Citation
Caribbean workers in the Florida sugar cane industry

Material Information

Title:
Caribbean workers in the Florida sugar cane industry
Series Title:
Occasional papers
Creator:
McCoy, Terry L., 1940-
Wood, Charles H
Caribbean Migration Program
Place of Publication:
Gainesville
Publisher:
Center for Latin American Studies, University of Florida
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
75 p. : map ; 28 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Sugar workers -- Florida ( lcsh )
Sugar trade -- Florida ( lcsh )
Sugar workers -- Caribbean Area ( lcsh )
Sugar trade -- Caribbean Area ( lcsh )
Genre:
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States of America -- Florida

Notes

Bibliography:
Bibliography: p. 73-75.
General Note:
On Cover: Caribbean Migration Program.
Funding:
Occasional papers (University of Florida. Center for Latin American Studies ) ;
Statement of Responsibility:
Terry L. McCoy and Charles H. Wood.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. This item may be protected by copyright but is made available here under a claim of fair use (17 U.S.C. §107) for non-profit research and educational purposes. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact Digital Services (UFDC@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
10669093 ( OCLC )

Full Text



CARIBBEAN MIGRATION PROGRAM
The occasional papers of the Caribbean Migration Program are
published several times a year by the Center for Latin American Studies, University of Florida, Gainesville, The Caribbean Migration Program began in January, 1982, with support from the Tinker Foundation and the Ford Foundation. The Program's goals are to:
- train new scholars in the field of Caribbean migration
- review the existing state of knowledge concerning Caribbean
migration in order to identify priorities for research and
action
- generate and disseminate research in priority areas of
Caribbean migration
- establish collaborative relationships with other scholars
and institutions in the Caribbean and in the United States
working in the area of migration
- serve as an integrating mechanism and informational clearing
house for research and forums on all aspects of Caribbean
migration,- particularly to Florida and the Southeast.
Caribbean Migration Program activities include a Visiting Scholars program, predoctoral fellowships and graduate seminars on various aspects of the Caribbean and migration. We are completing an extensive bibliography on Caribbean migration and a roster of researchers in the area. The Center also publishes the Amazon Research Papers prepared under the Amazon Research and Training Program.
For further information write:
Center for Latin American Studies 319 Grinter Hall
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611




December, 1982
Terry L. McCoy
and
Charles H. Wood
Center for Latin American Studies
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
Paper No. 2
Caribbean Workers in the Florida
Sugar Cane Industry




H- --p
41 73




I- P-t- 2
17




CARIBBEAN WORKERS IN THE FLORIDA SUGAR CANE INDUSTRY (I)
Terry L. McCoy and Charles H. Wood
I. INTRODUCTION
In this paper we report on a study of a labor program that has, for the last 39 years, brought workers from the Conmonwealth Caribbean
(known as the British West Indies prior to independence) to south
Florida to harvest sugar cane. The eight to nine thousand men in this
~work force currently constitute the largest legal foreign migrant labor
program in the United States, In the face of increasing pressure for
additional labor migration from Latin America and the Caribbean to the U.S., this labor force poses a number of theoretical and policy issues
associated with the international transfer of labor from less developed
to more developed economies. Congress is currently considering
legislation which would modify the current temporary worker (or 8-2)
category. (2)
In the context of some of the questions raised by such proposals, and in light of the general concern over the impact of transnational
labor migration, we present the findings of a survey of the Caribbean
cane cutters carried out during the 1980-81 harvest. The questionnaire
generated data regarding the socio-demographic characteristics of the
workers, their occupations back in the islands, the composition of their
households, the impact of seasonal migration on them and their
dependents, and the disposition of the money earned in Florida. Before
turning to an analysis of each of these variables, the introduction
reviews the history and organization of the off-shore program in the
Florida sugar industry in order to provide the context within which this
case of seasonal foreign labor operates.
1. .istor
*Its 1980-81 crop of 1,121,1400 tons of raw sugar made Florida the
; leading domestic producer of sugar in that year (see Table 1).C3) The
record crop exceeded the earlier peak by.60,000 tons and outdistanced the second largest producing state, Hawaii, by 100,000 tons (lrd
* .SiagrtNews,17, No. 2[April 1981: 1.) Florida accounts for nearly
20 percent of all (cane and beet) domestic production and 10 percent of
all sugar consumed in the U.S. (Ibi.,17, No. 4L [October 1981]:1).
The Florida industry also differs from the other U.S. producers on three i nter-relanted dimensionns its relatnivelyv recent or-igain; the fact ithat it-




*
S
Table 1
flORIDA SUGAR IIZDUSrRY PRODUCrION
Acres Cane Average 960 Raw Value
CROP Total Harvested Ground Cane Basis Basis
YEAR Acres for Sugar Gross Tons Per Acre Short Tons Short Tons
(mans.) (mans.) (Thous.) (Gross Tons) (Thous.) (Thous.)
1960-61 50.7 48.9 1,618 33.1 157 160
1961-62 60.0 56.1 2,121 37.8 205 208
1962-63 116.8 114.3 4,219 36.9 375 380
1963-64 148.2 139.9 4,632 33.1 418 424
1964-65 222.9 219.8 6,791 30.9 565 574
1965-66 190.8 185.4 5,886 31.7 545 554
1966-67 197.2 190.7 6,419 33.7 641 652
1967-68 196.3 190.6 6,889 36.1 704 717
1968-69 187.1 182.1 5,639 31.0 536 546
1969-70 160.1 153.5 5,470 35.6 525 535
1970-71 178.5 170.0 5,969 35.1 640 652
1971-72 199.6 189.9 6,389 33.6 623 635
1972-73 249.7 243.8 9,889 40.6 944 961
1973-74 265.5 257.6 8,604 33.4 809 824
1974-75 273.4 258.4 8,050 31.2 779 793
1975-76 298.7 284.7 10,807 38.0 1,032 1,050
1976-77 297.3 285.6 9,919 34.7 912 930
1977-78 297.2 282.3 9,029 32.0 877 894
1978-79 316.0 300.0 9,745 32.5 952 972
1979-80 332.1 316.8 10,608 33~~5 1,028 1,047
1980-81 339.1 320.7 10,623 33.1 1,103 1,121
1981-82 348.9 335.2 10,146 30.3 948 963
SOURCE: Florida Sugar Cane Leagi.e, 1982.
2




li~~uU.S~~~f .Il -dS51Sf115.15151 itS 551Sl
- 4;96,0 d ~f1W I- ffSSSlfUI USS 1dlf i
jnim -ff51 15 f SISf5 SSfiSf iS1151fS~
75 Si1i'fSSi1 SS SfiS ~S SSSfSflf
!=-I.~fS~SiiiSiS~ ~SSSfffS~l,~f
5555SS 15f 75 SS~f A~II i t',SISS551 SYI




the 1960-64 expansion phase. The largest producer and processor is U.S. Sugar, which owns two of the mills. Gulf and Western, a multinational corporation with extensive sugar operations throughout the Caribbean, is another major producer with its own mill. One of the remaining mills is owned and operated by Cuban-American capital, while a growers' cooperative also operates another.
The economic impact of the industry on the state and on the
producing area is considerable. In an industry-commissioned study, two economists calculated that sugar accounted (directly and indirectly through its multiplier effect) for 10 percent of all sales and 14 percent of all jobs in the local four county economy (Mulkey and Gordon, 1979:26). This same study also concluded that the money spent by the industry's migrant labor force generated between $3.2 and $5.4 million in income for local residents. At the state. level, sugar accounted for 11 to 12 percent of Florida's total agricultural sales for 1974 and 1975 (News Release of the Florida Sugar Cane League, July 5, 1979).
Perhaps even more than other agricultural commodities in the U.S., the profitability of sugar production is closely linked to the policies of the federal government. As both a cause and an effect of this condition, domestic sugar producers are organized into strong lobbies that operate at the state and national level. Florida growers are represented by the Florida Sugar Cane League. Since the repeal of the Sugar Act (which maintained a floor on the price paid domestic producers by controlling foreign access to the U.S. market through a system of country quotas), the principal objective of the sugar lobby has been to re-establish direct federal price guarantees. In the eyes of the industry the need for such legislation is justified by the volatile nature of world sugar prices since 1974. From a high of $.57 per pound in 1973-74 they plunged to $.06 in 1978 (Thompson, 1979:3).
Along with associations in the other producer states, the Florida Sugar Cane League lobbied strenUously for legislation to stabilize the market. In the words of the League's Vice President, "We are willing to take the top out of the Market .... At the same time, we want the bottom taken out (Dalton Yancey, n.d.,:4).11 In 1977 President Carter imposed import fees on foreign sugar and established a subsidized commodity loan program that, in effect, guaranteed a minimum price for domestic sugar (Johnson, 1979:549). Despite these steps, the industry fell into a second slump when the world price dropped to $.08 in 1979, and the goverment loan program proved insufficient to offset the comparatively high costs of U.S. producers. In Florida, for example, Johnson reports that costs were on the order of $.13-.14 per pound in 1979 (1979:54) In addition to the unstable price for their product, sugar producers face increasing competition from alternative, cheaper sweeteners. According to Thompson, starch sweeteners (such as corn) account for about one-fourth of per capita sweetener consumption in the U.S. (1979:83).
The domestic sugar industry has received additional assistance
from the Reagan administration. The Omnibus Farm Act of 1981 included a sugar price support provision that guarantees domestic producers around $.20 per pound through 1985. The President signed this legislation in tandem with two executive orders imposing import fees and increasing duties on foreign sugar CT11Q Sugar Bulletin, 60, No. 8 [January
4




1,1982):6]. In the spring of 1982, the President went even further by re-establishing import quotas (New York imes, May 5, 1982). All of the measures attest to the considerable economic significance and political influence of the sugar industry, the net result of which is to maintain prices to domestic producers at about $'020 per pound, while the world price slipped to under $.10 in mid-1982 (Miami Head October 11, 1982).
3. Harvestiang Tcniques
In the precarious and competitive production of sugar, nearly all Florida growers are unique in their reliance on manual harvesting. All other domestically grown sugar cane is harvested mechanically. That Florida growers rely on a large, legal migrant labor pool in the U.S. is a function of the peculiar nature of sugar cultivation in this state and special immigration law provisions for importing temporary labor.
Mechanization of the Florida harvest is precluded for technical and ecological reasons. The recumbent character of the cane makes it difficult to pick up and the soft muck soil will not sustain heavy equipment without destroying the ratoons which produce the following year's crop. Reinforcing these constraints on mechanization is the fact that the land is subject to rapid oxidation when exposed to the atmosphere.
Organic soil in the Everglades agricultural
area is subsiding at the rate of about one inch
per year. By the year 2000, it has been estimated that about 5000 thousand acres (or 87 percent of the total) of organic soil will be three
feet or less in thickness, and over 250,000 acres
will be less than one foot. The fate of agriculture on this soil is uncertain. Large tracts
of land that now are agriculturally productive
may be abandoned.... (Snyder,et.al., 1978:ii).
Sugar cane cultivation is particularly damaging to the muck soils, since it subjects them to conditions-- shrinkage, compacting, and oxidation-that accelerate their deterioration. If these problems are not resolved, sugar cultivation is likely to decline over the next 25 years. Experiments are currently underway to alternate cane with the cultivation of rice, a crop that retards oxidation through periodic
flooding of the fields.
Faced with technical and ecological constraints, most Florida
growers continue to find manual harvesting more profitable. The capacity to mechanically harvest cane has been developed and it is used on one of the large estates, having been adopted following a strike. But this technology, because it is less efficient from an overall production standpoint, is held in reserve in the event of disruption in the labor supply (Arias, 1976; Reubins, 1978:29). The Florida sugar cane industry thus depends on access to a stable, flexible supply of seasonal labor.
5




T" -"I'




publicly defended the BWI arrangement. George Meany of the AFL-CIO declared in 1965 that, "It is well known that the BWI program improves the lot of domestic workers in regard to housing, worlanents compensation, and racial matters (.bid.-1978:21)."1
President Johnson brought an end to the bracero program in 1964~. As the number of Mexican legal migrants decreased, those entering Florida from the West Indies increased. This accelerated influx coincided with the emergence of large scale sugar cane cultivation around Lake Okeechobee. Of all the original employers of H-2 laborand it was utilized throughout Florida agriculture as late as the early 1970s --today only the Florida sugar industry and East Coast apple growers are able to regularly meet the qualifications to hire offshore seasonal labor (U.S. Department of Labor, 1982).
Under U.S. immigration law it is possible to import foreign
workers for seasonal labor. The H-2 category exists for that purpose. However, in an effort to protect U.S. workers from lower paid imported labor, Congress and the Department of Labor (DOL) have created a certification procedure that makes it difficult for the would-be employers to qualify for foreign workers.
The first step in gaining consent from the federal government to import labor is to demonstrate to DOL that there are no U.S. workers available to do the job in question. Once this condition is documented, DOL then advises the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) that a shortage of domestic workers exists, and INS grants approval for the importation of foreign workers for the specific jobs and employers that have been certified (McCoy, 192:3). This system is designed to protect the U.S. job market from what is viewed as unfair foreign competition.
Originally, certification was granted for up to three years on the basis of demonstrated labor shortages in a given region. Currently certification can only be given to the petitioning employers for pre-specified tasks, and is issued for one year or less (eight months in the case of sugar). This means that employers must be certified every year. Furthermore, DOL grants certification only after the employers have engaged in an exhaustive search, or "positive recruitment," for domestic workers.
Success in recruiting domestic workers depends not only on
advertising the job vacancies but also on wages and working conditions offered prospective employees. To prohibit West Indians (who would readily work for wages well below those attractive to American workers) from unfairly competing for U.S. jobs, the DOL has established what is known as the "adverse wage rate." This is a guaranteed hourly wage which should not only attract domestic workers but also, failing to do so, not adversely affect the wages of U.S. workers in related activities (i.e. agricultural workers). The adverse wage for a given season is dictated by DOL on the basis of studies, done by the Field Reporting Service of the Department of Agriculture, to-determine the prevailing wages for




farm workers.(I) In the case of sugar it has always been above the federal minimum wage but not high enough to attract many sufficient domestic applicants. In 1980-81 the adverse rate of $41.09 per hour compared with $3.10 for the federal minimum (State of Florida, Department of Labor and Employment Security, 1980).
Beyond offering potential employees an hourly wage in excess of prevailing agricultural rates, the sugar industry to be certified must provide living quarters, meals, and transportation to its cane cutters at reasonable rates. The conditions of employment are monitored by the DOL, working with its local and state counterparts.
In spite of its positive recruitment efforts, the industry does not secure sufficient domestic workers to harvest its annual crop. According to data presented in support of its case for DOL certification f or the 1979-80 season, over the preceeding six years the industry spent $109,041.27 (or an average of $18,174 per year) on advertising for domestic cane cutters. It spent an additional $413,778 ($7,297 per year) on transporting domestic recruits to the work place. The net result of all of this, however, was that =n =.n domestic worker lasted out the entire season (Morrison, 1979). The industry's long-standing contention that there are no workers in the U.S. who will cut cane appeared
strengthened the following year. Under pressure from Florida state officials, it sought to recruit workers from among the Cuban and Haitian refugees then entering the state. Even this apparently job-hungry labor pool produced only several hundred cutters for the 1980-81 season.(5)
Once the Labor Department certifies a shortage of domestic
laborers, the INS may then issue permission in the form of 1-94 forms for the workers in a quantity approximating the number requested by the industry. Under existing law, DOL certification is advisory and not binding. For 1980-81 there were 8,460 entries authorized (Interview with industry official, December 17, 1980). Although not the subject of this report, the related questions of why U.S. workers do not cut sugar cane, even in periods of high unemployment, and why the industry clearly prefers Caribbean labor are much debated. For our purposes here, however, it is sufficient to note that, with the granting of labor certification industry, representatives may then bring in cutters from abroad. In actual practice, the process of recruiting these workers begins well in advance of final certification.
3. Recruiting Caribbean M1grer
One of the strange idiosyncracies in this regard
is that the Jamaican who cuts in Florida will
not do so in Jamaica (Florida Sugar Cane
League, 1979b:4)
Because of low wages and high unemployment, the demand in the
Caribbean for participation in the sugar work force far exceeds the need for workers in Florida. For its part, the sugar industry seeks to restrict participation to those workers who have demonstrated their
8




reliability and productivity during previous seasons. The island governments, on the other hand, feel the need to keep the opportunity open to as many of their citizens as possible. The existence of these competing interests has led to the institutionalization of a recruiting procedure which balances the growers' preference for a stable, experienced work force with the desires of the Caribbean governments to spread the participation in the migratory stream around among their populations.
At present the program is limited to natives of the five
Commonwealth Caribbean islands: Jamaica, Barbados, St. Vincent, St. Lucia, and Dominica (see map and Appendix A). The roots of the arrangement date from its origin in 194~3. The mechanism for perpetuating it is an annual contract between representatives of the sugar industry and those of the West Indian governments and workers. For the industry the offshore labor program is managed by the Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association (FFVA) and U.S. Sugar Corporation, with FFVA representing most employers.
Representation of West Indian interests is more complicated., The interests themselves are diverse and occasionally divergent. The principal organization is the British West Indies Central Labour Organization (BWICLO). Its governing council the Regional Labour Board, is composed of the following: the Permanent Jamaican Secretary for the
Ministry of Labour, who serves as Chairman; two other' Jamaican government officials; the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Labour from Barbados; the Labour Commissioner of St. Lucia, representing the three remaining small islands; and a representative from one of the two Jamaican labor unions (depending on which party is in power). The BWICLO, with a permanent office in Washington, D.C., maintains 11 liaison officers in the sugar area. Although the Regional Labour Board and industry representatives meet annually to re-negotiate the contract, it remains essentially the same from year to year.
Several aspects of the arrangement are noteworthy. First, the
Department of Labor, because of its mandate to protect domestic workers, also sets wages and working conditions for H-2 participants. Second, Jamaica, which sends 80 percent of the labor force, dominates the BWICLO and Regional Labour Board. This situation is a source of criticism among the workers and officials of the four other islands.(6) Third, from the worker's perspective, the major criticism of the contract is that, after specifying hourly wages, the living and transportation arrangements, and working conditions, the contract is vague as to the piecework formula and other standards of productivity. According to some observers, this works to the disadvantage of the cane cutters. The
summary deportation of workers and subsequent blacklisting of individuals are often cited by critics, (Petrow, 1980 and NACLA, 1977). Worker complaints and grievances are channeled through the 11 BWICLO liaison officers.
The agreement between the employers and the BWICLO specifies that the industry recruiters may request no more than 60 percent of the work force from those who participated in previous seasons. The remaining 140 percent is drawn from the pool of "non-preferred" applicants. The
9




rLO IDATHE WEST INDIES
e x 10islands sending workers to Florida sugar industry.
IbS is T F I A N I I C
4 ,TOIIUGA
pupunhicANGUILLA faieJM IASo-to Domingo, INt SAB f s a AR BUDA~N.Ih
HODUA' jiS OANTIGUA
UADLOUPE
C A N '1 Il ii
MAIrINIQUE
N I CA R AG U BARBADOS
ARUBA 1810a dS
orb ~~3TINIDAD
.0C0L0MGIA0 Miles 200
PI GUYANA
80* 10 10








proportional split between preferred and pool workers is an issue
regularly negotiated. Employers favor enlarging the former; island
governments press for increasing the number of pool workers.(7) The
percentage of preferred individuals has increased from 20 percent to the
current level (60 percent). They must select the remaining 40 percent
from a pool of non-preferred applicants.

The procedures for recruiting pool workers vary from island to
island. It is most elaborate in Jamaica where workers are recruited
through a complex system involving Members of Parliament (MPs), local
committees, and the Ministry of Labour. The Ministry assigns each
parish a quota of candidates for the non-preferred pool, and it requests
each MP to form a committee to identify candidates from his
constituency. On the basis of the committees' unanimous
recommendations, the Ministry sends those candidates a card which makes
them eligible to be interviewed by industry recruiters. Recently, to
discourage candidates from transferring or selling their cards, the
candidates are required to be fingerprinted (Interview with FFVA
official, July 20, 1982). The various steps in the selection process
have led to charges of undue political and economic pressures (Petrow,
1980; Palm Beach .ost, November 25, 1974). Once the pool of
eligible non-preferred workers is constituted, skilled industry
representatives go to Jamaica to select from it those whom they wish to
hire. This requires reducing the initial pool from approximately 10,000
to 7,000. It is done through personal interviews with each card holder
at Ministry of Labour pre-selection stations throughout the island. In
these interviews, the U.S. recruiters screen applicants on the basis of
their physical appearance, occupation, work history, and attitude.(8)
Preference is given to farm workers, especially with cane cutting
experience.(9)

Following pre-selection by the U.S. recruiters, the would-be cane
cutters take medical exams in Kingston. They are also now screened by
the U.S. Consulate (Interview with consular official, September 10,
1982). Those who pass await final call from the growers. The length and
uncertainty of recruitment means that the individual worker may not know
whether he is going to Florida until several days before departing.
Some workers are not even called until mid-way through the harvest.
Travel arrangements, documents, and charter flights are handled for the
growers by a private firm.(10)

The recruitment of workers from the other four islands is less
complicated. It is also less formally integrated into the system of
political patronage compared to Jamaica. As in Jamaica, once a pool of
candidates is established, it is the sugar industry agents who make the
final selections among the non-preferred workers. The specific way in
which this is accomplished varies somewhat from island to island.

In Barbados, which supplies the second highest number of
participants -- approximately 600 in 1980-81 -- demand to participate in
the program is perhaps less intense than in other countries. This is
presumed to be related to the island's standard of living and wage
structure, both relatively high for the region (Brana-Shute and
Brana-Shute, 1981 and Appendix A). As the country develops, government
officials (Interview with Permanent Secretary for Labour, July 21, 1982)




anticipate declining participation. For now stateside employment fills an important need. It should also be noted that the Barbadian sugar industry, an important component of the economy, cannot find enough local workers to harvest its crop and must annually import them from the neighboring island of St. Vincent. (Interview with union offical, July 214, 1981). Because of overlapping seasons, local sugar workers must choose where they want to work. Barbadians interested in cutting cane
in Florida simply register at the Employment Exchange of the Ministry of Labour, which carries out a preliminary screening prior to the arrival of industry recruiters.(11)
St. Lucia and St. Vincent supplied 450 workers each for the 1981-82 season. Dominica, which in that year participated on an experimental basis, contributed 60. Under conditions of high unemployment, and in view of the low standard of living of these three less developed islands of the Eastern Caribbean, it is not surprising that the demand to go to Florida is great. A person who does so stands to earn several times the annual average local per capita income. This configuration of chronic conditions, combined with the fact that the islands had recently suffered the effects of a devastating hurricane, produce situations such as that in St. Lucia where there were 300 candidates for the 20 slots allocated to the district (Interview with local official, July 30, 1981). Not only are men from these islands eager to participate, but their governments are in need of foreign exchange, which it generates. (12)
Since 1974 the procedure for building the pool in St. Vincent is for ministers of government. Members of Parliament from the ruling party submit nominees to the Department of Labour. In Saint Lucia the selection process is entirely in the hands of civil servants, although they will consider recommendations from politicians.(13) Regardless of the nature of the selection process, it is clear that conditions internal to the less developed small islands lead to pressures on the governments to sustain the program.
14. Transportation, Livi.ng Arrangements.,.. Working CoQnitiQI2s -aid Wages
Recruitment into the pool of available workers and selection by
sugar industry representatives, both completed by early summer, do not guarantee work in the sugar fields. That depends upon a final call from the employers for specific numbers of workers. This request may not come until mid-fall. As a result some men do not go until the harvest is well underway. Although the industry estimates the number of men it will need each year, the actual size of the labor force depends on factors not determined until the harvest is about to begin. When a worker is summoned, he goes to a central location for transportation to Florida.
All workers are taken by charter aircraft to West Palm Beach and
then by bus to the sugar area. The contract guarantees free round trip air fare from Kingston for "all workers who complete 50 percent of the
12




contract period (State of Florida, Department of Labor and Employment
Security, June 4, 1980)." Non-Jamaican workers must make up the
difference equivalent to the fare from their island to Kingston.(14) In
all cases, the cost of the trip from Jamaica to Palm Beach is deducted
from the workers' paychecks and then reimbursed at the end of the
season. This practice is presumably designed to discourage the worker
from using the program for free passage to the U.S.
Each worker is assigned to a specified grower prior to departure.
Growers are contractually obligated to provide workers with free
housing. Three meals a day are also provided at a cost not to exceed an
agreed upon rate ($5.00 plus $.20 tax in 1980-81, State of Florida,
Department of Labor and Employment Security, June 4, 1980). Housing consists of barracks located in camps on or near the sugar estates.
Meals with West Indian menus prepared by native cooks are served in large mess halls, except for the mid-day meal which is served in the
fields during the 15 minute lunch break. The camps include offices, a
first aid clinic, commissaries and limited recreational facilities where
the occupants can watch TV or play dominoes. A larger infirmary is
adjacent to the BWICLO liaison officers headquarters in South Bay.
Serious medical cases are referred to area hospitals. A special program
offers workers night classes where it is possible to earn a high school diploma. Our study indicates that about 1 in 10 workers take advantage
of this opportunity.
Cutting sugar cane is physically demanding, dirty work. The
contract offers the [1-2 workers eight hours of work per day, six days
per week and guarantees them work for the hourly equivalent of
three-fourths of the work days of the contract period. The actual
number of hours worked per day was not information generated by our
survey. For their efforts they are assured an hourly minimum wage. To maximize their earning potential most workers choose to work on Sundays.
An individual's actual pay, however, is the function of a complex
piecework formula.
Every worker's season begins with an eight-day training period
during which he is paid the minimum wage. In the words of the contract:.
Thereafter, workers will be paid on ~a task basis. The task will be based on the work which can be performed by the
average worker. Any time during the
- training period a worker demonstrates
that the worker is proficient by cutting a task in less than 8 hours, the worker will be assigned to the task rate if agreeable with the worker. In the event




With the training period finished and the cutting norm established, workers are encouraged to exceed it by a bonus system that allows them to earn additional wages by cutting more than their assigned task in an eight-hour day. For example, although the minimum wage rate was $4.09 per hour in 1980-81, the contract indicated that it should be possible for the "normal worker" to increase his average earnings to $4.29 per hour for the entire season. All workers are expected to cut an average of eight tons of cane a day. Stories of individuals who far exceed the minimum wage are common. The top worker in one camp reportedly earned a bi-weekly rate of $1000 (Interview with Office Manager, March 19, 1981). In addition to the promise of additional earnings, the task formula offers the inducement of being invited back as a preferred worker. On the other hand, it is criticized for giving excessive latitude to those who measure and assign tasks, and to the "ticket writers" who record the day's cut.(15) Workers who fall below the norm find themselves being sent back home and blacklisted from future seasons for breach of contract.0(6)
Life in the camps and field work is supervised through a system which relies heavily on West Indians as immediate supervisors. At the top of this hierarchy is the camp supervisor. Under his command and in charge of the field work are the field bosses, the lead men and the ticket writers. Most of these are West Indians. The field boss is responsible for the work in his field while it is the lead man who assigns each cutter his daily task or "row". At the end of the work day, the ticket writer records that day's cut. From the standpoint of
the worker there is sometimes confusion and controversy as to. the value assigned to the tasks. Similarly, disputes arise over the size of the annual bonus.
The responsibility of the 11 liaison officers is to represent the cane cutters when conflicts and grievances arise. As employees of the BWICLO, the liaison officers are to represent all workers equally. Yet, the predominance of Jamaicans among the liaison officers is a source of complaint. Non-Jamaican workers claim their interests do not receive equal treatment. In 1981-82 and 1982-83 steps were taken to incorporate non-Jamaicans into the liaison staff.
From each paycheck certain mandatory deductions are made. As
already mentioned, the employer removes funds advanced for the trip to Florida (at the end of the season this is returned to those who finish), an initial cash advance for subsistence and clothing, and the cost of meals. More importantly, 23 percent of gross earnings is deducted and sent back to the islands. Although the final disposition of these funds varies from island to island (for example on the small islands a portion goes to reimburse the BWICLO and government for the air fare advance), the largest share goes into an interest-free savings account for the worker to claim on his return. Two percent is claimed by the BWICLO for expenses and a special non-work related hospitalization plan for the workers.(17) The mandatory deduction, one-quarter of gross wages, represents a significant contribution to the islands' hard currency accounts, since it is redeemed to the workers on their return in local currency at the official exchange rate. Other deductions, of an optional nature, include savings accounts in local banks and regular
1'4




h-I A




other countries in the surrounding area. Within the area itself there has always also been a flow of people among the islands that make up the West Indies (Marshall, 1982). Inter-island migration is especially salient in the chain of small states that comprise the Eastern Caribbean.
Although we do not have complete migration histories for each
individual in the sample, several items in the questionnaire (country and parish of birth; previous and current place of residence) provide a rough indication of the previous migratory patterns that characterize the H-2 labor force employed by the Florida sugar industry. The specific question addressed here is whether individuals who harvest cane in Florida are drawn from a population which is stable or geographically mobile at the place of origin.
In Table 2 the respondents are classified by country of birth and by country of residence at the time of the interview. As indicated by the large proportion of the sample that falls along the diagonal, the vast majority of the population of offshore workers live in the same country in which they were born.
An indication of the magnitude of intra-island migration (Table 3) is provided by the percent of workers who live in the same parish where they were born. In Jamaica, about two-thirds of the population lives in the place of birth. In other words, only about one worker in every three migrated from one parish to another. The data from Barbados and the small islands show a similar distribution.
A separate aspect of the migratory profile is the extent of rural to urban migration. A rough indication of this flow can be derived by comparing the proportion of the population that is of rural origin, with the proportion that declares a rural place of residence at the time of the interview. In Jamaica, 90.3 percent of the workers responded that they were born in the countryside, while 82.4 percent currently reside there. This combination implies a rural to urban movement of only about
7.9 percent of the population. In the case of Barbados and the small islands, the proportions are also quite small (6 percent and 3.9 percent, respectively), although the movement is in the opposite direction (from urban to rural areas).
To investigate the motivation for geographic mobility, respondents were asked the reason why they made the previous move. The results are in Table 4. With the exception of Barbados, a substantial proportion of migrants said that they moved to find a job or to change their occupation. Between 15 and 20 percent of the sample changed residence when they were young, accompanying parents. Similarly, a large proportion moved from one place to another either to get married, or to move in with a girlfriend. Although these findings confirm the salience of economic motivations for migration, they also suggest the importance of other factors, such as life-cycle changes, for shifting residence. These findings confirm other studies of Caribbean migration (see Marshall, 1982).
Data regarding the magnitude of migration are likely to
16




Table 2
Inter-lsland Migration
Current Country
of Residence
Small
Country of Birth Jamaica Barbados Islands
Jamaica 99.0 ...
Barbados 1.0 93.0-Small Islands --- 7.0 100.0
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0
n 206 45 51
Table 3
Intra-Island Migration
Resident in Have moved Total
Island of Residence Parrish of Birth From Parish of Birth* (n)
Jamaica 67.7 32.3 100
(206)
Barbados 63.4 36.6 100
(45)
Small Islands 67.4 32.6 100
(51)




underestimate the real values. The findings reported above are derived from comparing place of current residence with information on the respondent's birth place. This approach fails to classify as a migrant any individual who moves (once, or several times) in his lifetime, yet currently resides in the same parish or country in which he was born. In the absence of a complete migration history, it is not possible to determine the extent to which the results presented here may underestimate population movement.
Other difficulties are associated with the definition of what is a rural and what is an urban place. To live "in the countryside" is a common response that appears to reflect the conventional notion of a rural area. Beyond that the classification is potentially ambiguous. Individuals who said they lived in a city or a town were classified as urban dwellers, although the exact meaning of such terms may not have been consistent across respondents. Furthermore, the distinction between urban and rural is not a clear one in the West Indies where the physical boundaries that separate village and countryside are often blurred.
With these caveats in mind, we can make some fairly safe
generalizations about the migratory histories of the individuals who participated in the H-2 labor force in 1981. Our findings suggest that very few live in a country or parish different from the one in which they were born. Similarly, the degree of movement between rural and urban areas is small. Fran these data we can conclude that cane cutters are drawn primarily from a stable, predominately rural sector. The H-2 labor force does not appear to be recruited from the highly mobile Caribbean population.
2. Education
The level of education achieved by an individual has a profound
effect on his overall life chances. Measures of educational attainment for the sample of workers can be derived from several questionnaire items. These include school attendance at the primary and secondary levels as well as participation in specialized training programs or apprenticeships for the acquisition of vocational skills.
Indicators of educational background are shown in Table 5. The results reflect a fairly low level of formal education. Nearly 13 percent of the labor force never attended school. For those who did, the average number of years of primary education is only 3.9. Further study beyond the primary grades is uncommon. Only 4.4 percent of the total sample were exposed to some schooling at the secondary level. These measures of educational background are approximately the same in Jamaica and in the small islands. Barbadians appear to be an exception. On the average, individuals from this island have more primary education (5.7 years), and a comparatively larger proportion attended secondary school (17.1 percent). -This is in keeping with Barbados' status as the
18












Table 5


Educational Attainment
(% By Island)


Small
Respondents Total Jamaica Barbados Islands
Attending

Primary
School 87.3 89.0 100.0 70.6

Secondary
School 4.4 3.8 17.1 2.0

Specialized
Training 43.2 38.6 61.4 64.0

Night School
in Florida 13.7 15.1 11.1 5.9




Id.




Table 6
Educational Attainment by Previous Seasons Worked Mean years of
Previous Seasons Worked Primary Schooling
0-2 4.3
3-4 3.6
5-6 3.3
7 + 3.9
22







There is another aspect of the selectivity issue that is
associated, not with the recruitment of workers, per se, but with the
retention of individuals in the labor force from one season to the next.
As noted earlier in this report, the contract arrangement between the
sugar industry and the BWICLO permits employers to rehire 60 percent of
the labor force the following year (66.7% of our sample were preferred
workers). The criteria used by the industry to select "preferred"
workers includes a number of factors, the most important of which is
productivity. The question posed here is whether or not this yearly
selection process is selective of workers with high or low educational
backgrounds?

To address this question the sample of H-2 labor force is
classified according to the number of previous seasons worked. If the
process of designating preferred workers is systematically selective
(in terms of education), we expect the mean years of schooling to change
as the number of past seasons increase. The results, shown in Table 6,
do not support this conclusion. Individuals that have worked two
seasons or less show a somewhat higher level of educational attainment
compared to those workers who have returned many times. This
difference, however, is relatively small, and is not statistically
significant. A more thorough analysis of this issue (using a regression
format to control for the respondent's age) does not alter the results
presented above. This would seem to indicate that worker productivity
(and therefore his value to his employer) is primarily a function of
experience cutting Florida cane rather than formal education.



3. Housing and Hme Ownership



Housing is an important indicator of a population's overall quality
of life. It can be assumed that the outright ownership of a home
indirectly reflects a degree of accumulation that is above that of an
individual who rents living space. The distinction between home owners
and renters thus provides a starting point for an analysis of the
socioeconomic conditions that characterize the BWI labor force at the
place of origin. In the Caribbean, where living arrangements often
assume complex forms, other criteria in addition to the owner/renter
distinction, are also important.

As shown in Table 7, the vast majority of the H-2 workers live in
houses, as opposed to flats or single rooms. This is especially true in
Barbados (95.6 percent) and in the small islands (92.2 percent). Only
in Jamaica does a relatively large percentage of the labor force reside
in flats or rooms (21.3 percent). Because the overwhelming majority of
the workers are from rural areas, where single family dwellings are
common, the large proportion of the labor force that live in houses is
not surprising.

Whether the individual was an owner or a renter, or if he had some
other arrangement with respect to housing, was determined by an




Table 7
Type of Residence
(% By Island)
Small
Respondent lives in Total Jamaica Barbados Islands
House 81.3 78.6 95.6 92.2
Flat 10.9 12.1 4.4 5.9
Room 7.8 9.2 --- 2.0
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
24




Table 8
Type of Housing Arrangement, by Age
Type of Housing
Arrangement Age of Respondent
Total 20-24 25-29 30-40 40 +
Own Home 46.9 22.6 17.5 42.6 81.9
Rents. 19.2 7.8 20.2 26.4 10.3
(From family) (2.3)
(From non-family) (14.3)
(Land, owns home) (2.6)
Other Arrangement 30.6 69.6 53.6 6.1
(Parents own) (15.8)
(other family member owns) (13.5) (Non-family member owns) 0.3)
Other 33.3 --- 8.7 2.0 1.7
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
N 251
25




open-ended item included in the survey questionnaire. The results of the analysis are presented in Table 8. For the sample as a whole, 46.9
percent owned their own home. About one in every five workers paid rent of some kind, either for a house or flat, or, in some instances paid rent for the land on which the individual's home was built. A comparison between the various islands (not shown) reveals very few differences in the housing profile.
In addition to the distinction between owners and renters, the data presented in Table 8 reflect significant social dimensions of the housing question. About one in three workers (30.6 percent) neither pay rent nor do they own the place in which they live. Over 15 percent occupy a house that is owned by parents; 13.5 percent occupy facilities
that belong to other members of the family. For those who pay rent, only on rare occasions is it paid to persons who are related to the respondent (2.3 percent).
The pattern shown for the sample as a whole overlooks important
life cycle differences that exist with regard to housing arrangements. As showmn in the right-hand panels of Table 8, significant changes appear when we compare men of different ages. The proportion of home owners increases in the older ages, reaching 81.9 percent for those 40 years of age and older. On the other hand, rent-free occupancy of family owned property is characteristic of young men. The proportion who benefit from rent-free arrangement steadily declines at older ages.
These results indicate that workers, especially those who are in the younger ages (below 30), draw heavily for their support on the larger familial networks of which they are a part. More generally, the
information on housing arrangements confirms the importance of family ties in the Caribbean context.
B. Ocpto and giutrlAtvte
1. Occupational Bacgrfounid
A salient characteristic of Caribbean society is the multiplicity
of employment. In a given day, week, or month, an individual can be .
involved in any number of income generating activities (Brana-Shute and Brana-Shute, 1981). In the social science literature the frequent movement across job categories is sometimes referred to as "occupational multiplicity."




Table 9
Distribution of Principal,
Second and Third Occupations Back in Islands
(M)
Occupation Principal Second Third
Farmer, Farm worker 63.8 37.1 25.9
Construction Related 19.8 32.9 19.6
Carpenters 4.8 4.8 3.6
Masons 7.3 9.2 9.1
Laborers 4.6 11.7 5.7
Othersi 3.1 7.2 1.2
Service related2 2.5 2.8 7.2
Drivers, Mechanics 3.3 9.3 5.7
Cane Cutters 1.7 2.5 7.2
Fishermen 0.4 1.5 4.3
Other3 8.5 13.9 30.1
Total 100 100 100
n of cases 251 141 28
% with a second occ'n 56.2 -% with a third occ'n -- 11.1
I Painter, Plumbers, Electricians, Cook
2 Petty sales, Clerks, Waiters
3 Bakers, Butchers, Tailors, Other
27




as to tlie other jobs that he may regularly perform.
The results generated by this approach are presented in Table 9. The percentage distribution shown in the first column demonstrates the importance of agricultural work, an expected finding since industry recruiters seek farm workers. For about two-thirds (63.8 percent) of the respondents, the primary occupation given was that of farmer or farm worker. Within the category of "primary occupation," the second most important jobs were those related to the construction industry. One in every five workers (19.8 percent) were involved in the building trade as either carpenters (4.8 percent), masons (7.3 percent), laborers (4.6 percent) or other miscellaneous tasks(3-1 percent).
Other occupations, such as drivers, mechanics, fishermen and
waiters are only marginally represented. It is worth noting that only 1.7 percent of the men interviewed on the sugar plantations in Florida declared cane cutting to be their primary job back home.
When asked about their second most important occupation, 37.1 percent of the sample said they were farmers or farm workers. As a source of secondary employment the importance of jobs related to construction increased to 32.9 percent. Finally, as shown in the last column of Table 9, farming and construction remain the principal occupations even for those who declare three regularly performed jobs.
The patterns of primary and secondary employment cannot be assumed to be the same across islands, as evident from the findings summarized in Table 10. Given the importance noted above of agriculture and construction-related jobs, the percentage distributions presented here are, for the sake of simplicity, restricted to these two work categories. The inter-island comparison shows Barbados to be a marked exception. On this island only 13.3 percent of the respondents declared agriculture to be their principal employment. The construction industry, on the other hand, is the major source of jobs in Barbados. The predominance of construction workers, and the relatively low number of farmers and farm workers in Barbados, is the opposite of what is found in the case of Jamaica and in the small islands.
Because the job categories presented in this section are based on the individual's self-report, the occupational data should be regarded with caution. It is often hard to know what separates one job description from another. Two workers, for example, may perform identical tasks, yet one may report his occupation as that of carpenter, the other simply as a construction worker.
These difficulties notwithstanding, the occupational distributions presented in this section provide some indication of the character of the population from which the H-2 workers are drawn. With the exception of Barbados, the findings confirm the predominance of farmers and farm-related workers. Jobs in the construction industry are also important, especially as a source of secondary employment. Farming and construction work account for 84.8 percent of the principal occupations, and 75.5 percent of the second jobs. The range of occupational backgrounds represented is, therefore, quite limited. Moreover, as
28







2-111% "1
lhl
I= 17
1.%, A -h i-11




underestimated. A recent AID (1978) report summarizes the part played
by the small farmer in the following way.
1. The small farmer produces most of the nation's domestic food
crop. This includes: legumes, vegetables, condiments, fruits, cereals,
plantains, potatoes, sweet potatoes, yams and other tubers. This
represented a value of J$115.O million in 1976 sand J$129.4 million in
1977.
2. Small farmers produce a substantial part of the nation's
-A foreign exchange that originates in agricultural exports. This includes
most of the coffee and cocoa, pimento and ginger, and smaller
percentages of bananas and sugar cane. Approximately 25 percent of the
value of agricultural exports in 1977 are estimated to have derived fram
the small-farm sector.
This section reports the results of several questionnaire items
which sought to probe into the extent and nature of farming activities of the H1-2 labor force, which is so heavily agricultural. Emphasis is given to a general description of the land tenure arrangements, to the
size of plots that the individual wns, or has access to, and to a rough
inventory of the crops cultivated and livestock owned. These data, it
should be emphasized, are principally intended to provide a general
profile of the labor force that seasonally migrates to Florida to harvest sugar cane. The agricultural background of these men is a
fundamental aspect of their social and economic circumstances at the
place of origin. The survey instrument, however, was not primarily
designed to be a sophisticated agricultural questionnaire. As a result,
less information is included in the data set than might have been the
case were the analysis restricted solely to this area of investigation.
We do not, for example, have reliable data on the quantity of
agricultural output, nor are we able to accurately assess the amount of
income specifically generated from agricultural activities. These
limitations notwithstanding, the information at hand does provide a general, if incomplete, characterization of the labor force that is
recruited in the West Indies. This agricultural profile of the workers
in the sugar program will, in turn, play a central role in the
evaluation presented in subsequent sections of the mechanisms by which
stateside employment influences the islands fran which the workers come.
Land is an essential element in agricultural production. Access to
and ownership of land is an important social indicator for those who







workers own or have access to less than one acre of land. The mean and
median farm size are 2.2 and 1.5 acres, respectively. With regard to
the size of plot, Jamaica and the small islands appear to have a fairly
similar pattern. Barbados is again an exception. For the few
individuals who do own farms, 82.3 percent have half an acre of ground.
The relatively small farm size in Barbados is reflected in the average
plot size of only .8 acres.
To say that the plots in the Caribbean cultivated by H-2 workers are "small" presumes that there is some relative standard to which the
data on size of plot is being compared. In other words, it is
necessary, for a more complete interpretation of these results, to place
*the findings from the survey of the H-2 workers into a broader context
of the agrarian structure of the societies fran which they are
recruited. This avenue of inquiry poses a number of difficulties that
are both of a conceptual and of an empirical nature. Secondary sources
of data, for example, may not employ the precise definition of "farm size" as that which we have used in this study. On a more practical
level, it should also be noted that the requisite information, which
also conforms to the same time period of the interviews that were
carried out in Florida, is not always available for the various islands
that participate in the labor program.
These drawbacks are less severe in the case of Jamaica where data from previous agricultural censuses offer useful reference points for
comparative analysis. The most recent figures that are available to us at this time only go through 1968. Although these data are out of date,
the pattern of land distribution tends, as a general rule, to remain fairly stable over time. The available census data thus provides an
approximate notion of how the farming background of cane cutters relates
to the larger context of Jamaican agriculture. Conclusions drawn fran
such an analysis must, necessarily, be treated as tentative.
The data on the distribution of the number and the acreage of farms by size groups in Jamaica are shown in Table 12. As noted above,
information from 19541 through 1968 reveals a fairly stable pattern, at least insofar as the distribution of cultivated farm land is 'concerned.
In 19541 about 13 percent of the agriculturally productive land was found
in farms that were less than 5 acres in size. The comparable figure in
, 1968 is 14.9 percent. At the other end of the distribution, it is clear
that well over half of the acreage (since 1961) is held by farms that
exceed 100 acres in size.
A separate, but related, indicator of the structure of Jamaican agricultural sector is the percentage distribution of farms by size of
plot. These data are presented in the lower panel of Table 12. The
estimates since 1954~ show a moderate,. hut nuiite mrkd, increase in the










Table 13
Nature of Land Tenure Arrangements By Island
(%)
Smalli
Tenure Arrangement Total Jamaica Barbados Is lands
Own 29.1 30.1 27.8 22.9
Leas e/Rent 34.4 34.9 33.3 31. 3
Family Land 28.7 27.4 27.8 37.5
Sharecrop 1.3 1. 1 5.6 2.1
Other 6.4 6.5 5.6 6.3
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0




Florida during the 1980-81 season. The sample contains individuals that
are of different ages, and with varying degrees of previous experience in the H-2 labor program. As noted in another section devoted to the
analysis of housing arrangements, one would expect the form of land
tenure to change according to the stage of the individuals' life cycle,
and/or as a result of the number of previous seasons that were worked
(two variables which are themselves intercorrelated). More
specifically, it is likely that young men, early in the stage of family formation and capital accumulation, would show a greater dependence on
family networks relative to older, more experienced workers. At a more
general level of analysis, changes in land tenure reflect the dynamic
~relationships that exist between the life cycle of the individual, the
character of his agriculture production, and degree of insertion into
and reliance upon the family system.
To investigate this hypothesis the form of land tenure, which is
presented in aggregate Corn in Table 13, can be broken down by the age of the respondent, and the number of past seasons worked in the United
States. These results (not shown) confir the expectations posited
above. The percentage of the H-2 labor force that owns land is 21
percent for those with less than two years of previous work experience
in Florida. As the nuber of past seasons increases, the proportion
owning land rises to nearly 40O percent (for those who have worked seven
or more seasons in the past). Conversely, the number who cultivate
family land is larger for newcomers to Florida (33.3 percent) compared
to those who have repeatedly engaged in stateside employment C13.3
percent).
The same patterns hold true for age. Older workers (40 years and
older) are more likely to own their own land (84.2 percent) compared to younger men (37.5 percent for those 20 to 24 years of age). Similarly,
47.5 percent of men 20 to 24 years old cultivate family property as
compared to only 10.8 percent of the individuals who are over 40 years of' age. As in the analysis of other variables, these findings confirm
the importance, especially among young men, of family netwoks in the
economic life of individuals in the Caribbean.
; ~~5. Ueo ao
If the forms of land tenure in the Caribbean are complex, so too
are the various mechanisms corrionly employed to cultivate land. These strategies are particularly important in the case of migrant laborers.
Tn ivd. l nh ar 3n thei hom country mus make allowance fourth




Table 14
Selected Indicators of Rural Labor Practices and of the Impact of Emigration
A. Labor Exchanges in the Previous Year Percent
None 31.7
Exchange with neighbors 14.9
Exchange with friends 36.2
Exchange with family 5.0
Other 12.0
Total 99.8
B. Who tends to farm during absence
No one 5.2
Wife/Children 41.8
Other family members 37.1
Friends 6.1
Paid workers 8.4
Total 98.6
.. S




of the way in which individuals provide labor for their agricultural plots.
The responses to questions regarding the employment of labor are presented in Table 14. The practice of informal labor exchange, an arrangement that is widespread in the Caribbean, is clearly revealed by these findings. Two-thirds of the sample indicated that they did engage in some form of labor exchange during the previous year. These arrangements were most often carried out with friends (36.2 percent) or with neighbors (14.9 percent) who live in the same vicinity.
An important question that arises in this context is the way in which the emigration of farmers from the islands affects the labor process on the farm. It is sometimes argued that the absence because of migration of a principal worker from the household unit will have a positive effect on the rural labor market at the place of origin (see Griffin, 1976). These expectations are grounded on a set of inter-related assumptions, including the assumption that there is no labor surplus. Two key premises include the idea that absentee workers reduce the supply of labor on the islands, and that the money that is earned abroad is used to hire other laborers to take their places. According to this line of reasoning, stateside employment will have a positive effect in a double sense: by reducing the supply of labor-in the countryside the general wage level in the rural area is driven upward. Second, the influx of remittances permits the employment of individuals who would not otherwise be hired. The overall effect of these transformations would be arise in the income levels of the population. In the long run, the effect is to achieve a more equitable distribution of income.
The framework summarized above can be questioned on a number of grounds, especially the assumption that there is little excess labor. By whatever conceptual issues are at stake here (which we will not delve into at this point), the model nonetheless presumes that absent migrant workers in fact replace themselves with hired hands using funds that are, either directly or indirectly, related to the migrant's employment outside of his place of residence.
The findings presented in the lower panel of Table 14 are not consistent with this expectation. In a small and relatively insignificant proportion of cases (5.2 percent) no one at all takes over the tasks when the individual leaves the country. For the most part, however, it is the immediate or extended family that fills in the gap. According to nearly half of the respondents (41.8 percent), the responsibilities associated with the farm fall to wives and children. "Other family members" account for 37.1 percent of the labor needs. Taken together, this implies that, in about 79 percent of the cases it is the family that takes the place of the migrant worker while he is employed in the United States. Only 3.4 percent actually hired labor in their absence. These findings suggest that the effects on the rural labor market, assumed to-operate via the mechanisms noted above, may be less important than is sometimes assumed.
39










6. Agricultural Production, Consumption and Marketing


A final consideration in this section on agriculture is the nature
of the crops that are produced by workers who participate in the H-2
program. Three primary objectives serve to organize the presentation of
the data. The first is to provide a general profile of the types of
commodities that are produced. In addition, it is necessary to examine
inter-island differences in the types of agricultural output. A final
consideration is an attempt to discern the extent to which different
crops are produced primarily for sale or for consumption. The crops
most frequently cited by the respondents are presented in Table 15.
They include bananas, oranges, yams, cane, peas and vegetables.
Inter-island differences, at least insofar as such differences pertain
to the range of crops planted, are relatively minimal. All of the basic
foodstuffs noted above are produced, to a greater or lesser degree, in
each of the islands that form part of our sample.

When we turn our attention to the extent to which particular
agricultural crops are cultivated for consumption purposes, or for sale,
significant differences within and between islands do appear. Before
proceeding with a detailed analysis along these lines, it is important
to note the limitations that pertain to the data at hand. Under ideal
conditions one would want, for each individual in the sample, a precise
indication, not only of what he grows back home, but also information on
the proportion of the total crop that is consumed or marketed. Further
refinements would place a monetary value on the agricultural output.
Such a data set could identify the relative degrees to which a
particular crop is a source of income, a finding that would, in turn,
provide a quantitative assessment of the importance of farming to yearly
household earnings.

The questionnaire used in this study falls short of this ideal. We
do not, for example, have adequate information as to the precise
proportion of the agricultural output that is marketed or consumed.
After eliciting from the respondent information as to the crops that he
planted, subsequent items merely asked if these crops were grown
primarily for sale or for consumption. The intermediate response
("consume some/sell some) is ambiguous. Within this category we have no
way of knowing what the relative proportions (between selling and
consuming) might be. Our measure of consumption or marketing is
admittedly crude. The findings must, therefore, be considered as little
more than approximations.

A second point is the generalizability of our findings. Current
market forces undoubtedly have an effect on the distribution between
consumption and sale. Price fluctuations in a competitive marketplace,
government incentive policies, interest rates and other factors,
including the costs of transportation and of fertilizers, influence the
relative profitability of commodities from one year to the next. The
findings presented here refer primarily to 1980, the season prior to
when the interviews were carried out in Florida. These patterns are









probably relatively stable over time. However, it would be unwarranted
to generalize our findings to other years without first confirming the
stability of the various factors that affect the costs of production.

With these caveats in mind, the data presented in Table 15 do
provide us with a general, but nonetheless significant, insight into the
character and destination of agricultural production among H-2 workers.
The results presented in the first column, for example, clearly reveal
the importance of farm production for the maintenance and the
reproduction of the worker and of his household. With the exception of
sugar cane, somewhere between a third and a fourth of the respondents
indicated that all of the agricultural production was devoted
exclusively to their own consumption. In this regard, yams play an
especially important role. Of the farmers interviewed, 34.7 percent
cultivated yams only for their own use.

As units of both production and consumption, rural households, in
order to generate monetary income, also market some portion of their
surplus product. The importance of this aspect of the agricultural
sector in the Caribbean is revealed by the substantial proportion of
respondents who claim to produce various crops solely for the purposes
of sale. For the sample as a whole, bananas, oranges, cane, peas and
vegetables were of particular importance as commodities. The percentage
of respondents who engaged in the production of these items exclusively
for sale ranges from 28.7 percent in the case of yams to over 60 percent
for sugar cane.

The complexity of the information presented in Table 15, hinders
the ready identification of key patterns that exist across islands. To
simplify these findings, a simple index is constructed. The ratio of
the percentage of respondents who market all of crop X to the percent
that consume all of the same product provides a crude indicator of the
degree to which X is a marketed commodity among our population of H-2
workers. A high number would reflect, although in a very crude fashion,
the extent to which a given crop is produced solely for the purposes of
sale. For the sample as a whole (column one), it is clear that sugar
cane, with an index value of 3.9, is a product that is more often
marketed than yams (0.9), oranges (1.4) and peas (1.4).

The summary index is useful for inter-island comparisons. A
cursory examination of the values in parenthesis indicates that the
index of marketability is consistently lowest in the case of Barbados.
Bananas, oranges, yams and cane are produced there, just as they are on
the other islands. At the same time, not one respondent indicated that
these agricultural commodities were solely market-directed. The latter
does not imply that such products as bananas and oranges are never sold
(as indicated by the often substantial proportion of respondents who
fall into the intermediate category of consuming some/selling some).
However, the findings do reflect the fact that agricultural production
is less important to Barbadians as a source of monetary income. The
highest values, by contrast, are found in the small islands. Jamaica
falls somewhere between these two extremes.

These findings have implications for the objectives of this study









Table 15


Consumption and Marketing Pattern for Selected Crops


Small
Crop Total Jamaica Barbados Islands

BANANAS consume all 25.9* 28.1 75.0 11.8
cons./sell 35.8 35.4 25.0 38.2
sell all 38.4 36.5 --- 50.0
(Index) (1.5)** (1.3) (0.0) (4.2)

ORANGES consume all 28.1 36.4 66.7 33.3
cons./sell 32.3 31.8 33.3 50.0
sell all 39.6 31.8 --- 16.7
(Index) (1.4) (0.9) (0.0) (0.5)

YAMS consume all 34.7 35.8 62.5 22.9
cons./sell 36.6 35.8 37.5 42.9
sell all 28.7 28.5 --- 34.3
(Index) (0.9) (0.8) (0.0) (1.5)

CANE consume all 16.1 16.7 20.0 50.0
cons./sell 20.8 20.8 80.0 50.0
sell all 63.0 62.5 -- --
(Index) (3.9) (3.7) (0.0) (0.0)

PEAS consume all 28.1 28.0 40.0 --
cons./sell 32.3 31.7 40.0 100.0
sell all 39.6 40.2 20.0 ---
(Index) (1.4) (1.4) (0.5) (0.0)

VEGETABLES consume all 23.8 25.9 38.5 8.0
cons./sell 40.2 37.0 46.2 56.0
sell all 35.9 37.0 15.4 36.0
(Index) (1.5) (1.4) (0.4) (4.5)


* In percent
** Index = sell all/consume all




and more generally, for conceptualizing the way in which transnational migration affects sending societies. It is clear, for example, that the population of H-2 workers, although they share many characteristics in common, should not, for the purposes of analysis or for policy formulation, be treated as a homogeneous group. Moreover, the inter-island differences in agricultural production is one factor (among many others) which suggests that attempts to assess the impact of the H-2 program at the place of origin must be sensitive to the fundamental differences that exist between islands, and to the variability between individuals recruited to harvest cane in south Florida.
Household CgMposition
The questionnaire applied to the sample of West Indian cane cutters included several items designed to obtain information regarding the characteristics of the respondent's household back on the island. These data provide the basis for further examination of the role of stateside employment in the lives of those who participate in the H-2 labor force. Variables such as average household size, the dependency ratio and the number of other members who have jobs provide an indication of the importance of seasonal migration to the domestic unit of which the worker is a part.
The results shown in Table 16 indicate that workers belong to
households that, on the average, contain over 6 people. Nearly half of the members of the unit (3-0) are under 15 years of age; most of them are enrolled in school. Fewer than two other household members are employed outside of the household. Since the vast majority of cane cutters farm land in the Caribbean, it is likely that many of the individuals that form part of the domestic unit, including children, participate in productive activities of one sort or another.
A commonly used indicator of the degree of economic dependency in a population is the age dependency ratio. This measure is defined as the ratio of the combined youth and aged population (ages 0-14 and 65+) to the population in the intermediate, presumably economically active, age range (15 to 65), multiplied by 100. This value provides a rough indication of the degree of dependence on the economically active population, a measure that is useful for international comparisons.
The age dependency ratio varies widely from country to country. In 1970 developing nations such as Nigeria, Bangladesh and Brazil the ratio exceeded 100. On the other hand, in more developed countries such as Denmark and Japan the ratio was around 50. The differences are primarily determined by the proportion of children in a population, which, in turn, depends on fertility levels. Estimates derived from the survey suggest that the dependency ratio is around 90 for the population of West Indian cane cutters in 1980/81. Taken together, these characteristics of the workers' household indicate that they support a substantial number of people with their earnings from the U. S.
43




Table 16
Household Characteristics*
Household Size 6.3**
Number under age 15 3.0
Number in School 2.6
Number 15 to 64 years of age .*
Number over age 65 0.1
Number of other members with jobs 1.6
* Average values, total sample
**Includes the respondent
44L




D. Ovrsa Eanig a Rmitace
1..Earning in .tte United States
Central to the study of the H-2 program is the analysis of workers'
wages. the wage earned in the United States provides the basis for
~estimating, if only in very approximate terms, the magnitude of money
and goods remitted to the Caribbean, a topic to be taken up in the next
section.
Estimates of income earned, derived frcm individual responses to
questionnaire items, are subject to a number of problems. The
information is generated on a self-report basis, with no feasible way to
directly verify the accuracy of the responses given. The latter may be
subject to a number of potential sources of error. These include: lapses in memory, a deliberate under or overstatement of the true
figures and, possibly, the reluctance on the part of individuals to
respond at all to what may be considered a sensitive or private matter.
To mnmize these potential sources of bias, numerous steps were
taken. In the interest of enhancing the accuracy of the income data,
individuals were reminded, both of the anonymity of their responses, and
of their right to decline to answer any question that they might be
reluctant to address. To minmilze memory error, questions as to gross
and net income figures were restricted to the previous two week pay
period.
The fortnight prior to the interview may, of course, not be
representative of a typical work period. Wages vary according to weather and other factors that affect worker productivity and earning potential.
To investigate for this possibility, a follow-up item was included in
the questionnaire. It asked whether the worker's pay during the
reference period was "above," "below" or "about the same" as his "usual
pay." Fifty percent of those interviewed indicated that it was about
the same. Those responding that it was higher or lower were evenly
split. The distribution of these answers suggests that, for the most part, the previous fortnight was not an atypical work period. Second,
the responses imply that the equal proportions of over and
underestimations of the average wage would tend, for the sample as a
whole, to cancel one another out.
Dataon e rigsA. drng4 the~ r tnigh4tL.4 n'n'4." pr.r t 4h irview*, n ae




earnings.
How accurate are these figures? Ideally, individual responses to this question could be checked against the worker's actual pay receipt.
Under the conditions in which the interviews were carried out, such a direct method of verification was not possible. However, there are several indirect methods by which to evaluate these data. It should be noted, for example, that the overall refusal rate was very low (less than 2 percent). This does not, in and of itself, indicate that the answers given are necessarily correct. Nonetheless, a low refusal rate
does suggest that the question on earnings was not one that workers were predisposed to avoid outright.
In addition to an analysis of the refusal rate, the accuracy of the data on earnings can also be assessed by investigating the internal consistency of the average estimates presented. As discussed in Part I of this report, several standard deductions are withdrawn fron the worker's gross pay check. These include a $5.20 daily deduction for meals (or $72.80 for the two-week pay period). An additional 25 percent is deducted for the savings plan and BWICLO assessment. The average
gross wage estimated from the survey data shown in Panel A is $420. This implies that the 25 percent accounts for about $105. Taken together ($72.80 plus $105), these deductions amount to $177.80 for an average fortnight. If the survey estimates of earnings are consistent, then the mean gross wage ($420), minus the known deductions ($177.80), should come close to the average net wage reported by the individuals that were interviewed. The value generated by this procedure, $242.20 is very close to the estimate of net earnings ($245, as shown in Panel B).
Evidence that the fortnight prior to the interview (the reference period) was not atypical, a low refusal rate and the high internal consistency of the data indirectly suggest that the information on workers' wages generated by the survey can be accepted as reasonable estimates of actual earnings. However, for the reasons cited earlier in this sections, these data should be regarded as approximations of the true values.
2. Remittances
The role of worker remittances is a key aspect of the seasonal
labor migration fron less to more developed countries, For the purposes of this section three issues are of central concern. The first objective is to estimate the magnitude of the resources that are sent




Table 17
Workers' Gross and Net Incomes for the Previous Fortnight
Percentage Distribution of Respondents Small
A. Gross Earnings* Total Jamaica Barbados Islands
0-199 3.8 3.9 5.0 2.4
200-299 5.7 6.7 2.5
300-399 31.0 30.6 17.5 41.5
400-499 33.7 31.7 37.5 46.3
500-599 17.6 18.3 22.5 9.8
600-699 5.7 6.1 10.0
700 + 2.5 2.7 5.0
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Missing cases 13.4** 12.6 11.1 19.6
Mean Gross Wages $420 $419 $463 $405
Percentage Distribution of Respondents B. Net Earnings
0-199 26.1 25.4 25.0 31.9
200-299 45.1 45.7 32.5 46.8
300-399 22.6 22.8 30.0 17.0
400-499 4.0 3.6 10.0 4.3
500-599 1.8 2.0 2.5
600-699 0.4 0.5
7 0 0 + - --... ..
Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Missing cases 5.2 4.4 11.1 7.8
Mean Net Wages $245 $245 $270 $233
* nU dollars
** Percent (includes refusals and missing data) 47




In the case of cane cutters who yearly come to Florida,. remittances to the place of origin are made in several ways. The contract agreement described in Part I stipulates that 23 percent of the worker's bi-monthly pay is automatically transferred to a bank account in the worker's hone island. This money, or part of it in the case of Barbados and the small islands, canl be retrieved at the end of the season. In addition to this automatic savings plan, workers on their own initiative send substantial amounts of money to family members and to friends via the mail. Wages are also used to purchase clothes and other items. Finally, at the end of the harvest, each individual returns to the Caribbean with a certain amount of cash in hand.
The total value of these monetary (savings plan, money orders, cash) and non-monetary resources (purchased goods) provides a rough estimate of the magnitude of the remittances made to the sending
countries. The analysis that follows estimates the amount of money transmitted through each of the various methods. It also explores some of the social aspects of these transactions by investigating the relationship between the respondents in the survey and the recipients of remitted funds.
a. Saving hlan
As noted above, the contract requires that 23 percent of the worker's gross wage be deducted fran each biweekly paycheck and deposited in a savings account on the island of origin. The question addressed here is the following: What is the total amount of money remitted to the Caribbean as a result of the savings program?
A rough estimate of this value canl be generated by taking, as a starting point of the analysis, the average gross wage earned the fortnight before the survey, or $420 (see the section on "Earnings"). Of this amount, 23 percent enters the savings account for each individual ($96.60). The product of this average value times 251 (the number of workers that were interviewed) indicates that about $24,246 was deposited for the workers in our sample. This value, however, applies only to the reference period, and not to the amount sent into the savings program during the entire season. The latter can be estimated indirectly, provided that certain assumptions are met. Responses to another item in the questionnaire, for example, indicate that the cane cutters who were interviewed had worked an average of 133 days, or about 9.5 pay periods. If the fortnight preceeding the interview is a typical work period (see the discussion in the section on
"Earnings"), the product of $24,246. times the average nunber of




the sample is representative (for a discussion, see the Appendix B),the survey findings can be generalized to the labor force as a whole. The results of this procedure indicate that the total remitted to the Caribbean via the savings plan was about $7,764,000.
Needless to say, this figure should be regarded only as an
approximation. With this caveat in mind, the findings do provide some idea of the order of magnitude involved. As subsequent analysis will show, the $7.5 to $8 million that is deducted from the workers' gross wages and automatically returned to the islands through the savings plan is the largest component of all remittances to the Caribbean by the H-2 labor force.
b. Maile Remittances
The questionnaire was designed to elicit information from the
respondent as to the average amount of money mailed to the islands, and the number of times that he had done so while employed in the United States. Since the interviews in Florida were carried out late in the season on the eve of their departure, responses to the question about the frequency of remittances should provide a reasonably accurate picture of the number of times that money orders were sent during the 1980-81 season. In addition to amounts and to frequencies, other items in the survey identified the person to whom the money was sent, and the way in which these funds were to be used back home. The results of the analysis are presented in Table 18. As shown in raw A, an average of about $71 was sent to the first recipient mentioned by the worker* wives, girlfriends and mothers. These individuals received money orders an average of about 7 times during the season (row B).
The pattern observed for the primary recipient changes
substantially when we analyze the amount, frequency and the destination of the funds sent to recipients 2, 3 and 4. The person receiving wages from the worker in Florida shifts from wives, girlfriends and mothers (the main receivers) to sons and daughters, sisters and brothers, and to more distant associates ("friends" and "others"). This change is accompanied by three others worth noting. First, the average amount sent steadily drops from an average of $71 for recipient 1 to a low of $15 for the fourth receiver. Second, the frequency of sending money orders also declines from 7 (recipient 1) to 3.3 times (recipient 4). Finally, as is clear from the data shown in row C, almost all (92.3 percent) of the workers in Florida mailed a portion of their wages to the islands at some point during their employment in the United States. However, the proportion of the labor force that sent money to persons other than the first recipient drops off sharply: 43.8 percent of the workers sent money to a second recipient; only 8.8 percent to a third person.
These findings provide some insight into the relative priorities that determine the amount, frequency and the destination of the wages that are remitted to the islands by mail. The primary importance of the immediate family is confirmed. Other, more distantly related
49




Table 18
Average Amount and Frequency of Money Mailed Home, By Category of Recipient
Recipient
1 2 3 4
A. Average Amount Sent $71 $38 $32 $15
B. Average Frequency 7.1 5.1 4.8 3.3
C. % of Labor Force 92.3 43.8 8.8 1.6
N of Cases 232 110 22 4
D. Recipient M
Wife 53.0 5.7 4.1 --Girlfriend 23.8 25.0 13.3
Mother 15.5 38.5 --- --Father 2.2 8.6 4.1
Son/Daughter .4 3.9 17.0 --Sister/Brother 1.7 4.3 16.4 --Friend .4 3.5 16.0 --Other 2.5 10.5 29.1 --Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 --*Insufficient number of cases
50









individuals, are shown to be of secondary importance. More generally,
these results underscore the notion that the question of remittances is
not simply a matter of the magnitude of the resources that are
transferred. Analysis of this phenomenon must also account for the
complex social networks within which these transactions occur.

To what use is this money put? According to the individuals
interviewed in the survey, most of the wages mailed to the islands goes
to support their families. About three-quarters of the respondents (76
percent) said that the principal purpose of sending money home was to
cover daily household living expenses. The other most cited reasons
include child support (6.6 percent) and the schooling of children (6.1
percent).

A final objective is to estimate the total amount of money remitted
to the Caribbean via the mail. A rough approximation can be obtained by
multiplying (for each individual in the sample) the average amount of
money mailed by the frequency of sending mail orders. The sum of these
values across individuals in the study indicates that a total of
$141,643 was sent to the Caribbean by workers interviewed in our sample.
If we generalize from the sample to the total labor force, these
findings suggest that the sum of all mailed remittances amounted to
approximately $4,774,000. Of this total, about 77.8 percent (or
$3,709,000) was sent to Jamaica; 13.8 percent ($656,000) was mailed to
the small islands; and 8.5 percent ($404,000) was destined for Barbados.


c. Purchases


The desire to work in the United States for wages that exceed what
can be earned on the islands is unquestionably the principal factor that
motivates individuals to enter the H-2 labor force. A second reason is
the opportunity to purchase items which are then taken back to the
Caribbean at the end of the harvest. A substantial amount of money is
thus spent on goods to be taken home by cane cutters while they are in
the United States. The majority of these purchases take place in towns
that lie closest to the labor camps, although it is not unusual for
workers to travel to Palm Beach or to Miami for this purpose. It was in
response to this demand over the past 38 years that an entire business
district evolved in Belle Glade, Florida.

The analysis of the purchases made by the H-2 labor force while in
the United States can thus be seen in a double light. From the
standpoint of the merchants in south-central Florida the presence of
these workers constitutes a market for a variety of goods. On the other
hand, from the standpoint of the sending societies, the items bought
constitute a portion of the remittances that are sent back to the
Caribbean.

The analysis of the workers' spending patterns involves at least
two dimensions: the value of the items that are purchased and the type
of things that are bought. The latter provides another indication of
the multiple ways in which the H-2 labor program influences sending




societies. For the purposes of this investigation a distinction can be drawn between "capital goods" and "consumer goods." Capital goods can be defined as the materials necessary for production, trade or commerce. These items, which include tools and equipment, are assumed to enhance the individual's productivity and his capacity to accumulate wealth back on the islands. Capital goods can thus be distinguished from other items which are consumed in order to maintain and to reproduce the worker and his family (e.g., clothes, food), or which serve only to elevate the quality of life (as through the "consumption" of televisions or radios). On an aggregate level, widespread importation of capital goods would presumably increase production, largely in agriculture and thereby constitute a significant contribution to the sending islands' development.
The impact of the H-2 labor program on the Caribbean is thus determined, in part at least, by the character of the consumption patterns of the workers involved. The relative proportion of expenditures allocated to capital or consumer items is one way to conceptualize this process. If most purchases are for capital goods, the remittances in kind are likely to have a greater economic impact on the household's capacity to produce and to accumulate than would be the case if consumer goods constitute the bulk of the individual's expenditures.
The distribution of the principal purchases made in the United States is presented in Table 19. The percentages indicate the proportion of the total sample that purchased a given item. The findings show that nearly all workers (97.4 percent) bought clothes and personal items. About 60 percent acquired entertainment equipment such as radios, tape players and televisions. Between 10 and 15 percent spent their wages on food, general household goods and appliances. Only a small proportion purchased tools (2.6 percent) and transportation equipment (2.0 percent).
The spending patterns revealed in Table 19 indicate a clear preference for consumer as opposed to capital goods. A closer examination of these items, howeVer, suggests that the distinction between the two is potentially ambiguous. Of all of the items that appear on the list of purchases only tools clearly fall.into the category of capital goods, as defined here. The accurate classification of other items depends on how they are used. A motorcycle used only for Sunday drives is quite different from one acquired for the purpose of petty commerce and trade. Similarly, entertainment equipment may not necessarily constitute a consumer good. Radios and televisions brought back to the islands for sale in a shop could contribute to the viability, even expansion, of a small retail business.
We have no way of knowing how a given item is actually used once the worker returns to his place of residence. However, a follow-up question in the survey did inquire as to the intended used of each item that was bought by the individual. Responses to this question indicate that the vast majority of the purchases were solely for personal and household consumption. These findings are consistent with the intended use of money mailed home, as shown in an earlier section. We therefore
52




Table 19
Items Purchased in the United States
Item Percent Purchasing Item
Clothes 97.4
Personal Items 97.4
Entertainment Equipment 59.4
Food/Household Goods 15.3
Appliances 10.5
Tools 2.6
Transportation Equipment 2.0
Furniture 0.8
NOTE: Personal items include: jewelry, consmetics, luggage
Entertainment equipment includes: radios, tape decks, stereos,
tapes, televisions, cameras
Food/Household goods include: food, sheets, mattresses,
plates, soap, kitchenware, curtains
Appliances include: mixers, stoves, refrigerators
Transportation equipment includes: bicycles, motorcycles
53









conclude that, despite the fact that the exact classification of
particular items may be ambiguous, the buying patterns of West Indian
workers emphasize consumer rather than capital goods.

A final consideration is the total (stateside) value of the items
that workers remit to the Caribbean. The sum of the amount of money
spent on purchases in the United States comes to $135,000 for those
individuals in the survey. To the extent that the workers interviewed
represent a random sample of the universe from which they were drawn
(see Appendix B), the spending patterns observed can be assumed to be
representative of all H-2 workers in the year of the survey.
Generalizing to the population of cane cutters in 1980-81 suggests that
the labor force as a whole spent approximately $4,551,000 on items that
were either sent or were carried back to the islands of origin.(20)


d. Cash in Hand


Compared to the other ways in which wages are remitted, the amount
carried back in cash is relatively small. The distributions shown in
Table 20 indicate that the vast majority (80.7 percent) carry $500 or
less on their return. Only 4.1 percent go back with more than $1,000 on
their person. The average amount, as shown in the lower panel, is $407.
For all individuals in the sample, the total sum of the money returned
in cash comes to $56,220. Using the same procedures applied in earlier
sections, this value, generalized to the labor force as a whole,
suggests that a total of approximately $1,895,000 was remitted in cash
to the Caribbean at the end of the harvest season. While small, this
particular remittance is of special significance to the worker, since it
is directly in his possession and is in the form of cash.


e. Remittances: Summary Tabulation


The analysis of the various forms by which resources are returned
to the islands, taken together, indicate that a total of about $19
million was remitted to the Caribbean during 1980-81 as a result of the
H-2 program. A summary of the respective amounts is as follows:


Savings Plan $7,764,000
Money orders 4,774,000
Purchases
(value in USA) 4,551,000
Cash in hand 1,895,000

TOTAL $18,984,000



With regard to the accuracy of these estimates, it is important to
note several factors. First, it should be recalled that the figures are









Table 20

Amount of Money Remitted to the Islands in Cash


Amount carried in cash*


Percent of
Sample Remitting


A. 0 $205 31.4

$251 $500 49.3

$501 $1000 15.2

$1001 + 4.1

Total -100.0


B. Mean $407

Median $301

SD $332


* U.S. dollars




derived from self-reports by individual workers interviewed in Florida. While the data are internally consistent, and appear to be free of systematic bias, they are subject to error (as noted in the various sections). Second, the sample size of 251 is relatively small thus increasing the confidence interval around each estimated value. When generalized to the labor force as a whole, the margin for error is magnified. For these reasons, and others that could be mentioned, the figures presented should be regarded, not as exact measurements, but rather as rough approximations of the true values.
E. Savings, Investment and Productivity
1. Capital Acuulto
Conventional perspectives on labor mobility typically assume that the migration of workers from less to more developed countries fosters
development at the place of origin. The mechanisms by which this is presumed to occur are many. The remittances of migrant laborers are viewed as instrumental in restoring a balance of payments, and in stimulating savings and investment. Upon their return, repatriates serve as agents of change by applying the ideas and the skills acquired abroad to establish farms, businesses and other enterprises conducive to increased production. By accelerating capital formation and technical
change on small peasant farms, migration is assumed to improve the distribution of income in rural areas. According to the equilibrium model, the international movement of labor thus leads to a gradual convergence in the levels of economic growth and social well-being (see Bohning, 1975; Rempell and Lobdell, 1978; Swanson, 1979).
Applied to the case of West Indian cane cutters, the perspective outlined above predicts that the wages earned in the United States provide the resources to start or to expand small businesses, or to buy land and equipment so as to increase agricultural output and productivity. While there is little doubt that this expectation is met in the case of individual workers the central question is the degree to which this phenomenon typifies the H-2 labor force. We have already
examined some evidence of the preference for consumer over capital purchases, the results of which challenge the equilibrium model.
Further analysis of our survey data provides additional insight
into the questions raised above. At the outset, it is important to note that the wages received harvesting sugar cane in the United States substantially exceed the general wage levels in the Caribbean. In Barbados and Jamaica the per capita income in 1980 was $2,685 and $1,406, respectively. As noted in another section of this report, H-2
56




workers earned an average gross wage of about $4,000 during the 1980/81 season. But do these resources enable the worker to accumulate sufficient productive assets to improve his income-generating capacity,
as the equilibrium model suggests?
A complete answer to this question would require a comparative
analysis with a control group of individuals who had never participated in the program. Also required are indices that adequately reflect the consequences of having had the experience of cutting cane in Florida. Our data meet neither of these conditions. Nonetheless, a comparative analysis .kijthi the sample of workers who were interviewed in the United States provides a rough indication of the effects of the program. More specifically, workers who have returned to harvest sugar cane more than
three seasons ("oldtimers") can be compared with "newcomers" (three seasons or less). With the appropriate statistical controls for age and
other variables, we would expect oldtimers to have accumulated more productive assets relative to newcomers.
orA comparison of the workers who have returned to Florida for four
more seasons with the rest of the labor force reveals few differences between the two groups in terms of capital accumulation. This can be seen, first, in the analysis of the number of acres that the worker owns or has access to back home. As shown in column 2 of Table 21, the mean size of farm for the sample as a whole is 2.3 acres. Using Multiple
Classification Analysis (MCA), it is possible to disaggregate the effects of other variables. Specifically, do oldtimers own larger plots of land compared to newcomers?
The figures shown in column 5 represent the deviation from the
grand mean (2.3) that is associated with the number of previous seasons worked. Newcomers own an average of 2.16 acres (2.3 0.14= 2.16). Oldtimers own 2.'44 acres (2.3 + 0.14 = 2.414). We can conclude that the differences between the two groups is relatively small, or about .3 acres. The deviations from the mean associated with island of origin can be interpreted in the same way.
The figures shown in column 5, however, are unadjusted estimates. That is, they do not account for the effects of other variables that could influence the number of acres owned. The geophysical differences between the islands are one set of factors that are important. Other variables include the age and education of the respondent. It is therefore necessary to estimate the deviations from the grand mean after removing the possible effects of other independent variables (island of origin) and covariates (age and education).
These findings are presented in column 6. Comparing the adjusted (col. 6) with the unadjusted (col. 5) deviations from the mean reveals very little change. We can conclude that, after controlling for other key variables, newcomers and oldtimers own about the same amount of land. Repeated participation in the H-2 labor program does not, therefore, appear to lead to the accumulation of agricultural resources.
Using land ownership as an measure of capital accumulation is open
57




Table 21
Multiple Classification Analysis of the Effect of work Experience on Land Ownership and Earnings Dependent Grand Independent Deviation From the Mean
Variable Mean Variables N Unadjusted Adjusted'
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
A. Acres 2.3 SEASONS2
Newcomers 95 -0.14 -0.15
Oldtimers 96 0.14 0.14
ISLANDS
Barbados 5 -1.50 -1.50
Jamaica 159 -0.03 -0.04
Small3 27 0.40 0.50
B. Pay4 253.4 SEASONS
Newcomers 105 -21.7 -28.5
Oldtimers 110 20.6 27.0
ISLANDS
Barbados 13 21.6 10.0
Jamaica 174 -0.5 -0.1
Small 28 -6.4 -4.3
Controlling for independent variables (SEASONS, ISLANDS) and covariates
(age of respondent, level of primary education).
2 Newcomers: those who have worked three seasons or less
Oldtimers: those who have worked more than three seasons
3 Includes: St. Lucia, St. Vincent and Dominica
4 Net Pay for the fortnight prior to the interview
58








to question in the Caribbean where the forms of land tenure are often
quite complex. Similar analysis were therefore carried out using a
number of other variables assumed to reflect the individual's assets.
These included home ownership, and the number of goats, cows and mules
that were owned by the respondent. In all cases the results were the
same; few if any differences were found between newcomers and
oldtimers.(21)

To argue that participation in the H-2 program fails to enable
individuals to accumulate productive assets is not to say that the
opportunity to work in the United States is unimportant to them. To the
contrary, nearly 100 percent of those interviewed expressed the desire
to return the following season. The reasons are not hard to find. As
noted in previous sections, analysis of numerous variables in the survey
demonstrates the importance of stateside employment in the lives of
individuals, and for the households and the extended kin networks of
which they are a part. These data, and the statements by the workers
themselves, indicate that the opportunity to work in south Florida
provides critically needed resources to those who are fortunate enough
to enter the seasonal labor stream. But the findings provide little
support for the hypothesis that individuals who regularly return are
able to accumulate a greater degree of productive assets compared to
others. Together with other data (on expenditures, the use of
remittances and mail orders), these findings suggest that, rather than
serving as a source of investment capital, the wages earned harvesting
sugar cane in Florida are primarily devoted to the maintenance and the
reproduction of the worker and his household back in the Caribbean.


2. Productivity



Analysis of net wages earned the fortnight prior to the interview
indicates that previous experience harvesting sugar cane is associated
with greater worker productivity. As shown in column 5 of Table 21
(Panel B), newcomers earned about $22 below the grand mean; oldtimers
earned about $21 above it. This discrepancy widens after introducing
statistical controls for island of residence, age and education (compare
columns 5 and 6). Interpreting the adjusted deviations from the mean
(col. 6) we conclude that, net of controls, newcomers earned an average
of $225 and oldtimers about $280, a difference of $55.

These results are consistent with the analysis of other variables
that are related to worker productivity. The more experienced preferred
workers are less prone to injury (2.1 days per season vs. 5.9) and lose
fewer days on the job as a result of illness than do the less
experienced pool workers (1.5 vs. 2.4). These findings, taken together
with estimates of net earnings, suggest that individuals with extensive
previous experience are more skilled, less subject to accidents and
sickness, and are substantially more productive as compared to novices.
The system of migrant labor that has evolved (with its method of
selecting preferred workers from one season to the next) thus provides
the employers a continued supply of highly productive labor.







3. Inetmn lans
Given the magnitude of the resources that are remitted to the
islands (see "Remittances"), it is important to investigate the ways in which earnings are allocated at the place of origin. Respondents were asked how they planned to spend the money they earned in the United States once they returned home. This question refers primarily to the
income accumulated in the compulsory savings program and to the cash taken back in hand. Utilization of these funds is another indication of the importance of the H-2 program to the development of the five West Indian Islands. The list of activities and items targeted for investment were then collapsed into eight general categories. As shown in Table 22, 60 percent of the respondents interviewed intended to apply their resources to housing. This includes those who planned to build or add on to an existing structure, as well as individuals who intend to buy land or furnishings for a house. (Because each respondent could specify more than one investment, the columns in the table add up to more than 100 percent).
About 20 percent of the sample indicated that they wanted to buy land to farm, or intended to purchase farm equipment, fertilizers, or seeds. One in three planned to buy livestock. Just over ten percent expected to use their money to cover living expenses. These patterns differ somewhat by island, as shown in columns 2, 3 and 4. Livestock and farm-related investments are more salient in Jamaica and the smaller islands, but are less so in the case of Barbados. This pattern again confirms the non-agricultural origins of the Barbadian workers. Similarly the proportion of individuals who intended to allocate earnings to business ventures and savings is higher in the smaller islands compared to Jamaica and Barbados.
While there is some indication of investment of savings and cash in hand in farming and livestock, the most prevalent category by far is housing and living expenses. This pattern once again confirms the importance of consumer and subsistence spending from income generated by cutting cane.




III. SUMMA RY AND CONCLUSIONS
The principal objective of this study has been to provide an
empirical profile of the West Indian laborers who seasonally migrates to the United States to harvest sugar cane. In spite of the program's nearly four decades of existence, little is known about either the labor force or the impact of its seasonal migration on the participating workers, their dependents, and the sending islands. To address some of these issues, we administered a questionnaire to a random sample of 302 workers during M|arch 1981, at the end of the 1980-81 harvest. In the concluding section of this report, we summarize the principal findings of this study. A more thorough discussion of the theoretical and policy implications of the research must await subsequent analysis.
A. Prnc~a indig
Fran the analysis of the survey data we derive the following major conclusions :
1. West Indian laborers have been recruited to cut sugar cane in south Florida since 1943. The longstanding character of this international arrangement implies that offshore workers are not a transitory or cyclical part of the process of sugar production in the state. Unlike other migratory streams, that may come and go in response to different economic circumstances in the receiving area, the West Indian labor force (although it does fluctuate in size from year to year) can be considered to be an intrinsic feature of Florida's sugar industry, at least as it is currently constituted. Policy decisions, either to expand or limit the H-2 program, must take this into account.
2. Analysis of the survey results indicate that there are ninerous similarities between the workers that are recruited from Jamaica, Barbados and the smaller islands (St. Lucia, St. Vincent and Dominica). At the same time the economies and geophysical characteristics of each one are not identical. These dissimilarities are reflected in analysis of several key items used in the questionnaire, such as the importance of agricultural production and the occupational background of the respondent. These findings suggest that that the H-2 labor force cannot be regarded as a homogeneous entity, and policy decisions based on the aggregate impact of the program on the sending societies must be sensitive to this diversity.
3. With the exception of Barbados, the West Indian labor force is recruited primarily from the rural areas of the Caribbean. In general




given was that of farmer or farm worker. Within the category of "primary occupation," the second most important jobs were those related to the construction industry. In this regard Barbados is an exception (a higher incidence of construction workers and a relatively lower
proportion of "farmers").
5. Over half of those interviewed also declared a second occupation mostlyy in farming or farm related activities and in construction). These findings indicate that, although cane cutters do have more than one job back on the islands, the range of occupational backgrounds is relatively limited.
6. The characteristics of the H-2 labor force noted above should be considered in light of the recruitment process that is carried out every season. Studies of migration (both internal and international) have noted the "positive" selectivity of migration streams (migrants being better educated, or more "motivated" than non-migrants at the place of origin). Such an empirical generalization, however, applies to those population movements that are voluntary. In this instance, however, the institutional mechanisms by which workers are chosen has a marked impact on the "selectivity" of the pool of migrants. The predominance of individuals with farming backgrounds, for example, is the outcome of the criteria deliberately imposed by the employers. It follows that accepted generalizations as to the characteristics of migrants found in the literature on this topic do not necessarily apply inthis case.
7. Over a quarter of the H-2 workers own or have access to less than one acre of land. The mean and median farm size are 2.2 and 1.5 acres, respectively. Average size of farm is much smaller among cane cutters recruited from Barbados (0.8 acres), a finding consistent with the results on occupational and farming background noted above.
8. In addition to the single farm unit, owned and operated by the head of a nuclear family, there are many other formal and informal ways by which individuals gain access to land. The family, and the broader network of kin and friends, play an important role in the way land is divided and cultivated. In terms of land tenure arrangements, analysis of the survey data indicate that young men, early in the stage of family formation and capital accumulation, show a greater dependence on family networks (e.g., cultivating "family land") compared to older workers (who tend to own their plots). These findings suggest that analyses of the impact of remittances and other transfers to the islands by the H-2 labor force are likely to have different implications for men at different points in their life cycle.
9. The absence of the worker because of migration to the United
States has repercussions within the individual's household. In terms of tending agricultural plots, there is a reallocation of family labor. For the most part, it is the immediate or extended family that fills in for the departed worker. There is little direct evidence that remittances are used to hire third parties.
10. Farming activities clearly play a critical role in the
63




sustenance of the worker's household. Between a third and a fourth of the respondents indicated that all of their agricultural production was devoted exclusively to their own consumption (this varies somewhat by crop). This does not mean, however, that the entire H-2 labor force is drawn from "subsistence" farmers. On the contrary, a substantial portion market some or all of the foodstuffs produced. In this way it can be said that those who come to cut sugar cane in the United States also contribute to the production of foodstuffs for the island populations through their agricultural activities (and that of family members, as noted in 9 above).
11. Workers belong to households that, on the average (including the respondent), contain just over 6 persons. Nearly half of the members of the unit are under 15 years of age (most of whom are enrolled in school). Few other members are employed outside of the household. Taken together, these data indicate that seasonal migrants to the United States contribute directly to the support of a substantial number of people at the place of origin.
12. The principal reason that motivates individuals to seek stateside jobs as cane cutters is that the wages earned in Florida exceed that which can be earned in the Caribbean. A second reason is to exploit the opportunity to come to the United States in order to purchase items that are either unavailable on the islands, or which are more expensive there.
13. Workers in the sample reported an average gross biweekly wage of $420. This aniounts to about $4,000 per season, from which numerous deductions are made (some of which are returned to the worker when he gets back to the island; see 14, below). The average net wage was $245 a fortnight.
14. Remittances to the place of origin are made in several ways.
The contract agreement stipulates that 23 percent of the worker's pay is automatically transferred to a bank account in the worker's home island, where all or some (depending on the island) can be later retrieved in local currency. Workers on their own initiative also mail substantial amounts of money to family members and friends. They also purchase clothes and other items. Finally, at the end of the season, each individual returns to the Caribbean with a certain amount of cash in hand. Extrapolating from the sample to the total population of workers in 1980-81, we estimate that the West Indian work force remitted nearly $19 million (including the U.S. value of goods purchased) to the sending islands.
15. The primary recip ients of mailed remittances are wives,
girlfriends and mothers. Others, such as sons and daughters, sisters and brothers, assume importance as secondary recipients. These results underscore the point that the question of remittances is not simply a matter of the magnitude of the transfers involved. Analysis confirms the importance of the complex social networks within which these transactions occur.
16. About $4.5 million is spent by the labor force on purchases




that are returned to the island. Analyses of these spending patterns, together with other information on the destination and purpose of mailed remittances, indicate that the wages earned in the United States are used primarily for the maintenance and the reproduction of the worker's household. Although a snail percentage of the work force does invest in capital goods, the majority of the the purchases and remittances are for consumption purposes.
17. After statistically controlling for key variables (age,
education, island), the results indicate that repeated participation in the H-2 labor program does not appear to lead to the accumulation of productive resources (as measured by land and other assets) by the individuals involved.
18. Analysis of the net wages indicate that those individuals who
have repeatedly come to Florida to cut cane are systematically more productive than novices. Their wages exceed that of newcomers to the program, and they are relatively less prone to injury and to sickness. The method used by employers to select preferred workers from one season to the next (60 percent of the labor force in 1980-81) thus appears to provide the industry with a skilled and productive labor force.
B. Dsuso
The international seasonal transfer of labor analyzed in this
report brings a selected group of men from five West Indian islands to the United States where they are able to earn wages in excess of those available locally. There are three direct beneficiaries of the program. First, it benefits the participating workers and their dependents. Given the persistence of poverty and widespread unemployment in rural areas of the West Indies, there can be little doubt that these men and their households are better off because of the opportunity to cut sugar cane in Florida. It allows them to earn a steady income for at least five months of the year and to save a proportion for use at hone. It also opens up the possibility of purchasing consumer goods which not only ensures household survival but also enhances the quality of life of its members. A second major immediate beneficiary is the worker's home
island. Through a mandatory savings plan and mailed remittances, substantial amounts of hard currency are yearly infused into economies suffering from chronic balance of payments and foreign exchange deficits. Finally, the Florida sugar industry benefits fron the H-2 program. For the past 38 years it has regularly recruited a highly skilled, motivated seasonal work force for an industry which depends, in part, because of ecological constraints, on manual harvesting of its crop. The implications of the H-2 program in Florida sugar, for the long run development of both the participants and the West Indies are less nilear, hn~yever. Althnug oun r data-u are not cmplet o~n t-hi s maitteor,




Appendix A
Selected Indicators of Five Sending Countries Jamaica Barbados St. Lucia St. Vincent Dominica
Area
(Sq. km) 11,424 431 616 389 750
Population
(1981) 2,225,000 256,000 124,000 116,000 79,000
Population
Growth Rate
(Annual Average) 1.6% 0.4% 2.0% 2.3% 1.2%
Birth Rate
(per 1000) n.a. 17.2 31.5 32.2 21.8
Density2
(per km) 585 201 298 105
Adult Literacy 86% 98% 80% 95% 80%
GNP $2,936.0 mil $511.2 mil $ 99.2 mil $ 50.3 mil $36.9 mil
(Year) (1980 GDP) (1978) (1979) (1979) (1978)
GNP Growth
Rate (1978) -3.5% 5.1% 4.3% 14.6% 3.9%
Per Capita
GNP $ 1,352 $ 2,010 $ 790 $ 485 $ 459
Exports $ 979 mil $349.5 mil $ 65.6 mil $ 27.3 mil $ 9.4 mil
Imports $ 1,129 mil $372.7 mil $105.4 mil $ 52.4 mil $39.4 mil
Balance in
Current
Account $ -275 mil $ -4.7 mil $-31.6 mil $ -16.0 mil -$14.1 mil
External Debt n.a. $ 61.7 mil $ 13.8 mil $ 7.8 mil $12.1 mil
Debt Service
Ratio n.a. 2.9% 0.9% 9.8% 3.6%
Unemployment
Rate 31% 15% 13% 20% 23%
1980-81 H-2
Sugar Quota 6954 508 389 567 42
Source: Caribbean/Central American Action. C/CAA's Caribbean Databook.
Washington, D.C.: Caribbean/Central American Action, 1981.
All currency figures in U.S. dollars.
66




Appendix B
SAMPLE DESIGN
The ntxnber of H--2 workers involved in harvesting sugar cane in
Florida fluctuates during the season. At the height of the 1980-81
season about 8,460 West Indians were employed. The vast majority (82.2
percent) were from Jamaica, with the remainder from Barbados (6.0 percent), St. Lucia (4.6 percent), St. Vincent.C6.7 percent), and
Dominica (0.5 percent). In March, 1981, at the end of the harveSt,oa
sample of men was drawn from the total remaining population of 144,41
workers. Since the distribution of this labor force by place of origin
was known from existing industry records, a quota system was employed to
generate a representative sample of the universe of workers,
Individuals to be interviewed were chosen from the roster of people
living in each labor camp such that the number from the five islands was
proportional to each island's weight in the total mid-March population.
This procedure generated a total of 251 cases. The composition of the
work force by island in mid-March did not differ significantly from that
during the rest of the season. The reduction in the nuber of workers occurred just before our interviewing began as the harvest concluded on
some of the farms.
A representative sample of this size has a major drawback. If
Barbadians are only 6 percent of the universe, a sample of 251 cases
implies a total of only 15 individuals from this island. Similarly, the
absolute number from St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and Dominica is also quite low (12, 17, 'and 1, respectively). The small number of cases restricts
the possibility of carrying out between-island comparisons. To allow
for this possibility, Barbadians and those from the smaller islands were oversampled so as to have approximately 50 cases in each subgroup. The total number of interviews carried out, therefore, was a representative
sample of the population (251), plus additional interviews with
individuals from the smaller islands, for a total of 302 cases. In the analysis presented here the findings for the labor force as a whole are
derived fron the random sample of 251 respondents. Comparative analyses
across islands make use of the total of 45 cases drawn from Barbados,
and the 51 cases fron St. Lucia, St. Vincent, and Dominica (collectively
referred to as "small islands").
: Because of possible differences associated with such factors as
camp size and the company that the individual works for, the sample was selected in such a way that it is representative of the distribution of
* the population by size of living quarters and by employer. Using this
procedure, 17 percent of the sample was drawn from small camps (less
than 200 workers); 49 percent from the medium-sized camps (210 599);
and 341 percent from large housing units (600 plus).




season, when the workers were preparing to leave the country, there were instances in which the individuals selected from the roster could not be located. Under these circumstances, respondents were chosen on an availability basis, attempting, whenever possible, to make substitutions randomly. The nature of the bias entailed in this process, if one exists, is not known.
In addition to the logistical problems of finding specific
individuals, interviews carried out at the end of the harvest raises other potential problems. By mid-March, when the survey was conducted, cane cutters had been in the field three to five months. The work is extremely arduous and often dangerous. Injuries are common, especially among the less experienced workers. These conditions suggest that, by interviewing late in the season, individuals who did not last out the full harvest are not included. Cane cutters who are uncooperative, or unproductive, or who are subject to severe illness or injury are sent home. The possibility therefore exists that we have oversampled individuals that may tend to be hardier, more productive and more highly skilled. When generalizing from the sample to the population of H-2 workers, the effect of overrepresenting the "survivors" may be to overestimate such things as net and gross earnings, or any other variables systematically associated with length of stay.
The magnitude of this bias is proportional to how many individuals are sent back early. Industry records suggest that, relative to the size of the total labor force, the number is small. On the basis of these considerations we conclude that there is the possibility of having oversampled more proficient workers, but that the tendency-is minimal and unlikely to significantly affect the results.
The problems associated with the fact that interviews were carried out at the end of the harvest are offset by a number of advantages. Much of the questionnaire, for example, is devoted to issues that concern earnings, remittances (amount and frequency) and to plans the individual may have to invest his earnings in his home country. Each of these variables (and others that could be mentioned) are best captured once the worker has completed the season and is about to return home. Information as to remittances, for example, is retrospective in nature, and can be obtained only after the respondent has been in the United States for several months. Moreover, goods to be taken back to the islands are typically bought, not at the beginning, but rather at the end of the harvest. Thus, questionnaire items that deal with purchases have greater reliability when the survey is carried out at this point in the work cycle. Similarly, individuals, on the eve of their departure from the United States, are especially cognizant of their future investment plans back home, thus enhancing the quality of the information on these topics.
68




I, P-Al. R.It th




Haitians did last through the entire season. This was not enough, however, to fill industry needs, and so permission was granted to import the BWI labor force.
6 Resentment of Jamaican domination was made explicit in ntnerous
interviews conducted with workers and government officials in Barbados, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia in July, 1981 and 1982. Specific criticisms were directed at Jamaican control of policy-making within the BWICLO, the absence of liaison officers from the three smallest islands in the Florida sugar camps, and extra transportation costs charged to workers from these islands.
7 According to the Permanent Secretary for Labour (Interview, July 21, 1982), Barbados is less committed to maximizing the percentage of pool workers. This position stems from the relatively high rate of job
abandonment among Barbadian pool workers, a development that led the employers to cut (as they are free to do) the Barbadian quota for this category of worker following the 1980-81 season. It was restored the following season following a decline in the AWOL rate among Barbadian pool workers. High rate of job desertion can be costly to the island governments since they must post bond on all pool workers. Request workers are bonded by their employers. Bond is forfeited if the worker fails to return home.
8 Among the applicants one U.S. recruiter automatically rejected were: tradesmen (because of the high cost of workmen's compensation incurred in the event of injury cutting cane), masons (too "muscle-bound"'), and fishermen (chronic backaches) (Interview with FFVA Recruiters, March 20, 1981). Critics charge that the recruiters select the "most docile, dependent, and dependable" candidates (Petrcw, 1980:18).
9 Among the procedures applied in the interview is what the workers refer to as the "hand test." The recruiter examines the applicants' hands, presumably to determine by the presence of calluses whether he is accustomed to hard physical labor.
10 The Meranda Corporation of Miami acted as the growers agent in these matters for many years. Beginning in 1982-83 this task will be assumed by the FFVA. (Dailv Gleaner, April 20, 1982).
11 The Barbadian Ministry of Labour Employment Exchange maintains a registry of individuals seeking work. If the job-seeker wishes to be
considered for either the H-2 program in the U.S., or a similar program in Canada, he so indicates on the Exchange formr. These forms are supposed to be renewed every month in order for the applicants' request to remain active. Once industry employers determine the Barbadian quota and notify the Ministry of hcow many they wish to interview, the latter




requested worker quota from Barbados was 303.
12 Data from the Ministry, of Labour in St. Lucia indicated that
stateside employment in the sugar industry generated $450,000 in foreign
exchange for this country during 1979-80.
13 According to the St. Lucian Labour Commissioner, the criteria
used to select workers fpr the pool are: 1) age (23-40 years old), 2) experience cutting cane, 3) lack of current employment, '4) dependents, and 5) physical fitness. Slots in the pool are allocated to districts
(which apparently coincide with parliamentary constituencies) by
population, rate of unemployment, and performance (Interview, July 29, 1981). A Member of Parliament from St. Vincent, where MPs monopolize nominations for the pool, claimed that he chooses men on the basis of
-~ "first come, first served," human considerations, and in marginal cases
on basis of political support (Interview, July 29, 1981). In 1982, this
procedure generated a pool of 600 applicants instead of the 300
requested by industry recruiters for St. Vincent; nevertheless, they
agreed to select from the entire 600, narrowing it down to 374 workers
in just several hours.
14 In the, case of Barbadian workers, the additional amount of $192
in 1980-81 was advanced to them by the BWICLO (going) and their
government (returning). A similar arrangement existed for the St.
Lucians. However, the Dominicans and Vincentians must pay even more
($148 plus $192 for the latter) since they must be transported to either
St. Lucia or Barbados for the flight to Florida.
15 One of the major criticisms made of the task formula, both by
the workers and labour officials on the islands, is that it is difficult
to comprehend. This breeds suspicions among the workers who sometimes
claim they are being cheated.
16 Management is entitled to verify a worker's productivity. If he
fails to achieve the required ninmun for three days, he can be sent
home for breach of contract. Breaching the contract, whether in this
manner, or by some other offense results in blacklisting the individual.
Recruiters come to the islands with a "blackbook" listing all
blacklisted workers. If an individual is listed in the book, he is
automatically excluded, according to BWI labor officials familiar with
recruiting practices. For their part, workers may try to circumvent
-~ these checks by false identities.
17 For some reason the two percent BWICLO deduction is sent to the
~islands converted to local currency then reconverted to U.S. dollars and
returned to the liaison office in Washington. The islands claim to lose
money on this double conversion.
4 2 t -..at~~.4 T..A n *.~nr~n .-n








$6-10 million of a $20 million payroll for a multiplier impact on local
sales of $12-20 million. They, thus conclude that "...local spending by
offshore workers generates between 3.2 and 5.4 million dollars in income
for local residents."

19 In addition to the predominant practice of awarding an across
the board bonus of six percent of gross seasonal wages, other methods
included: (1) a sliding scale that awards a higher percentage bonus to
the more productive (and higher paid) workers (Atlantic Company); (20 a
flat bonus of $10 per week for each week with no absences (Cane
Contractors); and (3) a fixed dollar bonus for each worker (Sugar Cane
Harvesting). (Information provided by FFVA official, June 22, 1982).


20 Although they do not have precise figures for local spending of
the offshore workers, Mulkey and Gordon's (1979:25) estimate of $6-10
million (if we subtract expenditures for personal consumption) tends to
confirm our figure of $4.5 million spent in goods remitted to the
islands.

21 As noted in the text, the measure of capital accumulation used
here should be regarded only as approximate indicators. From the
standpoint of a human capital perspective the conclusions presented
should be qualified. From the analysis of the remittances, spending
patterns and investment strategies it is apparent income earned in the
United States is devoted to educating workers' children. By upgrading
the skills of the second generation, it can be argued that this
"investment" contributes, in the long run, to raising the
income-generating capacity of the household. A test of this hypothesis
turns on whether the offspring of H-2 workers actually achieve greater
educational attainment than the sons and daughters of the rural
population at large. Our date set does not contain sufficient
information for such an analysis.




Y- .,.




-art
ZK




U.S.A.I.D.
1978 The Small Farmer in Jamaican Agriculture: An Assessment of Constraints and Opportunities. Report of the Agricultural Sector Assessment Team of the Office of International Cooperation and Development to USAID, Jamaica. Kingston: USAID.
U.S. Congress/Senate
1978 The West Indies (BWI) Temporary Alien Labor Program:
1943-1977. A study prepared for the Subcommittee on Immigration of the Committee on the Judiciary U.S. Senate, 95th Congress, 2nd Session.
U.S. Department of Labor Employment Service. Division of Labor Certifications
1982 Labor Certification Granted for Temporary Foreign Workers (H-2s) in Agriculture and Logging Operations. Photo Copy (January 29).
Yancy, Dalton
n.d. Statement by Dalton Yancy, Vice President and General Manager, Florida Sugar Cane League.
Zepp, G.A.
1979 The Florida Sugar Industry: Its Past, Present Prospects. Unpublished paper.
Zepp, G.A. and Joe E. Clayton
1975 A Comparison of Costs and Returns for Hand Cutting and
Mechanically Harvesting Sugar Cane in Florida, 1972-73 Season. Economic Report to Food and Resource Economics Department, University of Florida, Gainesville (June).
75




Full Text
xml version 1.0 encoding UTF-8 standalone no
fcla fda yes
!-- Caribbean workers in the Florida sugar cane industry ( Book ) --
METS:mets OBJID UF00086804_00001
xmlns:METS http:www.loc.govMETS
xmlns:xlink http:www.w3.org1999xlink
xmlns:xsi http:www.w3.org2001XMLSchema-instance
xmlns:daitss http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitss
xmlns:mods http:www.loc.govmodsv3
xmlns:sobekcm http:digital.uflib.ufl.edumetadatasobekcm
xmlns:lom http:digital.uflib.ufl.edumetadatasobekcm_lom
xsi:schemaLocation
http:www.loc.govstandardsmetsmets.xsd
http:www.fcla.edudlsmddaitssdaitss.xsd
http:www.loc.govmodsv3mods-3-4.xsd
http:digital.uflib.ufl.edumetadatasobekcmsobekcm.xsd
METS:metsHdr CREATEDATE 2018-06-06T13:56:22Z ID LASTMODDATE 2008-10-21T12:20:42Z RECORDSTATUS COMPLETE
METS:agent ROLE CREATOR TYPE ORGANIZATION
METS:name UF,University of Florida
OTHERTYPE SOFTWARE OTHER
Go UFDC FDA Preparation Tool
INDIVIDUAL
UFAD\renner
METS:dmdSec DMD1
METS:mdWrap MDTYPE MODS MIMETYPE textxml LABEL Metadata
METS:xmlData
mods:mods
mods:identifier type OCLC 10669093
mods:language
mods:languageTerm text English
code authority iso639-2b eng
mods:location
mods:physicalLocation UF
mods:name personal
mods:namePart McCoy, Terry L.
date 1940-
mods:role
mods:roleTerm marcrelator Creator
Wood, Charles H.
Creator
Caribbean Migration Program.
Creator
mods:note On Cover: Caribbean Migration Program.
Bibliography: p. 73-75.
funding Occasional papers (University of Florida. Center for Latin American Studies ) ;
mods:originInfo
mods:publisher Center for Latin American Studies, University of Florida
mods:place
mods:placeTerm Gainesville
mods:dateIssued 1982
mods:recordInfo
mods:recordIdentifier source sobekcm UF00086804_00001
mods:recordContentSource University of Florida
mods:relatedItem original
mods:physicalDescription
mods:extent 75 p. : map ; 28 cm.
series
mods:titleInfo
mods:title Occasional papers ; paper no. 2
mods:subject
mods:topic Sugar workers
mods:geographic Florida
Sugar trade
Florida
Sugar workers
Caribbean Area
Sugar trade
Caribbean Area
mods:hierarchicalGeographic
mods:country United States of America
mods:state Florida
Caribbean workers in the Florida sugar cane industry
mods:typeOfResource text
DMD2
OTHERMDTYPE SOBEKCM SobekCM Custom
sobekcm:procParam
sobekcm:bibDesc
sobekcm:BibID UF00086804
sobekcm:VID 00001
sobekcm:Publisher
sobekcm:Name Center for Latin American Studies, University of Florida
sobekcm:Source
sobekcm:statement UF University of Florida
METS:amdSec
METS:digiprovMD DIGIPROV1
DAITSS Archiving Information
daitss:daitss
daitss:AGREEMENT_INFO ACCOUNT PROJECT UFDC
METS:techMD TECH1
File Technical Details
sobekcm:FileInfo
METS:fileSec
METS:fileGrp USE archive
METS:file GROUPID G1 TIF1 imagetiff CHECKSUM 8e9f4e47a7efc2ef95d10f64b3ddcb03 CHECKSUMTYPE MD5 SIZE 23613732
METS:FLocat LOCTYPE OTHERLOCTYPE SYSTEM xlink:href 00001.tif
G2 TIF2 978805e365ba05798c0ea9d80d161657 1031592
00002.tif
G3 TIF3 00b0885da14594ae7418f7014242d246 1014820
00084.tif
G4 TIF4 ba997289076936e959af618cea0c15bb 1024552
00004.tif
G5 TIF5 9681420823ce26e80299215a2d64f941 1023856
00006.tif
G6 TIF6 7682eab26b16e27c1030f6d13859fdb1 1033584
00008.tif
G7 TIF7 0db28a0b64769b92e632b5d0d1a81564 1029076
00009.tif
G8 TIF8 c34dae60828e24075ffd2ab0fc3f8415 1033076
00010.tif
G9 TIF9 24402c5627696d4ad2768f556732d920 1040236
00011.tif
G10 TIF10 d04c9ee1812b080387b8aaafeea60136 1034696
00012.tif
G11 TIF11 7201cdf4efe31eb660871e5c1a0e64c1 1027600
00013.tif
G12 TIF12 3592de02f2ada3944242ec2a4c07ba26 1036736
00014.tif
G13 TIF13 ebb9b4471a81e565f8f3f595d3b3b0c5 1031496
00015.tif
G14 TIF14 f0403a740570242606a2d224281f9d44 1033244
00016.tif
G15 TIF15 3c18495639e68ed7149bd83261092b1b 1036188
00017.tif
G16 TIF16 3fed7e90a9c6a8a67373116f603f5a7c 1037204
00018.tif
G17 TIF17 4d5d68200e153bada21e1dfc3d292d8f 1029572
00019.tif
G18 TIF18 565e29c9c607348db0c583353c627b3a 1034016
00020.tif
G19 TIF19 d27670d085f291b65512f23013317141 1038212
00021.tif
G20 TIF20 d8217a04735c115bf90f279250b097f4 1035924
00022.tif
G21 TIF21 a917bc4c8def75ae3033307ecf319e1b 1029252
00023.tif
G22 TIF22 576c7b36b9f532adc78ab33a9e9c906e 1019000
00024.tif
G23 TIF23 d0edfa23c25960c2bb63fcfcce2c5000 1038328
00025.tif
G24 TIF24 2e62186125b579dcd050adc7d6c81929 1023752
00026.tif
G25 TIF25 0059655c3dca200fe75327810d9588ab 1016920
00027.tif
G26 TIF26 b8aa3c5190de8b89ba7c25d8b1e635f4 1039132
00028.tif
G27 TIF27 97bdf5155cbd21db9a174e2886be80f0 1017208
00029.tif
G28 TIF28 556776be27ff3c58154cb519950dd7e4 1034240
00030.tif
G29 TIF29 eb3333e6dffbf041398aeaded976a88d 1017456
00031.tif
G30 TIF30 5b8327b64ddac6a13e058b87f94dc9ad 1025988
00032.tif
G31 TIF31 ddbe291159c3cd07f0c402b62261a102 1025408
00033.tif
G32 TIF32 b51644c22ba8f4ca1fb99c42f2bd6dde 1028096
00034.tif
G33 TIF33 df0507dea24d4f011c5fcbc85e964212 1032452
00035.tif
G34 TIF34 78759642fd697610d25d2a2b57f82a7e 1013884
00036.tif
G35 TIF35 3c80e3591aa46b55a1384c04c71c8745 1034548
00037.tif
G36 TIF36 dca01d6fd2c201e169176d04a1c3adde 1034344
00038.tif
G37 TIF37 70b1b01403daf9cc303f6ba93958f6a4 1023916
00039.tif
G38 TIF38 d31123c875587e09a0b10674f6d220a4 1042108
00040.tif
G39 TIF39 6cb53de9430f584d5b9c98847fe96174 1026160
00041.tif
G40 TIF40 9f9b1d00399d353cd67a82d47e0cbc5c 1036540
00042.tif
G41 TIF41 bd44a5f2299dde7b68a3b1c7472ebee7 1014680
00043.tif
G42 TIF42 d78baf1d99dbc97bddb9f014262daec7 1030512
00044.tif
G43 TIF43 76845e0de0f4687196039fd6ccca7a3d 1020076
00045.tif
G44 TIF44 c75b39fa66a74d4ca29a3a276c148873 1037564
00046.tif
G45 TIF45 584d382dff68bf27f442e4d6cabe6611 1039148
00047.tif
G46 TIF46 df5dd2ef1d7867df5a1f5b81400fcaf2 1032032
00048.tif
G47 TIF47 e073a9f98f8a1d3638674e6cf477c111 1017564
00049.tif
G48 TIF48 9286da680d46d22cca2d3df374357d82 1037196
00050.tif
G49 TIF49 6d4120b7229325d077558d9b7bd24c2c 1012176
00051.tif
G50 TIF50 02e3e854336fbb5a6602f91251b34ed8 1033968
00052.tif
G51 TIF51 128bfe9c4a77c6ec7b4e492a7849b6fe 1021992
00053.tif
G52 TIF52 84cfcf69c50cc3cc9d3e2a356216150b 1026800
00054.tif
G53 TIF53 6b6aeedc1999dfdaf57f576f7e6fe68b 1026796
00055.tif
G54 TIF54 f95affb3b71a8be8207949c8688e0e85 1032604
00056.tif
G55 TIF55 1a64be2cce4e183b34680c445caf7157 1021596
00057.tif
G56 TIF56 8fb589bbaec19399369fd64d4d20a941 1035204
00058.tif
G57 TIF57 b60a3639de5ae917506fbaf1728f073c 1031244
00059.tif
G58 TIF58 17903769469c6fb3f58b6032be7e98e4 1025028
00060.tif
G59 TIF59 12674e2183906d805ba96ea0a4f2500e 1022108
00061.tif
G60 TIF60 8558c28e4afe3a1b0b50e1f267caf29e 1020436
00062.tif
G61 TIF61 dba5a67869f56bac588f02b95e941992 1029044
00063.tif
G62 TIF62 6eebe97bcecbddea7bb8a336cae04c5c 1036756
00064.tif
G63 TIF63 9318109ca682a1c9f8086cb610243f34 1014728
00065.tif
G64 TIF64 fcd3810075eadcf8d379405ed0cab3f8 1037692
00066.tif
G65 TIF65 6b4ae127834e82bdaa76ce3402bd1eb2 1021536
00067.tif
G66 TIF66 ce2adc12c45f84935389dd960721d9e7 1029904
00068.tif
G67 TIF67 ae415f30de8cf7c1145d726a77b92ad4 1029348
00069.tif
G68 TIF68 c6bf5e0505da73d840d19514b9333654
00070.tif
G69 TIF69 fb72dc5774cec1d4a7dd67f666852850 1036208
00071.tif
G70 TIF70 884cff2c7ace1ded1f55d50d70c57af9 1033392
00072.tif
G71 TIF71 daf1e03b2a5bbdde638648a88c63581d 1024556
00073.tif
G72 TIF72 4801575ddf06d5ea78c0e8458f519ead 1025004
00074.tif
G73 TIF73 de571dc2c4caaabc058826be67758ae5 1019320
00075.tif
G74 TIF74 f3965dca99b6a59226d3da1704a67c86 1023820
00076.tif
G75 TIF75 d57aece7a5ec984c7a3f28a8c3bee95f 1031636
00077.tif
G76 TIF76 ce903a5ab761745f37e3c8236ac7f060 1036748
00078.tif
G77 TIF77 0ed55e70385be3914c2136719e7a410e 1028520
00079.tif
G78 TIF78 78d7f0ffd5b3f2b12ca3035d0ff98e11 1013236
00080.tif
G79 TIF79 55e5083a39d612e0254336122b1f6a69 994524
00081.tif
G80 TIF80 92c68f831087398183f841868aa79b6d 1022936
00082.tif
reference
TXT1 textplain c512259650a78d524e454a6d6cc58258 197
00001.txt
TXT2 1f640b0ef672966870b58d096bb357d0 1720
00002.txt
TXT3 fdd53b40dc609aa138848393e9784358 356
00084.txt
TXT4 2f1ac9489449f6432bd91354ac1f759e 3096
00004.txt
TXT5 a97af8271ab46d607f59657acfd8eefc 2122
00006.txt
TXT6 324f1ad87aef9572b5068ebb48c64332 2678
00008.txt
TXT7 c129776884043659a819d94bf65b5b8e 2150
00009.txt
TXT8 98b6f4e2a94a1bf76fa425606b0e2c66 3299
00010.txt
TXT9 6b38b4a65a24297180be4fee0baa711b 3618
00011.txt
TXT10 c28b9d337db0e280c5fec9ff5fe546f0 2898
00012.txt
TXT11 a8ddf9eaa8b7e6caea8110a119f681d5 2481
00013.txt
TXT12 1a5e413c079777b371df853b65d189c5 3195
00014.txt
TXT13 a16bc652ca079a210df4b7bea3d01084 3090
00015.txt
TXT14 9be666daf07ced4a4d48c0196dcc5b74 3344
00016.txt
TXT15 7746cd8431e35e77f9c39238c6460081 672
00017.txt
TXT16 0fda9039b99be4786bf221794be888eb 3463
00018.txt
TXT17 d1d031d19a4509110342fea7ce71ea1d 3110
00019.txt
TXT18 087f76ab71acda0abcf4a41d1e1b89d5 3169
00020.txt
TXT19 47a4a4d91d3b28657063552ca370ee4d 3500
00021.txt
TXT20 7d63078af2c6d58b4368d21e5f6122d4 2870
00022.txt
TXT21 4de593602b6e9d2dfdf0fe4317dd5c34 3193
00023.txt
TXT22 5006e81a149b7954b5f0362ee846d8c2 1402
00024.txt
TXT23 d850dee3399f88f9937b904ecf502670 2979
00025.txt
TXT24 d15d0347cca022afdc6252f2cb988ec7 724
00026.txt
TXT25 3ff63fb13860a181d310342e891c4e02 616
00027.txt
TXT26 5ec98a1b7d0d55109b63ea25539e917d 3225
00028.txt
TXT27 700377e450cc7076e3b60ea6916c4d2c
00029.txt
TXT28 1f3cc8e7a72cfc46abbfbeaaf67880f6 3020
00030.txt
TXT29 d36ff9503dedece4b2873fd18f2228c8 558
00031.txt
TXT30 a98738fb6f388f76b3b1ea22942bab0b 960
00032.txt
TXT31 7c845afd976260f2e530ce225f541340 2703
00033.txt
TXT32 7aab2b88692d648ecc26812bbe384661 1544
00034.txt
TXT33 eaee76e94a70686c21daa8f608968308 3294
00035.txt
TXT34 e0d3d5b7cec6e9249e86de36ba2e0b34 611
00036.txt
TXT35 90561f336f1123e75ef7c837b9ab8b0b 2991
00037.txt
TXT36 ff87dd60e42992b7b6a004e209c8a499 2899
00038.txt
TXT37 8d6f430024e5f8dbf7380d2a831bf6b8 1205
00039.txt
TXT38 a5d1f1e0a9e6dff35fe581c8072ce576 3447
00040.txt
TXT39 ec28e27e4fe43d6a1e08685e6f720ffe 765
00041.txt
TXT40 4d98a3edacae3439dea66bd3bc2ea565 3190
00042.txt
TXT41 f844c8f2fc910cd17eff079d11cb02f6 821
00043.txt
TXT42 0c859818514584d847d484dde2d19087 3159
00044.txt
TXT43 d8f9e04e2162d3d567adf41fe1a3efad 1274
00045.txt
TXT44 b28bf3091e88feb7964e07d21b0fca50 3208
00046.txt
TXT45 75764022e1c13b83f26b02e77c9ae8ca 3207
00047.txt
TXT46 022af02ab0b0507a17eb00e5a1042d20 3365
00048.txt
TXT47 0e0b0578a36aed802175fc7a7989f0df 2226
00049.txt
TXT48 90a2c5c01b4d8076873867642627e82e 3125
00050.txt
TXT49 36199d4209ae50cb8e83b4bccbfc1b3c 510
00051.txt
TXT50 af3979ae1f94e9c462b79cf9f8af2114
00052.txt
TXT51 6384290e301f554431292e84900faa70 2906
00053.txt
TXT52 62cac8696e8592f794f75f5521483ca1 2157
00054.txt
TXT53 c1cb4227896af259130300446f5c2f09 2970
00055.txt
TXT54 c94a4ddfa37a1b625a5644357a9af96d 3139
00056.txt
TXT55 ab2cf9b17d517214b582f4539ff2f049 1290
00057.txt
TXT56 c3e476282e8ede5a4566d4f030ae6d1c 3067
00058.txt
TXT57 8c93d4a0542c026e0f1e6501d3ce2560 3354
00059.txt
TXT58 89120b045eedbdb77a622d3cfc232550 1060
00060.txt
TXT59 0773aef787db5e983acb901d4c676dd5 2469
00061.txt
TXT60 fdc28b44d162e3c718ea555f9d4146c5 698
00062.txt
TXT61 3bca1dcbac98070efc17833cbcd28177 2743
00063.txt
TXT62 0f03e75373999b8a40db6b8ec4c859ab 3223
00064.txt
TXT63 73d3312c050197d4c21623eb4aef0280 1668
00065.txt
TXT64 c9bac9d49860d34b5458f763e7eee3f6 3221
00066.txt
TXT65 c4521cb7f4f341e3e48802cb910d2618 1106
00067.txt
TXT66 3992c239d2db75844b0714c6934c6048 2164
00068.txt
TXT67 130b6fe547e85a768eef1b4e9c97c278 2853
00069.txt
TXT68 a2f6d52a2049b5a002da9834692fb2ab 3192
00070.txt
TXT69 18a854aa55f805433bc165b1917dc584
00071.txt
TXT70 1e2651d4222cb2ddea02f3bb742a4ef6 3238
00072.txt
TXT71 7bfe7b1cd0bbd8d2a43eb47aa254c7d5 2027
00073.txt
TXT72 6a2b915fdd1c44894350a7eb422db7ea 3163
00074.txt
TXT73 d965a09b88c74821ab76371d3cc9155f 3008
00075.txt
TXT74 ce73bac3eb374cc7d3992c116d7dad84 2900
00076.txt
TXT75 9bdd86e89b46f75d01480bec737dd0b4 3168
00077.txt
TXT76 963bb55acecc2e5d390cb0da5c9ac863 3121
00078.txt
TXT77 d6227931831b336ccefe0dcd42983dd4 1903
00079.txt
TXT78 c8bab45240ed7d4840a82fcb2b480c6b 1570
00080.txt
TXT79 65ac43b7c8531896e7ff369a36ef6316 2034
00081.txt
TXT80 ab44a9e9c75bcd682681382219f70cda 1228
00082.txt
PRO1 textx-pro 20163da89268498a39ca995070effee6 2095
00001.pro
PRO2 7755fa0c6becbf57466c86d610b0b373 38836
00002.pro
PRO3 1da896b0a876eaf5735b3322db07ed7a 5720
00084.pro
PRO4 a011aefad5da23d25fc86293d9b537d0 52109
00004.pro
PRO5 6edf3e4abcdcd29aa185337c19a5a006 40988
00006.pro
PRO6 b20399c9c59afcd6cc32fbd34e644981 66713
00008.pro
PRO7 b8d79e66d75b83f0afe25143c7dee0da 42229
00009.pro
PRO8 eb6e7defeaa1b937944dc6c8ba43a277 85061
00010.pro
PRO9 843effc100baad1cd7f3b6e760d82e2e 92839
00011.pro
PRO10 11ad51a5764be3057303c7bac30c680f 73705
00012.pro
PRO11 077e555cadfd11a86772bb12d0e20929 62645
00013.pro
PRO12 f530b5205d699d611dd8106018e4e51f 82014
00014.pro
PRO13 a3c5bcfd63590604c9423c2d1d492a4c 78223
00015.pro
PRO14 da8fad971f1b8a37e5ddcfd2118ff6c9 86506
00016.pro
PRO15 ccc83e9cafaa8f0b45c37e00277adfb8 14862
00017.pro
PRO16 4579d4760cf0b193d754af7523353aec 89476
00018.pro
PRO17 9e1066965711478baf200cf3558ae1e1 80040
00019.pro
PRO18 dd79ee621d1374cad71659b1b14d5b85 73268
00020.pro
PRO19 1745cde095c86a34cff034f9eb59ea3f 91142
00021.pro
PRO20 df59772a2040259d0b614c2f1b9c04f9 72017
00022.pro
PRO21 e3bd50f728ee2824d489c8ca134b5557 81583
00023.pro
PRO22 7ca5004333f33f54fae70f8ea61ad3b6 18604
00024.pro
PRO23 fa9c8e0d101156eff70d31ac92d80d53 77159
00025.pro
PRO24 5acd2d4425bdf41be933945114d1c976 12274
00026.pro
PRO25 d2fe49e29ea99f86557dcc2a105246fd 10318
00027.pro
PRO26 4ded79dc622ef8d812eed9bfe4e4fd73 83250
00028.pro
PRO27 904f1024ab8afc5e04b99d17107e337b 6225
00029.pro
PRO28 804fcd5f4e5d88f5fdfe0fe0b6150aae 76992
00030.pro
PRO29 e53e42a3355314be45ff179eaa781ac5 8171
00031.pro
PRO30 dca3a50277239a41551c93b45ff2a232 17123
00032.pro
PRO31 4412efaedb82af221ea967829a367576 69108
00033.pro
PRO32 31375ccec1c6c959b41a7d08ab36a141 27286
00034.pro
PRO33 7de349a6f3e8a0132c7c7845fdf05ca0 85180
00035.pro
PRO34 b9bb7e74e157fd958fcf5900b8f89c69 9261
00036.pro
PRO35 b7b042dd6b6adbef935b8f8559f6766c 77108
00037.pro
PRO36 8b103e6d2da694d44a2c9336e2fcb3c1 74398
00038.pro
PRO37 93ce91ffd579be581c84bbbb9da2558e 18746
00039.pro
PRO38 1379631bd359c2bb8d39556fb6dfcb16 89645
00040.pro
PRO39 859c09467c4a216fd0778dcb038728c9 13380
00041.pro
PRO40 803441712eb2bc3ce50bde4595c21a78 82646
00042.pro
PRO41 5e486738890395f45e70fc31e209a4ab 11733
00043.pro
PRO42 9f56ad22be5edf3ac941a08fb60c7103 81117
00044.pro
PRO43 1f5e2287dd89737e11107e4114638dfb 20173
00045.pro
PRO44 d603efc9260cd41e8bbcc1b2ff6f7f26 83164
00046.pro
PRO45 a4dcb1211bead1dff3df7183b643f00b 82976
00047.pro
PRO46 9d28c06a021870a602ad6bd4ccee7a44 87071
00048.pro
PRO47 7b2d8dedf0cb16f7b9a8fddb5cdefe47 35655
00049.pro
PRO48 0ffd9f6cd3048223d1808af6067e03b8 79578
00050.pro
PRO49 25c4c352022b5c0436d5a7e806fbff0a 9303
00051.pro
PRO50 cedee7aebf8ec21368294ec9b8c0a512 68871
00052.pro
PRO51 45c5c7332e401453b93afac3807cfee2 74872
00053.pro
PRO52 14939a35b5c757e99cc4893230cce999 34610
00054.pro
PRO53 25602895daed6465c5e1e3cac62fd5bd 76498
00055.pro
PRO54 8d07652e76c68539e56a9defb3ec15b9 81140
00056.pro
PRO55 b95d1123ca2d14f9c6b54fa61f14c252 20763
00057.pro
PRO56 f611985d128265e7d1cbf34bbe6b622d 79106
00058.pro
PRO57 f0c1dde26d349b57b3e7afb67a6183c4 86444
00059.pro
PRO58 15cfcf6fb2f578e4cb1f858b04606fdd 19099
00060.pro
PRO59 93e14b2ce771691b86f1fc170c05faff 60831
00061.pro
PRO60 c1d21eca5dee0d4104853873a24d8e3e 11304
00062.pro
PRO61 3c30fcaa9c0afcc63f22c182e1045e44 70314
00063.pro
PRO62 5d07d333e8a44b08014b72afb78dbd7e 82360
00064.pro
PRO63 ab547259294da282e48f298b35f34fd5 26648
00065.pro
PRO64 c9dd38d7c06895959962cd63cd54b0dd 83044
00066.pro
PRO65 bd2f27588ade199adeca584e0b7b99c5 17960
00067.pro
PRO66 76ba3ba65e2fd7b0b7e0e76eaa1ee6d2 55205
00068.pro
PRO67 78f31106369567d472900a86a3fd677d 71863
00069.pro
PRO68 a13450150715e59f48f91c7a1fab0481 82154
00070.pro
PRO69 0bc5b9a5048f164649c9a856387c52de 80212
00071.pro
PRO70 0e7870d98f65de41d3e3392dd7600170 83227
00072.pro
PRO71 cfd3997ae504f1b49a7771270a780a5b 41498
00073.pro
PRO72 7418c9f4f74e044db5ebbe7053e75102 81053
00074.pro
PRO73 fd9137005beeac2cdde38bec0acb2c66 76943
00075.pro
PRO74 6981886cb3eb88feb35c30fea87ef147 74769
00076.pro
PRO75 28e8ef566f35f76facb83b90586ceeab 81825
00077.pro
PRO76 f45e97c6ecaa3cec92371ed9b62e18f1 80237
00078.pro
PRO77 f31aeec9f19e8bf4fa3bb6a41d3856fb 48426
00079.pro
PRO78 8a239109550f275139f6eb340e0ecf05 38240
00080.pro
PRO79 51ba427b770f4a14d66536bc8362ee9d 50291
00081.pro
PRO80 d17329182b9c99f50fd79bcf4bc9f3b9 30319
00082.pro
JPEG1 imagejpeg d3e2abb3138562dde812b8290436df30 100998
00001.jpg
JPEG1.2 5d9b573ccf45fd23321c1e030a0ea3c6 27672
00001.QC.jpg
JPEG2 25ecc82848eda22f51344422421e6331 68474
00002.jpg
JPEG2.2 0a5a0669181f3f59a90b567a1f706356 19416
00002.QC.jpg
JPEG3 bff9f2c3bfac8469c753650720dd5369 18044
00084.jpg
JPEG3.2 51022072e116e72f97a812dfaf0b829a 5611
00084.QC.jpg
JPEG4 b497867abf3b049d4d46c3a1c94ecdc5 58370
00004.jpg
JPEG4.2 724da2a93d510b72580efce0dab859d7 17841
00004.QC.jpg
JPEG5 8edb33a093e8aa6c08a3dd1b760ed4ed 55978
00006.jpg
JPEG5.2 53e76372bdbee25ccb787f73304a7ce1 16824
00006.QC.jpg
JPEG6 8f308581c345c64856e31fe4eefd8c2a 114266
00008.jpg
JPEG6.2 4e537eeb82d9f02d61a4aa221864266e 30958
00008.QC.jpg
JPEG7 073aef70deb148a1b6be33787c4efc36 52015
00009.jpg
JPEG7.2 778efa08610c4f94fa3fd4ec3e7e0765 15577
00009.QC.jpg
JPEG8 0eb40f61d90956d865fbad3271f52acf 141588
00010.jpg
JPEG8.2 94c058c39ef44a653e30e6e227c2c914 37678
00010.QC.jpg
JPEG9 7cf0602e09efde167f77af05fa74eaf6 151111
00011.jpg
JPEG9.2 14b26bfb94638d9fc99a005fcc08a482 40408
00011.QC.jpg
JPEG10 12092cbbcf4fc10a479dd7be1920fc91 122976
00012.jpg
JPEG10.2 8bd6d5b6d50e6d94f1dfe15f1a11bbc0 33526
00012.QC.jpg
JPEG11 a398d105fc6f6e6f1d43fab6e8205a19 105489
00013.jpg
JPEG11.2 83339ea8cefc77634cdff35a20b0f059 28513
00013.QC.jpg
JPEG12 5fc6985bed956bb94c2fbe1f81ee3632 135733
00014.jpg
JPEG12.2 e62a7acb38248f91f0f0cf55debcbbc1 36411
00014.QC.jpg
JPEG13 85b3b50393d8d5fcea8f9c3afad00bfa 130941
00015.jpg
JPEG13.2 7969207043441aa9f532712aed2642bd 34684
00015.QC.jpg
JPEG14 0ffaf7a95051cd45b8fdfdd4a8de2b48 145122
00016.jpg
JPEG14.2 9d5d8c075c61669a05806f5675642f5f 38202
00016.QC.jpg
JPEG15 9f944da573093cba4aacc1a5364d7859 51602
00017.jpg
JPEG15.2 efc263f0b05250b79eee6c2a0dcdf243 17126
00017.QC.jpg
JPEG16 31ed7e5402807b4cf33145bf11067329 146754
00018.jpg
JPEG16.2 182caeb112ad4850e762a246421f298d 39111
00018.QC.jpg
JPEG17 332e169c6824232194e615d4bf5381b5 133067
00019.jpg
JPEG17.2 a1aef048f457eea4b7048fa02a9112dc 36126
00019.QC.jpg
JPEG18 37a26a53de67286820fe0629b0305fdc 121811
00020.jpg
JPEG18.2 ae67276c94e58093193d6ab7e95a945d 32768
00020.QC.jpg
JPEG19 1627b26f49ceb88dd93e54275d230535 146707
00021.jpg
JPEG19.2 08fad5e967298caa77a6abffcededd87 38142
00021.QC.jpg
JPEG20 6f14441051dfdbbf16d94e6919314dee 119666
00022.jpg
JPEG20.2 dc79e45afed990c3ebf6eade14181687 32470
00022.QC.jpg
JPEG21 40c422976c20e9039838fee7ba693cfb 135707
00023.jpg
JPEG21.2 7e5c08461d4fac7019ab5379f191f297 36073
00023.QC.jpg
JPEG22 3de708d761489515fb1ee2277466a96a 37334
00024.jpg
JPEG22.2 f55e040fdba3e38d4170b354f9146010 12895
00024.QC.jpg
JPEG23 2acd35e12bccea1204a4d77ac8492b27 126567
00025.jpg
JPEG23.2 dd3f91c774a38ee5dfdefe64806eee4e 34046
00025.QC.jpg
JPEG24 6c35fe3dc0a0d1920b4487e8df7fb624 26862
00026.jpg
JPEG24.2 de7e297408e27059e81dceb61df8a360 9439
00026.QC.jpg
JPEG25 ea1382cce804518f0a2ee26a649b358c 25992
00027.jpg
JPEG25.2 3e37da47b00f8c05482d1f6e32c6a55c 8748
00027.QC.jpg
JPEG26 75d07a4e1ba4a6c7ebbe3e7b66651581 136972
00028.jpg
JPEG26.2 6145ab951dc7dda3f98caaee8a9c9973 36611
00028.QC.jpg
JPEG27 aed80bcbf875de31f0ce8f03b1b354d2 19630
00029.jpg
JPEG27.2 85e1282f38a2304a07fa0cb16e145da7 6429
00029.QC.jpg
JPEG28 ee98b951d86cb350c8374e6b1103c6e7 126095
00030.jpg
JPEG28.2 e5b1c4730a2b03e80468a3c474182ac7 33702
00030.QC.jpg
JPEG29 bad431ea1f6048a1fd389965a2ea59ef 23090
00031.jpg
JPEG29.2 f98a81dfb84eea51746751110dfb7831 7880
00031.QC.jpg
JPEG30 d97dcc1c6312236e700a09b15b6d513a 32766
00032.jpg
JPEG30.2 169208e0e8c1cdaa71b1a02e12b981b3 11452
00032.QC.jpg
JPEG31 9bb54dd3eb7fc68ea230eb2f92d85084 116228
00033.jpg
JPEG31.2 de4d432ee511155836ebdb3e7fc3a947 31646
00033.QC.jpg
JPEG32 c32e870f1dd319e7e356e23d7e802f86 39310
00034.jpg
JPEG32.2 a9dac7b5c84587fe0b249655cb45b876 13829
00034.QC.jpg
JPEG33 ca6df3bc869a01c1cda0d76e43d82528 137760
00035.jpg
JPEG33.2 2e6c85a98285d2358072253161ee7760 37217
00035.QC.jpg
JPEG34 00a3a9401f772dd77a0aedf3317c4ed1 23457
00036.jpg
JPEG34.2 22dcb846fe82593a1b6c43e710897158
00036.QC.jpg
JPEG35 46e13b003df395dbaedea03e76fcb157 124915
00037.jpg
JPEG35.2 7bb95a339312c98ecc6f16398a94836b 32777
00037.QC.jpg
JPEG36 de027f4083d6685bb598aaa2dec9b2f7 124264
00038.jpg
JPEG36.2 2eadcc0037c326e12d78cf34373bbda0 33320
00038.QC.jpg
JPEG37 f699900c23b5b19dc7558a31848000ec 31802
00039.jpg
JPEG37.2 c59a5992bc3f6d9303dbceffff7abea6 11277
00039.QC.jpg
JPEG38 ae4c36e3212e930b5b6d65b97ffdaad9 144934
00040.jpg
JPEG38.2 eaaa9d283e2fd20982c67781ba1ad33a 38785
00040.QC.jpg
JPEG39 181896cfad493254116a2efed423289c 32338
00041.jpg
JPEG39.2 7636f99b42d2555dfcf6ba3e5e25ccba 11043
00041.QC.jpg
JPEG40 22573fa94617ce7c0cdf5ffda6c1678f 133837
00042.jpg
JPEG40.2 4e6182dea3e75dd40defd5c60bb2b94d 35313
00042.QC.jpg
JPEG41 0baf2b229d0db50a29130dce50bcfe0b 23086
00043.jpg
JPEG41.2 479cac0e4163143dbf7383379604e8f0 8076
00043.QC.jpg
JPEG42 e3d196d56636acbc78af4333f8e974a5 133230
00044.jpg
JPEG42.2 63b30ee6fdb0b972157c38746fccf9c6 35638
00044.QC.jpg
JPEG43 62db0d229086d66b16743c441f2a2daf 28442
00045.jpg
JPEG43.2 8f6f6400de785b38df72f22a657c1af4 9578
00045.QC.jpg
JPEG44 9baf3a8c62f0360d5d00e0a10f50a4c4 137237
00046.jpg
JPEG44.2 cd1616a843b2bf5b1c03a7c9083a02ab 36473
00046.QC.jpg
JPEG45 56cccf1eda68b1e11f1fcd71ca9ec2bd 131149
00047.jpg
JPEG45.2 10e9a87df73e6ac37e690beb363aee9a 34833
00047.QC.jpg
JPEG46 8ae82c0afb2d1ee00f642c095b2fbbb3 142009
00048.jpg
JPEG46.2 eba2faa5402bc58cff89e343ae3f6b2a 38541
00048.QC.jpg
JPEG47 6264f657b47f26aead01b9acc2c3ae6e 49358
00049.jpg
JPEG47.2 acd39a637401fb96ea73ac18d9158287 17232
00049.QC.jpg
JPEG48 3b368e831af27ece8f65ae9191ef5018 129240
00050.jpg
JPEG48.2 7cee07ad0217824fc1e66c8968d15f98 34446
00050.QC.jpg
JPEG49 cd2b007847265cf887ca682beb611492 22195
00051.jpg
JPEG49.2 9b11fbcfe6294d61eb0d647678a8a5d7 7161
00051.QC.jpg
JPEG50 55eb1a107e0dab216b97a96ee66a8758 112787
00052.jpg
JPEG50.2 2dc926dd6c3a2a1ea783742cd37b43e3 31501
00052.QC.jpg
JPEG51 05e2d51145e0783dd63eee4cb4e363f6 121080
00053.jpg
JPEG51.2 0735cd2718aabc9eb94333b14013ce6f 31846
00053.QC.jpg
JPEG52 ee82e362156be3ade31744db738dce01 48055
00054.jpg
JPEG52.2 330546e26610c456385b37b22c49550b 17046
00054.QC.jpg
JPEG53 3cc5a0311d359c3c6506109561fb7d39 124993
00055.jpg
JPEG53.2 01e857839ab0e1be50cb188ee51fc005 33273
00055.QC.jpg
JPEG54 94f830f1aa92ec28e507dd9a2163ff67 133416
00056.jpg
JPEG54.2 69c75340da42968c67a2fd843c722ed4 36067
00056.QC.jpg
JPEG55 48bdac679b5e9686532fe3ec05b3d280 32829
00057.jpg
JPEG55.2 1689c71c20abdcd07bce1ccc1993cbcc 10825
00057.QC.jpg
JPEG56 8e84de17e8d973c5551ccce31d99d39c 129160
00058.jpg
JPEG56.2 4da89e9238c538fc955718250c429ff6 35943
00058.QC.jpg
JPEG57 a881537855d61a91e61af93eaab74394 138323
00059.jpg
JPEG57.2 e65bc1be8daa038b58ff3835fcb076d2 36357
00059.QC.jpg
JPEG58 fa6844bec76d0cc36ddc887ad96b7a3b 36486
00060.jpg
JPEG58.2 d875bc28f58ad676b78893008a08129d 11402
00060.QC.jpg
JPEG59 6b2a2a9f168eac4c4365f7e755c0b436 101320
00061.jpg
JPEG59.2 46e18455cad7567cf021472db76cb7e5 27502
00061.QC.jpg
JPEG60 bb66fe76dbf22b2cb5add84fcd1d7314 23912
00062.jpg
JPEG60.2 eb659e0e0cacad12d07bc0521e9ef7b9 8210
00062.QC.jpg
JPEG61 dcdeff23c582de645ac7657e5474a29a 114743
00063.jpg
JPEG61.2 ef136dba880a0c40d508270c1ea2fb4e 30374
00063.QC.jpg
JPEG62 4212bce97ad7b1e7c5c941986acf01ae 134853
00064.jpg
JPEG62.2 45d7492f62c7f1fe8d857f7c8cab38f1 36013
00064.QC.jpg
JPEG63 c29a67c99b618966ef05ed4e45ef7e36 49829
00065.jpg
JPEG63.2 ed0b3feb7bccf44ecd3a9334fc16cf0f 16808
00065.QC.jpg
JPEG64 edc779dc41ba8b2697b75430828ff334 134974
00066.jpg
JPEG64.2 302be5a7f16ac6144aa71ef0ea7aa301 34824
00066.QC.jpg
JPEG65 a5f46ea4e1db3910d032341c3762fc5b 30610
00067.jpg
JPEG65.2 c82bfe6b79c6231681b26de056406c02 10784
00067.QC.jpg
JPEG66 58205b480d65404fd9676c13b493ac4b 93517
00068.jpg
JPEG66.2 ffeedda4606ee94cfcb4f6b1f2138914 24986
00068.QC.jpg
JPEG67 c97f12e5adf806f84d16c56c8adcb126 118346
00069.jpg
JPEG67.2 1fd12edff2021c03d2fe45eaae2febad 32178
00069.QC.jpg
JPEG68 1915c771deaa78dac8b3460a8abc7f47 132990
00070.jpg
JPEG68.2 d2f6b3a8a43a9e9ad8e8f6d6d8a5a88c 35616
00070.QC.jpg
JPEG69 02aa6180e9f12f9309024474d4ae580c 130891
00071.jpg
JPEG69.2 75d0f3d4c3663e04809fa42681b0e9d1 35550
00071.QC.jpg
JPEG70 783e39f6ca07dd792b0ca978c0061fa9 135776
00072.jpg
JPEG70.2 6698500c2835aa14ac415a2768b580ed 35352
00072.QC.jpg
JPEG71 3eb63e71b4dd6c300cde5904f086c65d 67770
00073.jpg
JPEG71.2 ce1f107e95307f8785a79c451fa60ec3 23635
00073.QC.jpg
JPEG72 3c4e3ff7d70dcfd5e2b791deb668cb54 133705
00074.jpg
JPEG72.2 b2bf839c921f259e730dfa11e74332a7 35216
00074.QC.jpg
JPEG73 a1cb82618c5fdcead88ac0e0d9ba68a5 127244
00075.jpg
JPEG73.2 efd667f379f37df639c1930a513f7f2f 33420
00075.QC.jpg
JPEG74 702c53181081edb5c9aa4511f5e672e9 124790
00076.jpg
JPEG74.2 aee9dbf9ddbd91c512b7e9d12aa5c50a 33266
00076.QC.jpg
JPEG75 0d510b08af65fe1658d58ed7da3cf98d 134103
00077.jpg
JPEG75.2 6985a6d1f87511481afc613db9fb8619 35968
00077.QC.jpg
JPEG76 f818350c60ad490d942169f84ece6150 133113
00078.jpg
JPEG76.2 ca4815081d7571bc474d28a956079013 35576
00078.QC.jpg
JPEG77 6e6ace1ae0ebbb5e491e32154bf05c42 83938
00079.jpg
JPEG77.2 a45d254be07bd1a7eb626f1e697ba92a 23316
00079.QC.jpg
JPEG78 971ebe76ed2070d8004d1b86328ac82c 71831
00080.jpg
JPEG78.2 d7dd4ab0c64e4afbcfde2e07b50add0b 22410
00080.QC.jpg
JPEG79 b2c48ceab1cb215ea37c03a0437c500e 93159
00081.jpg
JPEG79.2 bd35dd24e7c22080392b5a0495161f63 28189
00081.QC.jpg
JPEG80 c0ec988d9c85bb841d6c5b2c62650435 55666
00082.jpg
JPEG80.2 474babc5b231c58276c9cbfe410ba244 16301
00082.QC.jpg
JP21 imagejp2 f2ebdaa0f068d09b8f107e636fcc8c22 983142
00001.jp2
JP22 d9beb6ca9c5fe196aea5680362b035ae 102052
00002.jp2
JP23 19ebc0967d464c5ab785bdb3baf20f59 20605
00084.jp2
JP24 775f5b2d6a939c7bbcdc6b42e07a0a3c 85932
00004.jp2
JP25 2fd5954c58692b1a63329bd92497d445 80689
00006.jp2
JP26 ee1101169cd54dd2c7b613e6e8e35974 167651
00008.jp2
JP27 80f3f6aaa7bee495eae70e061e23e642 109402
00009.jp2
JP28 05f1fc42f5ddfd5a345a3c937ac934a7 208883
00010.jp2
JP29 c8c14090dff9b8af7216ce71a855aaa0 224620
00011.jp2
JP210 2d2f1b30c21b23ccc00daa17eca28c6e 182281
00012.jp2
JP211 60e4d11a00288a7ea2a2982014cef8a9 154345
00013.jp2
JP212 3e7c3445f5daff906412405542e52405 202579
00014.jp2
JP213 bc45fccf4bf10147bc75980671130368 192465
00015.jp2
JP214 187e403428d82fa72508a80db9e09e71 215310
00016.jp2
JP215 79f5bf21b8c3ee3d244e662ab5d59ff6 109608
00017.jp2
JP216 91e09d057a04c334dfe3f939a3796e33 220207
00018.jp2
JP217 177af5cf76e9cfd1819e47e30f768978 194770
00019.jp2
JP218 1502f7cb52635d85e91900a53fddc445 181861
00020.jp2
JP219 0f124944e571a7b936a829f454d90387 218691
00021.jp2
JP220 87b5534db84969dfd1485f319caff2dc 179150
00022.jp2
JP221 69b5311cd8daf8ff7901396d85adf096 195366
00023.jp2
JP222 c30a32196ec2f2298a7918ac57906d85 48143
00024.jp2
JP223 8b2def977623245416c57ab1381c9c35 185442
00025.jp2
JP224 52a0ca13e06424d6170f84ca0c889c5f 33823
00026.jp2
JP225 751224d517b516c42d209a1b48fb9ce7 31128
00027.jp2
JP226 2834417c04036e73984c8ed54280d15d 201677
00028.jp2
JP227 e63b79690da4d63b36169cb6164bce1a 23122
00029.jp2
JP228 4c8806b2275f2d6528c8f3cdaad8c82e 187949
00030.jp2
JP229 de11c528302fa8791f3b3db2597fdeba 28137
00031.jp2
JP230 5d4afc8015232ab0b84c9d6fb2317a76 44833
00032.jp2
JP231 497c34fdb75fc5d91d83764fc4dd5416 168042
00033.jp2
JP232 4ee26e67366fb2e3f84137d35ddf6125 55473
00034.jp2
JP233 45d6cba40bf939d3fe0fbae8775bdb84 206457
00035.jp2
JP234 2c82dce3f9eb27e565a9c8f09f608705 32651
00036.jp2
JP235 d4b390daeebd1d5979a6afe9b6a5eee3 184043
00037.jp2
JP236 802e2c0f82d5d24d3926fcc877b3a472 180609
00038.jp2
JP237 569205497fac662a1ea61d7036f03832 41041
00039.jp2
JP238 03d59810d17c8ba16e117fda48e854b9 212891
00040.jp2
JP239 a7556b63dbf59ac8d4128687c2607dd2 41493
00041.jp2
JP240 a1dd0f4670c220f2270ca51a4f59858d 197577
00042.jp2
JP241 ec7ed2643ca8e7f9c3ca83858de526c5 31891
00043.jp2
JP242 d343c09e65f95a1f7ce591d6cc8cbf11 196352
00044.jp2
JP243 091387b984d3f81b58aa921cc9c8a485 38346
00045.jp2
JP244 ce5f66dfa7fad6beab51f274c642a44a 201609
00046.jp2
JP245 d419eadcd867bcff86055e5520649abe 199073
00047.jp2
JP246 c0b474e6cc85c243d31bb728f040b734 210202
00048.jp2
JP247 9096ee699cbb86261ef41a57d8127636 67992
00049.jp2
JP248 95a618fc589cdf2bc08cd94121d389cd 193249
00050.jp2
JP249 62c3bdd5a3dda197ca9a495833520621 28861
00051.jp2
JP250 6192cb5f8a5f3f6bc219ed5f3ce4080c 169261
00052.jp2
JP251 230bed42580ab26a74184f200bf50de2 182166
00053.jp2
JP252 a875b63b1f724b0520907d7cb5172982 65960
00054.jp2
JP253 aff3696b0dd391e3d99e36c212dd464f 185943
00055.jp2
JP254 a74f1c2ca7e5213c545e151474d05053 197211
00056.jp2
JP255 4f9b47db8962586dd3634808a1bb6857 44962
00057.jp2
JP256 e2a96c3d206c84ea30991cb81ec1c049 193555
00058.jp2
JP257 b3fea5effda8019f713bc4e3b99cc3cf 208378
00059.jp2
JP258 0b766b57e56fed2a6ae32b6ba41b2c38 49789
00060.jp2
JP259 3ef33361ed48b3cedc01a94a3b6209b3 150678
00061.jp2
JP260 5a738ede43b41ffa4f5320de268ecae3 30803
00062.jp2
JP261 e3c242700bb493dd84b9ca1cbdd590ba 172017
00063.jp2
JP262 23f4f3b7eab06d823944a068dad7dc31 201138
00064.jp2
JP263 c14fb3ce23c5f7e22250f8e74b79d9fa 68230
00065.jp2
JP264 095f11030ec8742d17c98f50a3008c42 202950
00066.jp2
JP265 b7081ac88341349fefed41e6db3984fe 41801
00067.jp2
JP266 7c5c00bbcafc58b855e0a7c5565d657c 139704
00068.jp2
JP267 6e1bcc1b63bbd1b92ef73bbcbf0c71db 175907
00069.jp2
JP268 8ef20f184cc36bfdc037e315c385a0c8 199386
00070.jp2
JP269 0821e9820fd68a3068a8cf31d36ab4b0 193649
00071.jp2
JP270 1b052e9e9b09538d455490575befd89d 203041
00072.jp2
JP271 4252dde9c50fa315fe508c5131752a84 98245
00073.jp2
JP272 ad541e751089bccb0402c788cf1b6398 196199
00074.jp2
JP273 80a96bf5c3a62574151f192c31b44e58 186582
00075.jp2
JP274 85be2ba2d01d7792beb53d3ad372eb76 183458
00076.jp2
JP275 060fa884c2b37a29fce78fe81f74cfab 198881
00077.jp2
JP276 d721abee2a578537006248297402f13c 195569
00078.jp2
JP277 6a2cd1785e660d05179b9a5db3c14d45 122418
00079.jp2
JP278 c0c229504ee51f04282fc1a4c609cb74 104384
00080.jp2
JP279 78bfb614e596bc68f48ff09d03c79187 132066
00081.jp2
JP280 01c39b1b31423becce859673ab25499a 81948
00082.jp2
THUMB1 imagejpeg-thumbnails 89112d7cfff620b73d288c8e4ed97280 7275
00001thm.jpg
THUMB2 9b07cb7a4500cf2a0c32978aebad6504 5293
00002thm.jpg
THUMB3 33e26b121ad8f49e2ad02b39a1ef46f2 2031
00084thm.jpg
THUMB4 fcac2339323d1713b4b7b73cc57eaae8 4974
00004thm.jpg
THUMB5 da5d326d40d75e6ccdd633be196a0ef4 4761
00006thm.jpg
THUMB6 bd866fe19521363f8a5efc6f179cc7b0 7899
00008thm.jpg
THUMB7 8bc9aff2e630209108ca54cf32eac3c7 4949
00009thm.jpg
THUMB8 9683327ecb102a3a9fe477d89e470356 9490
00010thm.jpg
THUMB9 76d800d26878dad674fd632f3687b6ed 9730
00011thm.jpg
THUMB10 6771497ed70f4979289498afdbbd73bd 8294
00012thm.jpg
THUMB11 2e98b75a5220c9a84e13e9575191ab1c 6960
00013thm.jpg
THUMB12 a1b35f3c70493211b8c12342d5805af1 8907
00014thm.jpg
THUMB13 ffcaef5b217393144ef3a11c00208b1c 9178
00015thm.jpg
THUMB14 89b758a6b1524792ea9e9c94692a2f4c 9382
00016thm.jpg
THUMB15 8088130ed2bfe28b3b46b205c30b6581 5260
00017thm.jpg
THUMB16 10702895e08494edd47c3227dd08d6ea 9540
00018thm.jpg
THUMB17 c9c5e3e4a65288408f3784badd89228c 9313
00019thm.jpg
THUMB18 7cf89a6a48519a97c4886e5efab58466 8058
00020thm.jpg
THUMB19 c3d82427ac175b37052e216c4aef9566 9213
00021thm.jpg
THUMB20 6264d364b0e0a2446f003f13b64cabd6 8219
00022thm.jpg
THUMB21 3c46efbda6becdbc3c01d463916c1cd9 9010
00023thm.jpg
THUMB22 fbed5c5a3aa8d4a67346d22ff385a2cb 4142
00024thm.jpg
THUMB23 bddcb9556efc0c3141412f0b06d56ccf 8367
00025thm.jpg
THUMB24 98a85807188ab7c938a8dc20b8fe4608 2995
00026thm.jpg
THUMB25 087d3ed2bfb2c4ff372389d0b245f16b 2933
00027thm.jpg
THUMB26 7ce3a1466059f5f44ea2120fba95e4aa 8760
00028thm.jpg
THUMB27 f7b57bcdaf6dc78f53abafa84ec3fb01 2219
00029thm.jpg
THUMB28 428372a3ad00783785c06b96f98aca55 8386
00030thm.jpg
THUMB29 ec6fc2e53ff451a20b3151227001cad8 2712
00031thm.jpg
THUMB30 f4c663576b25590270740cf8dce4fea2 3649
00032thm.jpg
THUMB31 5ab4b7881bea2847e8683ae41ff50eee 8198
00033thm.jpg
THUMB32 9f3884688e6800ab03549020236327ee 4261
00034thm.jpg
THUMB33 cd24c24193a06cfcdb6786ff2baec882 8956
00035thm.jpg
THUMB34 57f625a1713bc33c4e337733eac640b0 2821
00036thm.jpg
THUMB35 77b320a2715538d22ea92aa655213ef1 8332
00037thm.jpg
THUMB36 2e66fdffae2da30d0a6253a49afb168a 8768
00038thm.jpg
THUMB37 3cb5399526bbd1dff005a763ba03ff47 3636
00039thm.jpg
THUMB38 583fceece17e173602e706bcea65b02d 9217
00040thm.jpg
THUMB39 6ccf87bb3a4f58c74210668dcb0a186f 3795
00041thm.jpg
THUMB40 0bbeb013efc7bbc864a1e250ba695f6e 8842
00042thm.jpg
THUMB41 f305a82220ddd9e04bf244a2a9c9fa5a 3063
00043thm.jpg
THUMB42 0ec9fc6b5beffeaf82de65215ffb6308 8668
00044thm.jpg
THUMB43 6431395988f64db1c769dfbe1c3584af 3255
00045thm.jpg
THUMB44 c8d05778decff271f93d62583ec5e12a 8992
00046thm.jpg
THUMB45 9cd1bbf8c4cba66f80f3225a8ccb0038 8504
00047thm.jpg
THUMB46 8f85588721b92dcfac4c4e6e27767d26 9162
00048thm.jpg
THUMB47 d415eadd0e7b82bc0d6da2a5c200a35f 5105
00049thm.jpg
THUMB48 0814557b5382958384f8ab6bf9044a56 8458
00050thm.jpg
THUMB49 462187a465c4b5b6161e68c34860cb0c 2511
00051thm.jpg
THUMB50 a3d541699295149227789673c48164a4 7626
00052thm.jpg
THUMB51 ffbd269e1cd1a622d80d03ed81925e74 7946
00053thm.jpg
THUMB52 cf9aff7e366ebd30fb97fc13951538b2 5485
00054thm.jpg
THUMB53 6b65596002723a198f6578f41b0a73eb 8412
00055thm.jpg
THUMB54 72a9a101ee3a5b19834053b6f4e9df9c 9073
00056thm.jpg
THUMB55 fd9e7e5255c6db8d9496187b118c3e42 3661
00057thm.jpg
THUMB56 a79913c4d5fe3b90122e70ffd39d1f05 8664
00058thm.jpg
THUMB57 6b060892ee14e6dda608cb28fed0db19 8737
00059thm.jpg
THUMB58 e01d578632acbceedaca4a0b7faea060 3433
00060thm.jpg
THUMB59 034085c6233964223a136d3e610a113d 7221
00061thm.jpg
THUMB60 af62205bfcc463c8e3c13fea892cc003 2988
00062thm.jpg
THUMB61 a9f87a7f569dfebdf91ac4349a31dc95 7409
00063thm.jpg
THUMB62 db228626a0dfd5d59f3ee2a72723143a 8878
00064thm.jpg
THUMB63 60e70bf112ed1ef9db52a86009e905ee 4964
00065thm.jpg
THUMB64 184e4528e0d5b0e0db13275b1da6f61d 8489
00066thm.jpg
THUMB65 42825573b3b0ce84ec0856c26652d1e5 3529
00067thm.jpg
THUMB66 60b9c0e98aad1ff751d9d957f90bfc6d 6061
00068thm.jpg
THUMB67 2dbaadd5b0940e897618fd082a08c486 7995
00069thm.jpg
THUMB68 609deec19ffee796d2f54fd71d176e6d 8655
00070thm.jpg
THUMB69 265ef71ae7900657eae58b44524871d8 8936
00071thm.jpg
THUMB70 b76175d22eca20054ddc1754921fccb0 8531
00072thm.jpg
THUMB71 0d7d83fa0a6a99f4bdd71005f2ad124e 7184
00073thm.jpg
THUMB72 301f1ac71b2dbe2a7c2d13c408106798 8197
00074thm.jpg
THUMB73 dfe0b6d62dd58d6e8e18dd7aa38eb64c 8138
00075thm.jpg
THUMB74 2d45327f394e0e19dcf2009fe57f2b94 8309
00076thm.jpg
THUMB75 102ba51ed4be662eea2c983fd4bbf21b 9082
00077thm.jpg
THUMB76 5dc3a6ae347e012ab1100f4719139f00 8969
00078thm.jpg
THUMB77 b75ae87aab35d328468a83df220cd0f1 5884
00079thm.jpg
THUMB78 8a296741f060a6ef4fa8bca0b4af669a 6427
00080thm.jpg
THUMB79 99c3dc86e10e0173e4268e6de3460aef 7733
00081thm.jpg
THUMB80 6143391b40c61c4fe555d84d049a38bb 4595
00082thm.jpg
METS1 unknownx-mets 09c436e9c3ad1a1beeb4034c48a81976 122432
UF00086804_00001.mets
METS:structMap STRUCT1 physical
METS:div DMDID ADMID ORDER 0 main
PDIV1 1 Front Cover
PAGE1 Page
METS:fptr FILEID
PAGE2 i 2
PDIV2 Title
PAGE3 ii
PDIV3 3 Table of Contents
PAGE4 iii
PDIV4 List tables 4 Section
PAGE5 iv
PDIV5 Introduction 5
PAGE6
PAGE7
PAGE8
PAGE9
PAGE10
PAGE11 6
PAGE12 7
PAGE13 8
PAGE14 9
PAGE15 10
PAGE16 11
PAGE17 12
PAGE18 13
PAGE19 14
PDIV6 Survey results
PAGE20 15
PAGE21 16
PAGE22 17
PAGE23 18
PAGE24 19
PAGE25 20
PAGE26 21
PAGE27 22
PAGE28 23
PAGE29 24
PAGE30 25
PAGE31 26
PAGE32 27
PAGE33 28
PAGE34 29
PAGE35 30
PAGE36 31
PAGE37 32
PAGE38 33
PAGE39 34
PAGE40 35
PAGE41 36
PAGE42 37
PAGE43 38
PAGE44 39
PAGE45 40
PAGE46 41
PAGE47 42
PAGE48 43
PAGE49 44
PAGE50 45
PAGE51 46
PAGE52 47
PAGE53 48
PAGE54 49
PAGE55 50
PAGE56 51
PAGE57 52
PAGE58 53
PAGE59 54
PAGE60 55
PAGE61 56
PAGE62 57
PAGE63 58
PAGE64 59
PAGE65 60
PAGE66 61
PDIV7 Summary and conclusions
PAGE67 62
PAGE68 63
PAGE69 64
PAGE70 65
PDIV8 Appendices
PAGE71 66
PAGE72 67
PAGE73 68
PDIV9 Notes
PAGE74 69
PAGE75 70
PAGE76 71
PAGE77 72
PDIV10 Reference
PAGE78 73
PAGE79 74
PAGE80 75
STRUCT2 other
ODIV1 Main
FILES1