........
Israel........
Jordan. ......
Kampuchea .. .


Mauritius ........
Morocco ........
Mozambique. ......
Namibia. ........
Niger...........
Nigeria .........
Reunion ........
Rwanda. .........
Senegal .........
Seychelles .......
Sierra Leone......
South Africa......
Southern Rhodesia
Sudan ..........
Swaziland .......
Tanzania .........
Togo...........
Tunisia .........
Uganda ........
Upper Volta .
Zaire...........
Zambia .........


Asia

Korea, Republic of .
Kuwait .........


Lebanon .
Macao...
Malaysia .
Mongolia.
Nepal ...
Pakistan..
Philippines
Singapore.
Sri Lanka.
Syria....
Thailand .
Turkey ..










Latin America


Antigua ................... ....
Argentina........................
The Bahamas .....................
Barbados ........................
Belize..........................
Bolivia ................... ......
B razil .. . . . . . .
British Virgin Islands ................
Chile............................
Colom bia ........................
Costa Rica ........................
Cuba... ..... .. ...... ..... ......
Dominica ........................
Dominican Republic ................
Ecuador.........................
El Salvador.......................
French Guiana ............... ....
G renada.........................
Guadeloupe ......................
Guatemala ......................
Guyana.................... .....



American Samoa....................
Cook Islands.................. ....
F iji. . . . . . . .
French Polynesia. ...................
G uam ..........................
K iribati .........................


94 H aiti .....................
95 Honduras ..................
96 Jamaica ...................
97 Martinique.................
98 M exico ...................
99 Montserrat .................
100 Netherlands Antilles...........
102 Nicaragua. ..................
103 Panama...................
105 Paraguay ..................
108 Peru .....................
110 Puerto Rico ................
111 Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla ..
112 Saint Lucia. .................
114 Saint Vincent ...............
115 Suriname..................
116 Trinidad and Tobago ..........
117 Uruguay ..................
118 Venezuela .................
119 Virgin Islands ...............
120

Oceania
Page
143 Nauru ....................
144 New Caledonia ..............
145 Pacific Islands...............
146 Papua New Guinea. ............
147 Samoa....................
148 Solomon Islands .............


121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
142
















Introduction


CONTENT AND PURPOSE
This publication presents a compilation of age-specific and
total fertility rates for 126 less developed countries of
Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Oceania. Data from all
available sources have been included. Some of the rates are
shown directly as derived from vital registration systems,
surveys, or censuses, while other rates have been adjusted by
various methods, particularly the Brass fertility technique.
In such instances, the "original" data are also usually shown
and some information on method of adjustment is given
(for example, the particular P/F ratio used for the Brass
fertility technique). Usually no attempt is made to single
out a "best" set of rates that would represent the "real"
situation in a country at a given time. However, in the case
of countries for which in-depth analyses of fertility levels and
patterns have been made at the Bureau of the Census for the
Country Demographic Profiles series, the resulting age-
specific and total fertility rates are singled out as reliable
data, and are marked with an asterisk. For all othercountries,
whenever possible, the annotation indicates the kind of data
(vital registration, census, or survey) upon which the rates
were based, and the method of derivation. In all instances,
the source reference is cited.
The data presented here are compiled as part of an on-
going program of the International Demographic Data Center,
Population Division, Bureau of the Census, to maintain a
comprehensive data base containing demographic informa-
tion for the developing countries of the world. For a number
of years, selected data from this data base, including the rates
shown in this report, have been provided on a regular basis
to the Agency for International Development for whom this
data base has been developed under a Resources Support
Services Agreement. In the case of fertility, data like these
serve as a basis for further study by the staff of the Inter-
national Demographic Data Center and are used as a starting
point for evaluations and analyses that eventually result in a
consistent set of data for selected countries. The evaluated
data, representing our conclusions about the quality of the
various materials presented here, are published in our regular
report series, the Country Demographic Profiles which con-
tain detailed data for selected countries, and the biennial
World Population publications which contain summary data
for all countries of the world. In spite of the uneven quality
of the data in the present report, they may be of use to other
researchers, if only as a time-saving device to avoid having
to begin again to search the literature for base information
that has already been compiled.


LIMITATIONS


In large part, the data presented here are not evaluated, and
do not represent estimates made nor condoned by the
Bureau of the Census. They are presented here as a conven-
ience to users, who are urged to consider all the data and
notes when attempting to interpret fertility levels and pat-
terns for a given country. Users are urged to go back to the
original sources, whenever possible, before concluding that
any of the data are appropriate for a particular purpose.
Rates appearing in this publication should not be cited with-
out appropriate qualification of the data.


COVERAGE

For the most part, the time period covered by the data in
this report is 1960 to the present, although rates for earlier
years are sometimes included for countries that are par-
ticularly lacking in recent information. Likewise, in most in-
stances only national data are presented, but occasionally
rates are shown that refer only to rural or urban areas, or to a
particular geographic region within a country, or that refer
to (or exclude) nomads or a particular ethnic or religious
group, etc. This again is done primarily in cases where na-
tional data are scant or nonexistent, and the extent of cover-
age is always included in the annotation.



FORMAT

Presentation of the data for each country follows one of two
basic formats, chronological or by source. Usually the data
are shown in the table chronologically by the year to which
they refer, and the corresponding notes are labeled by the
year of reference of the data. When two or more sets of rates
have been taken from the same source, the source is not re-
peated for each rate, but rather all the year designations for
the same source are indicated together, for example, "1962,
1965-1973." Thus the source following such a designation
would apply to the rates for 1962 and to those for each year,
1965 to 1973, inclusive.
In cases where more than one set of rates refers to the
same year, alphabetic designations are added to the year in
both the table and the source, for example, "1976a,"
"1976b."
Rates whose reference period is longer than a single year
are so designated by the combination of years without re-









eating the '19', for example, "1975-76." These may also
be accompanied by an 'a' and 'b' designation, if more than
one set of rates (for example, reported and adjusted rates
from the' same survey) refers to the same time period.
The second format for presentation of rates in the tables
is by source, rather than in chronological order. This format
is used primarily in cases where particular censuses or surveys
have yielded retrospective rates for a series of years in the
past, and it is useful to look at these rates in a block, rather
than interspersed with rates from other sources. For these
rates also, the corresponding source designations are shown
in the notes.

ANNOTATION

In the annotation, regardless of which format is used, an
attempt has been made to briefly identify for each set of
rates the kind of data collection system (census, survey, or
vital registration) from which the data on births were ob-
tained, the source of the data on female population used as
a base in calculating the rates, and/or the method used in
estimating or adjusting the rates. Demographic terms used in
the notes, particularly those referring to methodology, are
defined in the glossary.
Rates that are stated to be "based on registered births"
are derived from complete registration data unless stated
otherwise. Completeness of registration is determined by the
countries themselves and is reported by the United Nations,
which defines 'complete' as representing at least 90-percent
coverage of the events occurring each year.
The data in this report have been compiled from a wide
variety of sources, many of which do not include all the de-
tails of methodology that a researcher would ordinarily like
to know. In addition, it was not, of course, possible to
include in the brief annotation all the pertinent information
on each set of rates, and the user is urged to go back to the
original sources whenever possible before making use of these
data for any purpose.

CAUTIONARY NOTE
Because of the uneven, and often unstated, quality of the
data, special caution should be exercised in any and all use
that is made of the rates contained in this compilation. It
cannot be emphasized too strongly that the mere appearance
of a set of rates in this document bears with it no imprimatur
of the Bureau of the Census in terms of suitability for repre-
senting the level, age pattern, or trend of fertility in a par-
ticular country. The data are intended to serve only as a
starting point for further research, and a special attempt
must be made to determine the suitability of any particular
set of data before adopting it for any purpose.

RELATED REPORTS

The evaluation of fertility rates for developing countries
is confounded, on the one hand, by the vast amount of con-
flicting information for some countries and, on the other
hand, by the utter lack of suitable data for other countries.
In order to provide a consistent set of data on fertility,


mortality, and population size and distribution by age and
sex, in-depth studies are made of all available demographic
information for selected countries. The evaluated and ad-
justed data along with detailed source notes and discussions
of methodology, are presented in a series of Country Demo-
graphic Profiles prepared by the Bureau of the Census. These
profiles contain annual estimates of total population begin-
ning in 1950, an adjusted distribution of the population by
age and sex for one or more census years and for a current
year, and a projection of the female population, by age,
for each year to 1985.
Fertility measures shown in each profile include crude
birth rates, age-specific and total fertility rates, and gross
and net reproduction rates. Mortality is shown in terms of
crude death rates, life expectancy at birth, infant mortality
rates, and selected life table values by age and sex. Various
other measures are included to complete the profile, such
as selected data on family planning, urban population,
marital status, migration, education, and labor force. Among
the age-specific fertility rates in the present report, it will be
noted that evaluated rates from published Country Demo-
graphic Profiles are shown for 14 countries (Chile, Costa
Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, and Panama in Latin
America; Ghana and Kenya in Africa; and Republic of China,
India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, and Thailand
in Asia).
Apart from the Country Demographic Profiles, the other
major international demographic reports for developing
countries published by the Bureau of the Census (notably
the World Population series) have not usually included age-
specific or total fertility rates. However, a new report cur-
rently in preparation, Recent and Historical Demographic
Estimates for Countries with a Population of 5 Million or
More, will contain benchmark total fertility rates for all avail-
able dates since 1950 for the designated countries. "Bench-
mark data" is defined as "those reported and estimated fig-
ures which are based on reliable population censuses, vital
registration systems, and/or sample surveys." The rates
included in the 5 Million report, to be published in early
1980, will thus represent a further step of narrowing down
the rates presented here (at least with reference to the
total fertility rates) to those which are consistent with other
known or estimated demographic measures for the re-
spective countries.

FURTHER INFORMATION

The user of this report is encouraged to comment on the
data presented. In particular, we would be grateful to receive
further documentation on any sets of rates for which our in-
formation was incomplete or inaccurate, or additional data
sets that may have been overlooked. A possible addendum or
second edition will be considered at a later date to make
available any further information that comes to our atten-
tion. Please direct any correspondence to the Chief, Popula-
tion Division, Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C.
20233, U.S.A.

















Abbreviations


AID: U.S. Agency for International Development.
Washington.

ASFR: Age-specific fertility rate.

CELADE: United Nations. Centro Latinoamericano de
Demografia. Santiago.

CERED: Centre de Recherches et d'Etudes D6mographiques.
Rabat.

CICRED: Comit6 International de Coordination des
Recherches Nationales de D6mographie. Paris.

FECA: United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa.
Addis Ababa.

ECWA: United Nations. Economic Commission for Western
Asia. Beirut.,
ESCAP: United Nations. Economic and Social Commission
for Asia and the Pacific. Bangkok.

ESOB: United Nations. Economic and Social Office in Beirut.


INSEE: Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes
Economiques. Paris.

IUSSP: International Union for the Scientific Study of Popu-
lation. Liege.

NA: Data not available.

POPLAB: International Program of Laboratories for Popula-
tion Statistics. University of North Carolina.
Chapel Hill.

PVSR: United Nations. Statistical Office. Population and
Vital Statistics Report. Statistical Papers. Series A.
Various issues. New York.

TFR: Total fertility rate.

U.N.: United Nations.

UNDY: United Nations. Statistical Office. Demographic Year-
book. Various issues. New York.


















Glossary


Definitions in this glossary refer to terms as they are used in
the present publication. Terms that are in bold type within a
definition are also defined elsewhere in the glossary. For
more technical definitions of these and other terms, see
United Nations, Multilingual Demographic Dictionary,
English Section, New York, 1958. A new version of the
demographic dictionary is currently being prepared by the
International Union for the Scientific Study of Population.

Age-specific fertility rate. The number of births during 1 year
to women in a given 5-year age group per 1,000 women in
the same age group (based on midyear population).

Age-specific marital fertility rate. The number of births
which occur during 1 year to married women in a given
age group per 1,000 married women in the same age group
(based on midyear population).

Arretx fertility technique. A method of estimating age-
specific fertility rates for an intercensal period based on the
observed change in the number of children ever born to each
5-year age cohort of women during the period. See Carmen
Arretx, 1975, Fertility Estimates Derived from Information
on Children Ever Born Using Data from Successive Censuses,
Laboratories for Population Statistics, Reprint Series, No. 16,
Chapel Hill.
Arriaga fertility technique. A method of estimating age-
specific fertility rates based on the observed change in the
number of children ever born by age of mother, pertaining to
two or more dates. See Eduardo E. Arriaga and Patricia
Anderson, 1976, "An Approach for Estimating Fertility
from Census and/or Survey Information on Children Ever
Born by Age of Mother," a paper presented at the annual
meeting of the Population Association of America, Montreal.

Birth rate. The number of births which occur during 1 year
per 1,000 persons (based on midyear population).

Bogue-Palmore regression technique. A method for estimat-
ing age-specific fertility rates and total fertility rates using
linear regression equations derived from a multivariate
analysis of the relationships between indirect fertility meas-
ures and supplementary indices; i.e., the child-woman ratio,
the percent distribution under age 15, infant mortality rates,
the mean age at first marriage, etc. See Donald J. Bogue and
James A. Palmore, 1964, "Some Empirical and Analytic
Relations among Demographic Fertility Measures, with


Regression Models for Fertility Estimations," Demography,
Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 316-338.

Brass fertility technique. A method of adjusting age-specific
fertility rates based on an assumed relationship between the
number of children born during a recent specified period
(usually 1 year) and the average number of children ever
born per woman in 5-year age groups. See William Brass, et
al., 1968, The Demography of Tropical Africa, Princeton:
Princeton University Press.

Chandrasekaran-Deming technique. A mathematical pro-
cedure used to estimate the number of vital events missed
by the two independent data gathering operations of a dual
record system. See U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1971, The
Methods and Materials of Demography, by Henry S. Shryock,
Jacob S. Siegel, and Associates, Washington, D.C., pp. 834-836.

Children ever born. The number of live births a woman has
had, regardless of whether the children are now living or dead,
or living with or away from the mother. At times data may
be collected or reported only for women of a specific group,
e.g., ever-married women.

Coale-Trussell model fertility schedules. A set of model age-
specific fertility schedules that can be used to estimate
patterns of fertility. See Ansley J. Coale and T. James
Trussell, 1974, "Model Fertility Schedules: Variations in the
Age Structure of Childbearing in Human Populations," Pop-
ulation Index, Vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 185-258.

Cohort. A group of individuals who experience the same
event in the same calendar period, such as birth or marriage
in the same year.

Component method. A method of projecting the size of a
population by age and sex, in which separate assumptions
are made, by age and sex, concerning the future fertility,
mortality, and migration rates of the population.
Dual record system. A method of obtaining estimates of vital
statistics which employs the simultaneous collection of re-
ports of vital events by two independent data gathering
operations, and the matching of the reports collected by the
two independent operations.

Gross reproduction rate. The average number of daughters
born per woman in a group of women passing through the










childbearing years and experiencing a given set of age-
specific fertility rates. This rate implicitly assumes that all
the women live to the end of the childbearing years. (See
also net reproduction rate.)

Henry fertility model. A model for estimating the pattern of
fertility for populations in which couples do not practice any
form of birth control. See Louis Henry, 1957, "F6condit6
et famille," Population, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 413-444.

Incomplete registration. A term used to indicate that regis-
tered data represent less than 90 percent coverage of all
vital events.

Longitudinal survey. A survey which follows the same group
of individuals (or households) over time by means of re-
peated visits.

Mortara fertility technique. A method of estimating age-
specific fertility rates based on the difference between the
average number of children ever born per woman at each
consecutive age. Giorgio Mortara, 1949, Methods of Using
Census Statistics, Population Studies, No. 7, U.N. Depart-
ment of Social Affairs, New York.

Net reproduction rate. A refinement of the gross reproduc-
tion rate that allows for mortality of women from birth to
the end of their reproductive years.

Own-children method. A reverse survival technique for esti-
mating age-specific fertility rates based on the allocation of
children under age 15 to their respective mothers within the
same household using basic information on family relation-
ships. See Lee-Jay Cho and Griffith Feeney, 1978, Fertility
by the Own-Children Method: A Methodological Elaboration,
Laboratories for Population Studies, Reprint Series No. 20,
Chapel Hill.


Pregnancy history. Information collected in a census or sur-
vey indicating the date of occurrence and the outcome of
each pregnancy a respondent has had during her lifetime.

Registration. A method of continuously recording informa-
tion on vital events as they occur, through either a civil or
a special recording system.

Retrospective question. A question asked in censuses and sur-
veys which attempts to obtain information about past actions
or events rather than about the present status of the respond-
ent or his/her family.

Reverse survival technique. A method of estimating a popular,
tion age-sex distribution in the past by applying to a more
recent population distribution the reciprocal of age-sex-
specific survival ratios for a specified period. This method
may also be used to estimate the number of births which
occurred during a specified period in the past.

Stable population analysis. A method of demographic analysis
based on a population model which characterizes a popula-
tion which is not subject to migration, and where fertility
and mortality have remained constant over a long period of
time.

Total fertility rate (TFR). The average number of children
that would be born per woman if all women lived to the end
of their childbearing years and bore children according to a
given set of age-specific fertility rates. It is 5 times the sum of
the age-specific fertility rates, divided by 1,000.

Underregistration. The failure to record all vital events which
occur during a specified time period in a given population.

Vital event. A general term referring to birth and death.







6 Algeria
Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

1964 7.140 107.0 330.0 320.0 284.0 211.0 126.0 50.0
1965a 6.750 123.0 304.0 311.0 261.0 203.0 123.0 25.0
1965b 7.175 129.0 301.0 402.0 316.0 201.0 72.0 14.0
1966a 6.499 118.3 295.8 302.3 253.3 197.2 119.8 13.0
1966b 7.425 127.0 332.0 334.0 289.0 229.0 127.0 47.0

1969a 7.845 112.0 324.0 356.0 329.0 263.0 148.0 37.0
1969b 7.056 98.4 283.7 329.3 297.1 234.0 121.0 47.8
1969-71 7.172 102.4 296.2 325.7 301.0 240.2 135.1 33.9



Notes:

1964, 1965a -
Based on registered births which were considered 90 percent complete. Rates calculated by
M. Elie at INSEE (cited in M. G. Negadi and J. Vallin, 1974, "La F6condit: des Algeriennes:
Niveau et Tendances," Population, Vol. 29, No. 3, May-June, pp. 491-516, table II). A rate of
1.0 for births to mothers under age 15 has been added to the age group 15-19 for 1964 and
1965a. These rates have not been adjusted for underregistration. Averages of the 1964 and
1965 rates (not shown) are reported in J. Vallin, 1970, "Les Population de 1'Afrique au Nord du
Sahara," Population, Vol. 25, No. 6, Nov.-Dec., pp. 1212-1235, table VIII.

1965b -
Estimated based on a crude birth rate of 49.5 per 1,000, an estimated age-sex distribution for
1965 and a model fertility pattern given in Coale-Demeny model life tables (corresponding to a
fertility schedule with a mean age of 29 years). Rates are reported in K. C. Zachariah, 1970,
"Basic Demographic Measures of Algeria," Demographic Measures and Population Growth in Arab
Countries, Cairo, Cairo Demographic Center, Research Monograph Series-No. 1, pp. 1-25,
table 12. Zachariah notes that these rates were derived after observing that the mean age of
the fertility schedule based on registered births by age of mother for 1965 differs very much
from that for 1964.

1966a -
Based on registered data as reported by A. Nassef and M. 0. Gaafar, 1971, "Age Patterns of
Fertility in Five Arab Countries," Fertility Trends and Differentials in Arab Countries, Cairo,
Cairo Demographic Centre, Research Monograph Series-No. 2, pp. 29-51, table 13.

1966b -
Based on registered data as reported in U.N., ECA, 1972, Levels, Patterns and Implications of
Fertility in Africa, Addis Ababa, E/CN.14/POP/73, table 2. Base population unknown.

1969a -
Rates for Northern Algeria only (about 94 percent of the population) based on the results of
the National Sample Survey conducted Sept. 1969-Feb. 1971 as reported in the Secretariat d'Etat
au Plan, 1974, La Population de Z'Algerie, CICRED, table 9, p. 31. From the same data,
slightly differing rates have been calculated by M. G. Negadi, 1974, "Fertility in Algeria,"
Population in African Development, ed. Pierre Cantrelle, table 3, p. 81.

1969b -
Based on registered births. The base population was unknown. Rates are reported in U.N.,
1977, Levels and Trends of Fertility Throughout the World, 1950-1970, New York, p. 54. The
source notes that the rates are cited in M. G. N6gadi, 1975, "La feconditg en Algerie.
Niveaux-tendances-facteurs," doctoral dissertation, Ecole pratique des hautes 4tudes, VIme
section: Sciences economiques et sociales, Paris, table 11-4.

1969-71 -
Rates for Northern Algeria only (about 94 percent of the population) based on results of the
1969-71 survey. Reported in cablegram from USAID Mission in Algeria, Mar. 1975, citing official
data from Statistique Nationale de la Population.







Benin 7

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


197.4 335.8 306.0 253.9
186.7 317.5 289.3 240.1


166.4
157.3


86.2 29.5
81.5 27.9


1961a -
Based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the 1961 survey. The last age group
(45-49) includes.births to women age 50-54. When births to females in the age group 50-54 are
not included, a rate of 26.5 can be estimated for the age group 45-49. Based on data reported
in Ministere de la Coop6ration, 1964, Enquate Demographique au Dahomey, 1961: Resultats
Definitifs, Paris, INSEE, p. 258.

1961b -
Rates adjusted at the U.S. Bureau of the Census by applying the Brass fertility technique
(P2/F2 ratio) to 1961 survey data (op. cit., pp. 258 and 261).


1961a
1961b


6.876
6.502


Notes:







8 Botswana

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

1971a 5.792 77.0 248.3 248.0 218.1 177.9 124.7 64.5
1971b 6.500 95.5 277.8 276.0 243.2 198.3 138.3 70.9



Notes:

1971a -
Based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the 1971 census, and the unadjusted
age-sex distribution of the total population. See Central Statistics Office, 1972, "Fertility,
Mortality and Population Growth," Report on the Population Census, 1971, by J. G. C. Blacker,
Government Printer, pp. 160-194.

1971b -
Based on examination of the data on current fertility (obtained from the question on date of
last birth) and lifetime fertility, together with the comparison of the female age distribution
with stable population models. See Central Statistics Office, op. cit., pp. 186-187.







Burundi 9

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

1964-65 7.668 29.3 257.9 303.2 281.4 250.7 167.8 243.4
1970-71a 5.895 49.0 242.0 288.0 262.0 209.0 104.0 25.0
1970-71b 6.134 51.0 252.0 299.0 272.9 217.7 108.3 26.0
1970-71c 6.160 55.5 254.4 342.1 272.4 177.6 98.3 31.7



Notes:

1964-65 -
Based on data on births by age of mother from the 1965 Demographic Survey. The rate for ages
45-49 includes births to women over 49 years of age. The final results of the survey are
reported in Royaume du Burundi, 1966, Enquete D~mographique 1965, [Bujumbura], p. 81.

1970-71a -
Based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the 1970-71 survey (Ministere du Plan,
1974, Enquate DAmographique 1970-71, MWthodologie de Z'Enquete, Paris, INSEE, Tome II,
pp. 109-110).

1970-71b -
Calculated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census by applying the Brass fertility technique (P3/F3
ratio) to 1970-71 survey data reported in Ministere du Plan, op. cit.

S1970-71c -
Calculated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census by applying the Arriaga fertility technique to
1970-71 survey data reported in Ministere du Plan, op. cit.







10 Cameroon

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


Total Population
157.0 221.0 199.0


157.0 113.0


North Region
167.0 232.0 189.0 144.0


South-East Region
140.0 228.0 196.0


1960-62



1962-64



1962-64


1964a
1964b
1964-65


4.600


4.430



4.485


6.050
5.665
5.423



6.250


5.060


Bamileke District
228.0 307.0 298.0


166.0


203.0
197.0
200.5


99.0



98.0


117.3
105.0
115.8


-239.0 131.0


Districts Adjacent to Bamileke District
172.0 264.0 225.0 197.0 114.0


51.0 22.0


45.0 10.0



57.0 12.0


48.4
38.0
47.8



43.0


31.0


31.5
26.0
31.1


Notes:

Total Population -
Rates for total population based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the 1960-62
National Demographic Sample Survey. See U.N., ECA, 1972, Levels, Patterns, and Implications of
Fertility in Africa, E/CN.14/POP/73, p. 13.


North Region -
Rates for the North Region of Cameroon based on
the 1962-64 sample survey of the North Region.
Demographique au Cameroun, Resultats Definitifs
INSEE, p. 64. The rate for the first age group


data on births during the 12 months preceding
See Service de la Statistique, 1968, Enquete
pour la Region Nord, 1962-64, Paris, France,
refers to females age 14-19.


South-East Region -
Rates for the South-East Region of Cameroon based on data on births during the 12 months
preceding the 1962-64 sample survey of the South-East Region (Service de la Statistique,
op. cit., p. 74). The rate for the first age group refers to females age 14-19.

West Cameroon -
Rates based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the 1964 sample survey of West
Cameroon. The 1964a rates were adjusted for age misstatement and female mortality in the last
12 months (as reported in Department of Statistics, 1966, The Population of West Cameroon, Main
Findings of the 1964 Demographic Sample Survey, Paris, France, Societ6 d'Etudes pour le
D&veloppement Economique et Social, p. 125). The 1964b rates were adjusted for age misstate-
ment with the rate for the first age group referring to females age 14-19 (as reported in
Service de Statistique Gen&rale, 1969, La Population du Cameroun Occidental, Resultat de
l'Enquete Demographique de 1964, Paris, France; INSEE, p. 225). The 1964-65 rates are presum-
ably unadjusted rates with the rate for the first age group referring to females age 10 to 19
(as reported in U.N., ECA, 1971, Demographic Handbook for Africa, June 1971, Addis Ababa,
p. 72).

Bamileke District -
Rates for the Bamileke District based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the 1965
sample survey of the Bamileke District. See Direction de la Statistique, 1966, La Population
du Pays Bamileke et des DSpartements Limitrophes, Principaux Resultats de l'Enquete Demograph-
ique de 1965, Paris, France, Societ& d'Etudes pour le Developpement Economique et Social, June,
p. 110.


248.4
226.0
134.9


1965


1965


West Cameroon
297.8 263.6
290.0 251.0
294.1 260.4







Cameroon (Continued) 11



Districts Adjacent to Bamileke District -
Rates for the districts adjacent to the Bamileke District based on data on births during the
12 months preceding the 1965 sample survey of these districts. See Direction de la Statis-
tique, op. cit., p. 111.






12 Central African Republic

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 womeh)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


138.7 296.4 251.8 189.3
142.0 298.0 253.0 190.0


90.1
73.0


27.4 10.2
28.0 10.0


1959-60a -
Based on births in the 12 months preceding the 1959-60 National Demographic Survey. Data are
for the de jure population, excluding approximately 15 percent of the total population not
covered by the surveys as reported in UNDY 1970, tables 6 and 14. Births to mothers under age
15 were included in the age group 15-19.

1959-60b -
Based on births in the 12 months preceding the 1959-60.survey. Reported in U.N., ECA, 1971,
Demographic Handbook for Africa, Addis Ababa, p. 72. The rate for the first age group refers
to females age 14-19.


1959-60a
1959-60b


5.020
4.970


Notes:







Chad 13

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15.19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


162.0 268.0 217.0 159.0 121.0
170.7 282.4 228.7 167.5 127.5


60.0 38.0
63.2 40.0


1964a -
Based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the 1964 survey as reported in Service
de Statistique, 1966, Enquete Demographique au Tchad, 1964: Resultats Definitifs, Analyse
des Resultats, Paris, Vol. I, p. 132.

1964b -
Rates estimated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census by applying the Brass fertility technique
(P2/F2 ratio) to the 1964 survey data (op. cit., pp. 121 and 132).


5.125
5.400


1964a
1964b



Notes:







14 Comoros

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


1958
1963
1966


4.070
4.065
4.810


89.0
88.0
87.0


187.0
187.0
219.0


188.0
188.0
223.0


156.0
156.0
186.0


109.0
109.0
138.0


53.0
53.0
61.0


32.0
32.0
48.0


Notes:

1958 -
Based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the 1958 census as given in France,
INSEE, no date, Annuaire des Territoires d'Outre-Mer, 1969-1971, p. 73.

1963 -
Rates as reported in U.N., ECA, 1972, Levels, Patterns and Implications of Fertility in Africa,
E/CN.14/POP/73, p. 14. Note that these rates are virtually identical to those given by INSEE
for 1958; possibly an incorrect date was given. Same rates also appear in U.N., ECA, 1975,
Demographic Handbook for Africa, p. 73 as 1963 rates; and in.France, INSEE, Service de
Cooperation, 1967, Afrique Noire, Madagascar, Comores, Demographie Comparee, Paris, Vol. 1,
pp. 1-8 and III-18 as 1958 rates.

1966 -
Based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the 1966 census as given in France,
op. cit.







Congo 15
Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 4549

1960-61a 5.225 138.0 258.0 225.0 180.0 134.0 77.0 33.0
1960-61b 5.215 138.0 258.0 223.0 180.0 134.0 77.0 33.0
1960-61c 4.820 138.0 256.0 202.0 158.0 110.0 66.0 34.0



Notes:

1960-61a -
Based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the 1960-61 National Demographic Sample
Survey excluding Brazzaville and Pointe Noire. See U.N., ECA, 1972, Levels, Patterns, and
Implications of Fertility in Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, E/CN.14/POP/73, p. 13.

1960-6 b -
Based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the 1960-61 National Demographic Sample
Survey excluding Brazzaville and Pointe Noire. See Service de Statistique, 1965, Enquete
Demographique, 1960-61, Resultats Definitifs, Paris, France, INSEE, Service de Cooperation,
Feb., p. 51. The rates given with reference to 1960-61a differ only in the rate reported for
ages 25-29; however, no explanation of this difference is apparent in either source.

1960-61c -
Adjusted rates based on a graphical interpolation between data on births in the last 12 months
and reported number of live-born children from 1960-61 National Demographic Sample Survey
Excluding Brazzaville and Pointe Noire, cited in Service de Statistique, op. cit., p. 55.








16 Egypt

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

Source A


30.3
33.5
30.5
31.6
31.0

30.8
39.6
36.3


189.5
202.3
187.4
194.2
191.0

188.6
208.2
206.4


360.4
346.7
339.2
351.6
345.7

341.5
280.7
266.9


340.5
345.5
325.4
337.4
331.9

327.2
265.7
248.3


213.3
227.3
204.6
212.2
208.9

206.0
231.3
219.9


1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

1965
1966
1967



1960


1960
1966
1970



1965


1966
1969



1966
1967



1970
1971
1972
1973


55.0
59.9
54.2
56.3
55.4

54.6
113.1
108.1


20.0
19.0
18.0
18.6
18.3

18.1
51.7
52.7


6.045
6.171
5.796
6.010
5.911

5.834
5.952
5.693



6.250


6.170
6.334
5.151



5.680


6.613
5.552



6.456
6.168



5.284
5.218
5.066
5.238


Source C


34.0
35.4
31.7


218.6
205.0
204.1


343.4
340.7
235.5


366.1
282.4
239.7


195.8
240.4
175.3


Source D
36.0 230.0 275.0 289.0 179.0


58.0
109.7
100.0


18.2
53.3
43.9


91.0 36.P


Source E
42.6 324.9 276.0 290.4 215.8 118.1 54.8
29.8 211.2 251.6 258.5 198.0 110.7 50.6


32.5
29.5



25.5
26.1
26.2
24.4


Source F
210.1 371.8 279.9 248.5
197.0 350.2 279.2 231.8


96.6 51.7
95.7 50.2


Source G


159.9
164.9
165.9
173.4


258.3
259.5
252.2
264.2


244.9
239.3
229.4
237.3


217.2
210.3
200.8
207.3


101.7
96.6
92.8
95.4


49.4
46.9
45.8
45.7


Source A -
Rates based
Prospects:


on registered data as reported in A. R. Omran (ed.), 1971, Population Problems and
Egypt, Carolina Population Center, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, table 4.


Source B -
Estimates based on registered births for 1959-61 and stable population analysis, as reported
by M.S. Khodany, 1970, "Use of Census Age Distribution for Estimating Basic Demographic Parame-
ters of the U.A.R.," Demographic Measures and Population Growth in Arab Countries, Cairo, Cairo
Demographic Centre, Research Monograph Series-No. 1, pp. 249-278, table 18.

Source C -
Based on registered data, these rates were calculated by Ferial Abd El-Kader Ahmad of the Popu-
lation Studies and Research Centre, Cairo (cited in U.N., ECA, 1972, Fertility Studies in the
Arab Republic of Egypt, Addis Ababa, POP/INF/110, p. 5).

Source D -
Based on registered data as reported in U.N., ECA, 1972, Levels, Patterns and Implications of
Fertility in Africa, Addis Ababa, E/CN.14/POP/73, table 2.


Source B
110.3 323.9 307.6 243.6 179.9


68.8 15.8


Notes:







Egypt (Continued)


Source E -
Rates are based on registered data and calculated by the Central Agency for Public Mobiliza-
tion and Statistics, Cairo, 1971, Population Studies and Research (in Arabic), Vol. 1, No. 1,
pp. 44, table 1.

Source F -
Base of rates not specified. Reported in M. M. El-Nomrossey, 1971, "The Demographic Picture
of the U.A.R.," The Institute of National Planning, p. 9.

Source G -
Rates were calculated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census using the age distribution of births
from registered data and females derived from interpolating the U.N. medium variant estimates.
Births to mothers of unknown ages (18,569 in 1970; 25,293 in 1971; 34,539 in 1972; and 26,556
in 1973) were prorated. Rates are based on data reported in UNDY 1972, table 17 for 1970;
UNDY 1973, table 9 for 1971; UNDY 1974, table 10 for 1972; and UNDY 1975, table 23 for 1973.



Attention: Various estimates of underregistration of births have been proposed. Valaoras esti-
mates 10 percent underregistration (see V. G. Valaoras, 1972, Population Analysis of Egypt
(1935-1970): With Special Reference to Mortality, Cairo, Cairo Demographic Centre, Occasional
Paper-No. 1, p. 22); Vallin cites 7 percent underregistration (see Jacques Vallin, 1970,
"Les Populations de l'Afrique au Nord du Sahara," Population, Vol. 25, No. 6, Nov./Dec.,
i p. 1229); and K. C. Zachariah, 1970, "The Demographic Measures of Arab Countries: A Compara-
tive Analysis," Demographic Measures and Population Growth in Arab Countries, Cairo, Cairo
Demographic Centre, Research Monograph Series-No. 1, pp. 279-326, table 8.








18 Ethiopia

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

1964-67a 5.630 145.0 265.0 261.0 204.0 139.0 56.0 56.0
1964-67b 6.685 172.0 315.0 310.0 242.0 165.0 67.0 66.0
1968 6.685 176.0 315.0 309.0 241.0 164.0 72.0 60.0
1968-71a 5.130 145.3 256.3 235.4 167.8 133.5 56.9 30.7
1968-71b 5.752 162.9 287.3 264.0 188.2 149.7 63.8 34.4



Notes:

1964-67a, 1964-67b -
Unadjusted and adjusted rates, respectively, for rural areas based on data on births during the
12 months preceding the first round of the National Sample Survey (NSS) covering the 1964-67
period (Central Statistical Office, 1971, Population of Ethiopia-Results from the National
Sample Survey 1st Round, 1964-67, Addis Ababa, tables XII and XIII). The adjusted rates were
derived using stable population analysis.

1968 -
Adjusted rates from NSS, first round. Method of adjustment not given. Notice similarity to
rates above for 1964-67. See.U.N., ECA, 1971, Macro-Case Study: Ethiopia, by Maaza Bekele and
Lars Bondestam, Pop. Conf. 1/4, p. 20.

1968-71a, 1968-71b -
Unadjusted and adjusted rates, respectively, for the total country based on data on births
during the 12 months preceding the second round of the NSS covering the Dec. 1968 to June 1971
period (Central Statistical Office, 1974, Results of the National Sample Survey Second Round,
Vol. I, The Demography of Ethiopia, Statistical Bulletin 10, Addis Ababa, pp. 83 and 93). The
adjusted rates were derived using the Brass fertility technique.



Attention:
The rates for 1964-67b are also reported in U.N., ECA, 1972, Country Statement-Ethiopia,
POP/INF/119, pp. 4 and 5. A similar set of rates for 1968-71b (not shown) were reported by
U.N., ECA, 1972, op. cit.







Gabon 19

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


171.0 190.0 173.0 127.0


98.0


43.0 27.0


Based on births during the 12 months preceding the 1960-61 survey. Rates are reported in
Gabon, Service de Statistique; and France, INSEE, Service de Cooperation, 1965, Recensement et
Enquete Demographique 1960-61, Resultats Definitifs, Ensemble du Gabon, Paris, table 42.


4.145


1960-61



Notes:







20 The Gambia

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


199.2 302.1 287.7 212.3 163.6
156.4 237.2 225.9 166.7 128.4


74.3 40.8
58.3 32.0


1973a -
Rates adjusted by applying the Brass fertility technique (P2/F2 ratio) to 1973 census data.
Reported in Central Statistics Division, 1976, Population Census 1973 Statistics for Local
Government Areas and Districts: General Report, Banjul, Vol. III, p. 67.

1973b -
Unadjusted rates based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the 1973 census
(op. cit., p. 61).


1973a
1973b



Notes:


6.400
5.024








:Ghana 21

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

1960a 6.150 133.0 256.0 266.0 241.0 184.0 104.0 46.0
1960b* 7.200 154.9 331.5 327.0 256.3 198.2 135.6 36.5
1967-68 6.560 149.0 293.0 287.0 256.0 180.0 100.0 47,0
1968-69a 6.870 151.0 301.0 305.0 289.0 203.0 99.0 26.0.
1968-69b 6.755 161.0 280.0 297.0 256.0 213.0 86.0 58.0

1968-69c* 7.138 162.8 308.1 313.9 275.2 211.1 100.0 56.4
1971 5.926 110.3 259.2 265.9 236.0 175.7 97.0 41.1



*Rates marked with an asterisk have been singled out as reliable data for publication in the
Country Demographic Profiles series.



Notes:

1960a -
Based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the 1960 Post Enumeration Survey (PES).
Reported by S. K. Gaisie, 1969, "Estimation of Vital Rates for Ghana," Population Studies,
Vol. 13, No. 1, p. 26..

1960b -
Estimated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census (1977, Country Demographic Profiles-Ghana,
Washington, D.C., ISP-DP-5, p. 7) based on adjusted data from the 1960 PES report by Gaisie
(1969, op. cit.).

1967-68 -
Based on recorded births from the 1968-69 survey. See S. K. Gaisie, 1973, "Determinants of
Population Growth in Ghana," Ph. D. dissertation, Australian National University, p. 412.

1968-69a -
Based on births registered during one year between the 1st and 2nd rounds of the 1968-69 sur-
vey. Reported by S. K. Gaisie, 1976, "Estimating Ghanaian Fertility, Mortality and Age
Structure," University of Ghana Population Studies, No. 5, p. 170. The 1968-69 survey was
conducted in two rounds during Oct.-Dec. 1968 and Oct.-Nov. 1969. See S. K. Gaisie, 1970, The
National Demographic Sample Survey 1968-69: General Report, Legon, University of Ghana,
Vol. 1.

1968-69b -
Based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the 2nd round of the 1968-69 survey
(Gaisie, op. cit.).

1968-69c -
Adjusted rates for both rounds of the 1968-69 survey were derived using the Brass fertility
technique. These sets of rates were then averaged to smooth irregularities appearing in the
annual rates. Reported in U.S. Bureau of the Census, op. cit. Based on children ever born by
age of mother and age-specific fertility rates for both rounds of the 1968-69 survey reported
by Gaisie, op. cit.

1971 -
Based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the 1971 Supplementary Inquiry (unpub-
lished data). Evaluation of these data using Mortara, Arriaga, Brass and reverse survival
techniques implies a large underreporting of births during the last 12 months.









22 Guinea

STotal fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


239.7 334.9 311.0 245.9


171.1


68.8 27.7


1954-55 -
Based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the 1954-55 survey. Reported in
Administration Generale des Services de la France d'Outre-Mer, Service des Statistiques, 1959,
Etude Dgmographique par Sondage en Guinee 1954-55: Rjaultats Definitifs, Paris, Tome I,
p. 140.


S6.996


1954-55



Notes:








Ivory Coast 23

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


1956-58a 7.420 '243.0- 353.0 338.0 224.0 177.0 92.0 57.0
1956-58b 6.515 217.0 319.0 289.0 209.0 167.0 66.0 36.0
1962-64 6.375 192.0 289.0 264.0. 226.0 158.0 102.0 44.0



Notes:

1956-58a -
Rural rates based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the Survey of First Agricul-
tural Sector conducted between June 1956 and Feb. 1958. The district covered lies on the coast
between Abidjan and Grand Bassam, but these towns were excluded from the survey. The popu-
lation was estimated at 325,000 persons, and the sample results relate to approximately 8 per-
cent of that population. See William Brass, 1968, "The Demography of French-Speaking
Territories Covered by Special Sample Inquiries: Upper Volta, Dahomey, Guinea, North Cameroon,
and Other Areas," The Demography of Tropical Africa, p. 426.

1956-58b -
Rates for all rural areas based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the 1956-58
survey. The rate for the first age group refers to females age 14-19. Reported in France,
INSEE, Service de Cooperation, 1967, Afrique Noire, Madagascar, Comores, Demographie Comparee,
Paris, Vol. I, pp. 11-38 and III-19. (Same rates appear in source below.)

1962-64 -
Rates for entire country based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the 1962-64
survey. Reported in Ministere du Plan, 1967, Cate d'Ivoire 1965, Population: Etudes
Regionales 1962-1965 Synthese, Abidjan, p. 132.








24- Kenya

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15.19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


1962a
1962b
1969a
1969b*
1956-60

1961-65
1966-70
1971
1972
1972-73


5.252
6.800
6.602
7.600
7.006

7.508
7.737
7.245
7.874
7.674


83.3
141.0
111.2
132.0
146.1

154.1
148.1
164.0
178.0
136.8


206.8
304.0
284.4
331.0
291.3

325.6
318.4
297.3
346.9
319.5


223.2
301.0
289.7
337.0
318.0

314.5
342.7
319.3
306.8
338.2


202.8
243.0
253.0
294.0
280.8

287.1
294.4
287.4
290.9
279.1


162.9
197.0
200.4
223.0
199.2

236.3
237.1
197.0
231.3
273.8


108.6
138.0
121.2
135.0
108.3

128.3
159.1
136.0
151.9
136.9


62.9
36.0
60.4
68.0
57.4

55.6
47.6
48.0
69.1
50.6


*Rates marked with an asterisk have been
Country Demographic Profiles series.


singled out as reliable data for publication in the


Notes:

1962a -
Rates for African population based on data on births in the 12 months preceding the 1962 census
(U.N., ECA, 1974, The Estimation of Vital Rates from Census Data in Kenya and Uganda, by
J. G. C. Blacker, Pop. Conf. 2/19, p.4).

1962b -
Rates for African population based on data from the 1962 census adjusted by the Brass fertility
technique (U.N., ECA, 1972, Levels, Patterns and Implications of Fertility in Africa,
E/CN.14/POP/73, pp. 11 and 14).

1969a -
Rates for the total population based on data obtained from a question on date of last birth in
the 1969 census (U.N., ECA, 1974, op. cit.).

1969b -
Adjusted rates based on 1969 census data derived from questions on date of last birth and chil-
dren ever born. Reported by J. G. C. Blacker, 1974, "Confidential Report," in Simeon Ominde,
The Population of Kenya-Uganda-Tanzania, Nairobi, p. 31. Also reported in U.S. Bureau of the
Census, 1978, Country Demographic Profiles-Kenya, ISP-DP-11, Washington, D.C., p. 7.

1956-60, 1961-65, 1966-70, 1971, 1972 -
Based on survey data reported in Central Bureau of Statistics, 1975, Demographic Baseline Sur-
vey Report 1973, Nairobi, p. 37. The Baseline Survey was carried out in June and July 1973 in
a study area consisting of Nairobi and six districts of Kenya constituting a total population
of 3.6 million in 1969 (about a third of the total population). These rates are based on data
from the "A" schedule which obtained a complete birth history for each woman age 12 years and
over. Since month of birth was not stated in the "A" schedule, births were tabulated by the
"implied age" of the mother at birth. The survey report indicates that "the reversal of the
pattern in 1972 might be due to the greater sampling error inherent in only one year's worth of
data as opposed to five years [p. 38]." This might also account for the fluctuation in levels
between 1971 and 1972. The same survey report has been published by POPLAB, University of
North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

1972-73 -
Based on data on date of last birth from the "B" schedule used in the 1973 Baseline Survey
(Central Bureau of Statistics, p. 25). For a discussion of the survey see note for
1956-60, etc., above.







Liberia 25
Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15.19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49
1970a 6.270 217.0 256.5 237.0 245.1 161.8 106.1 30.5
1970b 6.677 230.9 273.4 252.2 260.7 172.4 112.8 33.0
1971 5.716 187.8 241.2 272.8 201.0 166.0 49.0 24.7



Notes:

1970a -
Based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the 1970 survey. The rate for ages
15-19 includes births to women under age 15, while the rate for ages 45-49 includes births to
women over age 49. Based on data reported in Department of Planning and Economic Affairs,
1971, Demographic Annual of the Population Growth Survey 1970: Patterns of Natality, Monrovia,
Series N-l, p. 29; and Department of Planning and Economic Affairs, 1970, Demographic Annual of
the Population Growth Survey 1970: Demographic Characteristics of the Population, Monrovia,
Series P-l, p. 36.

1970b -
Adjusted rates reported by A. Z. Massalee, 1974, "A 1965-1985 Population Projection for
Liberia," U.N., Regional Institute for Population Studies (RIPS) Newsletter, No. 3, July,
p. 22. Method of adjustment applied to the 1970 rates was not reported.

1971 -
Based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the 1971 survey. The rate for ages
15-19 includes births to women under age 15, while the rate for ages 45-49 includes births to
women over age 49. Based on data reported in Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs, 1972,
Demographic Annual of the Population Growth Survey 1971: Natality Profiles, Monrovia,
Series N-2, p. 19; and Department of Planning and Economic Affairs, 1972, Demographic Annual of
the Population Growth Survey 1971: Population Profiles, Monrovia, Series P-2, p. 29.







26 Libya
Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (perwoman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

1959 6.805 119.0 282.0 380.0 302.0 193.0' 71.0 14.0



Notes:

1959 -
Calculated based on estimated average annual births 1954-1964 (reverse survival of population
ages 0-4 and 5-9 in 1964), estimated female population in 1959 (based on reverse survival of
relevant age groups from 1964 census data), and estimated distribution of births by age of
mother (standard schedule of marital fertility derived from U.N., 1967, "Methods of Estimating
Basic Demographic Measures from Incomplete Data," Manuals on Methods of Estimating Population,
Manual IV, ST/SOA/Series A/42, p. 24). Reported by S. Zaghloul, 1970, "Demographic Parameters
of Libya," Demographic Measures and Population Growth in Arab Countries, Cairo, Cairo Demo-
graphic Centre, Research Monograph Series-No. 1, pp. 128-130.









Madagascar 27

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women).,
Year (per woman) .15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


116.0
123.0
131.0
136.0
179.0
168.0


Source A
194.0
185.0
187.0
197.0
221.0
229.0


Source B
145.0 300.0


243.0
250.0
238.0
248.0
198.0
188.0


183.0
177.0
183.0
195.0
190.0
181.0


130.0
142.0
143.0
152.0
144.0
140.0


287.0 284.0 183.0


57.0
58.0
59.0
62.0
70.0
73.0


13.0
17.0
28.0
28.0
22.0
23.0


Source A -
Calculated at the U,S. Bureau of the Census based on the distributions of registered births
(70 to 80 percent complete) found in UNDY 1969, table 14, for 1964-67; UNDY 1971, table 17, for
1971; UNDY 1972, table 9, for 1972; and the age distribution of females 15-49 years according
to U.N. medium variant projections, interpolated as necessary for single calendar years.

S6urce B -
Based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the 1966 survey. Rate for ages 15-19
includes births to women under age 15. Similarly, the rate for ages 45-49 includes births to
women over age 49. See Malagasy Republic, Institut National de la Statistique et de la Recher-
che Economique, 1967, Enquete Demographique, Madagascar, 1966, p. 79.


4.680
4.760
4.845
5.090
5.120
5.010


6.690


1964
1965
1966
1967
1971
1972


1965-66



Notes:


97.0 42.0








28 Malawi
Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

1971-72 6.660 132.0 259.0 296.0 234.0 216.0 109.0 86.0


Notes:

1971-72 -
Unadjusted rates for the African population from the Feb. 1971 to Jan. 1972 round of the
1970-72 Population Change Survey as reported by the National Statistical Office (1973, Malawi
Population Change Survey, February 1970-January 1972, Zomba, pp. 20-22). A TFR of 7.36 was
estimated by J. G. C. Blacker (National Statistical Office, op. cit.) for the 1971-72 period
using the Chandrasekaran-Deming technique. Additionally, a TFR of 8.00 was derived from the
survey data for 1971-72 using other analytical methods not specified (National Statistical
Office, op. cit.).








Mall 29

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


219.1 350.2 325.6 272.4 191.8
156.0 375.0 298.0 245.0 195.0


87.5 41.6
90.0 45.0


Notes:

1960-61 -
Based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the 1960-61 survey. Reported in Mali,
Service de la Statistique; and France, INSEE, no date, Enquete Dgmographique au Mali, 1960-61,
Paris, p. 301. The rate for the first age group refers to females ages 14-19.

1963 -
Rates reported in U.N., ECA, 1971, La Population du Mali, POP/INF/73, presented at the African
Population Conference, Accra, Ghana. The source reports that these rates were published by the
Statistical Office in Nov. 1963 under the heading "Perspective Demographique du Mall." The
data base for the rates was not reported. The rate for the first age refers to females ages
14-19.


1960-61
1963


7.441
7.020









30 Mauritania

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


149.0 254.0 272.0 218.0 163.0
129.1 233.9 238.0 218.3 174.2


81.0 34.0
95.2 53.6


1957 -
Rates refer to the Arabic and rural sedentary population of the 1957 survey area, which
includes areas of Mauritania and Senegal immediately along the Senegal river. Reported in
Service de la Statistique, 1972, Enquete Demographique 1965. Resultats Definitifs, Paris,
INSEE, p. 229. An analysis of rural rates is given by William Brass, et al., 1968, The Demog-
raphy of Tropical Africa, p. 426.

1964-65 -
Rates refer to the total population based on the female population age 15 to 49 and data on
births during the 12 months preceding the 1964-65 survey (Service de la Statistique, op. cit.,
pp. 228-229). The 1964-65 survey report shows a rate of 118 for the first age group, which
excludes births to females under 15 years of age.


5.855
5.712


1957
1964-65



Notes:








Mauritius 31
Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


123.0
118.0
107.0
109.0
92.0

85.0
84.0
74.0
73.0
65.0

59.0
54.0
50.3
47.2
55.9


297.0
302.0
298.0
319.0
311.0

290.0
288.0
242.0
239.0
204.0

192.0
182.0
188.4
174.5
185.8


288.0
299.0
301.0
304.0
303.0

272.0
279.0
235.0
246.0
214.0

210.0
189.0
190.8
166.0
192.0


239.0
246.0
233.0
257.0
249.0

232.0
222.0
186.0
179.0
151.0

147.0
140.0
130.1
119.3
137.9


1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

1975
1976


5.895
5.990
5.855
6.195
5.960

5.495
5.475
4.610
4.610
3.950

3.825
3.500
3.418
3.046
3.466

3.190
3.130


54.0
57.0
60.0
69.0
63.0

58.0
59.0
46.0
47.0
37.0

38.0
35.0
31.7
25.4
32.3


172.0
168.0
163.0
173.0
166.0

155.0
155.0
132.0
130.0
114.0

114.0
96.0
88.4
73.4
84.4

72.0
65.6


1960-1971 -
Based on registered births,
Ravi Ramdoyal, POP/INF/117.
census. Rates exclude data


as reported in U.N., ECA, 1972,
Base population estimates were
for Rodrigues, Agalega, and St.


Fertility Trends
presumably based
Brandon.


of Mauritius, by
on the 1962


1972-1976 -
Based on registered births and official population estimates. Rates given in Central Statis-
tical Office, 1977, Bi-Annual Digest of Statistics, December 1976, Rose Hill, Vol. 11, No. 2,
table 10. Rates exclude data for Rodrigues, Agalega, and St. Brandon.


56.6 173.6 176.6 125.6
60.5 174.8 179.2 116.2


30.5 3.0
27.4 2.3


Notes:








32 Morocco

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

1952 7.825 124.0 350.0 400.0 334.0 236.0 92.0 29.0
1960 8.140 129.0 371.0 408.0 341.0 248.0 97.0 34.0
1962a 6.905 93.0 300.0 317.0 289.0 184.0 106.0 92.0
1962b 7.060 97.0 309.0 316.0 298.0 189.0 109.0 94.0
1962c 6.690 96.0 304.0 310.0 293.0 186.0 107.0 42.0

1965 6.937 136.3 304.9 386.4 298.0 185.9 63.1 12.8
1972* 6.885 66.0 296.0 365.0 304.0 220.0 93.0 33.0
1973 7.403 74.0 326.9 378.5 321.9 233.4 115.8 30.1



*Rates marked with an asterisk have been singled out as reliable data for publication in the
Country Demographic Profiles series.



Notes:

1952 -
Based on the rural age-specific marital fertility rates adjusted to the levels of matched and
unmatched births from the 1972-73 Dual Record Experimental Study, and an estimated marital
status distribution for 1952 based on the 1950 census in the Spanish zone and 1952 census in
the French zone. Reported in U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1979, Country Demographic Profiles-
Morocco, Washington, D.C., table A-3, forthcoming.

1960 -
Based on the rural age-specific marital fertility rates adjusted to the level of matched and
unmatched births from the 1972-73 Dual Record Experimental Study, and the marital status
distribution from the 1960 census. Reported in U.S. Bureau of the Census, op. cit.

1962a -
Rates for rural Morocco, from results of 1961-63 multipurpose survey. Reported in Service Cen-
tral des Statistiques, no date, Resultats de Z'Enquete a Objectifs Multiples, 1961-1963, p. 71,
table V.

1962b -
Estimates based on the results of the 1961-63 multipurpose survey. Reported in U.N., ECA,
1972, Levels, Patterns and Implications of Fertility in Africa, Addis Ababa, E/CN.14/POP/73,
table V.

1962c -
Estimates based on the results of the 1961-63 multipurpose survey. The pattern of fertility
for rural Morocco was adjusted to the estimated crude birth rate for all of Morocco. Reported
in Jacques Vallin, 1970, "Les Populations de l'Afrique au Nord du Sahara," Population, Vol. 25,
No. 6, Nov./Dec., pp. 1212-1235, tables VII and VIII.

1965 -
Estimates based on the results of the 1961-63 multipurpose survey. The author indicates a
serious age misreporting of mothers and adjusts the rates using Coale-Demeny model life tables
and stable populations. The rates are further adjusted to reflect a crude birth rate of 48.6.
This pattern is assumed to refer to 1965. See A. Thavarajah, 1970, "Some Demographic Measures
for Morocco," Demographic Measures and Population Growth in Arab Countries, Cairo Demographic
Centre, Research Monograph Series, No. 1, pp. 137-167, table 10.

1972 -
Based on an average of survey and registration age-specific fertility rates from the 1972-73
Dual Record Experimental Study adjusted to the level of matched and unmatched births for urban
and rural areas weighted to national levels using the unadjusted 1971 census. Reported in U.S.
Bureau of the Census, op. cit., table 7.








MorOccO (Continued) 33




1973 -
Estimates based on the results of the 1972-73 Dual Record Experimental Study (Morocco, CERED,
and University of North Carolina, POPLAB). These rates represent the average of the results
obtained by quasi-stable population analysis and the Brass fertility technique. Reported in
CERED, 1974, La Fecondit Marocaine, PGE/ERAD, No. 6, Oct., table 8.








34 Mozambique

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19- 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


1969-70
1970a
1970b


3.508
6.598
5.782


57.0
109.7
96.1


145.7
283.3
248.3


139.9
272.1
238.5


121.5
236.3
207.1


101.1
196.6
172.3


72.8
141.6
124.1


63.5
79.9
70.1


Notes:

1969-70 -
Based on preliminary results from the 1970 census that have not been analyzed for consistencies
and completeness. Reported in DirecgAo Provincial Dos Servigos de Estatistica, 1974,
IV Recenseamento Geral da PopuZagao-1970. Resumo Geral, p. 121.

1970a -
Calculated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census by applying the Brass fertility technique (P2/F2
ratio) to 1970 census data (op. cit.).

1970b -
Calculated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census by applying the Brass fertility technique (P3/F3
ratio) to 1970 census data (op. cit.).








Namlbia 35

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year per woman) 15.19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

1950-52 4.085 61.0 232.0 225.0 154.0 108.0 33.0 4.0
1960a 6.810 86.0 345.0 315.0 275.0 208.0 88.0 45.0
1960b 4.060 53.0 260.0 231.0 146.0 92.0 27.0 3.0



Notes:

1950-52 -
Rates reported without qualification. See U.N., ECA, 1975, Levels and Trends of Fertility in
Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, E/CN.14/POP/17, Aug., p. 73. A comparison with rates presented
for 1960 suggests that the 1950-52 rates are for the white population, and are probably based
on data from the civil register of births.

1960a -
Rates reported without qualification for the coloured population only. See U.N., ECA, 1975,
Demographic Handbook for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Apr. and Aug., p. 73. Rates are proba-
bly based on data from the civil register of births and the 1960 census. Civil register data
on births for the coloured population of Namibia are considered incomplete or of unknown
reliability. See UNDY 1974, p. 256.

1960b -
/ Rates reported without qualification for the white population only (U.N., ECA, op. cit.).
Rates are probably based on data from the civil register of births and the 1960 census. Civil
register data on births for the white population of Namibia are considered complete.








36 Niger

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

1959-60a 7.214 197.5 341.2 306.4 259.5 191.5 99.3 47.4
1959-60b 6.925 171.0 333.0 299.0 253.0 186.0 97.0 46.0
1959-60c 6.510 178.2 307.9 276.5 234.2 172.8 89.6 42.8
1959-60d 6.115 151.0 294.0 264.0 223.0 165.0 85.0 41.0



Notes:

1959-60a -
Based on the female population ages 15 to 49 and data on births during the 12 months preceding
the 1959-60 survey. Based on data reported in Mission D6mographique du Niger, 1962, Etude
Demographique du Niger: Donnees Individuelles: Resultats Definitifs, Paris, INSEE, Service de
Cooperation, Fascicule II, pp. 61, 71, and 81. The 1959-60 survey report shows a rate of 175.1
for the first age group, which includes females 14 years of age.

1959-60b -
Rates adjusted by applying the Brass fertility technique (P2/F2 ratio) to 1959-60 survey data
for the female population 14 to 49 years old. Reported by Issaka Dankoussou, et al., 1975,
"Niger," Population Growth and Socioeconomic Change in West Africa, ed. John Caldwell, Columbia
University Press, p. 686.

1959-60c -
Rates adjusted at the U.S. Bureau of the Census by applying the Brass fertility technique
(P2/F2 ratio) to 1959-60 survey data for the female population 15 to 49 years old (see Niger,
1962, op. cit.).

1959-60d -
Rates adjusted in 1959 survey report by deflating the general fertility rate from 232 to 200 to
match an adjusted range of the crude birth rate (see Niger, 1962, op. cit.).







Nigeria 37

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 4549

1965-66a 5.420 181.0 266.0 233.0 172.0 123.0 68.0 41.0
1965-66b 5.570 192.0 266,0 233.0 172.0 123.0 68.0 60.0
1970-73a 5.680 134.0 263.0 263.0 241.0 141.0 77.0 17.0
1970-73b 5.905 137.0 286.0 270.0 245.0 146.0 80.0 17.0



Notes:

1965-66a -
Rates for the rural population only based on data on "newborn infants" observed by the inter-
viewer, and including "children born alive but subsequently died," from the 1965-66 Rural Demo-
graphic Sample Survey. Reported in Federal Office of Statistics, 1968, Rural Demographic
Sample Survey, 2965-66, Lagos, p. 25. The official report notes that there was probably incom-
plete recording of births by less qualified interviewers, and that poorly completed returns
were not included in the tabulations. The report (pp. 3-5) also suggests that the rate for
ages 45-49 and 50-54 (22.0; not shown above) may be high due to age misreporting.

1965-66b -
Rates for the rural population only estimated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census from 1965-66
survey data (op. cit.). The fertility rates for ages 10-14 and 15-19 (14.0 and 181.0, respec-
tively) were weighted by the percent of the total population in each female age group (4.0 and
5.2, respectively), and the weighted sum was divided by the percent of the total population in
the female age group 15-19. The fertility rates for ages 45-49 and 50-54 (41.0 and 22.0,
respectively) were also appropriately weighted (1.6 and 1.4, respectively), summed, and
divided in the same manner.

1970-73a -
Rates for the total population based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the
1971-73 National Fertility, Family and Family Planning-KAP Survey. The 1971-73 survey was
conducted in the Southwestern region during July-Aug. 1971; in the Eastern region during
July-Aug. 1972 and Dec. 1972-Jan. 1973; and in the Northern region during July-Sept. 1973 and
1976. Reported in I. I. Ekanem, no date, Population Growth and Policy in Nigeria, unpublished.
The source notes that adjustments were made for coding errors in the survey data. A TFR of
7.32 was derived by applying the Brass fertility technique (P3/F3 ratio) to the 1971-73 survey
data.

1970-73b -
Rates for the total population based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the
1971-73 survey. Reported in M. A. Ojelade, no date, A Comparative Demographic Account of
Southwestern, Eastern and Northern Nigeria 1971-73: Evidence from a Sample Survey, unpub-
lished. The source notes that these rates vary slightly from those of Ekanem due to differ-
ences in the age distribution of female respondents since "some women found to have illegal
age codes were not considered"; and to "exclusions of the cases of miscarriages and still
births being reported as live births" in the analysis by Ojelade.






38 Reunion

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970


6.216
6.264
6.376
6.840
6.770

6.730
6.485
6.070
5.870
5.435
4.615


30.4
30.2
28.3
64.0
66.0

70.0
73.0
68.0
64.0
61.0
60.0


250.8
271.4
271.0
276.0
286.0

284.0
288.0
276.0
264.0
250.0
235.0


321.8
325.1
336.4
348.0
342.0

334.0
320.0
308.0
296.0
286.0
238.0


296.1
285.0
297.1
308.0
302.0

302.0
286.0
266.0
260.0
230.0
185.0


224.7
223.2
222.7
236.0
230.0

230.0
212.0
192.0
190.0
170.0
131.0


108.5
105.3
106.6
122.0
116.0

110.0
106.0
92.0
88.0
78.0
66.0


11.0
12.5
13.2
14.0
12.0

16.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
8.0


Notes:

1960-1962 -
Based on registered births reported in UNDY 1965, table 14. The rate for the age group 15-19
was computed based on the female population age 10-19. Source of base population is unknown.

1963-1970 -
Based on registered births reported in France, INSEE, no date, Statistique du Mouvement de la
Population dans les Departements d'Outre-Mer, Martinique-Guadeloupe-Guyana-Reunion, Annie
1965 a 1970, Paris, table 18. Base population estimates were presumably based on the 1961 and
1967 censuses.








Rwanda 39

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) I 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


1970a
1970b
1970c


7.735
7.776
7.516


47.0
58.8
102.0


336.0
334.8
328.2


383.0
381.3
369.7


349.0
346.5
305.5


252.0
250.3
227.6


118.0
117.3
128.4


Notes:

1970a -
Based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the 1970 survey as reported in Office
General des Statistiques, 1973, Enquite D~mographique 1970, France, Tome II, p. 279. The TFR
includes a rate of 15.0 reported for the age group 50 and older. The same rates also appear
in Burundi, Ministere du Plan, 1974, Enquete Demographique 1970-1971: Methodologie de
Z'Enquete, Paris, INSEE, Tome II, p. 110.

1970b -
Adjusted rates calculated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census by applying the Brass fertility
technique (P3/F3 ratio) to the 1970 survey data reported in Burundi, op. cit., pp. 108 and
272.

1970c -
Adjusted rates calculated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census by applying the Mortara fertility
technique to the 1970 survey data reported in Burundi, op. cit.


47.0
62.8
41.8








40 Senegal

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


1960-61a
1960-6 lb
1976


5.365
5.400
6.440


158.0
226.0
165.0


242.0
256.0
290.0


243.0
182.0
272.0


204.0
178.0
228.0


153.0
146.0
161.0


47.0
68.0
109.0


26.0
24.0
63.0


Notes:

1960-61a -
Rates reported for the 1960-61 survey population in France, INSEE, Service de Coop6ration,
1967, Afrique Noire, Madagascar, Comoros, Demographie Comparee, Paris, Vol. 1, p. III-18. The
source reported that data were abstracted from a thesis by L. Verrire, 1965, La Population du
Senegal: Aspects Quantitatifs, Dakar, University of Dakar. The rate for the first age group
refers to females age 14-19.

1960-61b -
Provisional 1960-61 survey rates reported in France, op. cit., p. 1-36.

1976 -
Rates reported for the total population by Abdou Karim Diop, 1976, Projections Demographiques
de la Population du Senegal, Dakar, pp. 4 and 7. No source for these rates was given; they
were used in making projections in the report. The rates are based on data from the third
round of the 1970-71 survey (Diop, 1978, personal communication).











J








Seychelles 41

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


1959-60
1960
1965
1966
1967


1968
1969
1970
1971
1972

1973
1974
1975
1976


5.436
5.441
6.017
6.970
6.640

6.180
5.960
5.600
6.030
5.520

5.220
5.550
5.180
4.500


60.6
60.6
65.6
94.0
91.0

101.0
94.0
88.0
101.0
110.0

88.0
133.0
134.0
111.0


255.4
255.4
283.8
360.0
362.0

300.0
344.0
268.0
351.0
305.0

288.0
291.0
261.0
247.0


278.7
278.7
361.8
371.0
343.0

339.0
307.0
272.0
304.0
288.0

276.0
273.0
230.0
223.0


244.7
244.7
256.4
273.0
257.0

242.0
214.0
233.0
221.0
191.0

205.0
201.0
211.0
156.0


158.7
158.7
175.7
207.0
197.0

182.0
169.0
162.0
151.0
138.0

141.0
152.0
139.0
109.0


72.2
72.2
54.4
74.0
63.0

64.0
53.0
88.0
65.0
53.0

42.0
52.0
52.0
44.0


16.9
17.9
5.6
14.0
14.0

8.0
9.0
4.0
12.0
16.0

1.0
8.0
9.0
9.0


Notes:


1959-60 -
,Based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the
date, Population Census 1960, Report and Tables, p. 53).


1960 census (Census Commissioner, no


1960, 1965 -
Calculated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census based on registered births of unknown quality as
reported in UNDY 1965 and UNDY 1969 and female population, by age, derived from the 1960 and
1971 censuses.

1966-1976 -
Based on registered births and official population estimates reported in J. G. C. Blacker and
J. N. Hobcraft, "Fertility, Mortality, and Population Growth in the Seychelles," unpublished.
Rates for 1976 are based on registered births and official population estimates as reported by
the U.N. Statistical Office. The TFR's include a rate for the age group 10-14 (1.0 for
1966-69, 1971, and 1974; 5.0 for 1970; 2.0 for 1972; and 3.0 for 1973).







42 Sierra Leone

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

1973a 6.395 217.3 261.3 273.4 188.0 156.9 92.9 32.2
1973b 6.360 212.2 279.4 259.0 224.2 173.7 86.4 12.5



Notes:

1973a -
Adjusted rates based on provisional results of the 1973 Pilot Census as reported by J. Blacker,
T. Dow, and T. Makannah, "A Note On Fertility and Mortality in Sierra Leone," unpublished.
Age-specific fertility rates were first adjusted to account for births before the 12-month
period and births whose dates were not stated (yielding a TFR of 4.772, table 2). Finally, the
Brass technique (P2/F2 ratio) was applied to the adjusted age-specific fertility rates and data
on children ever born which yielded a TFR of 6.395 including a rate of 94.9 for the 12-14 age
group. The unadjusted rates yield a TFR of 4.353 while application of the Brass technique to
unadjusted data yields a TFR of 6.910 (op. cit., table 1).

1973b -
Adjusted rates based on fitting the Coale-Trussell model fertility schedules to the current
fertility rates from 1973 Pilot Census data as reported by J. Blacker, et al., op. cit.,
table 4. The TFR of 6.360 includes a rate of 24.6 for the 10-14 age group.








South Africa 43

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

1950-52a 3.350 41.0 191.0 198.0 132.0 77.0 28.0 3.0
1950-52b 6.530 108.0 327.0 319.0 247.0 190.0 90.0 25.0
1950-52c 5.700 80.0 299.0 300.0 226.0 166.0 57.0 12.0
1956 4.065 39.0 207.0 227.0 165.0 130.0 38.0 7.0
1961a 3.440 45.0 220.0 214.0 123.0 64.0 20.0 2.0

1961b 6.405 122.0 331.0 307.0 240.0 178.0 82.0 21.0
1970a 2.992 19.2 192.0 204.7 119.0 48.2 14.3 1.0
1970b 4.844 38.7 262.9 248.7 201.6 135.7 69.0 12.3
1970e 3.940 20.4 198.5 226.8 178.5 105.0 50.0 8.9



Notes:

1950-52a -
Rates for the white population only, reported without specification of data base. See U.N.,
ECA, 1970, Levels and Trends of Fertility in Africa, E/CN.14/POP/17, Annex. p. 3. These rates
were most likely derived from an annual average of officially registered births from 1950-52
and mid-1951 populations estimated from the official population census in 1951. Rates not
available for black African population.

1950-52b -
Rates for the coloured population only. See note for 1950-52a.

1950-52c -
Rates for the Asian population only. See note for 1950-52a.

1956 -
Rates for the Asian population only, reported without specification of data base. See U.N.,
ECA, 1975, Demographic Handbook for Africa, Addis Ababa, p. 73. Although the 1956 rates are
likely to have been derived from officially registered births, there was no apparent explana-
tion for estimating or using a 1956 base population rather than 1961 in reference to Asians
only. Rates not available for the black African population.

1961a -
Rates for the white population only. The rates for 1961 were most likely derived from
officially registered births and midyear populations estimated from the official population
census of Sept. 1960. The rate for the first age group refers to females age 10-19. Rates
are reported in U.N., ECA, 1975, op. cit. Rates not available for the black African
population.

1961b -
Rates for the coloured population only. See note for 1961a.

1970a -
Rate for the white population only. Reported in Department of Statistics, 1978, South African
Statistics, 1972, Pretoria, Government Printer, p. 3.10. These rates were most likely derived
from officially registered births and midyear populations estimated from the official popu-
lation census of May 6, 1970. Rates not available for the black African population.

1970b -
Rates for the coloured population only. See note for 1970a.


1970c -
Rates for the Asian population only. See note for 1970a.







44 Southern Rhodesia
Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

1969a 7.800 145.0 334.0 343.0 291.0 232.0 143.0 72.0
1969b 6.950 223.0 333.0 316.0 238.0 160.0 90.0 30.0



Notes:

1969a -
Adjusted rates for the African population based on data on children ever born and births in the
8 months preceding the 1969 census as reported in Central Statistical Office, no date, Census
of Population 1969, Salisbury, Appendix B.

1969b -
Adjusted rates for the African population calculated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census by apply-
ing the Mortara fertility technique to children-ever-born data from the 1969 census (op. cit.).







Sudan 45
Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

1958 6.815 179.0 279.0 249.0 257.0 195.0 123.0 81.0



Notes:

1958 -
Base of rates unknown. Source: U.N., ECA, 1972, Levels, Patterns and Implications of
Fertility in Africa, Addis Ababa, E/CN/14/POP/73, table 2,







46 Swaziland

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

1966a 6.905 120.0 290.0 295.0 267.0 203.0 127.0 79.0
1966b 5.169 90.4 216.6 220.6 199.5 152.3 95.3 59.1



Notes:

1966a -
Reported as "adjusted rates" without reference to the type of data or method of adjustment
used. See U.N., 1972, Levels, Patterns, and Implications of Fertility in Africa, Addis Ababa,
Ethiopia, E/CN.14/POP/73, p. 13.

1966b -
Based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the 1966 census. See J. G. C. Blacker,
1968, "Fertility, Mortality and Population Growth," Report on the 1966 Swaziland Population
Census, ed., H. M. Jones, Mbabane, Swaziland Government, p. 206. In this report, Blacker
concludes that the pattern of these unadjusted ASFR's is consistent with other available data,
however the rates may be biased downward due to "recall lapse" and the "boundary effect"
(op. cit., pp. 206-207). Simple calculations show that the "adjusted" rates given in reference
to 1966a are inflated in direct proportion to the unadjusted rates in the original report, and
the resulting "adjusted" TFR of 6.9 is the same as Blacker's estimate of the TFR based on a
comparison of the female age distribution with stable population models (op. cit., p. 209).








Tanzania 47

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


1956-57
1966-67a
1966-6 7b
1966-67c
1972-73


4.020
7.266
7.170
7.860
5.640


102.0
168.6
174.0
191.0
137.0


190.0
333.6
322.0
353.0
283.0


173.0
316.1
326.0
357.0
256.0


126.0
259.7
246.0
270.0
195.0


112.0
200.7
184.0
202.0
145.0


78.0
114.7
109.0
119.0
74.0


23.0
59.9
73.0
80.0
37.0


Notes:


1956-57 -
Rates for the African population of Tanganyika (now part of Tanzania) based
during the 12 months preceding the 1957 sample census, as reported in U.N.,
Fertility Data in Tanzania Mainland, POP/INF/113, p. 4.

1966-67a -
Rates for the total population of Mainland Tanzania based on data on births
12 months preceding the 1967 census (U.N., ECA, op. cit., p. 6).


on data on births
ECA, 1972,



during the


1966-67b -
Rates for the total population based on data on births during the 12 months (since last dry
season in Zanzibar) preceding the 1967 census. Reported in Central Bureau of Statistics,
Provisional Estimates of Fertility, Mortality, and Population Growth for Tanzania, Dar es
SSalaam, p. 9.

1966-67c -
Adjusted rates for the total population based on 1967 census data. Rates were adjusted by the
Central Bureau of Statistics using the Brass fertility technique (see Central Bureau of Statis-
tics, op. cit., p. 9). Rates also appear in U.N., ECA, 1972, Levels, Patterns and Implications
of Fertility in Africa, E/CN.14/POP/73, p. 14.

1972-73 -
Rates derived from reports of live births for 1972 and 1973 based on the 1973 survey (which was
administered from Aug.-Dec. 1973). Reported in Bureau of Statistics and Bureau of Resource
Assessment and Land Use Planning, no date, "Regional and National Data," National Demographic
Survey of Tanzania, Vol. I, table 3090B.








48 Togo

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


151.0 327.0 312.0 271.0 189.0


114.0 28.0


1961 -
Based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the 1961 survey. Reported in Service de
la Statistique G6n6rale, no date, Enquete Demographique 1961, Resultats Definitifs, Lom6,
Vol. II, p. 87.


1961


6.960


Notes:








Tunisia 49

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15.19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

Source A
1960 6.841 70.1 306.2 337.7 299.3 208.7 105.8 40.4
1965 6.841 88.4 279.2 333.3 297.3 224.8 104.8 40.4
1970 6.397 48.8 276.6 313.9 283.1 215.0 102.3 39.7

Source B
1966 7.249 77.8 297.3 348.6 316.3 242.4 121.0 46.4

Source C
1966 6.675 82.0 276.0 327.0 281.0 215.0 112.0 42.0
1969 6.320 47.0 258.0 312.0 284.0 223.0 106.0 34.0
1971 6.145 40.0 253.0 310.0 280.0 214.0 102.0 30.0
Source D
1975 5.940 66.8 237.7 306.6 265.2 187.6 97.1 27.0
1976 5.832 65.2 236.8 309.8 253.3 175.9 94.7 30.7



Notes:

Source A -
Based on registered births. The base population estimates are unknown. Rates are reported in
U.N., 1977, Levels and Trends of Fertility Throughout the World, 1950-1970, New York, p. 54.
The source notes that rates for 1960 and 1965 are taken from Alain Marcoux, 1971, "La crois-
sance de la population de la Tunisie, passe recent et perspectives," Population (Paris),
Vol. 26, p. 113. The rates for 1970 were calculated in accordance with Marcoux's population
estimates and on his assumption that official birth registration was 95 percent complete.

Source B -
Estimated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census based on adjusted registered births by age of mother
(UNDY 1975, table 23) and adjusted female population (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1971, Popula-
tion of Tunisia-Estimates and Projections: 1967-2000, Washington, D.C., Series P-96, No. 3,
table A-i). Births were adjusted for 2.4 percent underregistration and registered births by
age of mother were redistributed to conform to the age distribution of the female population as
adjusted for underenumeration and age misreporting.

Source C -
Based on registered births as reported in CICRED, 1974, La Population de la Tunisie, by Mahmoud
Seklani, Paris, pp. 38 and 45. The base population estimates are presumably based on 1966 cen-
sus data.

Source D -
Estimated based on official registered births by age of mother and midyear population estimates
based on 1975 census (Chadli Tarifa, Institut de la Statistique, 1979, personal communication).








50 Uganda

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

1959 5.070 125.0 248.0 225.0 189.0 134.0 59.0 34.0
1968-69a 5.478 135.9 225.1 246.6 193.0 144.8 68.1 52.2
1968-69b 6.876 170.6 320.2 309.5 242.2 181.8 85.4 65.5
1969a 5.400 135.3 256.9 247.8 194.4 146.3 68.7 30.6
1969b 7.696 190.9 358.4 346.4 271.1 203.4 95.7 73.3
1969c 6.926 171.8 322.5 311.8 244.0 183.1 86.1 66.0



Notes:

1959 -
Basis of rates is not stated, but they are presumably based on 1959 census data for the African
population. See U.N., ECA, 1972, Levels, Patterns, and Implications of Fertility in Africa,
E/CN.14/POP/73, p. 14. (Same rates appear in U.N., ECA, 1975, Demographic Handbook for Africa,
p. 73). A TFR of 6.7 for the African population has been estimated by applying the Brass
fertility technique (P/F ratio unknown) to 1959 census data (Ansley J. Coale, 1968, "Estimates
of Fertility and Mortality in Tropical Africa," The Population of Tropical Africa, eds.,
John C. Caldwell and Chukuka Okonjo, London, Longmans, Green, and Co., Ltd., p. 184).

1968-69a -
Unadjusted rates calculated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census based on data on births during the
12 months preceding the 1969 census. Births were obtained from computer printouts of 1969 cen-
sus data. Female population given in UNDY 1972, table 6.

1968-69b -
Adjusted rates calculated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census based on data on births during the
12 months preceding the 1969 census, inflated for 30 percent underreporting; and 1969 female
population adjusted for 3.4 percent underenumeration. Births were adjusted for 30 percent
underreporting based on Blacker's suggestions after his analysis of the 1969 census data (U.N.,
1971, The Estimation of Vital Rates from Census Data in Kenya and Uganda, by J. G. C. Blacker,
Pop. Conf., Session III, 2/19, p. 4).

1969a -
Unadjusted rates based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the 1969 census as
reported in Botswana, Central Statistical Office, 1972, "Fertility, Mortality, and Population
Growth," Report on the Population Census, 1971, by J. G. C. Blacker, p. 171.

1969b, 1969c -
Adjusted rates calculated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census by applying the Brass fertility
technique to 1969 census data. The 1969b rates are adjusted by the P2/F2 ratio, the 1969c
rates by the Ps/Fs ratio.








UpperVolta 51

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


1960-61a
1960-61b
1973-74


5.922
6.048
7.205


151.0
154.2
124.0


296.5
302.8
359.0


258.7
264,2
311.0


220.2
224.8
325.0


154.8
158.1
186.0


84.2
86.0
136.0


19.0
19.5
NA


Notes:

1960-61a -
Based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the 1960-61 survey as reported in
Service de Statistique et de la M6canographie, 1970, Enquete Demographique par Sondage en
Republique de Haute-Volta 1960-61, Paris, Vol. II, p. 436.

1960-61b -
Adjusted rates for the 1960-61 survey population, reported as taking into account the growth
rate (op. cit., p. 225).

1973-74 -
Rural rates for the area covered by the Center for Disease Control (CDC) Survey. Age of mother
was based on individual's own estimate of age, population was reported in "person months."
Rates are based on a total of 269 births for a 12-month period (Oct. 1973-Sept. 1974). Reported
in AID/CDC, 1975, Disease and Demographic Survey Project, Status Report, unpublished.







52 Zaire

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

1955-57 5.140 136.0 265.0 232.0 168.0 125.0 74.0 28.0
1955-58 6.340 175.0 339.0 296.0 214.0 133.0 74.0 37.0



Notes:

1955-57 -
Based on data from the 1955-57 National Demographic Sample Survey reported in U.N., ECA, 1975,
Demographic Handbook for Africa, Addis Ababa, p. 72. The rates are as reported in the source
except for a rate of 80.0 for the age group 35-44 and a rate at 16.0 for the age group 45-54.
Graphical interpolation was used at the U.S. Bureau of the Census to split the rates for
10-year age groups into rates for 5-year age groups. The source does not report the type of
survey question on which these rates are based.

1955-58 -
Based on data from the 1955-58 National Demographic Sample Survey as reported in Anatole
Romaniuk, 1967, La Fgcondite des Populations Congolaises, Paris, Mouton Publishers, p. 55.
Age-specific fertility rates and total fertility rates were adjusted at the U.S. Bureau of the
Census to imply a crude birth rate of 48 per 1,000 population, and 10-year age categories over
age 35 were split into 5-year categories. The reason for the difference in the reference
period and the type of survey question on which these rates are based were not apparent at the
time of this compilation.








Zambia 53

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


1968-69a
1968-69b
1974a
1974b


4.984
6.945
6.650
7.260


72.4
100.9
137.0
137.0


224.4
312.7
143.0
286.0


226.6
315.8
209.0
279.0


198.9
277.2
353.0
235.0


147.2
205.1
340.0
321.0


86.9
121.1
111.0
83.0


40.3
56.2
37.0
111.0


Notes:

1968-69a -
Rates based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the 1969 census, as reported in
Patrick 0. Ohadike and Habtemariam Tesfaghiorghis, 1975, The Population of Zambia, National
Population Monograph in the CICRED Series, [Paris], p. 34.

1968-69b -
Adjusted rates calculated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census using the Brass fertility technique
(average of P4/F4 and Ps/Fs ratios) as recommended by Ohadike and Tesfaghiorghis, op. 2it.,
p. 3.

1974a -
Based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the sample census conducted Aug. 26-
Sept. 7, 1974, as reported in Central Statistical Office, 1975, Fertility Data from Census
questions and From Pregnancy Histories-A Comparison, Population Monographs, No. 1, p. 17.

1974b -
Based on pregnancy history data from a small subsample of women in the 1974 sample census
obtained in a survey conducted Nov. 23-30, 1974, as reported in Central Statistical Office,
1975, op. cit.








54 Afghanistan

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

1972-73a 6.912 122.2 281.1 308.6 261.1 211.8 126.8 70.7
1972-73b 7.742 240.4 314.9 365.0 321.9 196.5 86.1 23.5
1972-73c 7.742 136.9 314.9 345.7 292.5 237.2 142.0 79.2



Caution: A random sampling procedure was not used in the Afghan survey; rather the statistical
approach was based on the viewpoint that finite population sampling problems could be formu-
lated as problems of statistical prediction. The sampling bias of this procedure is not
reflected in the reported or adjusted rates.



Notes:

1972-73a -
Rates for the settled population based on 1972-73 survey data as reported in Government of
Afghanistan and USAID, 1975, National Demographic and Family Guidance Survey of the Settled
Population of Afghanistan, Vol. I, ed. Solomon Chu, et al., pp. 34, 37, and 40.

1972-73b -
Adjusted rates for the settled population estimated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1978,
Afghanistan: A Demographic Uncertainty, by James F. Spitler and Nancy B. Frank, Washington,
D.C., ISDP-RD, No. 6. Rates were adjusted by a curve-fitting technique based on data on chil-
dren ever born from the 1972-73 National Demographic and Family Guidance Survey of the Settled
Population of Afghanistan.

1972-73c -
Adjusted rates for the settled population estimated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census, op. cit.
Rates were adjusted by applying the age pattern of fertility from data on children born during
the 12 months preceding the survey date to the level of fertility estimated from results of the
curve-fitting technique cited above (1972-73b).








Bahrain 55

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

Source A
1965-71 6.584 124.7 333.5 332.3 250.0 177.6 62.9 35.7
1971-76 5.628 88.6 259.0 306.1 233.1 159.3 51.0 28.4
1976 5.247 77.4 219.1 292.1 227.6 159.2 47.6 26.4

Source B
1961-66 6.825 240.0 380.0 333.0 216.0 140.0 56.0 NA
1966-71 5.230 167.0 302.0 268.0 170.0 97.0 42.0 NA

Source C
1971a 4.900 87.9 266.2 275.8 198.7 115.1 24.0 12.3
1971b 7.444 133.2 403.7 418.6 301.7 174.0 38.7 18.8



Notes:

Source A -
Rates obtained using incomplete hospital registration and other registration data showing
births by age of mother for various years 1970-76, and reverse survival of relevant age groups
from the 1965 and 1971 census data to derive estimates of total births and the female popula-
Stion for appropriate years; birth reports based on the dual registration system considered
still incomplete in 1977 and relatively accurate in terms of year of occurrence only since
1976, M. B. Deming, et al., 1978, The Population of Bahrain: Trends and Prospects, Shawal,
Bahrain, mimeo, pp. 19-22, 147, and 149-193; M. B. Deming, 1979, personal communication (age-
specific fertility rates as estimated for the total population of Bahrain, 1965-71, 1971-76,
and 1976).

Source B -
Rates obtained using distributions of births by age of mother in 1970 and by reverse surviving
the 1971 population to derive the number of births and the average annual number of women
during the interval. Rates are reported in U.N., 1973, "Application of Retrospective Projec-
tions for Measuring Fertility-Case of Bahrain," Expert Group Meeting on Fertility, by
A. Kjurciev and Y. Courbage, Beirut, Lebanon, ESOB/DM/F/WP.7, p. 7.

Source C -
Rates for 1971a were based on registered data which are considered incomplete. Rates are
reported in U.N., 1973, "Fertility Levels and Trends in Bahrain," Expert Group Meeting on
Fertility, by Rashid Ismail Almoor, Beirut, Lebanon, ESOB/DM/F/CP.6, p. 4. The base popula-
tion was presumably from the 1971 census. Rates for 1971b are adjusted rates as reported in
U.N., op. cit. Basis of adjustment is not stated.








56 Bangladesh

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

Population Growth Estimation Experiment (Chandrasekaran-Deming Formula)
1963 7.818 267.5 373.8 373.8 308.3 167.2 55.6 17.4
1964 7.142 276.9 355.1 343.8 219.8 158.7 60.4 13.7
1965 7.067 264.7 346.6 364.4 249.2 123.6 49.8 15.1
1963-65 7.398 276.4 359.0 355.9 260.4 149.6 56.3 21.9

Population Growth Estimation Experiment (Longitudinal Registration)
1963 6.784 230.2 322.7 327.2 266.9 149.9 47.9 12.0
1964 6.160 235.7 303.1 315.6 185.6 138.0 46.6 7.4
1965 5.794 217.2 282.7 290.8 208.4 100.0 48.8 10.8
1963-65 6.284 229.5 303.2 313.1 221.2 128.8 48.1 12.8

National Impact Survey

1966-68 6.015 252.0 301.0 250.0 198.0 126.0 37.0 3.0
1967-69 6.282 225.4 341.0 269.2 232.9 143.9 39.8 4.2

Retrospective Survey of Fertility and Mortality
1974 7.080 198.3 337.3 310.9 261.5 197.0 95.4 13.5

Bangladesh Fertility Survey

1971-75 6.337 109.0 288.6 291.1 250.2 184.8 107.4 34.7
1974-76 6.340 186.0 322.0 300.0 227.0 148.0 69.0 16.0



Notes:

Population Growth Estimation Experiment (Chandrasekaran-Deming Formula) -
Derived by application of the Chandrasekaran-Deming formula to results of the Population
Growth Estimation (PGE) Experiment. Rates for 1963 are as reported in Pakistan Institute of
Development Economics, 1968, Report of the Population Growth Estimation Experiment-Descrip-
tion and Some Results for 1962 and 1963, Karachi, pp. 87-88. Rates for 1963-65, 1964, and
1965 are as reported in Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, 1971, Final Report of the
Population Growth Estimation Experiment 1962-65, ed. M. Naseem Iqbal Farooqui and Ghazi Mumtaz
Farooq, Dacca, pp. 28-29, 93, 118, and 123. Total fertility rates for 1963, 1964, and 1965
exclude births occurring to women under 15 years of age and ages 50 and over. For 1963-65,
the fertility rate for women ages 15-19 includes births occurring to women under 15 years of
age and the fertility rate for women ages 45-49 includes births occurring to women ages 50 and
over.

Population Growth Estimation Experiment (Longitudinal Registration) -
Derived from Longitudinal Registration in the 1963 PGE. Rates for 1963 are as reported in
Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, 1968, op. cit. Rates for 1963-65, 1964, and
1965 are as reported in Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, 1971, op. cit. Total
fertility rates for 1963, 1964, and 1965 exclude births occurring to women under 15 years of
age and ages 50 and over. For 1963-65, the fertility rate for women ages 15-19 includes
births occurring to women under 15 years of age and the fertility rate for women ages 45-49
includes births occurring to women ages 50 and over.

National Impact Survey -
Based on data from the National Impact Survey. The rates were calculated at the U.S. Bureau
of the Census by multiplying the age-specific marital fertility rates by the proportions
currently married found in the final report of the PGE (Pakistan Institute of Development
Economics, 1971, op. cit., p. 125). The TFR for 1966-68 takes into account a rate of 36 for
the 10-14 age group. Marital fertility rates for 1966-68 were reported in Ismail Sirageldin,
et al., 1975, "Fertility in Bangladesh: Facts and Fancies," Population Studies, Vol. 29,
No. 2, p. 209. Marital fertility rates for 1967-69 were reported in Pakistan Training
Research and Evaluation Centre, no date, National Impact Survey Report, Lahore, p. 107.








Bangladesh (Continued) 57



Retrospective Survey of Fertility and Mortality -
Based on data from the Bangladesh Retrospective Survey of Fertility and Mortality. The TFR
takes into account a rate of 2.1 for the 10-14 age group. Rates as reported in Bangladesh,
Census Commission; and United Kingdom, Ministry of Overseas Development, 1977, Report on the
1974 Bangladesh Retrospective Survey of Fertility and Mortality, London, p. 77.

Bangladesh Fertility Survey -
Based on pregnancy history data from the Bangladesh Fertility Survey. Rates should be
regarded as provisional. The TFR for 1971-75 takes into account a rate of 1.6 for the 10-14
age group. Rates for 1971-75 were reported in Bangladesh Population Control and Family
Planning Division, 1978, World Fertility Survey, Bangladesh Fertility Survey, 1975, First
Report, [Dacca], p. 73. Rates for 1974-76 were reported in Mahbubuddin Ahmed, 1979, "A Note
on the Direct Estimation of Current Fertility Level Using the Bangladesh Fertility Survey
Data," a paper presented at the workshop, Recent Trends of Fertility and Mortality in
Bangladesh, Dacca.








58 Brunei

Total fertility rate : Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15:19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


1971
1972
1973.
1974


5.958
5.426
5.505
5.064'


73.4
62.4
51.4
60.4


263.1
251.8
211.2
243.9


318.9
285.4
292.5
264.3


260.6
234.9
250.1
212.3


174.5
162.4
179.2
146.5


77.2
64.6
80.9
68.1


23.9
23.7
35.7
17.2


Notes:

1971, 1973 -
Based on registered births as reported in UNDY 1975, table 24. The base population was
officially estimated using 1971 census data.

1972, 1974 -
Based on registered births by age of mother (UNDY 1975, table 23) and the female population, by
age, estimated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census using the 1973 estimated female population, by
age (UNDY 1975, table 7).








China'- Taiwan 59
Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

Source A


1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975



1966*
1970*
1975*
1976*


5.750
5.585
5.465
5.350
5.100

4.825
4.815
4.220
4.325
4.120

4.000
3.705
3.365
3.210
3.045
2.830



4.915
4.060
2.866
3.136


48.0
45.0
45.0
41.0
37.0

36.0
40.0
39.0
41.0
40.0

40.0
36.0
35.0
33.0
34.0
37.0



40.8
40.6
37.5
41.0


253.0
248.0
255.0
252.0
254.0

261.0
274.0
250.0
256.0
245.0

238.0
224.0
208.0
203.0
197.0
194.0


333.0
342.0
338.0
337.0
335.0

326.0
326.0
295.0
309.0
298.0

293.0
277.0
257.0
250.0
235.0
215.0


Source B


279.7
241.6
196.5
214.9


332.8
297.4
217.7
238.2


255.0
245.0
235.0
231.0
214.0

195.0
188.0
158.0
161.0
151.0

147.0
134.0
117.0
105.0
96.0
83.0



191.9
149.2
84.1
92.0


169.0
156.0
145.0
139.0
120.0

100.0
91.0
70.0
68.0
63.0

59.0
51.0
41.0
37.0
35.0
27.0



92.9
59.9
27.3
29.9


79.0
71.0
65.0
60.0
52.0

41.0
38.0
28.0
26.0
23.0

20.0
16.0
13.0
12.0
10.0
8.0



38.8
20.3
8.1
8.9


13.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
8.0

6.0
6.0
4.0
4.0
4.0

3.0
3.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0


iData on age-specific and total fertility rates were not available for the Mainland.



*Rates marked with an asterisk have been singled out as reliable data for publication in the
Country Demographic Profiles series.



Notes:

Source A -
Based on registered births as reported in various issues of Taiwan Demographic Fact Book,
Ministry of the Interior, Taiwan.

Source B -
Adjusted rates calculated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The rates for 1966, 1970, and
1975 are based on registered births adjusted for underregistration, the pattern of fertility
from the registered data, and the adjusted 1966, 1970, and 1975 midyear female populations, by
age. The rates for 1976 are based on 1976 registered births adjusted for underregistration,
the pattern of fertility from the 1975 registered fertility rates, and the estimated 1976 mid-
year female population, by age. Underregistration of births was estimated to be 2 percent
for 1966 to 1976, based on 1970 adjusted census population age 0-4 (U.S. Bureau of the Census,
1978, Country Demographic Profiles-Republic of China, ISP-DP-12, Washington, D.C.).









60 Cyprus

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


1960


1960
1965
1970


3.386


3.512
3.420
2.766



3.260
3.097
3.011
2.923
2.741

2.904
2.932
2.384
2.316
2.096


1966
1967
1968
1969
1970

1971
1972
1973
1974
1975


13.4


31.8
17.9
21.4



24.8
23.3
21.2
22.4
21.2

20.5
26.1
18.1
20.7
21.0


Source A
180.9

Source B
182.8
174.7
151.9

Source C
189.3
174.3
172.7
159.2
150.5

165.6
168.7
133.8
147.4
138.6


207.8 131.7 104.6


210.0
237.8
182.3


218.4
202.3
196.2
197.0
180.7

209.2
219.7
179.5
171.2
149.2


133.1
136.1
114.3



118.6
127.3
126.7
119.6
113.3

119.0
110.8
94.6
84.8
75.2


105.7
80.1
60.4



64.8
63.5
61.1
62.6
59.8

50.2
45.4
39.7
30.5
27.8


31.6


31.9
30.8
18.8



29.3
24.8
20.6
19.6
18.7

14.1
13.4
10.0
7.8
6.4


Notes:

Source A -
Based on confinements resulting in live births, adjusted for underregistration according to
experience of 1952-1954, and the female population from the 1960 census. Rates are reported
in UNDY 1965, table 17.

Source B -
Based on registered births. The base populations estimates are unknown. Reported in U.N.,
1977, Levels and Trends of Fertility Throughout the World, 1950-1970, New York, p. 174.

Source C -
Based on incomplete registered births adjusted for underregistration by the Cyprus Department
of Statistics and Research. The rates are as reported in UNDY 1975, table 24, for 1966-1974;
and UNDY 1976, table 11, for 1975. The base population estimates were presumably derived
using 1960 census data and registered births, deaths, and migration data.








Hong Kong 61

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

Source A
1961 5.170 47.0 238.0 313.0 231.0 139.0 57.0 9.0
1965 4.930 41.0 252.0 318.0 211.0 122.0 39.0 3.0
1966 4.460 29.0 213.0 291.0 203.0 111.0 42.0 3.0
1967 4.225 29.0 178.0 268.0 201.0 123.0 40.0 6.0
1968 3.645 27.0 158.0 234.0 170.0 102.0 36.0 2.0

Source B
1969 3.733 17.4 172.1 242.8 178.2 92.8 37.4 5.9

Source C
1970 3.491 18.1 155.3 233.4 168.8 87.1 31.0 4.4
1971 3.413 17.0 145.0 243.0 162.5 83.3 28.4 3.6
1972 3.356 17.6 140.5 253.5 150.5 79.4 26.4 3.3
1973 3.276 18.1 134.1 253.1 146.7 75.8 24.1 3.3
1974 3.108 19.0 134.8 232.5 139.4 71.5 21.8 2.6
1975 2.752 17.8 122.1 206.8 123.1 59.5 18.6 2.5

Source D
1976 2.584 17.6 111.5 199.1 118.3 53.8 15.1 1.5



Notes:

Source A -
The 1961 rates are based on the total number of registered births allocated by an average of
the age pattern for the birth rates of Taipei and Singapore. The 1965-1968 rates are based on
the age distribution of sample birth records collected jointly by the University of Michigan
Population Studies Center and the Hong Kong Department of Census and Statistics. The birth
data for 1968 on which the rates are based were not adjusted for underregistration. Birth
data for all other years were adjusted for an estimated 4 percent underregistration. Reported
in Ronald Freedman, et al., 1970, "Hong Kong's Fertility Decline: 1961-68," Population Index,
Vol. 36, Nos. 3-18, table 7. Base population estimates were presumably based on the 1961
census.

Source B -
Based on vital statistics compiled by Hong Kong, Census and Statistics Department, cited in
ESCAP, 1974, The Demographic Situation in Hong Kong, U.N., ESCAP Country Monograph Series
No. 1, table 120. Base population estimates were presumably based on the 1971 census.

Source C -
Based on registered births reported in Hong Kong, Census and Statistics Department, 1976,
"Recent and Future Fertility Trends in Hong Kong," paper presented at the Second Own-Children
Workshop, East-West Center. The registered births used in the calculation of these rates
include adjustments for a very small number of self-delivered births not registered. Base
population estimates were presumably based on the 1971 census.

Source D -
Reported in UNDY 1977, table 11. Rates were presumably based on unadjusted births and
official midyear population estimates.








62 India

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

1958-59 National Sample Survey (Rural Areas)
1958-59 5.176 143.9 263.6 244.3 188.3 127.9 49.6 17.6

1960-61 National Sample Survey (Urban Areas)
1960-61 4.246 99.6 226.9 208.0 160.4 102.6 41.8 9.9

1961 Census and 1958-59 National Sample Survey (Rural Areas)
1961 5.601 155.7 285.2 264.4 203.8 138.4 53.7 19.0

1964-65 National Sample Survey (Rural Areas)
1964-65 5.286 83.2 247.2 241.3 195.4 177.5 79.1 33.4

1964-65 National Sample Survey (Urban Areas)
1964-65 4.688 67.5 251.9 271.5 195.1 130.9 12.1 8.5

1966-67 Sample Registration (Rural Areas)
1966-67 5.870 115.0 253.8 274.8 233.4 169.9 81.3 45.7

1968 and 1969 Sample Registration (Rural Areas)
1968 5.754 109.4 251.4 272.6 224.3 172.3 81.6 39.2'
1969 5.618 97.9 261.9 266.9 226.0 158.3 77.1 35.5

1969 Sample Registration (Urban Areas)
1969 5.145 70.8 244.7 252.6 212.6 140.4 69.6 38.3

1971-72 Fertility Survel (Rural Areas)
1970 5.532 105.7 257.8 265.5 221.9 148.7 73.8 33.0
1971-72 5.745 98.0 274.0 283.0 227.0 151.0 83.0 33.0

1971-72 Fertility Survey (Urban Areas)
1971-72 4.285 52.0 221.0 247.0 173.0 108.0 43.0 13.0

1971 Census and 1969 Sample Registration (Total Country)
1971* 5.670 95.0 265.0 271.0 229.0 159.0 78.0 37.0

1971-72 Fertility Survey (Total Country)
1971-72 5.345 89.0 260.0 261.0 215.0 141.0 74.0 29.0



*Rates marked with an asterisk have been singled out as reliable data for publication in the
Country Demographic Profiles series.



Notes:

1958-59 National Sample Survey (Rural Areas) -
Rates refer to rural population, as reported in Indian Statistical Institute, The National Sample
Survey No. 89, 1961, Fertility and Mortality Rates in Rural India, Calcutta, Fourteenth Round,
July 1958-June 1959,p. 13. Births refer to events occurring in the year preceding the survey date.
Base populationwas the current population in the survey. Rates below age 15were calculated by
relating births born to mothers below age 15 to the total female population below 15; and to total
female population over 50 years for births to women over 50. The rate for age group 10-14 was 1.0,








India (Continued)


and for ages 50-54, 2.3 (reported in The Population of India, CICRED Series, p. 16). TFR
includes births to women ages 15-49. A slightly different set of rates was reported in U.N.,
1965, Population Bulletin of the United Nations, New York, No. 7-1963, p. 103. The differ-
ences were a rate of 145.2 for the age group 15-19 and a rate of 19.8 for the age group 45-49
and a TFR of 5.192. No source for the data was given.

1960-61 National Sample Survey (Urban Areas) -
Rates refer to the urban population only based on data from the National Sample Survey (NSS),
Round 16, as reported in CICRED, 1974, The Population of India, initiated by A. Chandra Sikhar
and R. B. Chari, and completed by S. Raghavachari, et al., p. 16.

1961 Census and 1958-59 National Sample Survey (Rural Areas) -
Rates refer to the rural population only, as reported by A. N. Mehra, 1972, Relationship
Between Fertility and Economic and Social Factors in India, Indian Census Centenary Seminar,
Office of the Registrar General. These rates were corrected by Mehra with the following
explanation from his paper: "The N.S.S. (National Sample Survey), in its 14th Round report,
calculated age-specific fertility rates per 1,000 females for rural India. Since there is no
significant difference between rural and urban fertility, the estimates given by the N.S.S.
for rural areas are applicable to the country as a whole. The estimates of A.S.F.Rs. have
however, been corrected to correspond to the estimated birth rates for 1951-60 given in the
publication 'Vital Statistics of India' for 1961 issued by the Registrar General. For this
purpose, the smoothed age-distribution of the 1961 census has been used" (Mehra, p. 7). The
14th Round was conducted in 1958-59 (see note above). It is not clear from the above para-
graph how rates from the NSS were applied to a 1961 census population. It is clear that they
were inflated from the 1958-59 rates by 7.6 percent. Nowhere are these rates labeled as
referring to 1961, however, they were used in comparison with other socioeconomic data for 1961.

1964-65 National Sample Survey (Rural Areas) -
Rates refer to the rural population only based on data from the NSS, Round 19, as reported in
CICRED, 1978, op. cit.

1964-65 National Sample Survey (Urban Areas) -
Rates refer to the urban population only based on data from the NSS, Round 19, as reported in
CICRED, 1978, op. cit.

1966-67 Sample Registration (Rural Areas) -
Rates refer to the rural population only based on data from the Sample Registration System
(SRS), as reported in Office of the Registrar General, 1969, Sample Registration in India, by
B. L. Agraival, table 4. Data are from 12 Indian States; 4 states (Gujarat, Kerala,
Maharashtra, and Mysore) in full-scale operation of SRS and 8 states showing data from a pilot
study.

1968 and 1969 Sample Registration (Rural Areas) -
Rates refer to the rural population only based on data from SRS in rural areas of 9 states for
1968 and 12 states for 1969. Rates are reported in Office of the Registrar General, 1972,
Measures of Fertility and Mortality in India, SRS Analytical Series, No. 2, pp. 7 and 48.

1969 Sample Registration (Urban Areas) -
Rates refer to urban population only based on data from SRS in urban areas of 5 states, as
reported in Office of the Registrar General, 1972, op. cit., p. 32.

1971-72 Fertility Survey (Rural Areas) -
Rates refer to the rural population based on the 1971-72 Fertility Survey data from 16 states
and union territories as reported in India Registrar General, 1975, Sample Registration
Bulletin, New Delhi, Vol. IX, No. 3.

1971-72 Fertility Survey (Urban Areas) -
Rates refer to the urban population based on the 1971-72 Fertility Survey data from 16 states
and union territories as reported in India Registrar General, 1975, op. cit.








64 India (Continued)




1971 Census and 1969 Sample Registration (Total Country) -
Rates for the total country estimated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1978, Country Demo-
graphic Profiles-India, Washington, D.C., ISP-DP-16. Rates from the 1969 SRS were weighted
by urban-rural proportions of female population in the 1971 census and inflated to achieve
an estimated crude birth rate for 1971 of 39 births per 1,000 population.

1971-72 Fertility Survey (Total Country) -
Rates for the total country estimated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census using rates from the
1971-72 Fertility Survey weighted by urban and rural proportions of female population in the
1971 census. Data are from India Registrar General, 1975, op. cit.



Attention: Estimated and projected ASFR's and TFR's for 1971-75 and 1978 are available in
U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1978, op. cit.








Indonesia 65
ITotal fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15.19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


Source A
123.3 281.4 295.0 240.8 179.4
120.5 286.6 286.4 216.6 149.9


81.9 21.1
64.2 16.6


Source B


1961a
1961b


258.0
284.0
286.0

Source C
215.0
269.0

Source D


1961-63
1964-66
1967-70*


1963-64a
1963-64b


255.0
275.0
273.0


197.0
210.0
211.0


6.114
5.704



5.385
5.760
5.605


3.980
4.975



5.700
4.535
6.095
5.190
5.690

5.780
5.590
5.680
5.640
5.365

4.940
4.465


5.910



5.465


6.016


6.460



5.540


4.970


4.750


179.0
199.0
155.0


100.0
125.0



181.0
140.0
173.0
133.0
145.0

157.0
149.0
140.0
127.0
128.0


214.0
168.0
229.0
194.0
213.0

213.0
206.0
218.0
225.0
204.0


120.0 261.0 245.0 183.0
122.0 237.0 226.0 165.0

Source E
158.0 290.0 277.0 224.0


130.0
128.0
124.0


99.0
124.0



122.0
102.0
151.0
134.0
142.0

144.0
129.0
139.0
135.0
120.0

111.0
90.0


146.0


Source F
151.0 274.0 265.0 206.0 124.0


Source G


108.9 259.1


277.4 252.2 200.7


Source H
118.0 320.0 330.0 254.0 170.0

Source I
151.0 283.0 270.0 209.0 123.0

Source J
111.0 253.0 238.0 194.0 121.0


Source K
106.0 242.0 227.0 185.0


116.0


58.0
56.0
55.0


45.0
56.0



67.0
50.0
69.0
59.0
63.0

63.0
59.0
67.0
65.0
61.0


NA
NA
17.0


14.0
17.0



21.0
15.0
25.0
24.0
25.0

22.0
21.0
21.0
21.0
22.0


1964
1965
1966
1967
1968

1969
1970
1971
1972
1973

1974
1975


*Rates marked with an asterisk have been singled out as reliable data for publication in the
Country Demographic Profiles series.


277.0
222.0
288.0
243.0
273.0

276.0
278.0
277.0
276.0
276.0


175.0 148.0
219.0 185.0


52.0 16.0
40.0 13.0


75.0 12.0



55.0 18.0


92.5 12.5


78.0 22.0



55.0 17.0


58.0 19.0


55.0 18.0


1965-70



1966-70


1966-71


1970



1971*



1975*



1975*


258.0
210.0
284.0
251.0
277.0

281.0
276.0
274.0
279.0
262.0







Indonesia (Continued)


Notes:

Source A -
Estimates derived from the Bogue-Palmore regression technique by Lee-Jay Cho (1964, "Estimated
Refined Measures of Fertility for all Major Countries of the World," Demography, Vol. 1,
No. 1, p. 360) pertain to a range because of the lack of reliable data from which to arrive at
a single best estimate. According to Cho, "...the high estimate (1961a) is regarded as being
more nearly the correct one, because the low estimate (1961b) usually reflects deficiencies in
the data." Data from the 1961 census were used which might represent serious reporting
errors.

Source B -
Estimates derived by application of the own-children method to data from the 1971 census
(excludes children under age 2) as reported in Central Bureau of Statistics, 1976, Estimates
of Fertility and Mortality in Indonesia Based on the 1971 Population Census, by Lee-Jay Cho,
Sam Suharto, Geoffrey McNicoll, and Si Gde Made Mamas, Jakarta.

Source C -
The 1963-64a (unadjusted) and 1963-64b (adjusted) rates, based on 1964-65 Socioeconomic
Survey data (University of Indonesia, Demographic Institute, Faculty of Economics, 1973, Demo-
graphic Factbook of Indonesia, Jakarta, p. 75), fall well out of the range of other fertility
estimates. Geoffrey McNicoll and Si Gde Made Mamas (1973, The Demographic Situation in
Indonesia, Papers of the East-West Population Institute, No. 28, Honolulu, p. 52) in discus-
sing this survey indicated that the "overall sampling fraction of .001 means that sample error
is often intrusive..." The 1963-64b rates were adjusted by the Brass technique using the
P2/F2 ratio.

Source D -
Estimates derived by application of the own-children method to data from Phase I, 1976 Inter-
censal Population Survey. Rates are reported by Sam Suharto, Central Bureau of Statistics
(unpublished). Period estimates based on the survey data (not shown) are available in Sam
Suharto and Lee-Jay Cho, 1978, Preliminary Estimates of Indonesian Fertility Based on the 1976
Intercensal Population Survey, Papers of the East-West Population Institute, No. 52, Honolulu.

Source E -
Based on final rates for the survey area (provinces of Java, Sumatera, Sulawesi, and Bali)
from the 1973 Fertility-Mortality Survey, adjusted to include estimates of fertility for the
areas not covered in the survey (approximately 14 percent of the total population). The final
age-specific fertility rates for all women in the survey were obtained by applying an adjusted
proportion of currently married women to the survey age-specific marital fertility rates,
since the authors concluded that many divorced and widowed women were excluded from the preg-
nancy history data of the survey. Rates and discussion of the survey are reported in the
University of Indonesia, Demographic Institute, Faculty of Economics, Levels and Trends of
Fertility and Childhood Mortality in Indonesia, by Peter F. McDonald, Mohammed Yasin, and
Gavin W. Jones, Indonesian Fertility-Mortality Survey 1973, Monograph No. 1 [Jakarta].

Source F -
Rates estimated from 1971 census advance tabulations of own-children by age of child and
mother as reported in McNicoll and Mamas (op. cit., p. 46).

Source G -
Rates derived by the reverse survival method applied to a preliminary adjustment of 1971 cen-
sus data using Henry's standard age pattern of marital fertility rates and proportion of
married females from the 1971 census. Rates are reported in University of Indonesia,
Demographic Institute, 1973, Suatu Cara: Perapihan Komposisi Umur Dan Perkiraan Tingkat
Fertilitas (A Method: Improvement of Age Composition and Fertility Rate Estimation), by
Secha Alatas, Jakarta, p. 25.

Source H -
The level of fertility for 1970 was adopted by the university of Chicago Community and Family
Study Center as the fertility base for population projections prepared in 1973. The same








Indonesia (Continued)


total fertility rate is presented for 1968 in Amy Ong Tsui and Donald J. Bogue, 1978, Declin-
ing World Fertility: Trends, Causes, Implications, Population Bulletin, Vol. 33, No. 4,
table 1. The pattern of fertility accepted by Chicago is that of a model regional pattern
developed by the U.N. This pattern is consistent with the high fertility, broad peak model
age pattern of fertility developed by the U.N. using birth data for selected countries,
including three in Southeast Asia (see U.N., 1965, Population Bulletin of the United Nations,
No. 7, New York).

Source I -
The total fertility rate was estimated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census (1979, Country Demo-
graphic Profiles-Indonesia, Washington, D.C.) by considering the trend of decline implied by
a 1961-66 total fertility rate of 5.66 (average of 1961-63 and 1964-66 fertility rates derived
by the own-children method using data from the 1971 census) and a 1967-70 total fertility rate
of 5.60 (see above). The age pattern of fertility was based on patterns derived from 1967-70
and 1971-75 fertility rates (obtained using the own-children method and data from the 1971
census and 1976 Intercensal Population Survey, respectively).

Source J -
Rates estimated by Terence H. Hull (1978, "An Estimate of Infant Mortality in Indonesia in
1975," Working Paper No. 9, Population Institute, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta) using
date of last birth data and female population from Phase II of the 1976 Intercensal Population
Survey. Hull adjusted the number of last births reported to have occurred in 1975 for non-
statement, multiple births, and next-to-last birth occurring during the year.

Source K -
The total fertility rate was estimated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census (op. cit.) for consis-
tency with the 1971 total fertility rate of 5.54 and a 1971-75 total fertility rate of 5.20
(based on own-children estimates using data from Phase I of the 1976 Intercensal Population
Survey). The age-specific fertility rates were estimated using the age pattern of fertility
implied by the 1975 rates and the total fertility rate of 4.75.



Attention: National estimates of fertility levels are not available from the results of the
sample vital registration project (1974-77). This project, while it is "basically a pilot
project (no attempt is being made to make estimates of fertility or mortality at the national
or provincial level), it is designed to provide information necessary for future development
of vital registration in the country and its sub-divisions." See Peter Gardiner, 1976, "Sam-
ple Vital Registration-Time First Year (A Summary of Some Preliminary Results)," Majalah
Demografi Indonesia, No. 5, June, p. 75.








68 Iran

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15.19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


1966
1973-76a
1973-76b
1973-76c


7.710
6.265
4.422
7.784


45.0
133.5
111.8
152.7


375.0
309.5
252.1
361.9


394.0
300.3
217.0
367.7


355.0
239.5
146.6
311.3


291.0
163.5
99.9
216.0


82.0
79.0
45.5
105.9


NA
27.7
11.6
41.4


Notes:

1966 -
Rates estimated for the total country based on the total number of births derived from 1966
census data and U.N. age-specific fertility weights (since actual births by age of mother were
not available). Rates are reported by M. Amani, 1971, "Birth and Fertility in Iran," Univer-
sity of Teheran, CENTO Seminar on Clinical and Applied Research, p. 16. The U.N. weights are
reported in U.N., 1956, "Methods for Population Projections by Sex and Age," Manuals on Methods
of Estimating Population, Manual III, ST/SOA/Series A/25, p. 42.

1973-76a -
Rates for the total country based on births by age of mother and the female population by age
from the national sample survey which was enumerated and followed up at 6-month intervals over
a three-year period (Plan and Budget Organization, Statistical Centre of Iran, 1978, Population
Growth Survey of Iran: Final Report, 1973-76, Serial No. 777). The rate for the age group
15-19 includes births to women under 15 years of age.

1973-76b -
Rates for urban areas only (Plan and Budget Organization, op. cit.).


1973-76c -
Rates for rural areas only (Plan and Budget Organization, op. cit.).








Iraq 69
Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


129.0 301.0 402.0 316.0 201.0


72.0 14.0


1965 -
Projected estimates based on stable population analysis and the reverse survival technique
given a 1947 and 1957 intercensal growth rate and the 1957 age-sex distribution. Reported in
K. C. Zachariah, 1970, "Use of Census Data For Estimating Demographic Measures of Iraq," Demo-
graphic Measures and Population Growth in Arab Countries, Cairo Demographic Centre, Research
Monograph Series-UARI, No. 1, p. 46.


1965


7.175


Notes:








70 Israel

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

1975
1976
1977


3.946
3.808
3.771
3.804
3.927

3.961
3.886
3.558
3.728
3.758

3.968
3.998
3.760
3.698
3.718

3.686
3.696
3.472


54.9
47.6
43.9
42.9
44.4

42.2
41.8
34.6
30.7
37.3

35.4
41.2
41.8
41.1
42.1

44.1
42.9
41.4


232.3
228.2
225.9
227.9
230.8

227.6
219.2
198.2
196.0
198.7

206.1
211.0
204.6
205.7
207.0

204.3
206.8
194.9


233.0
225.8
226.5
229.0
239.5

244.2
241.9
222.0
235.3
234.4

259.8
240.3
221.2
216.9
218.9

215.3
216.2
204.0


152.2
148.1
151.8
155.6
161.7

166.3
164.1
152.8
170.0
168.7

169.1
178.8
165.3
159.8
162.1

164.8
163.3
148.6


83.1
78.2
75.0
74.6
77.3

79.4
79.9
78.2
85.7
86.5

93.6
98.8
90.5
89.8
87.7

85.0
85.6
81.6


27.5
27.7
25.8
25.3
25.4

25.6
23.5
21.0
22.7
21.4

25.0
25.1
25.2
22.9
22.9

20.8
21.3
21.4


6.1
5.9
5.3
5.6
6.3

6.9
6.8
4.7
5.2
4.6

4.5
4.5
3.4
3.5
3.0

2.9
3.1
2.4


Notes:

1960-1962 -
Based on registered births and the estimated female population for age groups 20-24, ...40-44
from UNDY 1965, table 17. Rates for age group 15-19 were calculated using births to mothers
under 20 years of age from UNDY 1965, table 13, and female population age 15-19 from UNDY 1970,
table 6. Rates for age group 45-49 were calculated using births to mothers age 45 and over
from UNDY 1965, table 13, and the female population 45-49 from UNDY 1970, table 6.

1963-1968 -
Based on registered births and the estimated female population for age groups 20-24, ...40-44
from UNDY 1969, table 18. Rates for age group 15-19 were calculated using births to mothers
under 20 years of age from UNDY 1969, table 19, and the female population age 15-19 from UNDY
1970, table 6. Rates for age group 45-49 were calculated using births to mothers age 45 and
over from UNDY 1969, table 19, and the female population age 45-49 from UNDY 1970, table 6.

1969 -
Calculated based on births for 1969 from Central Bureau of Statistics, Statistical Abstract of
Israel 1971, Jerusalem, No. 22, table C/23, and the 1969 female population distribution from
UNDY 1970, table 6.

1970 -
Calculated based on births for 1970 from Central Bureau of Statistics, Statistical Abstract of
Israel 1971, Jerusalem, table III/23, and interpolated population for mid 1970 based on data
for Dec. 31, 1969, and Dec. 31, 1970, from Statistical Abstract of Israel 1970 and Statistical
Abstract of Israel 1971, respectively.

1971 -
Calculated based on births for 1971 and population distribution as reported in UNDY 1972,
tables 6 and 17.

1972 -
Calculated based on births for 1972 from Central Bureau of Statistics, Statistical Abstract of
Israel 1973, Jerusalem, table 111/23, and interpolated population for midyear 1972 based on
data for Dec. 31, 1971, and Dec. 31, 1972, from Statistical Abstract of Israel 1972 and Statis-
tical Abstract of Israel 1973, respectively.








Israel (Continued) 71




1973 -
Calculated based on births for 1973 from UNDY 1974, table 10, and the interpolated population
for midyear 1973 based on data for Dec. 31, 1972, and Dec. 31, 1974, from Statistical Abstract
of Israel 1973 and Statistical Abstract of Israel 1975, respectively.

1974 -
Calculated based on births for 1974 from Central Bureau of Statistics, Statistical Abstract of
Israel 1975, Jerusalem, table 111/25, and interpolated midyear population based on data for
Dec. 31, 1972, and Dec. 31, 1974, as reported in Statistical Abstract of Israel 1973 and
Statistical Abstract of Israel 1975, respectively.

1975 -
Calculated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census from data on ASFR's for Jews and non-Jews and
proportion Jewish (by age) as reported in Central Bureau of Statistics, Statistical Abstract
of Israel 1976, Jerusalem, pp. 40 and 78.

1976 -
Calculated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census from data on ASFR's for Jews and non-Jews and the
Dec. 31, 1976, proportion Jewish (by age) as reported in Central Bureau of Statistics, Statis-
tical Abstract of Israel 1977, pp. 41 and 80-81.

1977 -
Rates calculated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census from data on ASFR's for Jews and non-Jews
and the Dec. 31, 1977, proportion Jewish (by age) as reported in Central Bureau of Statistics,
Statistical Abstract of Israel 1978, pp. 54 and 92-93.



Attention: Similar rates for 1960, 1965, and 1970 (not shown) with TFR's of 3.922, 2.962, and
3.973, respectively, reported in U.N., 1977, Levels and Trends of Fertility Throughout the
World, 1950-1970, New York, p. 175.







72 Jordan

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15.19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

1961a 7.011 111.6 318.8 355.5 336.5 204.3 63.1 12.4
1961b 6.780 118.0 298.0 350.0 323.0 191.0 60.0 16.0
1965 7.092 122.6 309.7 363.7 335.7 206.8 63.4 16.6
1969 7.122 67.4 253.1 328.9 298.8 290.8 119.2 66.2
1973 6.798 94.4 242.6 337.8 283.6 272.9 97.4 30.8
1974 6.612 97.8 248.7 324.3 267.6 260.8 94.9 28.4



Notes:

1961a -
Estimated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census by applying the Mortara fertility technique to 1961
census data.

1961b -
Rates derived using the Mortara fertility technique. Rates are reported by Abdul Karin Bourini,
no date, "Sources and Quality of Fertility Statistics in Jordan and Current Approaches for
Improvement," Expert Group Meeting on Fertility, U.N., ESOB/DM/F/CP. 8. The rate for the age
group 35-39 was inflated from a rate of 119.0 to 191.0 at the U.S. Bureau of the Census to
correct for a probable typographical error in the reported rates.

1965 -
Calculated by applying the Mortara fertility technique to 1961 census data and adjusting the
results to yield an estimated 1965 gross reproduction rate of 3.46. Rates are reported in
A. Thavarajah, et al., 1970, "Mid-Decade Demographic Parameters and Population Growth," Demo-
graphic Measures and Population Growth in Arab Countries, Cairo Demographic Centre, Research
Monograph Series-UARI, No.l pp. 69 and 72.

1969, 1973 -
Calculated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census from data on births by age of mother and female
population in 5-year age groups. Registered births by age of mother were taken from U.N.
Statistical Office tabulations for the East Bank and from Israel Central Bureau of Statistics,
1975, Administered Territories Statistics Quarterly, Vol..V, No. 4, for the West Bank. Female
population in 5-year age groups was interpolated from the U.N. medium variant projections.
The rates are suspect because of severe age misstatement and because of heavy international
migration which is not considered in the U.N. projections.

1974 -
Calculated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census from data on births by age of mother and female
population in 5-year age groups. Registered births by age of mother were taken from UNDY 1976,
table 10, for the East Bank and from Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, 1976, Administered
Territories Statistics Quarterly, Vol. VI, table 7, for the West Bank. Female population in
5-year age groups was interpolated from the U.N. medium variant projections.








Kampuchea 73
Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman)I 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


1959
1962a
1962b



Notes:


5.662
7.075
6.170


44.8
109.0
74.0


262.0
306.0
256.0


264.5
323.0
281.0


266.7
295.0
260.0


191.6
233.0
209.0


83.2
118.0
113.0


19.5
31.0
28.0


1959 -
Computed based on results of the 1958-59 sample survey for 345 villages for year ended
April 1959. The rate for the age group 15-19 was computed using the female population age
10-19. Reported in UNDY 1965, table 14.

1962a -
Calculated based on 1962 census data reported in George S. Siampos, 1970, "The Population of
Cambodia 1945-1980," Millbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, XLVIII, No. 3, July, pp. 317-360. Based
on census data "adjusted for reference period and for age at birth of child." Rates for ages
15319 and 45-49 have been adjusted at the U.S. Bureau of the Census to include the births to
woiren age 14 and ages 50-54.

1962b -
Unadjusted rates based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the 1962 census. The
TFR includes a rate of 25.0 for women age 14 and a rate of 8.0 for those age 50-54. Reported
by Siampos, 1970, op. cit.








74 Republic of Korea

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

Source A


249.8
187.0
183.6
188.0
171.0
176.8

Source B
253.8
176.8
187.6


337.7
299.0
321.5
342.0
334.0
265.5



358.9
308.5
340.6


1960*
1966*
1970*
1971*
1972*
1975*



1960
1970
1971


1960a
1960b
1960c


6.280
4.645
4.504
4.570
4.355
3.654



6.452
4.272
4.683



6.250
5.985
4.835



4.565
4.845
4.640
4.510
4.165
3.580



4.585
4.780
4.345
3.935


4.226



3.210


31.0
17.0
8.5
8.0
8.0
8.1



34.4
8.3
5.8



2.0
37.0
22.0



14.0
20.0
20.0
13.0
13.0
11.0



8.0
6.0
9.0
10.0


Source F
11.0 190.0


325.0
348.0
354.0
301.0


276.1
220.0
224.7
212.0
220.0
158.4



299.8
196.4
234.2



318.0
257.0
207.0



213.0
219.0
212.0
206.0
201.0
164.0



196.0
241.0
198.0
220.0


304.0 202.0


Source G
10.0 147.0 275.0 142.0


*Rates marked with an asterisk have been
Country Demographic Profiles series.


singled out as reliable data for publication in the


Notes:


Source A -
Selected rates are from various sources as reported in U.S. Bureau of the Census (1978, Coun-
try Demographic Profiles-Republic of Korea, Washington, D.C., p.9). The 1960 rates are
based on an average of the 1960 and 1961 births and population from the 1971 Fertility Abor-
tion Survey (FAS) as reported in Korean Institute for Family Planning, 1973, Fertility and
Family Planning-An Interim Report on 1971 Fertility-Abortion Survey, by Hyun-Sang Moon, et
al., Seoul, Appendix 1, pp. 120-123. The 1966 and 1970 rates are from the 1971 FAS as
reported in Korean Institute for Family Planning, 1976, The Increasing Utilization of Induced
Abortion in Korea, by Sung-Bong Hong and Walter B. Watson, Seoul, Appendix A. The 1971 and
1972 rates are a 3-year average of data from the 1973 National Fertility Survey as reported in
Korean Institute of Family Planning, 1974, 1973-National Family Planning and Fertility


Source C
105.0 353.0
283.0 330.0
195.0 248.0

Source D
188.0 294.0
204.0 306.0
201.0 303.0
188.0 294.0
170.0 291.0
159.0 276.0


1966a
1966b
1966-67
1969-70
1970
1973-74


1970
1971
1972
1973



1970



1976


Source E


196.0
195.0
172.0
146.0


220.5
137.0
112.2
112.0
99.0
74.0



229.5
105.4
124.4



244.0
196.0
164.0



135.0
138.0
116.0
118.0
109.0
74.0



128.0
97.0
111.0
88.0



95.0



49.0


125.0
62.0
43.2
44.0
34.0
36.9



114.0
41.9
41.3



180.0
80.0
99.0



59.0
64.0
58.0
63.0
41.0
29.0



51.0
63.0
19.0
19.0



38.0



18.0


16.0
7.0
7.0
8.0
5.0
11.2



NA
17.0
2.7



48.0
14.0
32.0



10.0
18.0&
18.0
20.0
8.0
3.0



13.0
6.0
6.0
3.0








Republic of Korea (Continued)


Survey-A Comprehensive Report, by Kun Yong Song and Seung Hyun Han, Seoul. The 1975 rates
were derived at the U.S. Bureau of the Census by applying the Arriaga fertility technique to
data from the 1970 and 1975 censuses.

Source B -
Unadjusted rates as reported in Korean Institute for Family Planning, 1973, op. cit.,
Appendix 1, pp. 120-123. TFR's for the years 1960 to 1971 were reported as 6.452, 5.940,
5.662, 5.927, 5.168, 4.592, 5.050, 4.301, 4.692, 4.562, 4.272, and 4.683, respectively. The
TFR's for 1960 and 1961 exclude fertility to women ages 45 to 49. There is a great deal of
fluctuation in these unadjusted annual rates that is thought to be due in part to a magnifi-
cation of sampling errors, and also to reporting problems connected with the thirteen-month
lunar leap years (1960, 1963, 1966, 1968, 1971, and 1974). The peaks in the TFR's correspond
to these lunar leap years.

Source C -
The 1960a rates are based on "census retrospective (Shryock's estimate)." The 1960b rates are
calculated from the 1967 KAP report. The 1960c rates are calculated from vital registration
data. A TFR of 4.320 was reported for 1961 using registered births. All rates are reported
in Republic of Korea, Economic Planning Board, 1970, A Comprehensive Study on 1966 Population
Census, Seoul, p. 33.

Source D -
Rates are reported in U.S. Bureau of the Census (1978, op. cit.) as alternative estimates from
selected sources. The 1966a rates were derived by applying the own-children method to 1966
census data as shown by Lee-Jay Cho, 1971, "Estimating Current Fertility from the 1966 Cen-
sus," Studies in Family Planning, The Population Council, Vol. 2, No. 3, New York, p. 7. The
1966b and 1970 rates are revised estimates derived by applying the own-children method to 1970
census data as shown in Lee-Jay Cho, 1974, Estimates of Current Fertility for the Republic of
Korea and its Geographical Subdivisions: 1959-1970, Seoul. The 1966-67 and 1969-70 rates
were derived at the U.S. Bureau of the Census by applying the Arriaga fertility technique to
1966 and 1970 census data. The 1973-74 rates are from the 1974 National Fertility Survey as
shown in National Bureau of Statistics and Korean Institute of Family Planning, 1977, The
Korean National Fertility Survey-First Country Report, Seoul.

Source E -
Unadjusted rates based on data from the 1973 National Fertility Survey, as reported in Korean
Institute of Family Planning, 1974, op. cit. The annual TFR's from this survey fluctuate in
the same way as the annual rates from the 1971 Fertility-Abortion Survey. It is not known to
what extent the results of this survey may have been affected by the lunar leap years (see
Source B). TFR's for 1968 and 1969 were reported as 4.495 and 4.325, respectively.

Source F -
Based on data from the 1970 Special Demographic Survey (unpublished), as reported in Republic
of Korea, 1972, Country Statement, Second Asian Population Conference (Nov. 1-13), Tokyo,
Japan, p. 7. Other sources refer to the 1971 Special Demographic Survey. It is possible that
the survey was carried out in 1970-71 but the reference period for the rates is uncertain.

Source G -
Rates based on data from the 1976 National Fertility and Family Planning Evaluation Survey as
reported in Dae Woo Han and Nam Hoon Cho, 1978, "Korea (South)," Studies in Family Planning,
Vol. 9, No. 9, p. 240.



Attention: For a more extensive report on evaluated rates and available sources, see U.S.
Bureau of the Census, 1978, op. cit.








76 Kuwait

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

1965a 6.882 172.7 256.6 369.6 295.8 219.5 62.3 NA
1965b 7.278 166.7 343.9 361.2 291.8 224.0 68.1 NA
1970 6.748 131.4 317.1 340.5 277.8 210.4 57.3 15.1
1972 6.238 114.4 301.7 335.4 244.2 190.1 50.1 11.7



Notes:

1965a -
Reported in A. Nassef and Mahzoub 0. Gaafar, 1971, "Age Patterns of Fertility in Five Arab
Countries," Fertility Trends and Differentials in Arab Countries, Cairo, Egypt, Cairo Demo-
graphic Centre, Research Monograph Series No. 2, p. 33. Basis unknown; presumably the rates
are based on 1965 census data.

1965b -
Calculated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census by weighting age-specific fertility rates for
Kuwaitis and non-Kuwaitis reported in Alan G. Hill, 1972, "The Demography of the Kuwaiti Popu-
lation of Kuwait," Demography, Vol. 12, No. 3, Aug., p. 539, and the female population distri-
bution from the 1965 census reported in Kuwait, The Planning Board, Central Statistical
Office, 1972, Population Census 1970.

1970 -
Calculated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census from data on live births as reported in UNDY 1971,
table 24, and female population from 1970 census data reported in Kuwait, 1972, op. cit.
Quality of data is unknown.

1972 -
Calculated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census based on unpublished data on live births by age of
mother (from U.N., 1973, computer printout), and female population derived by interpolating
between U.N. medium variant projections by 5-year age groups for 1970 and 1975. Quality of
data is unknown.



Attention: Rates for Kuwaiti women and non-Kuwaiti women are reported in Allan G. Hill, 1977,
"The Demography of the Population of Kuwait," Population Bulletin, U.N., ECWA, No. 16,
tables 3 and 4; and in The Planning Board, Central Statistical Office, 1973, "Fertility Situa-
tion in Kuwait," Expert Group Meeting on Fertility, U.N., ESOB, Beirut, p. 7, for 1975 and
1970 rates, respectively.








Lebanon 77

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


1970a
1970b
1970c


4.566
5.981
5.550


40.0
52.4
48.6


183.9
240.9
223.6


258.4
338.5
314.1


214.4
280.8
260.6


133.6
175.0
162.4


64.9
85.0
78.9


18.0
23.6
21.9


Notes:

1970a -
Age-specific fertility and total fertility rates estimated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census
based on marital fertility rates (see Chamie, 1977, "Religious Differentials in Fertility:
Lebanon," Population Studies, Vol. 31, No. 2, table 3) and the proportion married estimated
from L'Enquete par Sondage sur la Population Active au Liban, a 1970 survey of households. The
survey data are reported in Lebanon, Ministere du Plan, Direction Centrale de la Statistique,
1972, Recueit de Statistique Libanaises, Beirut, No. 8, pp. 74-75. Chamie's report shows
age-specific marital fertility rates which yield a total marital fertility rate of 7.790.

1970b, 1970c -
Adjusted rates derived at the U.S. Bureau of the Census by applying the Brass fertility tech-
nique (P2/F2 and P3/F3 ratios for 1970b and 1970c, respectively) to 1970 survey data (reported
by Chamie, op. cit., and Lebanon, op. cit.).







78 Macao

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


43.5 181.9 251.9 201.4 139.5


61.9 11.2


Based on a regression analysis of demographic indices, as reported in Lee-Jay Cho, 1964, "Esti-
mated Measures of Fertility for All Major Countries of the World," Demography, No. 1,
pp. 359-374, table 1.


1955-60


4.457


Notes:









Malaysia 79

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

Source A


139.1
120.5
131.4
119.9
108.0

100.5
92.3
88.4
84.9
76.2


305.5
277.7
300.8
293.2
285.4

278.0
272.0
261.3
251.3
241.5


303.9
295.0
327.9
324.7
316.3

311.3
301.6
294.9
288.4
282.6


235.8
232.6
255.4
251.1
249.3

248.7
248.3
246.2
238.1
233.6


147.6
152.6
167.9
161.8
161.0

160.8
157.9
156.3
148.7
148.0


1957
1960
1961
1962
1963

1964
1965
1966
1967
1968

1969
1970



1960
1961
S1962
1963
1964

1965
1966
1967



1957*
1970*


70.8
68.2
72.3
68.7
69.3

74.3
73.8
70.7
64.3
65.2


20.7
21.9
22.8
20.5
19.9

20.5
22.8
21.9
22.8
20.5


6.117
5.843
6.393
6.200
6.046

5.974
5.837
5.687
5.473
5.331

5.149
4.990



6.110
6.205
5.860
5.915
5.995

5.515
5.200
5.230



6.487
5.037


5.548
5.229
5.210
4.858
4.668

5.053
4.845
4.561



4.570
4.574
4.224
4.186


Source B


125.0
118.0
103.0
86.0
77.0

83.0
71.0
71.0


278.0
289.0
277.0
289.0
285.0

265.0
239.0
231.0


323.0
335.0
333.0
296.0
311.0

292.0
270.0
289.0


257.0
261.0
237.0
260.0
265.0

241.0
243.0
221.0


154.0
170.0
154.0
171.0
172.0

157.0
150.0
166.0


Source C
127.5 329.1 324.5 254.6 169.1
57.0 234.5 275.3 224.6 142.4


85.0
68.0
68.0
81.0
89.0

65.0
67.0
68.0


72.4 20.2
57.5 16.2


Source D


76.1
68.2
64.3
57.3
53.6

55.1
52.1
48.4



63.9
62.0
58.3
60.2


258.1
251.4
246.7
232.1
232.6

232.0
216.7
205.0


292.0
272.8
269.5
248.8
236.2

275.8
269.2
252.3


Source E


242.2
222.1
206.7
216.2


258.6
276.1
202.6
255.2


245.5
235.6
243.3
228.9
216.2

227.9
221.4
210.6



204.2
190.3
221.3
168.9


153.7
143.6
141.3
129.4
126.2

148.5
143.8
137.0



103.7
124.7
129.7
107.1


66.7
58.5
59.7
56.8
54.3

57.7
54.3
48.3



41.5
39.5
26.1
29.7


17.4
15.7
17.3
18.3
14.6

13.6
11.5
10.6


EAST MALAYSIA


Source F
93.4 285.2 323.5


256.0 188.2


72.2 31.2


*Rates marked with an asterisk have been singled out as reliable data
Country Demographic Profiles series.


for publication in the


70.3 230.2 275.7 225.1 145.0
63.6 222.7 266.2 220.6 143.9


63.4 19.9
61.7 19.3


1966
1967
1968
1969
1970

1971
1972
1973



1970
1971
1972
1973


19 70*


6.248








80 Malaysia (Continued)

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 4549

TOTAL MALAYSIA

Source G

1970* 5.270 62.0 242.0 284.0 238.0 148.0 61.0 19.0
1971* 5.250 62.0 239.0 281.0 239.0 152.0 62.0 15.0
1972* 5.090 59.0 228.0 276.0 233.0 149.0 58.0 13.0
1973* 4.830 56.0 217.0 263.0 221.0 144.0 53.0 13.0
1974* 4.760 56.0 219.0 259.0 215.0 140.0 51.0 11.0

1975* 4.590 56.0 209.0 257.0 199.0 135.0 51.0 11.0
1976* 4.550 53.0 211.0 260.0 199.0 129.0 47.0 9.0



*Rates marked with an asterisk have been singled out as reliable data for publication in the
Country Demographic Profiles series.



Notes:

Source A -
Rates for Peninsular Malaysia obtained by applying the own-children method to 1970 census data.
Rates are reported by Normah Mohd. Aris, 1976, "Status of Own Children Fertility Estimates For
Malaysia," paper prepared for the Second Own Children Workshop, East-West Center, Honolulu,
table 2. The source reports rates (not shown) based on own-children estimates for 1956-59 and
a set of period rates.

Source B -
Rates for Peninsular Malaysia obtained by applying the own-children method to data from the
1967-68 Socio-Economic Survey. Reported by Lee-Jay Cho, 1969, Estimates of Fertility for West
Malaysia, 1957-1967, Department of Statistics, Research No. 3, Kuala Lumpur.

Source C -
The 1957 rates for Peninsular Malaysia were estimated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census based
on an average of the total number of registered births for 1956-58; a distribution of births
by age of mother for 1958-59; and the 1957 female census population. The 1970 rates were
derived using registered births, by age of mother, adjusted for 3.5 percent underregistration
and the midyear population estimates from the adjusted 1970 census. Rates are as reported in
U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1979, Country Demographic Profiles-Malaysia, forthcoming, table 7.

Source D -
Rates for Peninsular Malaysia based on registered births (considered complete). The base
population estimates are unknown. A set of rates for Sarawak for 1970 (not shown) are
reported in the same source. Rates are as reported in UNDY 1975, table 24. A set of rates
for 1958-70 (not shown) based on registered births and adjusted 1970 Post Enumeration Survey
data are also reported by Aris (1976, op. cit.). A set of rates for 1960, 1965, and 1970 (not
shown) with TFR's of 5.986, 5.640, and 5.070, respectively, are reported in U.N., 1977, Levels
and Trends of Fertility Throughout the World, 1950-1970, New York, p. 174.

Source E -
Rates for Peninsular Malaysia based on pregnancy history data. Rates are as reported in
Department of Statistics, 1977, Malaysian Fertility and Family Survey-1974, Malaysia, p. A496.


Source F -
Rates for East Malaysia were estimated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census by applying the Brass
fertility technique (P3/F3 ratio) to data from the 1970 census of Sarawak, and registered
births by age of mother for Sarawak (U.S. Bureau of the Census, op. cit., table 7).








Malaysia (Continued) 81



Source G -
Estimated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census (op. cit., tables 7 and A.3) for total Malaysia by
combining adjusted registered births for Peninsular Malaysia with the births implied for East
Malaysia. The base midyear population estimates were derived by using 1970 census data for
total Malaysia (including Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak).









82 Mongolia

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


98.1 248.3 236.4 187.2 136.0
109.2 270.8 225.5 170.0 118.8


62.4 15.7
51.9 13.0


1955-60a -
Rates are considered to be the high range of estimates calculated based on regression tech-
niques using available age data and supplementary indices. Where it was not possible to
arrive at a single best estimate, high and low estimates were made. The high estimate is
regarded as more nearly correct because the low estimates usually reflect deficiencies in
the data. Reported in Lee-Jay Cho, 1964, "Estimated Refined Measures of Fertility for All
Major Countries of the World," Demography, No. 1, pp. 359-374, table 1.

1955-60b -
Rates considered as the lower range of estimates calculated by Cho, op. cit.


1955-60a
1955-60b


4.920
4.795


Notes:








Nepal 83
Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

1974-75 6.257 113.6 269.9 297.2 259.8 169.3 89.5 49.6
1975* 6.372 114.4 287.4 296.5 256.6 188.1 92.5 38.9
1975-76a 6.451 86.5 287.6 308.3 257.9 224.6 92.5 32.8
1975-76b 6.408 138.2 304.6 283.9 252.1 170.5 95.5 34.4
1976* 6.367 119.0 296.4 295.3 254.0 191.6 86.6 30.4
1976-78 6.242 127.1 297.1 293.8 251.9 179.9 71.8 24.1



*Rates marked with an asterisk have been singled out as reliable data for publication in the
Country Demographic Profiles series.



Notes:

1974-75 -
Based on data reported in the 1974-75 Demographic Sample Survey. The TFR takes into account
a rate of 2.4 for the 10-14 age group. The rates reflect an upward adjustment by a correction
factor of 1.17 based on the results of a quality control check. Rates are reported in U.N.,
Office of Technical Cooperation and Fund for Population Activities, 1976, The Demographic
Sample Survey of Nepal, 1974-75, Survey Method and Findings, by A. K. Bourini, Kathmandu,
p 20.

1975 -
Rates are an average of the rates from the 1974-75 Demographic Sample Survey, the 1976 Nepal
Fertility Survey, and the 1976 Demographic Sample Survey (1974-75, 1975-76a, and 1975-76b,
respectively). The fertility rate for women ages 15-19 includes births occurring to women
under age 15.

1975-76a -
Calculated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census by applying the proportion of women ever married,
by age, from the 1976 Nepal Fertility Survey to age-specific marital fertility rates from the
same source. These data are reported in Family Planning and Maternal Child Health Project,
1977, Nepal Fertility Survey, 1976, First Report, London, tables 5.7 and 11.4. The source
shows the original age-specific marital fertility rates which yield a total marital fertility
rate of 6.855.

1975-76b -
Based on data reported in the 1976 Demographic Sample Survey. The TFR takes into account a
rate of 2.3 for the 10-14 age group. The.rates reflect an upward adjustment by a correction
factor of 1.16 based on the results of a quality control check. Rates are reported in U.N.,
Office of Technical Cooperation and Fund for Population Activities, 1977, The Demographic
Sample Survey of Nepal, Second Year Survey 1976, by A. K. Bourini, pp. 10, 14, and 18.

1976 -
Rates are an average of the rates from the 1976 Nepal Fertility Survey and the 1976 and 1977-78
Demographic Sample Surveys (1975-76a, 1975-76b, and 1976-78, respectively). The fertility rate
for women ages 15-19 includes births occurring to women under age 15.

1976-78 -
Based on data reported in the 1977-78 Demographic Sample Survey. The TFR takes into account a
rate of 2.8 for the 10-14 age group. The rates reflect an upward adjustment by correction
factors of 1.16 and 1.30 for the urban and rural areas, respectively, based on the results of
a quality control check. Rates are reported in Central Bureau of Statistics, 1978, The
Demographic Sample Survey of Nepal, Third Year Survey, 1977-78, Kathmandu, table 9.








84 Pakistan

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

Population Growth Estimation Experiment (Chandrasekaran-Deming Formula)


135.3
138.3
106.1
130.0


310.7
338.7
257.0
303.1


369.9
380.8
354.8
373.2


320.2
362.2
363.0
352.5


243.9
243.0
258.2
250.0


Population Growth Estimation Experiment (Longitudinal Registration)


116.1
112.0
89.3
110.0


239.0
236.9
187.8
226.0


307.2
280.7
273.0
291.5


259.7
269.6
292.8
283.2


183.9
159.5
204.2
187.3


131.4
106.0
112.8
114.4



98.5
57.1
85.5
78.8


51.9
87.7
49.8
66.5


37.7
52.7
35.1
42.1


1963
1964
1965
1963-65



1963
1964
1965
1963-65



1967-69


75.4


254.0 316.6 282.0 162.9 78.8


Population Growth Surveys


61.0
64.0
50.0
54.0
56.0
61.0


220.0
222.0
213.0
238.0
226.0
240.0


264.0
270.0
257.0
269.0
258.0
263.0


Pakistan Fertility Survey


6.211
5.842
5.838
6.094



5.870


5.678
5.748
5.748
6.062
6.295
6.425



7.174
6.861
6.265


304.6
291.3
266.0


359.6
343.9
314.0


243.0
244.0
236.0
245.0
261.0
267.0



302.3
289.1
264.0


179.0
180.0
194.0
200.0
220.0
218.0



233.6
223.4
204.0


104.0
104.0
121.0
126.0
145.0
144.0



106.5
101.8
93.0


60.0
61.0
69.0
72.0
85.0
84.0


Population Growth Estimation Experiment (Chandrasekaran-Deming Formula) -
Derived by application of the Chandrasekaran-Deming formula to results of the Population Growth
Estimation (PGE) Experiment. Rates for 1963 are reported in Pakistan Institute of Development
Economics, 1968, Report of the Population Growth Estimation Experiment-Description and Some
Results for 1962 and 1963, Karachi, pp. 87-88. Rates for 1964, 1965, and 1963-65 are reported
in Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, 1971, Final Report of the Population Growth
Estimation Experiment 1962-65, eds. M. Naseem Iqbal Farooqui and Ghazi Mumtaz Farooq, Dacca,
pp. 28-29, 93, 118, and 123. Total fertility rates for 1963, 1964, and 1965 exclude births
occurring to women under 15 years of age and ages 50 and over. For 1963-65, the fertility rate
for women ages 15-19 includes births occurring to women under 15 years of age and the fertility
rate for women ages 45-49 includes births occurring to women ages 50 and over.

Population Growth Estimation Experiment (Longitudinal Registration) -
Derived by longitudinal registration based on data from the PGE. Rates for 1963 are reported
in Pakistan Institute of Development Economics (1968, op. cit.). Rates for 1964, 1965, and
1963-65 are reported in Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, 1971, op. cit. Total
fertility rates for 1963, 1964, and 1965 exclude births occurring to women under 15 years of
age and ages 50 and over. For 1963-65, the fertility rate for women ages 15-19 includes
births occurring to women under 15 years of age and the fertility rate for women ages 45-49
includes births occurring to women ages 50 and over.

National Impact Survey -
Based on data from the National Impact Survey. The rates were estimated at the U.S. Bureau of
the Census by multiplying the age-specific marital fertility rates (Training, Research, and
Evaluation Centre, no date, National Impact Survey Report, Lahore, p. 107) by proportions
currently married as reported in the final report of the PGE (Pakistan Institute of Develop-
ment Economics, 1971, op. cit., p. 125).


7.816
8.284
7.508
7.948


National Impact Survey


1968a
1968b
1969a
1969b
1971a
1971b


1974-75a
1974-75b
1974-75c


119.1
113.9
104.0


Notes:








Pakistan (Continued)


Population Growth Surveys -
Rates for 1968a, 1969a, and 1971a are based on de facto data, while the rates for 1968b, 1969b,
and 1971b are based on de jure data from the Population Growth Surveys (PGS) for 1968, 1969,
and 1971, respectively. The TFR's for 1968, 1969, and 1971 take into account reported rates
of 5.0, 9.0, and 8.0, respectively, for women age 50 and over. Rates for 1968 are reported in
Pakistan, Statistical Division, Ministry of Finance, Planning and Development, 1973, Popula-
tion Growth Survey, 1968, Karachi, pp. x-xi. Rates for 1969 are reported in Pakistan, Statis-
tics Division, Ministry of Finance, Planning, and Development, 1975, Population Growth Survey,
1969, Karachi, pp. ix-x. Rates for 1971 are reported in Pakistan, Statistical Division,
Ministry of Finance, Planning, and Development, 1974, Population Growth Survey, 1971, Karachi,
pp. ix-x.

Pakistan Fertility Survey -
Rates for 1974-75a and 1974-75b are adjusted rates estimated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census
by applying the Brass fertility technique (P2/F2 ratio for 1974-75a, and P3/F3 ratio for
1974-75b) to data from the 1975 Pakistan Fertility Survey (Population Planning Council of
Pakistan, 1976, Pakistan Fertility Survey, World Fertility Survey, First Report, Lahore,
table 3.7 and appendix tables 1.3 and 2.3.4). The rates for 1974-75c are unadjusted rates
based on data on births during the 12 months preceding the 1975-76 Pakistan Fertility Survey,
excluding the month of interview (op. cit., p. 77).









86 Philippines

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

1968 National Demographic Survey


60.0 240.0 301.0 290.0 208.0 104.0 25.0
26.0 186.0 303.0 262.0 229.0 112.0 20.0


1973 National Demographic Survey


84.0
74.0
56.0


260.0
254.0
227.0


313.0
313.0
302.0


290.0
281.0
272.0


1970 Census (Own-Children Method)


6.140
5.690


6.460
6.295
5.890



5.905
5.996
6.044
6.090
6.103

5.992
5.969
5.835
5.819


243.2
246.4
250.8
256.8
263.1

260.4
263.1
261.3
264.3


294.7
300.3
302.7
308.4
310.9

307.4
306.2
299.4
299.5


257.8
263.5
264.4
268.5
268.4

267.1
265.1
258.6
255.4


1958-62
1963-67



1958-62
1963-67
1968-72


107.0
101.0
100.0



87.5
88.6
88.4
85.7
84.1

81.5
79.9
75.7
73.3


27.0
20.0
22.0



20.9
20.4
20.2
18.5
17.2

15.8
15.4
15.9
15.8


1968 National Demographic Survey -
Based on the 1968 survey as reported in Wilhelm Flieger, 1972, "Fertility Levels
Trends in the Philippines," University of the Philippines, Population Institute.


and Fertility


1973 National Demographic Survey -
Based on the 1973 survey as reported in Mercedes B. Concepcion, 1974, Changes in Period
Fertility as Gleaned from the 1973 National Demographic Survey, Manila, University of the
Philippines, Population Institute, Research Note 13.

1970 Census (Own-Children Method) -
Estimated based on the own-children method applied to 1970 census data. These rates are 3-year
moving averages, except for the 1960 and 1968 rates (which are averages of unsmoothed rates for
1960 and 1961, and 1967 and 1968, respectively). Rates for 1969 and 1970 were not reported,
"since they show an apparent but largely unreal fertility decline stemming from underenumera-
tion and age-overstatement of children below two years of age." Rates are reported in National
Census and Statistics Office, no date, Estimates of Fertility in the Philippines Derived by the
Own-Children Method: 1960-68, by Luisa T. Engracia, et al., Manila, Monograph No. 9, pp. 4 and
17.


211.0
216.0
199.0



189.8
193.5
195.4
192.2
188.7

181.3
178.8
170.5
167.9


1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

1965
1966
1967
1968


87.1
86.5
86.7
87.8
88.1

84.9
85.3
85.5
87.4


Notes:








Singapore 87

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

Source A


1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965



1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965



1964
1965
1966
1967
1968

1969
1970
1971
1972
1973

1974
1975
1976
1977


5.978
5.619
5.427
5.364
5.156
4.818



5.918
5.566
5.328
5.292
5.087
4.769



5.007
4.698
4.498
3.946
3.562

3.246
3.086
3.045
3.052
2.811

2.379
2.104
2.149
1.858


72.1
66.4
54.3
50.4
41.9
39.4



63.1
57.9
53.2
47.8
40.4
38.8



38.3
35.9
33.0
35.8
30.9

27.1
25.9
25.6
25.5
24.4

21.0
17.0
16.5
13.6


258.6
250.1
255.2
253.4
240.7
219.3


334.5
315.6
300.1
300.2
295.1
279.2


Source B


271.0
258.5
250.7
247.4
230.8
206.2


322.9
307.9
295.4
295.2
294.2
282.2


Source C


240.0
227.1
218.5
195.8
165.8

150.1
139.0
138.3
138.0
132.1

121.0
104.1
109.6
92.5


277.6
259.5
261.2
244.7
236.6

227.8
208.8
214.8
218.8
200.9

174.0
157.2
163.6
142.4


266.5
246.5
236.3
235.0
225.7
217.6



266.3
248.0
233.3
233.1
225.3
217.4



226.7
216.2
202.0
166.7
152.0

134.3
138.0
137.3
139.1
128.3

103.3
95.5
97.7
87.1


180.0
169.4
162.3
157.9
154.8
142.6



176.0
164.7
158.1
157.7
152.8
143.2



147.7
138.1
124.8
95.9
85.2

75.2
74.5
68.0
65.5
56.8

42.2
35.8
33.6
28.7


72.2
66.5
67.8
67.1
64.3
57.2



72.3
66.9
65.6
68.6
65.2
57.6



62.8
54.9
51.7
42.9
35.3

29.4
26.7
21.9
20.8
17.3

12.6
10.0
8.0
6.7


11.7
9.3
9.4
8.7
8.7
8.3



11.9
9.3
9.2
8.6
8.7
8.4


Notes:

Source A -
Based on registered births and population estimates derived from 1957 census data. Reported
by Stephen H. K. Yeh, 1971, "Some Observations on Fertility in Singapore," Population Problems
in the Pacific, eds. Minoru Tachi and Minoru Muramatsu, p. 98.

Source B -
Based on registered births and population estimates derived from 1957 census data. The rates
include births to women under 15 and over 49 years of age. Reported by Saw Swee-Hock, 1970,
Singapore, Population in Transition, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, table 6.4,
p. 76.

Source C -
Based on registered births and official female population estimates derived from 1970 census
data. The rates for 1964-1974 are reported in Department of Statistics, no date, Yearbook of
Statistics Singapore 1974-75, table 2.5. The rates for 1975 and 1976 are reported in the
1976-77 yearbook, while the rates for 1977 are reported in the 1977-78 yearbook.



Attention: Rates for 1960, 1965, and 1970 (not shown) with TFR's of 5.685, 4.616, and 3.100 are
reported in U.N., 1977, Levels and Trends of Fertility Throughout the World, 1950-1970,
New York, p. 174.








88


Sri Lanka


Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15.19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

Source A


250.2
219.0
211.7

Source B
227.5
220.6
215.7
207.0
226.7

218.9
216.0
178.0


303.6
268.0
249.4



261.8
249.9
244.3
233.0
276.1

269.2
255.1
230.0


229.0
217.6
190.3



257.5
250.2
255.9
245.2
234.6

220.7
204.8
203.5


174.0
164.1
137.7



154.7
152.7
154.9
153.4
154.8

153.6
152.1
140.3


1960
1965
1969



1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

1965
1968
1971


1963
1970


1963*
1971*
1974*


1964
1965
1966
1967



1969



1974


5.307
4.801
4.411



5.096
4.941
4.934
4.751
4.984

4.801
4.640
4.224



5.036
4.222


5.095
4.203
3.697


4.758
4.711
4.548
4.384



4.226



3.350


57.7
47.5
46.7



67.9
66.3
62.1
59.0
51.2

50.0
49.2
43.0


52.2
37.6


52.8
42.8
37.6


47.4
47.4
44.8
43.1


281.6
228.8
201.3


Source E


218.6
217.*4
207.5
202.2


258.2
259.6
250.4
242.8


242.3
202.5
178.1


216.4
208.5
202.0
190.3


158.8
139.6
122.8


162.9
165.4
159.3
153.2


Source F
37.2 185.2 232.1 216.1 135.2


Source G
31.0 146.0


161.0 158.0 126.0


*Rates marked with an asterisk have been
Country Demographic Profiles series.


singled out as reliable data for publication in the


Notes:


Source A -
Based on registered births. The base population estimates are unknown. Reported in U.N.,
1977, Levels and Trends of Fertility Throughout the World, 1950-1970, New York, p. 175.

Source B -
Based on official registered births, and midyear population estimates. The midyear popula-
tion estimates for 1971 were derived from the preliminary 10 percent sample of the 1971 census.
Rates for 1960-1965 and 1968 are reported in Central Bank of Ceylon, Economic Research Depart-
ment, 1974, The Determinants of Labour Force Participation Rates in Sri Lanka-1973, Colombo,
The Kumaran Press, pp. 17 and 22. Rates for 1971 are from Department of Census and Statistics,
1974, The Population of Sri Lanka," Colombo, p. 17.


Source C
227.8 278.4 239.5 157.0
171.8 238.1 219.4 133.9


Source D


230.4
177.1
155.8


40.3
37.9
40.3



43.9
42.4
47.4
46.3
46.6

41.9
44.2
43.3



45.8
37.5


46.3
43.1
37.9


41.3
37.8
38.8
38.6



33.9


43.0








Sri Lanka (Continued)


Source C -
Based on official registered births. The base population estimates used were the final count
of the 1963 census for the 1963 rates and midyear population estimates for the 1970 rates.
Rates are reported in Dallas F. S. Fernando, 1974, "A Note on Differential Fertility in
Sri Lanka," Demography, Vol. II, No. 3, Aug., p. 446.

Source D -
Adjusted rates estimated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census (1977, Country Demographic Profiles-
Sri Lanka, ISP-DP-8, Washington, D.C., pp. 8 and 17). Rates derived based on adjusted 1963 and
1971 census populations, and adjusted total births for 1963, 1971, and 1974. The data source
used in the adjustment of the 1963 census population was Department of Census and Statistics,
1970, Life Tables, Ceylon, 1962-67, Colombo. The midyear population for 1974 was estimated at
the U.S. Bureau of the Census based on the adjusted 1971 census and preliminary official esti-
mates of annual births, deaths, and migration. Births were adjusted at the U.S. Bureau of the
Census based on data from Department of Statistics, 1970, A Study of the Extent of Under-
Registration of Births and Deaths in Ceylon, Colombo, p. 17. The pattern of the official rates
for 1963 reported by Fernando (1974, op. cit.), and for 1971 reported by Department of Census
and Statistics (1974, The Population of Sri Lanka, Colombo, p. 17) were used to estimate the
adjusted number of births for each age group in 1963 and 1971. The pattern for 1971 was also
used to estimate the adjusted number of births for each age group in 1974.

Source E -
Based on official registered births, and midyear estimates of the population in 1964-1967
derived from the preliminary 10 percent sample of the 1963 census and the west model life
table, level 19, for females. Rates are reported in Department of Census and Statistics,
1970, Fertility Trends in Ceylon 1953-1968 and The National Family Planning Programme, by
Dallas F. S. Fernando, Monograph No. 17, Ceylon, pp. 5-6, and 34.

Source F -
Based on official registered births and a midyear population estimated from the 1969 Socio-
Economic Survey. Rates are reported in Dallas F.,S. Fernando, 1972, "Recent Fertility Decline
in Ceylon," Population Studies, Vol. 26, No. 3, Nov., p. 452.

Source G -
Based on pregnancy history data from the 1975 Sri Lanka Fertility Survey (Department of Census
and Statistics, 1978, World Fertility Survey, Sri Lanka, 1975, First Report, London, table 5.13).








90 Syria
Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

1965 7.128 122.0 329.8 377.8 314.6 197.4 76.6 7.3
1970 7.877 130.0 354.0 371.0 325.0 225.0 114.0 57.0



Notes:

1965 -
Projected estimates based on stable population analysis given a 1947 to 1960 intercensal
growth rate and the 1960 age-sex distribution. Reported in A. Thavarajah, 1970, "Fertility,
Mortality and Population Growth in Syria," Demographic Measures and Population Growth in Arab
Countries, Cairo Demographic Centre, Research Monograph Series-UARI, No. 1, p. 214.

1970 -
Rates for the Syrian population only, estimated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census based on
application of the Mortara fertility technique to 1970 census data (UNDY 1975, table 51 and
UNDY 1973, table 26).








Thailand 91

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

1960 Census (Brass Fertility Technique)


67.6 217.5 309.0 299.1 238.6


129.1 46.0


1960 Census (Adjusted Children Ever Born)
75.1 249.2 324.4 293.9 226.0 119.3 25.9


Registered Births (Adjusted)
50.0 247.0 300.0 263.0 220.0
52.0 224.0 251.0 214.0 173.0

1970 Census (Own-Children Method)
86.0 274.0 313.0 281.0 215.0
89.0 267.0 299.0 260.0 206.0


1960*


1960



1960
1969


6.534


6.569



6.080
5.145


6.475
6.200



6.250
4.850


6.110
5.340



5.873


6.304
5.168


109.0 27.0
90.0 25.0


106.0 20.0
100.0 19.0



150.0 20.0
80.0 30.0


Longitudinal Study (1st and 2nd Rounds)
72.0 256.0 286.0 229.0 198.0 152.0 29.0
71.0 229.0 287.0 178.0 166.0 123.0 14.0

Longitudinal Study (Adjusted Average)
73.0 247.5 292.7 245.8 188.2 105.1 22.3


Survey of Population Change
66.4 258.9 302.6 273.1 222.4
84.1 246.9 254.5 203.6 153.5


*Rates marked with an asterisk have been singled out as reliable data
Country Demographic Profiles series.


112.3 25.1
76.4 14.5


for publication in the


1960 Census (Brass Fertility Technique) -
Derived from an average of Brass adjustments to current fertility based on registered births
in 1959, children ever born from the 1960 census, and an adjusted 1960 census female age
distribution moved to midyear. Rates were estimated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1978,
Country Demographic Profiles-Thailand, Washington, D.C., ISP-DP-15, table 7. Ajit Das Gupta,
et al. (1965, "Population Perspective of Thailand," Sankhya, Vol. 27, pp. 1-46, table 8)
reported the same pattern of fertility at a slightly higher level (TFR of 6.630, not shown)
using children-ever-born data and an adjustment for recall lapse for women above age 15.

1960 Census (Adjusted Children Ever Born) -
Based on a graphical curve fitting of children-ever-born data from the 1960 census adjusted
for errors in the proportion childless, maintaining the approximate number of children ever
born in each age group, and adjusting the fertility rates in light of preliminary results
from the Survey of Population Change. Rates are reported by Chalothorn, 1967, "Fertility
Levels and Differentials in Thailand," International Population Conference: Sidney, IUSSP,
table 1.


260.0 210.0
180.0 170.0


1960-64
1965-69



1965-69
1970-74


1968-69
1971-72


1970*


1964-65*
1974-75


Survey of Fertility
70.0 250.0 290.0
70.0 220.0 220.0


Notes:








Thailand (Continued)


Registered Births (Adjusted) -
Rates are based on the assumption that for 1960, 80 percent of the births were registered,
and that for 1969, 94 percent were registered and the 1969 growth rate was equal to 2.75 per-
cent. For both years the underregistration was assumed to be constant with mother's age.
Rates reported by Jacques Vallin, 1976, "The Population of Thailand," Population, Vol. 31,
pp. 153-176, table 5.

1970 Census (Own-Children Method) -
Based on an application of the own-children method to 1970 census data. Rates are reported
by Fred Arnold, 1978, personal communication, cited in U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1978,
op. cit.

Survey of Fertility -
Preliminary rates based on data from the Survey of Fertility in Thailand as reported in
Chulalongkorn University, Institute of Population Studies and Thailand National Statistical
Office, 1977, The Survey of Fertility in Thailand-Country Report, Bangkok, World Fertility
Survey Report, Vol. 1, No. 1.

Longitudinal Study (1st and 2nd Rounds) -
Estimates based on age-specific marital fertility rates from the Thai Longitudinal Study.
Rates were derived at the U.S. Bureau of the Census based on data reported by John knodel and
Pichit Pitaktepsombati, 1975, "Fertility and Family Planning in Thailand: Results from Two
Rounds of a National Study," Studies in Family Planning, New York, The Population Council, A
Vol. 6, No. 11.

Longitudinal Study (Adjusted Average) -
Derived based on an average of the 1968-69 and 1971-72 period age-specific marital fertility
rates from the Thai Longitudinal Study weighted by the proportion of females who were married
and living in urban and rural areas from the 1970 census. The rates were graphically adjusted
for slight irregularities. Rates were estimated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1978,
op. cit., table 7.

Survey of Population Change -
Based on data from the 1964-65 and 1974-75 Survey of Population Change, as reported in
National Statistical Office (NSO), 1976, The Survey of Population Change: 1974-75 (in Thai),
Bangkok. The rates for 1964-65 are also reported in U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1978,
op. cit., table 7.








Turkey 93
Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


87.1



86.0
81.0
88.0
64.0


Source A
266.4

Source B
285.0
268.5
294.0
214.0


Source C
94.0 313.0


243.3 190.6 125.6


276.0
260.2
268.0
195.0


222.0
208.9
189.0
138.0


159.0
149.5
127.0
93.0


288.0 203.0 137.0


54.1



64.0
60.0
54.0
40.0


26.6



35.0
33.1
21.0
15.0


*Rates marked with an asterisk have been
Country Demographic Profiles series.


singled out as reliable data for publication in the


Notes:


'Source A -
Unadjusted rates derived at the U.S. Bureau of the Census from 1965-66 survey data reported in
Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, 1967, Vital Statistics from the Turkish Demographic
Survey 1965-66, Ankara, pp. 95, 96, and 131. The rate for the age group 15-19 includes births
to women 10-14 years of age. Unknown' ages were distributed.

Source B -
Estimates reported in U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1979, Country Demographic Profiles-Turkey,
ISP-DP-25, Washington, D.C. The 1967a estimates were based on the inflation of the results
of the survey and registration systems (matched plus unmatched events) of the 1966-67 Turkish
Demographic Survey (TDS) to the total number of births estimated for 1967 according to the
Chandrasekaran-Deming technique (Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, 1970, Vital Statistics
from the Turkish Demographic Survey, 1966-67, Ankara). The 1974-75a estimates are reported in
the 1974-75 Turkish Demographic Survey resulting from a retrospective question on births in the
12 months preceding the survey inflated to the total births estimated by the Chandrasekaran-
Deming technique for the period Dec. 1974-Nov. 1975 (State Institute of Statistics (SIS), no
date, Tirkiye Nifus Araptirmasi 1974-75 [Turkish Demographic Survey 1974-75], [Ankara]). The
1967b rates were based on matched and unmatched births recorded in the 1966-67 Turkish Demo-
graphic Survey as reported in Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, 1970, op. cit. The
1974-75b estimates were based on marital fertility rates reported in the 1974-75 Turkish Demo-
graphic Survey for ever-married women resulting from a retrospective question on births in the
12 months preceding the survey (Turkey SIS, no date, op. cit.). The 1974-75b rates were adjusted
at the U.S. Bureau of the Census to correspond to the total female population of each age group.

Source C -
Adjusted rates based on an application of the Brass fertility technique to survey data as
reported by Emine Bulutay and Yalcin Salfinkaya, 1975, "Turkish Demographic Survey, Some
Findings on Vital Rates," 2nd Conference on Demography, Hacettepe University, Ankara.


1965-66



1967a*
1967b
1974-75a*
1974-75b


1974-75


4.968



5.635
5.306
5.205
3.795



5.580


59.0 22.0








94 Antigua

Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49


1973


2.614


94.8


121.6 139.7


94.4


50.9


20.0


Caution: The base population used to obtain the rates for 1973 assumes that the 1960-70 inter-
censal growth rate for each 5-year age group has remained constant during this period. This
assumption may not reflect reality because of a significant, but unquantifiable, amount of net
international migration of women in the reproductive ages, and differential net coverage error
and age misreporting in the censuses.



Notes:

1973 -
Calculated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census based on registered births by age of mother (as
reported in UNDY 1975, table 23). The female age distribution was extrapolated from the 1970
census figures.








Argentina 95
Total fertility rate Age-specific fertility rate (per 1,000 women)
Year (per woman) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

1955 3.159 60.0 161.3 175.4 119.4 78.1 30.3 7.4
1960a 2.995 56.5 158.0 167.9 116.0 67.8 26.3 6.5
1960b 3.080 58.3 165.3 169.0 118.8 69.6 28.8 6.3
1965a 3.032 58.9 159.7 169.0 118.9 70.1 24.5 5.4
1965b 3.082 59.1 161.5 170.1 124.5 70.1 25.3 5.8
1970 3.136 66.9 162.7 173.9 120.6 69.3 26.4 7.4



Notes:

1955, 1960a -
Based on registered births and female age distributions presumably based on the 1947 and 1960
censuses. The source notes that corrections were made in the data when necessary and that the
rates are a 3-year average centered on the date shown. Rates are reported in CELADE, 1965,
Argentina: ProyecciSn de la Poblaci5n por Sexo y Edad, 1960-1980, by Z. Camisa, Santiago,
C/62.

1960b, 1965a -
Based on registered births. The base population figures are presumably based on the 1960
census. Reported in U.N., 1977, Levels and Trends of Fertility Throughout the World,
1950-1970, New York, p. 84.

165b -
Based on registered births. The base population figures are presumably based on the 1960
census. The source notes that corrections were made when necessary. Rates are reported in
CELADE, 1970, "Niveles de la Fecundidad en Am6rica Latina," by M. H. Henriques, Santiago, SEMEV
Seminar, S444/38.

1970 -
Estimated at the U.S. Bureau of the Census based on registered births by age of mother (includ-
ing 27,683 births to mothers of unknown age which were prorated, as reported in UNDY 1974,
table 101). The female age distribution was interpolated from the U.N. medium variant
projections.




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