Front Cover
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Africa South of the Sahara
 Central and South America
 Middle East and North Africa
 Geographic index
 Back Matter

Group Title: Food and agricultural marketing in developing countries
Title: Food and agricultural marketing in developing countries : an annotated bibliography of doctoral research in the social sciences, 1969-1979
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086754/00001
 Material Information
Title: Food and agricultural marketing in developing countries : an annotated bibliography of doctoral research in the social sciences, 1969-1979
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Weber, Michael T.
Riley, Peter
Publisher: Department of Agricultural Economics, Michigan State University
Place of Publication: East Lansing, Mich.
General Note: MSU working paper 5
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Bibliographic ID: UF00086754
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Half Title
        Half Title 1
        Half Title 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Front Matter
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Africa South of the Sahara
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Central and South America
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    Middle East and North Africa
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Geographic index
        Page 49
    Back Matter
        Page 50
Full Text



Department of Agricultural Economics
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan 48824



Peter Riley and Michael T. Weber

Working Paper No. 5 1979





Peter Riley and Michael T. Weber**

*This paper is part of a broader project entitled "Alternative Rural Development
Strategies," Contract #AID/ta-CA-3 funded by the U.S. Agency for International
Development, Development Support Bureau, Office of Rural Development and Devel-
opment Administration. Obviously, the views expressed herein do not necessarily
reflect the views of the funding agency.

**Graduate Research Assistant and Assistant Professor, Department of Agricul-
tural Economics, Michigan State University.


Carl K. Eicher and Carl Liedholm, Co-editors

The MSU Rural Development Working Papers series is designed to further the
comparative analysis of rural development in Africa, Latin America, Asia, and the
Near East. The papers will report research findings on community development and
rural development in historical perspective as well as on contemporary rural develop-
ment programs. The series will include papers on a wide range of topics such as
alternative rural development strategies; off-farm employment and small-scale indus-
try; marketing problems of small farmers; agricultural extension; interrelationships
between technology, employment, and income distribution; and evaluation of rural
development projects. While the papers will convey the research findings of MSU
faculty and visiting scholars, a few papers will be published by researchers and policy-
makers working with MSU scholars on cooperative research and active programs in the

The papers are aimed at teachers, researchers, policy-makers, donor agencies,
and rural development practitioners. Selected papers will be translated into French,
Spanish, and Arabic. Libraries, individuals, and institutions may obtain single copies of
the MSU papers free of charge and may request their names be placed on a mailing list
for periodic notifications of published papers by writing to:

MSU Rural Development Working Papers
Department of Agricultural Economics
206 International Center
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan 48824



INTRODUCTION . . . . t. . . . . . . ... 1

AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA ................. 4

ASIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

CARIBBEAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA ................ 33


GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

GEOGRAPHIC INDEX ....................... 49


In recent years there has been increasing awareness of the critical role of food

and agricultural marketing services in the development process. Currently a major

concern is to discover how changes in marketing institutions can improve the economic

and social conditions of small farmers, while meeting the larger goal of holding down

food prices for other low income consumers. Inherent in this challenge is the need to

develop a broad analytical and action framework which brings together diverse

approaches to marketing problem-solving.

Doctoral research can be a key source of new information and insights into

building a better research approach. Unfortunately policy-makers and other applied

researchers underutilize much of this research because of limited awareness and

accessibility. This bibliography seeks to improve awareness by organizing for

reference use doctoral research done in disciplines dealing with administrative,

cultural, economic, managerial, social, spatial, and other dimensions of marketing.

Most major U.S. and Canadian universities participate in the Dissertation

Abstracts program of University Microfilms International (formerly Xerox University

Microfilms). A substantial portion of the dissertations are done by students from the

developing countries. Therefore a search was made of subjects relevant to marketing

in Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI), Volumes 31-39 (July 1970 to June 1979).

The annotations in this bibliography are based on the abstracts published in DAI. A

computerized search process was not used due to the difficulty of identifying relevant

dissertations only by "key" words. Research conducted at non-participating North

American universities and at universities in other parts of the world is not included


Dissertations were selected from the following subject areas (as used by DAI):

Subject Areas Subject Code
(as used in this

Anthropology (A)

Business Administration (B)

Economics (Agricultural and General) (E)

Geography (G)

Law (L)

Marketing (M)

Political Science (PS)

Public Administration (PA)

Sociology (S)



AUTHOR'S 4. Amegashie, Austin Kwaku. "Liberian Agricultural Programs: The Theory and VOL. AND NO.
NAME Practice of Marketing and Food Distribution System." University of Florida,--- OF DAI WHERE
----1978. --ABSTRACT
(G) 39/07 p. 4493-A 7900031 APPEARED
Failure to develop an adequate domestic food production system is discussed
ENTRY NO. with attention to historical, socioeconomic and cultural factors. Studies three ORDER NO. FOR
regional marketing centers--Monrovia, Gbarnga and Voinjama--in some detail for UNIVERSITY
direction of crop flows, their effects on crop production, labor migration, transporta- MICROFILMS
tion networks and other elements. Stresses vital role of women in marketing, linking INTERNATIONAL
urban consumer population and rural food-producing regions.

(see above)

The annotations briefly identify the sources of data, methodology, issues

covered, and some of the conclusions. The information actually contained in the

annotations is not always consistent because of variations in the abstracts.


Readers desiring information about a specific dissertation are encouraged to

consult the full abstract in the appropriate issue of DAI. Information on ordering a

microfilm or photocopy of the complete dissertation can be obtained from:

/ University Microfilms International
P.O. Box 1764
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106


1. Abdel-Galil, Darshim Hassan. "The Impact of Economic Change Upon Marketing
Structure: With Particular Reference to the United States, the Union of South
Africa and the Republic of Tanzania." University of Illinois at Urbana-
Champaign, 1971.
(B) 32/10 p. 5407-A 72-12,051

Tests and confirms hypothesis that marketing structure is a function of economic
change. Examines the developed economy of the U.S., a mass marketing society with
large-scale operations dominant, much integration and increasingly specialized mar-
keting institutions. Marketing in South Africa, a semi-developed economy, is less
specialized, with smaller-scale operations and a more significant role for middlemen.
The underdeveloped case is studied in Tanzania, where there is mainly mixed trading,
very small-scale operations and full-line wholesalers.

2. Acquah, Benjamin Kojo. "An Analysis of the Demand for Food Commodities in
The Eastern Region of Ghana." University of Wisconsin at Madison, 1977.
(E) 38/09 p. 5607-A 7723696

Main objective is to estimate expenditure elasticities of demand for food
commodities in rural and urban households. Also considers non-food commodities,
effects of household size, composition and geographical location on consumption,
existence of economies of scale in consumption, and effects of seasonality in
availability of food. Based on cross-sectional data from 1967/68 Eastern Region.
Household Budget Survey conducted by Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic
Research, University of Ghana.

3. Adalemo, Issac Ayende. "Spatial and Temporal Configuration of Rural Periodic
Markets in Western Nigeria." University of Michigan, 1974.
(G) 35/05 p. 2867-A 74-25,131

Reviews the literature to establish reasons for the existence of periodic markets
and to redefine and quantify, if possible, key concepts. Analysis of the relationship
between temporal separation and locational distance shows that only markets meeting
on the same day compete directly in space in the study area in southwestern Nigeria.
Delineates market hinterlands for periodic markets, noting the importance of the
temporal dimension. Uses variant of the social gravity model and Thiessen polygons in
the analysis.

4. Amegashie, Austin Kwaku. "Liberian Agricultural Programs: The Theory and
Practice of Marketing and Food Distribution System." University of Florida,
(G) 39/07 p. 4493-A 7900031

Failure to develop an adequate domestic food production system is discussed
with attention to historical, socioeconomic and cultural factors. Studies three
regional marketing centers--Monrovia, Gbarnga and Voinjama--in some detail for
direction of crop flows, their effects on crop production, labor migration, transporta-
tion networks and other elements. Stresses vital role of women in marketing, linking
urban consumer population and rural food-producing regions.

5. Billings, Martin Hewett. "Economics of Commercial Egg Production in Eastern
Nigeria." Michigan State University, 1971.
(E) 32/03 p. 1147-A 71-23,162

Describes and analyzes problems of commercial egg operations in the region.
Research included 6-month study of 21 farms and consumer survey in 4 cities. The
causes of problems are limitations in the market for eggs, shortages of chicks and
feed, common use of dual-purpose birds, and mainly poor management. Suggestions
for improvements are made, recognizing the potential importance of eggs for urban

6. Bunker, Stephen Geoffrey. "The Uses and Abuses of Power in a Uganda Farmer's
Marketing Association: The Bugisu Cooperative Union, Ltd." Duke University,
(S) 36/10 p. 6968-A 76-8731

Analysis of distribution of power within Bugisu Cooperative Union (BCU), the
only organization licensed to buy or process coffee grown in Bugisu District. Study
based on documents and interviews with BCU officials. Attempts to integrate two
analytical approaches: Adam's hierarchical model in which the organization of higher
levels imposes structure on lower levels and Blau's exchange model, in which some
actors concede compliance to other actors in return for some desired good or service.
Considers past and contemporary periods of BCU's history, under different phases of
colonial and national government and of cooperative policies.

7. Col, Jeanne Marie. "Interorganizational Coordination: District Administration
of Agricultural Crop Marketing in Uganda." University of South Carolina, 1977.
(PA) 38/09 p. 5701-A 7801137

Explores the nature of interactions among the five organizations involved in
agricultural, crop marketing. Based on a review of archives and a survey of 130
officials in 18 districts. Observes considerable rivalries among the organizations, with
advantages accruing to the older government agencies. Survey of incumbents in
liaison role positions reveals great interactive distance between those in parastatals
and those in government roles. Recommends on-the-job socialization to facilitate
interorganizational coordination.

8. Collins, John Davison. "Government and Groundnut Marketing in Rural Hausa
Niger: The 1930s to the 1970s in Magaria." Johns Hopkins University, 1974.
(PS) 35/12 p. 7973-A 75-12,942

Continuous state interest and action in the local groundnut markets since the
1930s provides a context for assessing the cumulative impact of state intervention on
the local socioeconomic system. Analyzes important developments in the pre-
cooperative period, partial nationalization in the early 1960s, and cooperative reform
after 1965.

9. Dahringer, Lee Douglas. "Strategies for Food System Enhancement in Lesotho
Through New Developments in the Market Process Concept." University of
Colorado at Boulder, 1978.
(M) 39/08 p. 5111-A 7903034

Prior macro-marketing studies of food systems are used to examine the food
marketing system, developing new linkages with performance measures, including
anthropometric child assessment and infant nutritional status. Applicability of market
process theories is explored. Examines problems of potential programs dealing with
food output and distribution.

10. Ejiga, Nathaniel Omatai Okoliko. "Economic Analysis of Storage, Distribution
and Consumption of Cow Peas in Northern Nigeria." Cornell University, 1977.
(E) 38/12 p. 7459-A 7807746

Studies the two main ecological zones of Northern Nigeria. Administered
questionnaires to farmers and traders in rural areas and to households and traders in
urban areas. Gives detailed description of cowpea distribution system, found to be
quite organized. Calculates bi-variable correlation coefficients of prices to indicate
level of market integration. Analyzes relationships between transport costs and price
differences and between average seasonal price rises and storage costs. Estimates
gross marketing margins. Analyzes consumption in terms of food habits, regional
preferences and income.

11. Essang, Sunday Mathew. "The Distribution of Earnings in the Cocoa Economy of
Western Nigeria: Implications for Development." Michigan State University,
(E) 32/01 p. 49-A 71-18,198

Analysis reveals unequal distribution of earnings among farmers and domestic
intermediaries (licensed buying agents). Access to formal sources of credit and to
modern inputs is also distributed unequally, significantly correlated to distribution of
earnings and also to political positions. Observes that the marketing board is an
important influence on the level and distribution of earnings. Discusses policies to
increase farmers' earnings and improve distribution, including reorganization of the
existing produce marketing system.

12. Falusi, Abiodum Olumuyiwa. "Economics of Fertilizer Distribution and Use in
Nigeria." Cornell University, 1973.
(E) 34/10 p. 6220-A 74-7195

Appraisal of the scope for increasing fertilizer use and ways to reduce costs of
distribution. Interviewed a sample of farmers in three states representing different
ecological zones for data on farming practices, asked farmers and distributors about
constraints on fertilizer use, and used secondary sources for data on fertilizer use.
Identifies socioeconomic factors influencing fertilizer use by multiple regression and
profit models. Discusses distributional problems limiting availability at local farm

13. Gladwin, Hugh. "Decision Making in the Cape Coast (Fante) Fishing and Fish
Marketing System." Stanford University, 1970.
(A) 31/08 p. 4464-B 71-2764

Decisions involved traders' choices of markets: those where sales are safe but
not very profitable vs. those where sales are risky but potentially very profitable.
Contrastive eliciting technique is used to obtain decision criteria, which are then
formulated into a decision process model and tested.

14. Goodwin, Joseph Baxter. "An Analysis of the Effect of Price Distortions on the
Development of the Rice Milling Industry in Ghana." University of Maryland,
(E) 36/06 p. 3883-A 75-28,747

Formulates two linear programming models--a King-Logan approximation and a
mixed integer model--to apply to the rice milling industry. Projects additional milling
capacity required to process anticipated production and location and scale of the
capacity. Determines impact of existing factor price distortions on plant number, size
and location. Models are solved twice using market prices and using accounting prices
for capital, labor and foreign exchange. Discusses efficiency and merits of each

15. Gore, Charles George. "Food Marketing and Rural Underdevelopment: A Study
of an Urban Supply System in Ghana." Pennsylvania State University, 1978.
(M) 39/10 p. 6304-A 7905031

Tests hypothesis that urban traders expropriate the economic surplus of farmers
through monopolistic control of marketing channels. Studies town of Koforidua in
Southern Ghana. 1974-75 fieldwork consisted of interviews with traders and farmers,
two major commodity flow surveys, and some price surveys to determine marketing
margins. Emphasizes distinction between local and long-distance trade. Relates
findings to the work of E. A. J. Johnson.

16. Haile-Mariam, Teketel. "The Production, Marketing and Economic Impact of
Coffee in Ethiopia." Stanford University, 1973.
(E) 34/06 p. 2873-A 73-30,485

Estimates quantity produced and composition, sources and opportunity costs of
inputs used. Describes organization of the domestic market, with analysis of
marketing costs, margins and performance based on spatial-temporal price differen-
tials. Backward linkages in the economy are found to be quite weak, while forward
linkages are more important. Final demand linkages provide a strong stimulus for
domestic economic activities.

17. Handwerker, Winston Penn. "The Liberian Internal Market System." University
of Oregon, 1971.
(A) 32/09 p. 4990-B 72-8538

An analysis of historical change in the spatial and temporal integration of
producers, consumers and intermediaries. Focuses on Monrovia, five interior villages,
central and coastal regions, and the Firestone plantation at Harbel. Field research
from 1968 to 1970 included surveys of farmer-consumers, urban consumers, farmer-
sellers and market sellers.

18. Hays, Henry Merlin, 3r. "The Organization of the Staple Food Grain Marketing
System in Northern Nigeria: A Study of Efficiency of the Rural Link." Kansas
State University, 1973.
(E) 34/01 p. 39-A 73-16,993

Begins with detailed description of the traditional market organization for millet
and sorghum. Notes that system must assemble large quantities of grain scattered
over large areas which involves a large number of transactions and participants.
Market structure is evaluated, types and forms of market conduct of sellers and buyers
are examined, and market performance is measured. Discusses suggestions for
improving operational and pricing efficiency.

19. Idachaba, Francis Sulemanu. "Marketing Board Taxation of Nigerian Agriculture:
Some Implications." Michigan State University, 1972.
(E) 33/11 p. 5931-A 73-12,741

Provides a framework for analysis of the effects of taxes on marketing board
crops and of subsidies on input use. Develops model for period 1930-66. Examines
quantitative impact on tax revenue from cotton and groundnuts if farmers had been
paid higher prices than those actually received. Ordinary least squares is used to
estimate sales supply equations. Discusses the problem of relying on revenue
contributions from these boards to stabilize state government revenues, using evidence
from the Northern States Marketing Board.

20. Ihimodu, Isaiah Ifeyori. "The Impact of Government Taxation and Control of
Marketing of Five Major Agricultural Exports of Nigeria." University of
Pennsylvania, 1977.
(E) 38/03 p. 1545-A 77-19,864

Study of effects of government marketing monopoly on price responsiveness of
producers, prices and incomes, and government revenues for the major agricultural
exports: groundnuts, cotton, palm oil, palm kernels and cocoa. Comparisons to other
major producing and exporting countries reveal a significantly negative relation
between performance indices and the "degree of control." Results of analysis suggest
domestic stabilization scheme itself might have introduced instability into the system.

21. 3amal, Vali. "The Role of Cotton and Coffee in Uganda's Economic
Development." Stanford University, 1976.
(E) 37/05 p. 3037-A 76-26,020

Examines the impact of these leading exports on the Ugandan economy and on
farmers' standards of living, with emphasis on government policies affecting the
distribution of export revenues. Uses export-led growth model as the analytical
framework, with consideration of net gain and investment linkages. Industries are
organized with Africans as farmers, Asians as processors and marketing boards as
distributors. Asians' monopsony in processing, with government paying cost-plus prices
and allowing cartels, and government fiscal policies taxing farmers have resulted in
less than equitable share for farmers.

22. Johnson, Eleanor Jean. "Marketwomen and Capitalist Adaptation: A Case Study
in Rural Benin, Nigeria." Michigan State University, 1973.
(A) 34/12 p. 5794-B 74-13,915

Investigates trading activities of marketplace traders and analyzes process in
which petty traders evolve into capitalist traders. Based on participant observation,
survey questionnaires to large samples and intensive work with small samples in and
around the Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research, 20 miles north of Benin City.
Conceptualizes adaptive process and raises hypothesis concerning the roles of female
traders and emerging capitalist modes.

23. Kellogg, Earl Duane. "A Temporal and Spatial Model to Assist in Evaluating
Investments in the Nigerian Beef Distribution System." Michigan State
University, 1971.
(E) 32/11 p. 5972-A 72-16452

Considers large losses in distribution of beef from producers to consumers.
Alternative investments, e.g., increased rail cars and trypanosomiasis control for
trekked cattle, are evaluated. The model estimates distribution costs per animal,
least cost configurations of beef transport facilities using a transshipment linear
program, supply and demand functions and inter-area flows of beef through time using
a spatial equilibrium component, and requirements on the beef transportation system.

24. Kidane, Asmerom. "The Demand and Price Structure for Selected Food Products
in Ethiopia: An Econometric and Spectral Analysis." Pennsylvania State
University, 1973.
(E) 34/08 p. 4518-A 74-4254

Demand functions for teff, wheat, barley, maize and oil are estimated by single
equation and simultaneous equation procedures, based on time series data for 1955-70.
Spectral analysis of monthly price data for 1956-66 indicates wider seasonal price
movement in owner occupied areas than in tenant areas. Cross-spectral analysis for
teff and wheat reveals little substitution as a result of a change in prices.

25. Kuhn, Michael William. "Markets and Trade in Omdurman, Sudan." University of
California at Los Angeles, 1970.
(G) 31/07 p. 4129-B 71-652

Analysis of the commercial ecology of Omdurman based on 1964 research of
field mapping and tabulation, direct observation and informal interviews with individu-
als involved in various phases of trade, as well as government records and library
materials. Market structure is described and activities analyzed. Influence of cultural
change and economic development on marketing is examined.

26. Lyakurwa, William Mshabaa. "Export Instability and Economic Development in
Tanzania." Cornell University, 1978.
(E) 39/02 p. 987-A 7809814

Tanzania's reliance on export primary commodities leads to export instability. In
addition to published data from the government and international organizations,

analyzes returns from Central Statistical Bureau questionnaires sent to various minis-
tries, parastatals and several businessmen active in foreign trade. Using time series
data from 1954-1973, finds significant negative relationship between export instability
and economic development. Implications, prospects and alternative strategies are

27. Malima, Kighoma. "The Economics of Cotton Production in Tanzania: An
Examination of Some of the Factors That Influence Agricultural Development."
Princeton University, 1971.
(E) 32/05 p. 2272-A 71-25949

Examines the increase in cotton production by peasants between 1953 and 1969,
largely due to government research, extension, road development, producer price
policy and marketing facilities. Includes analysis of the cotton cooperative movement
and the Lint and Seed Marketing Board.

28. Manneh, Momodou S. K. "Cooperatives in the Gambia: An Examination of the
Administrative Problems of the Gambia Cooperative Marketing Unions and Their
Impact on National Economic Development." Rutgers University, 1975.
(PS) 36/07 p. 4735-A 75-24,712

Performance of cooperatives has been poor and competition with private traders
largely unsuccessful due to rapid promotion and responsibilities beyond resources,
experiences and managerial capabilities. Assumptions about compatibility of coopera-
tives with traditional African communalism are criticized. Analysis of problems is
followed by assessment of future prospects.

29. Munro, Winthrop Harold. "An Economic Study of Maize Marketing in Kenya,
1952-1966." University of Michigan, 1973.
(E) 34/08 p. 4527-A 74-3702

Describes official policy from 1952 to 1966. Then critically evaluates the
government marketing monopoly's success in its goal of balancing internal market
supply and demand at stable prices, and analyzes economic efficiency and distribution-
al equity of pricing policies. Personal interviews in 1965 and 1966 were conducted
with official and unofficial sources associated with the maize industry, supplemented
by government documents and unpublished memoranda.

30. Muwonge, Joe Wamala. "The Spatial Distribution of Trading Centers in Central
Buganda." University of California at Los Angeles, 1972.
(G) 33/10 p. 4859-B 73-6392

Study of the development and characteristic features of the trading center
network and analysis of the direction of change with respect to other changes in the
economy. Fieldwork involved interviews and visiting trading centers to inventory
structure, with use of government trading registers for past information and review of
publications. Among conclusions it is noted that characteristics of a central place
framework exist as well as peculiarities of its own. Also finds small centers declining
while larger ones growing.

31. Mwamufiya, Mbuki. "Maize Production and Marketing in Four Districts of Zaire:
An Introductory Economic Analysis." Oregon State University, 1977.
(E) 37/09 p. 5961-A 77-6078

Investigates factors limiting the production and supply of marketed maize.
Interviewed farmers in South Central Zaire for data on crops planted, peak periods of
operation, division of labor within the household, available labor supplies, and market-
ing patterns. Also examines the effects of government policies. Finds that national
investment policy, inadequate storage at farm level, labor bottlenecks, weak transpor-
tation and communication links in the marketing sector, traders' oligopsonistic power
in certain areas, and national price policies are among limiting factors. Makes policy
recommendations for improvements.

32. Mwangi, Wilfred. "Farm Level Derived Demand Responses to Fertilizer in
Kenya." Michigan State University, 1978.
(E) 39/07 p. 4395-A 7900732

Empirical study of factors influencing fertilizer demand at the farm level. Data
came from various Kenyan government agencies, FAO, fertilizer distributors, publica-
tions and author's farm survey. Static and parametric linear programming and
regression analysis are used. Identifies major constraints to fertilizer use, estimates
demand elasticities for fertilizer prices, product prices and capital, assesses enterprise
combination and net farm income, and derives demand responses for different levels of
fertilizer prices, product prices and capital.

33. Njoku, John E. E. "African Marketing Schemes: Peasant Agriculture and
Marketing Schemes in Southern Nigerian Societies, 1914-1964." New School for
Social Research, 1974.
(A) 35/09 p. 5593-A 75-5864

Aspects of marketing board policy regulating producers' price as a fiscal
mechanism are investigated. Margin between peasant producers and world market is
large, resulting in lower price for producers and dissatisfaction with excessive profits
of marketing board. Also appraises cooperative settlement policy. Used UN, US and
Nigerian publications and personal surveys for statistical information.

34. Nyankori, James Cyprian Okuk. "Forecasting With A Market Oriented Model:
The Spatial and Temporal Price and Allocation Models of the East African Grain
Economy." University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1977.
(E) 38/10 p. 6237-A 7804102

Discusses methodological issues concerning the STPA model, such as the
simultaneous determination of consumption, trade and storage quantities and market
demand and supply prices. Studies maize, millet, rice, maize flour and wheat flour for
Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania and rest of world (ROW) for period 1976-1980. Solves for
cases of the East African economy open to ROW and then closed. Evaluated effects of
certain policy options. Indicates that use of predetermined supply quantities makes
results inconclusive.

35. Nzekio, Ernest Pouemi. "Stability, Export Taxation and Economic Development:
The Role of Cocoa Marketing Boards and Cocoa Stabilization Funds in Nigeria,
Ghana, Ivory Coast and Cameroun." University of Wisconsin, 1973.
(E) 34/10 p. 6227-A 74-3538

Origins and development of the boards and funds are traced and general issues of
commodity price stabilization policies discussed. Effects of price stabilization on
producer incomes and producer welfare are analyzed. The significance of price
stability to cocoa producers is tested by ordinary least squares estimation of cocoa
supply responses in certain regions of Ghana for 1940-65. Effects of cocoa export
taxation, actual performance of the boards and funds, and alternative means of raising
government revenues are discussed. The study uses secondary data.

36. Obot, Johnson Udo. "Movement and the Removal of Nutritional Deficiencies:
The Case of Beef in Nigeria." University of Oklahoma, 1977.
(G) 38/04 p. 2344-A 77-21,391

Discusses the problems of shipping and distributing high protein foodstuffs from
production areas to deficit areas. The shipment of live cattle from the tsetse free
northern Sahel zone of Nigeria to the south is investigated. Recommends that the
government initially subsidizes and supervises cattle transportation and distribution
and then allows private enterprise to take over. Taxation of hoarded herds, food
science education, and wider use of refrigerated meat are also favored.

37. Obudho, Robert A. "Development of Urbanization in Kenya: A Spatial Analysis
and Implication for Regional Development Strategy." Rutgers University, 1974.
(G) 35/06 p. 3604-A 74-27,641

Investigation of the problem of dualism in the form of modern urban centers vs.
traditional periodic markets. Discusses colonial use of dual economic system for
exploitation and introduction of most central places in Kenya. Traces gradual
consolidation of subsystems during national era. Importance of the central places of
marketplace subsystem is emphasized, in particular as a linkage between urban and
rural systems and for the role in bringing social change to rural dwellers.

38. Ocran, Modibo Tawia. "Towards a Jurisprudence of African Economic
Development: A Case Study of the Evolution of the Structure and Operations of
Zambia's Food Crop and Cotton Marketing Boards From 1936 to 1970." University
of Wisconsin, 1971.
(L) 32/10 p. 5813-A 72-9141

Examination of role of law, legal theory and lawyers in meeting development
goals, using Zambian marketing boards as a case study. Finds that the post-colonial
Zambian state sought to restructure the marketing boards and confer more powers on
them as it increasingly perceived its role as the initiator and major participant in
agricultural development. Also finds that structural changes occurred by accretion,
because authorities were slow to develop their perception of the state's role in the

39. Ogunfowora, Olabisi. "Derived Resource Demand, Product Supply and Farm
Policy in the North Central State of Nigeria." Iowa State University, 1972.
(E) 33/08 p. 3911-A 73-3919

Based on input-output data and resource quantities of 124 randomly selected
farm families in 1966 to 1967 period. Linear programming is used to study enterprise
combinations, level of farm income, effect of technology on scale and farm income,
and stability of sole cropping and intercropping systems of different levels of
resources and technology. Then uses combination of programming and multiple
regression to derive resource demand and product supply functions.

40. Ogunronbi, Oladejo. "Agricultural Credit, Peasant Agriculture and Economic
Development: Insights and Implications for Western Nigeria." University of
Wisconsin at Madison, 1974.
(E) 35/11 p. 6909-A 75-5943

Explores ways to include peasant farmers in the market economy through the use
of credit. Discusses the sale of credit in agricultural development. Proposes several
modifications in the institutional credit program in the Western State, including
establishment of an input and marketing agency for supplies and produce sales with
construction of storage in arable crop-producing areas.

41. Okrah, Alexander Magotey. "An Institutional Case Study of the Commercial
Fishing Industry of Ghana." University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1975.
(E) 36/10 p. 6813-A 76-9277

Investigation of the role of physical distribution and marketing in economic
development. Primary data based on 761 interviews conducted in 30 towns. Fish
consumption patterns analyzed by income and region. Physical distribution system is
found inefficient due to poor transportation, inventory fluctuations, very long distribu-
tion channels, inadequate storage, and other difficulties.

42. Olowe, Michael Olutoba. "Factors Affecting Cooperative Supply of Farm Inputs
in the Western State of Nigeria." University of Massachusetts, 1976.
(E) 37/09 p. 5963-A 77-6446

Evaluation of existing farm input supply services and potential for increased
farmers' use. Survey techniques were used to collect most data with multiple
regression used where appropriate. Many of the cooperatives appear to be successfully
meeting members' input needs given major problems of capital shortage, lack of access
to dependable wholesale sources, inadequate diversification and small volume. Dis-
cusses ways to exploit potential of farmers' patronage.

43. Onakomaiya, Samuel Onanuga. "The Spatial Structure of Internal Trade in
Delicacy Foodstuffs in Nigeria." University of Wisconsin, 1970.
(G) 31/10 p. 6058-B 70-24,715

Considers internal trade in kola nuts, oranges, dried meat, dried fish and onions,
distinguishing seven different functions and four classes of trading participants. Tests
three hypotheses of internal trade theory (an extension of central place theory):

number-size hypothesis, size-distance hypothesis, and the hierarchical structure of
trading participants and centers.

44. Ongla, Jean. "Structure, Conduct and Performance of the Food Crop Marketing
System in Cameroon: A Case Study of Yaounde and Adjacent Areas." University
of Florida, 1978.
(E) 39/10 p. 6251-A 7907784

Data drawn from author's 1975 food price survey, 1977 food traders' survey and
food producers' survey, and 1976 survey of traditional marketing systems by the Food
Development Authority. Secondary data came from various government publications.
The marketing system is found to be dominated by the traditional component, marked
by small firms, lack of coordination, and transport problems. Policy recommendations
stress the government's role in encouraging scale facilitating organizations and
providing a framework to allow private sector contributions to development.

45. Osayimwese, Ghatekha Izevbuwa. "A Transportation-Distribution Problem: An
Application to the Groundnut Industry in Nigeria." Northwestern University,
(E) 32/09 p. 4793-A 72-7831

Discusses the problems of transporting an important export crop. Transportation
from the hinterland to ports is the largest single marketing expense. Linear
programming is used to minimize transport expenses and thereby maximize net
financial surplus. Model considers disaggregation of supply regions.

46. Quam, Michael Dwight. "Pastoral Economy and Cattle Marketing in Karamoja,
Uganda." Indiana University, 1976.
(A) 37/04 p. 2280-A 76-21,516

Analyzes the motivations and incentives of Karimojong pastoralists, wrongly
considered irrational and innately conservative. Limited participation in both govern-
ment marketing schemes and free trade markets can be explained by different
perceptions of the economic status of livestock. Karimojong cattle are wealth and
their primary utility is in internal trade and investment. Modern sector's view of
livestock as beef, a commodity for consumption or export, has failed to create
consistent incentives for strong Karimojong participation.

47. Ruigu, George Munice. "An Economic Analysis of the Kenya Milk Subsystem."
Michigan State University, 1978.
(E) 39/10 p. 6251-A 7907392

The study analyzes supply and demand, making future projections, determines
income and price elasticities, determines optional pricing policies based on results of
supply and demand projections, and determines export levels of milk products,
assessing future export abilities. Data sources include various government agencies,
cooperatives, the Kenya Dairy Board, publications and personal interviews. Descrip-
tive, regression and parametric linear programming methods are employed.

48. Schwimmer, Brian Ethan. "The Social Organization of Marketing in a Southern
Ghanaian Town." Stanford University, 1976.
(A) 37/05 p. 3000-A 76-26,101

The relationship between social organization and market structure is analyzed
for the multi-ethnic market town of Suhum and its hinterland. Studies the distributive
networks of commodities traded by specialized merchants. Market surveys and a
sample of participants in each trade are used. Variations in structure exist in terms of
the geography of product flows, definition and articulation of trading roles, and
competitive positions of market firms. These in turn influence recruitment of
personnel, horizontal relationships among firms performing the same functions, and
vertical relationships between buyers and sellers.

49. Scott, Earl Price. "Indigenous Systems of Exchange and Decision Making Among
Smallholders in Rural Hausaland." University of Michigan, 1974.
(G) 35/05 p. 2874-A 74-25,322

Considers whether an indigenous exchange system can itself serve as a functional
base for planned economic growth. Studies a group of smallholding market gardeners
in Katsina Province by a sample of smallholders and two rural periodic day markets.
Observes that farm production is economically specialized rather than subsistence.
Analyzes crucial role of market in decision making and importance of market as a
mechanism for redistribution of wealth.

50. Stewart, Bonnie Ann. "The Impact of the Marketing Organizations Serving the
Agricultural Sector in Zinder, Niger." University of Arizona, 1978.
(E) 39/09 p. 5640-A 7906413

Analysis of effectiveness of six marketing intervention organizations in Zindu
Province in light of stated objectives and goals. Background discusses general role of
agriculture and marketing in development, then more specific attention to Niger.
Interviews, observations of functioning of market system, and some secondary data are
used to identify major constraints on efficiency: annual price fixing limiting
flexibility; lack of integration of official and traditional systems; lack of supplies and
administrative and managerial expertise; and an inefficient transport system. Dis-
cusses policy issues and suggests guidelines to improve efficiency.

51. Temu, Peter Eliezer. "Marketing Board Pricing and Storage Policy With
Particular Reference to Maize in Tanzania." Stanford University, 1975.
(E) 36/01 p. 435-A 75-13,610

Examination of the role of a marketing board as an agricultural policy instru-
ment. Focuses on the Tanzanian National Agricultural Products Board. Analyzes the
relationship between the legal prices of the Board and the prevailing black market
prices, with price data gathered on the open market. Assumes price incentive
motivates illegal marketing. Considers three alternative remedies with attention to
economic costs: directly through pricing; indirectly through storage adjustments; and
administratively by repression.

52. Thiuri, Philip John. "The Dairy Industry in Spatial Perspective With a Focus on
Recommendations for Development in Kenya as Drawn From the New York State
Case." Syracuse University, 1974.
(G) 36/10 p. 6962-A 76-7945

Spatial structure and interaction patterns of a dairy industry are discussed and
modeled. Examines the structure and behavior of producers, processing plants,
distributors and consumers for the New York State and Kenya dairy industries.
Considers policies and aspatial features. Finds the processing plant to be the central
element of the dairy industry. Technology transfer and short-run planning guidelines
are also discussed.

53. Tollens, Eric Frans. "An Economic Analysis of Cotton Production, Marketing and
Processing in Northern Zaire." Michigan State University, 1975.
(E) 36/06 p. 3888-A 75-27,344

Subsector study approach is used. Presents description, identification of
constraints on expansion of production, evaluation of alternative strategies, and policy
recommendations. Much of data came from a farm business survey of 160 cotton
farmers over the 1972-73 production year. Foremost among suggestions are higher
producer prices and upgrading of extension service.

54. Trager, Lillian. "Yoruba Markets and Trade: Analysis of Spatial Structure and
Social Organization in the Ijesaland Marketing System." University of
Washington, 1976.
(A) 37/05 p. 3002-A 76-25,465

Focus is on the central market of Ijesa, a city of over 100,000. Mainly deals with
trade in yams, kola nuts and cloth. Central place models and charts of flows of goods
are used in the analysis, indicating that the system approximates the transport system
central place model. Finds that personalized trade relationships develop as responses
to economic conditions of the marketing system. Other issues considered are career
problems of traders, differences between urban and rural settlements, and the role of
trade associations and other cooperative activities.

55. Tripp, Robert Burnet. "Economic Strategies and Nutritional Status in a
Compound Farming Settlement of Northern Ghana." Columbia University, 1978.
(A) 39/08 p. 5020-A 7904132

Examination of the economic organization of a Nankane-speaking settlement in
the Upper Region, focusing on agricultural practices but also covering trading
activities and labor migration. Based on 20 months of anthropological research in the
field. The most successful traders deal in export of animals, poultry and eggs to
southern Ghana or import of kola nuts or manufactured items from the south. Notes
strong relationship between women who are active in trade and nutritional well-being
of their children.

56. Wilcock, David Carrington. "The Political Economy of Grain Marketing and
Storage in the Sahel." Michigan State University, 1977.
(E) 39/03 p. 1730-A 7815181

Investigates the problems of weather-induced instability in domestic food grain
supplies. The political economy framework stresses the structural underdevelopment
of the region. Analyzes trends in regional grain production, consumption and food
imports. Reviews traditional system of grain marketing in Sahel and discusses policy
and institutional issues. A reform proposal based on a village stock system is outlined
in a case study of Upper Volta.

57. Williams, Jerry Lee. "A Retail Landscape in Rural Zambia." University of
Oregon, 1977.
(G) 38/06 p. 3726-A 77-27,204

Analysis of the proliferation of retail facilities in the Kapoche area of Eastern
Province, an area marked by settlement instability and declining agricultural produc-
tivity. Interviewed 86 shopkeepers and 651 village adults. Defines the trading area of
each shop or "shopping cluster" by retail gravitation and mapping of consumer
preference lines. Concludes that the peasant shopper is rational and knowledgeable of
the retail marketplace, but generally does not follow a predictable buying pattern.
Identifies redundant shops and discusses alternative employment opportunities.

58. Wolgin, Jerome Morris. "Farmer Response to Price in Smallholder Agriculture in
Kenya: An Expected Utility Model." Yale University, 1973.
(E) 34/06 p. 2867-A 73-29,506

Takes a utility maximizing approach rather than profit maximizing. Uses a
Kenyan government survey of 1,500 farms that generated extensive data. Finds
farmers efficient in resource allocation but using too few inputs. Notes critical role
of risk in decision making and thus reduction of risk would have large payoffs in terms
of increased expected return.


59. Alunan, Julio Arroyo. "An Economic Analysis of the Marketing System for Cattle
in the Philippines." University of Georgia, 1976.
(E) 37/12 p. 7872-A 77-12,361

Interviewed 325 cattle farmers and 128 cattle middlemen. Describes location
and frequency of transactions, market channels, sources of price information, and
costs incurred by middlemen. Analyzes marketing margins and profits in the system.
System approaches conditions of perfect competition, but marketing margins are high
due to inefficient utilization of resources.

60. Bakar, Mohd Sheffie Bin Abu. "An Economic Analysis of Supply Response of Rice
Acreage and Management of Rice Reserves in Peninsular Malaysia." University of
Wisconsin at Madison, 1977.
(E) 38/11 p. 6840-A 7800002

Develops a model based on the Nerlovian lag adjustment model to explain the
response of rice acreage to changes in explanatory variables. Focuses on impact of
guaranteed minimum price, which is indirectly supported through a government rice
stockpile. Tests ability of model to forecast acreage planted in advance and analyzes
management of the government rice stockpile.

61. Barnum, Howard Nelch, II. "A Model of the Market for Foodgrains in India,
1948-1964." University of California at Berkeley, 1969.
(E) 31/02 p. 524-A 70-13,013

Econometric model that estimates acreage and yield, price elasticity of acreage,
price elasticity of demand, and income elasticity of demand. Specifies import
function. Model is applied to consider effects of imported surplus cereals; market
response to population and income change; the cost of a subsidy program to maintain a
differential between farm and consumer prices.

62. Barton, Clifton Gilbert. "Credit and Commercial Control: Strategies and
Methods of Chinese Businessmen in South Vietnam." Cornell University, 1977.
(A) 38/09 p. 5556-A 7801609

Discusses business relations in post-colonial era and processes through which
commercial activities developed. Examines business environment during the war era,
technical requirements for different types of business operations, and strategies and
methods used by Chinese and Vietnamese businessmen. Study based on interviews with
businessmen, community leaders, and government officials; individual biographies;
case histories of firms; historical data; and personal observation. Explains Chinese
commercial control largely by ability to obtain larger amounts of credit at lower
interest rates based on informal ethnic ties.

63. Basif, Abdul. "Projections of Demand and Supply of Wheat and Rice in Pakistan:
1970-85." Washington State University, 1971.
(E) 32/01 p. 45-A 71-18561

Uses time series data for 1959-60 to 1969-70 about production consumption,
population, prices and incomes to estimate regression coefficients of effects of per
capital income and prices on demand, and effects of lagged prices and new varieties on
supply. Future projections are then made.

64. Berry, James Edward. "An Economic Analysis of Retail Fertilizer Markets in
Northeast Thailand." University of Kentucky, 1974.
(E) 35/04 p. 1834-A 74-22,987

Employs structure, conduct and performance paradigm. Observes small volumes,
relatively large numbers of dealers, low concentration ratios, and easy entry condi-
tions for most markets. Finds only limited potential for lowering farm level prices,

although regression results showed lower prices achieved in larger markets. Finds that
credit is significant determinant of prices. Non-credit government fertilizer pro-
grams, buyer knowledge, and deliberative purchasing power did not have significant
relationships with price performance.

65. Birla, Suresh Chandra. "Regional Demand Analysis of Major Foodgrains in India."
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1970.
(E) 31/09 p. 4353-A 71-5047

Derives demand equations for the 14 rice regions and 8 wheat regions of India.
The quadratic programming model is used to determine equilibrium regional prices and
optimum flows, based on the demand functions, projected production, and point-to-
point transport costs between regions. Uses a consumer/producer surplus approach to
analyze benefits of interregional trade for wheat.

66. Boonma, Chamnien. "Modelling Rice and Corn Markets in Thailand." University
of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1972.
(E) 33/10 p. 5373-A 73-9886

Constructs a recursive linear programming model to generate optimal distribu-
tions of flows of rice and corn among marketers and marketing facilities, consistent
with minimum costs of transport, storage, processing and finance. Simulates 1967-69,
three years of the second economic plan. Draws conclusions from model solutions but
observes the need for a bigger model to accommodate relevant detail of marketing
alternatives and constraints.

67. Chaudhary, Muhammad Aslam. "An Analysis of the Performance of Fertilizer
Distribution System in West Pakistan." Michigan State University, 1971.
(E) 32/03 p. 1148-A 71-23,172

The analysis was based on these criteria: norms of effective competition,
exchange mechanisms in the vertical segment of the market channel, progressiveness,
channel efficiency, and channel coordination. Emphasis was given to the volatility of
fertilizer imports, unavailability at the farm level at the desired time, and the
complementarity between fertilizer use and other farm inputs. Author is critical of
government's allocative function and role of economic planning in system with
allotments, quotas, and fixed prices.

68. Crawford, Margaret Eleanor. "Urban Food Supply and Distribution: A Study of
Fresh Food Markets in Bangkok and Thonburi." University of Michigan, 1973.
(G) 34/07 p. 3298-B 73-24,547

Operating characteristics of individual markets are studied, mainly based on
interviews. Delineates the urban network of commodity supply linkages, indicating
primary and secondary foci, and specifies locational focus of multi-braided supply and
distribution channels. Traces linkages outside the city to extensive supply area.
Discusses responsiveness and change in the fresh food supply system.

69. Crawford, William Roy. "The Impact of Political Violence on Marketing
Development in South Vietnam: 1955 Through 1972." University of Alabama,
(M) 38/02 p. 986-A 77-12,183

Attempts to measure political violence and marketing development through
various indicators and study the relationship through multiple regression analysis. The
widespread phenomenon of political violence in LDCs gives the study relevance beyond
South Vietnam. There are numerous findings, mainly related to methodological issues
and the alteration of normal marketing patterns by political violence by accelerating
or depressing the growth of different economic sectors.

70. Crissman, Laurence William. "Town and Country: Central Place Theory and
Chinese Marketing Systems, With Particular Reference to Southwestern Changhua
Hsien, Taiwan." Cornell University, 1973.
(A) 34/10 p. 4796-B 74-6296

An outgrowth of G. William Skinner's work on "Marketing and Social Structure in
Rural China." Investigates a system of central places, based on field work in 1967-68
in the southwestern corner of the Changhua Plain, including a business census and a
survey of marketing habits of villagers. Explores alternative models of marketing
systems without assumption that people economize in space by patronizing the closest
outlet for a given good and without positing a transport surface.

71. Cummings, John Thomas. "Supply Response in Peasant Agriculture: Price and
Non-Price Factors." Tufts University, 1974.
(E) 35/06 p. 3248-A 74-28,547

Attempts to identify what determines a society's price responsiveness profile by
a statistical analysis of the underlying infrastructure affecting cultivators. Generates
large number of supply elasticity estimates for crops in the Indo-Pakistani subconti-
nent through a Nerlove-type dynamic model. Cultivator price responsiveness in terms
of both short- and long-run elasticity as a function of a number of quantifiable social,
technological, and economic variables is tested by regression. Discusses implications
of results.

72. Dadgostar, Bahram. "Consumer Demand for Food Commodities in Thailand."
Iowa State University, 1977.
(E) 38/11 p. 6826-A 7805928

Includes both theoretical analysis and empirical investigation in determining
income and consumption relationships and demand interrelationships at retail and farm
levels. Estimates own and cross price elasticities for 17 commodities. Analyzes farm
and retail price spreads. Discusses implications of demand parameters and

73. Dannhaeuser, Norbert. "Commercial Units, Marketing Channels, and Trade
Networks in a Central Luzon Town Setting." University of California at Berkeley,
(A) 35/01 p. 10-A 74-14,800

Focuses on the role played by Filipino and Chinese merchant-entrepreneurs in
channeling imported goods through Dagupan City, a provincial trade town. Mainly
concerned with grocery goods. Defines the nature of local and interregional trade
networks and discusses salient features.

74. David, Cristina Crisostomo. "A Model of Fertilizer Demand in the Asian Rice
Economy: A Micro-Macro Analysis." Stanford University, 1976.
(E) 36/12 p. 8198-A 76-12,990

Estimates demand as a function of the fertilizer-price ratio, factors representing
differences in fertilizer response functions, and liquidity positions of farmers. Macro
data are figures from 1950 to 1972 across 12 Asian countries. Micro data drawn from
a farm survey of about 2,000 farmers in 36 villages in 6 Asian countries and the
Laguna (Philippines) survey of about 150 farmers from 1966 to 1971. Finds that
differences in fertilizer price ratio and in fertilizer response functions contribute
significantly to variations in fertilizer demand. Observes that price policy may be
only feasible intervention in short-run.

75. Dayananda, Muhandiramge Don. "Potential Cartelization in a Monopsonistic
Market Structure: A Model of the World Tea Market With Special Reference to
Sri Lanka." McMaster University (Canada), 1977.
(E) 38/11 p. 6841-A

Constructs an econometric model of the world tea market, emphasizing its
noncompetitive market structure. Estimates alternative versions by two stage least
squares and by constrained non-linear least squares. Then applies model to examina-
tion of potential gains if the producing countries formed cartels. Considers two
alternative cartels: Sri Lanka alone and Sri Lanka and India together.

76. De, Vo Huu. "Demand for Food in South Viet-nam and Projections for 1980."
University of Florida, 1975.
(E) 36/12 p. 8198-A 76-12,063

Uses time-series data in estimations and cross-section data for combining or
comparing analyses. Direct, cross-price, and income elasticities are derived from
linear regression techniques. Constructs a demand matrix. Projections made on per
capital and aggregate basis.

77. Denny, David Ladd. "Rural Policies and the Distribution of Agricultural Products
in China: 1950-1959." University of Michigan, 1972.
(E) 33/05 p. 1923-A 72-29029

Constructs estimates of agricultural marketing, finding very slow growth over
the period and severe short-run fluctuations which in turn led to fluctuations in
industry. Main reason for low growth in agricultural marketing appears to be
retention of more agricultural products in rural areas. Permitting rising rural
consumption reflects rural orientation of Chinese Communist Party.

78. Evans, Yiyi Chit-Maung. "Marketing of Export Crops in Burma and Thailand,
1948-1967 (A Comparative Study, With Special Reference to Rice Marketing for
the Export Trade)." McGill University, 1972.
(E) 33/06 p. 2584-A Order directly from
National Library of
Canada at Ottawa

Evaluates the role of marketing institutions in inducing increased production of
export crops, comparing Burma's government-dominated and Thailand's private enter-
prise systems. Finds that provision of favorable markets and related services desired
by farmers was most effective to induce greater production. Author argues for free
enterprise marketing system with state restricted to regulatory role.

79. Farruk, Muhammad Osman. "The Structure and Performance of the Rice
Marketing System in East Pakistan." Cornell University, 1970.
(E) 31/06 p. 2576-A 70-24,032

Primarily based on data from 4 rice markets in urban consumption centers of
Dacca District and 22 primary and intermediate markets in their supply hinterland and
interviews with traders, millers, other market functionaries, and public officials.
Tests hypothesis of competitive, efficient price formation by analyses of spatial
interdependence among markets, spatial rice differentials between markets, and
intertemporal price variations. Finds that marketing system appears to work
reasonably efficiently within present technological framework.

80. Goldman, Richard Harris. "Seasonal Production Instability and Price Formation
in Indonesian Rice Markets, 1951-1970." Stanford University, 1974.
(E) 34/12 p. 7423-A 74-13,630

Based on time series of monthly rice prices for Djakarta, Bandung, Semarang,
and Surabaja for 1948-70 and monthly records of planted rice area and harvested
quantity estimates for 1953-69. Makes the first separate estimates of wet and dry
season rice production in Indonesia. Discusses impact of political and economic
factors. Estimates price flexibility for 1951-70. Forms model of seasonal price
formation and index of market expectations.

81. Hanpongpandh, Somporn. "The ASEAN Rice Security Reserves: A Simulation
Approach." Iowa State University, 1978.
(E) 39/10 p. 6249-A 7907253

Develops a stochastic simulation of a hypothetical rice security scheme.
Variables included effects of beginning buffer stock, sizes of the buffer stock,
releasing percentages of the buffer stock, and minimum Thai-Other exports on the
probabilities of meeting the ASEAN import preferences. Major policy issues identified
are funding arrangements and control mechanisms on the stock.

82. Herdt, Robert William. "An Analysis of the Aggregate Supply Function of
Agriculture in the Punjab (India)." University of Minnesota, 1969.
(E) 31/03 p. 895-A 70-15,742

Analyzes data on irrigated area, irrigated yield, non-irrigated area, and non-
irrigated yield for the 11 most important crops in 12 districts in the Punjab for 1907-

1946 and 1951-1964. Estimates aggregate supply elasticity for each district. 1907-
1946 data show positive elasticities, but results for 1951-1964 are less consistent due
to a much more dynamic agricultural situation. Outlines and analyzes a mathematical
model of a subsistence farmer, who combines economic functions of consumption and

83. Holmes, Arnold Stewart. "Market Structure and Conduct and Foodgrain Pricing
Efficiency in a North Indian Tahsil." University of Maryland, 1969.
(E) 31/03 p. 896-A 70-14940

Investigates pricing efficiency, defined as degree to which wholesale foodgrain
prices are accurately transmitted to farmers by the market. Based on case study of
Pura Khagan Village in Uttar Pradesh. Major finding is that pricing efficiency is
generally good, with a substantially competitive environment in the marketing system.

84. Hwang, Eui-Gak. "The Demand for Food and Non-Food by Farm and Non-Farm
Households in Korea." University of Oregon, 1976.
(E) 37/09 p. 5942-A 77-4725

Examines the hypothesis of differential consumption patterns in and between
farm and nonfarm households, with attention to the influence of disposable income,
relative prices, and family size on major consumer expenditure items. Uses both time
series and cross-sectional data. Estimates sex aggregate demand functions for non-
food and food by non-farmers, farmers, and total population. Derives parameters of
Engel curves for major consumer categories. Discusses theoretical issues of the
methodology and tests empirical validity of the functional forms used.

85. Konjing, Chaiwat. "Thailand's Maize-Export Agreement Policy: An Economic
Analysis." University of Minnesota, 1977.
(E) 38/03 p. 1546-A 77-18,976

Evaluates policy of export quotas and fixed export prices. Using monthly
contract data for 1970-74, statistically analyzes wholesale-export price linkages of
maize in Bangkok. Estimates relations between wholesale prices and stocks. Analyzes
structural changes in maize exporting firms and the export markets for Thai maize.
Argues for abandonment of the maize export agreement policy with adjustment toward
free trade.

86. Koomsup, Praiphal. "Export Instability and Export Diversification: A Case Study
of Thailand." Yale University, 1978.
(E) 39/05 p. 3051-A 7820156

Export diversification as a means of reducing fluctuations in export earnings is
examined. Effects and causes of export instability are studied empirically. Notes that
export commodity diversification after 1962-63 actually destabilized earnings due to
relatively unstable new exports. Studies actual diversion of export crops and effects
of the rice premium by construction of models with quadratic utility functions. Takes
into account producers' risk aversion.

87. Lengel, Francis Kenneth. "Markets in Thailand: An Analysis of the
Interrelationship Between Socio-Cultural and Economic Factors." Columbia
University, 1976.
(S) 38/01 p. 490-A 77-15,287

Describes the Thai marketplace with respect to market cycles, physical environ-
ment, collection and distribution network, capital requirements, and selling expenses.
Profiles major participants and analyzes interaction among customers, merchants, and
wholesalers. Examines capital formation and related issues such as profits, sales,
credit, methods of borrowing, and interest rates. Influence of ethnicity and kinship on
success in the market, notably for ethnic Chinese, is discussed. The role of the
marketplace in society, government policies, and policy recommendations is also
discussed. Data gathered by observation and several hundred interviews and conversa-
tions in urban and rural markets.

88.. Lessinger, Johanna Mayhew. "Produce Marketing in Madras City." Brandeis
University, 1977.
(A) 37/12 p. 7832-A 77-13,381

Describes the economic and social organization of a local produce marketing
system. Standard anthropological field techniques were employed in the central
wholesale market and in 11 city retail markets. Conducted 334 interviews with
merchants and did case studies related to the penetration of urban party politics into
market organization. Shows that there are two distinct sectors--wholesale and
market--differing in organization and social content. Finds that the marketing system
serves as an avenue of rural to urban migration. Does not find, however, that the
marketing system is an avenue of upward social mobility nor that caste is important in
the organization of trade.

89. Lui, Kui-On. "Transportation Development and Agricultural Marketing in
Changwat Loei, Northeastern Thailand." University of Michigan, 1973.
(G) 34/08 p. 3850-B 74-3679

Impacts of road development and marketing on farm practice are discussed for
an area changing from subsistence to commercial production. Data mainly from
interviews. Delineates operational network of the marketing sector. Benefits of roads
and changing marketing arrangements and role of marketing as source of credit and
farm information are investigated.

90. Luqmani, Mushtaq. "Improving the Effectiveness of Food Distribution in
Developing Countries: An Analysis of Karachi, Pakistan." Michigan State
University, 1978.
(M) 39/07 p. 4460-A 7900716

Examines urban food distribution system marked by high spoilage rates and price
fluctuations and other inefficiencies. Based on interviews with about 90 middlemen in
four retail markets, three wholesale markets, and in various neighborhood markets,
supplemented by general market observations and secondary data. Identifies major
impediments to development of better channel system and assesses attitudes of
middlemen, which generally would impede acceptance and development of the
efficiency alternatives discussed.

91. Madhavan, Murugappa Chettiar. "Supply Response of Indian Farmers: A Case
Study of Madras State." University of Wisconsin, 1969.
(E) 31/03 p. 898-A 70-3615

Formulates an acreage response model from a non-homogeneous production
function, assuming elasticities of acreage are a good approximation of elasticities of
output. Expresses actual planted area as a log-linear function. Results show farmers'
response to variations in product price and yield per acre, but no one variable is
important for all the crops. Suggests that policy to increase production should not just
rely on price movements but also on input subsidies and marketing policies.

92. Martin, Larry Joe. "The Impact of Improved Technology on Regional Production
and Prices of Major Food Commodities in Uttar Pradesh, India." University of
Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1972.
(E) 33/01 p. 44-A 72-19,879

The impact of improved seed varieties, fertilizer and irrigation is considered for
eight major food commodities in nine regions of Uttar Pradesh state. Multiple
regression is used to estimate equations for a model of alternative changes in
production, trade and pricing patterns. Supply and demand are projected for 1973-74.
Quadratic programming models are constructed to determine 1973-74 optimum pro-
duction, trade and prices for each crop. Foresees changes in location of production,
interregional trade and price relationships. Discusses implications for planning
marketing facilities and for current government price policies.

93. Mehta, Vasantkumar Mansukhlal. "India's Position in the World Peanut and Peanut
Oil Markets." North Carolina State University at Raleigh, 1970.
(E) 32/10 p. 5438-A 72-11,979

Quantitative analysis of recent changes in trade patterns for peanuts and peanut
oil among the main producing and consuming countries. Flows are studied for 1955,
when Indian exports were at record level, and 1965 when they were small. Long-run
projections are made for 1975. Data from UN, Government of India, various US
government agencies, and Commonwealth Economic Committee. .Conclusions about
India's export potential incomplete due to author's death.

94. Moon, Pal Yong. "An Analysis of Foodgrain Market in Korea." Oregon State
University, 1973.
(E) 33/09 p. 4637-A 73-7841

Investigates effects of foodgrain prices upon various economic variables, includ-
ing production, consumption at farm and urban levels, and farm sales. Empirical study
reveals significant producer response in production to price changes. A simultaneous
equation model is used for consumption behavior and farmers' sales decisions, with
attention to farmers' dual role as consumers and sellers of products. Analyses of
partial and total responses are followed by discussion of policy implications.

95. Murthy, A. N. Krishna. "Developing and Restructuring Regulated Markets in
Mysore State, India: An Alternative for Improving the Efficiency of Marketing
Food Grains." University of Tennessee, 1971.
(E) 32/05 p. 2272-A 71-29,480

Identifies major defects in existing regulated market system. Suggests model
design of physical facilities and operations, optimum location of markets, uniform
staffing patterns, formation of a State Agricultural Marketing Board, and formation of
a Market Development Research and Survey Unit. Study based on secondary data only.

96. Narendran, Vasantha Malliha. "The Market as an Articulator of the Integrated
Economy: The Anthropological Case of Pasir Mas, Malaysia." Cornell University,
(A) 39/11 p. 7014-A 7910761

Examination of patterns and processes of the distribution of consumption goods
in the marketing system of a multi-ethnic, rural community. Combines quantitative
data with analysis of the socioeconomic organization of the area. Stresses the
integrated economy concept with attention to interaction between the production and
exchange sphere, commodities exchanged and their origins, and people and processes
involved. Considers how the market articulates between social groups varying in
productive roles, differential accesses to wealth and capital, social status, and

97. Pandey, Vijay Kumar. "Intertemporal Pricing and Output Allocation of Major
Foodgrains in India." University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1971.
(E) 32/10 p. 5438-A 72-12,323

Considers rice and wheat allocation for period of Fourth Five-Year Plan (1969-70
to 1973-74) with modified Takayama and Judge intertemporal price equilibrium model.
Programming sub-models are used for the policy variables of: free market; an
integrated system of price controls (imposing both maximum and minimum limits on
prices); price controls with inter-commodity transfers (using wheat surpluses to cover
rice deficits). Land constraint is imposed along with others, and each case is tested
without government storage and then with fixed government storage.

98. Pant, Thakur Nath. "The Demand and Supply of Nitrogeneous Fertilizer in
Nepal." University of Maryland, 1970.
(E) 31/11 p. 5629-A 71-13,598

This study analyzes production, distribution, and use of fertilizer in Nepal,
constructing a fertilizer requirement model in a limited information context. Govern-
ment reports and "personal contact" with people in agricultural development programs
were the main sources of information. Favors small-scale plants, imports, and efforts
to increase fertilizer use by farmers.

99. Park, Siyoung. "The Changing Role of Periodic Markets in the Development of
Rural Korea." University of Minnesota, 1977.
(G) 38/10 p. 6318-A 7802702

Discusses the development process with respect to urban and rural areas of
Korea. Identifies three major effects of periodic markets: initially commercializing
the rural economy; acting as "schools of entrepreneurship;" development from isolated

market areas to an integrated whole, in which small markets have given way to larger
adjacent markets. Discusses government policies which influence market location,
periodicities, and the behavior of traders.

100. Pinthong, Chirmsak. "A Price Analysis of the Thai Rice Marketing System."
Stanford University, 1978.
(E) 38/12 p. 7462-A 7808822

Investigates competitiveness of the internal market to determine impact of rice
premiums and reserve requirements. Conducted survey of rice marketing during 1976.
Discusses market structure, the transportation structure and its significance in the
rice market, and the formation of prices including institutional influences. Develops a
simple linkage model to study the marketing change relative to cost. Also considers
market connection, marginal price effect, and market technical efficiency.

101. Pitt, Mark Martin. "Economic Policy and Agricultural Development in
Indonesia." University of California at Berkeley, 1977.
(E) 38/08 p. 4950-A 7731500

Measures distorting effects of government intervention in agricultural markets
on agricultural supply. Mainly deals with control of foreign trade and controls on
domestic prices of commodities, notably rice. Develops supply models for major crops
to evaluate resource allocation effects of intervention.

102. Pollak, Peter Karl. "Economic Analysis of Oilseed Markets in Thailand."
University of Minnesota, 1974.
(E) 35/12 p. 7499-A 75-12,142

Considers the four major oilseed crops: soybeans, peanuts, sesame, and castor
beans. Statistically analyzes supply response. Discusses marketing patterns: at farm
level, heavily influenced by farmers' relationship to landlords, merchants and money
lenders; at local markets; at the Bangkok wholesale market which receives most of the
harvest. Uses market surveys in analysis of prices. Finds markets to be competitive
in general.

103. Rahman, Md. Lutfur. "Rice Demand and Supply Situations in Bangladesh and
Pakistan and Policy Implications." Texas A&M University, 1973.
(E) 34/03 p. 971-A 73-21,694

Analysis of rice production, acreage and yield on supply side and analysis of
demand based on alternative sets of assumptions concerning population and income.
Long-term projections (to 1985-86) indicate that Bangladesh will continue to import
while Pakistan's exportable surplus will increase greatly. Extensive discussion of
policy issues such as population control, yield expansion, flood control, and concession-
ary sales and price supports of developed countries.

104. Raval, Dinker Shankerlal. "A Comparative Study of Cooperative Marketing of
Agricultural Produce in India and the United States." George Washington
University, 1972.
(B) 33/01 p. 21-A 72-19,745

Studies the philosophy, history, structure functions, financing and business
methods of cooperative marketing in both countries. Identifies major problems in
India and explores the feasibility of applying US experience to their solution. Makes
specific recommendations to improve the effectiveness of the Indian cooperative
marketing system.

105. Raychaudhuri, Gaurisankar. "The Scope and Functioning of Commodity Futures
Markets in India (1954-1970)." Stanford University, 1975.
(E) 36/06 p. 3886-A 75-25,596

Evaluation of the performance of commodity futures markets in India, using
methods applied to American markets and other tests dictated by data availability.
Finds that the markets appear to depend upon commercial use by hedgers and that
they have evoked unbiased price estimates for the most part. In some cases,
inadequate speculation restricts hedging. Argues that government regulation of the
markets is ambivalent and tends to harm development of the markets.

106. Recto, Aida Eguia. "An Analysis of the International Demand for Philippine
Coconut Products." University of Minnesota, 1971.
(E) 32/05 p. 2273-A 71-28,278

Aggregate and regional demand functions for copra, coconut oil, copra meal,
and dessicated coconut from 1950 to 1967 are estimated. Interrelationships in the
market for Philippine coconut products are described by a simultaneous equation
model. Price and income elasticities are derived. The impact of changes in some
exogenous variables on the coconut market is analyzed.

107. Rogers, Beatrice Lorge. "Consumer Food Price Subsidies and Subsidized Food
Distribution Systems in Pakistan." Brandeis University', 1978.
(E) 39/05 p. 3053-A 7821714

Deals with food subsidies as a nutrition intervention. Contends that subsidy can
have cost-effective, beneficial nutritional impact, avoid leakages to wealthy, and
result in less black marketeering by selection of appropriate food. This is demon-
strated by analyses of Pakistan's subsidized system for wheat, an economically inferior
staple used disproportionately by the poor, for which a free market exists, and for
sugar, a luxury product monopolized by the government.

108. Rosegrant, Mark Williams. "Choice of Technology, Production, and Income for
Philippine Rice Farmers: Agricultural Policy and Farmer Decision Making."
University of Michigan, 1978.
(E) 39/06 p. 3716-A 7822995

Estimates yield potential of modern rice varieties under Philippine conditions.
Uses a multi-season model of farmer decision making to estimate the impact of
farmer attitudes toward risk. Evaluates the impact of alternative programs of
fertilizer subsidies, credit, and rice support programs on farmer choice of inputs,
production and income, with attention to the costs of these programs.

109. Ruppert, David Edward. "Marketing at the Crossroads: Ethnic Diversity in a
Periodic Market in the Highland Philippines." University of Arizona, 1979.
(A) 39/12 p. 7412-A 7912541

Examines ethnic diversity in northern Lucon on two levels. On the regional
level, different ethnic groups are considered in terms of territorial habitation,
subsistence activities, and roles in early inter-ethnic trading patterns. On the personal
or inter-actional level, a multi-ethnic periodic market is studied to determine the role
of ethnicity in the structure and social organization of market activities.

110. Smith, Ian Roger. "An Economic Analysis of the Structure and Performance of
the Milkfish (Chanos Chanos Forskal) Fry Industry in the Philippines and Related
Aquaculture Development Policies." University of Hawaii, 1978.
(E) 39/08 p. 5057-A

Discusses alleged industry problems including annual shortage of catch, high fry
mortality rates in transport, failure of pricing system to perform its spatial and farm
allocative functions, and exploitation of fry gatherers and fish pond operators by
middlemen. Analyzes hierarchical fry distribution system and strategies to minimize
risk to intermediaries. Finds industry performance better than supposed but still
identifies several limitations.

111. Sung, Bai Yung. "The Demand for Fertilizer in Korea." University of
Minnesota, 1974.
(E) 35/02 p. 691-A 74-17,284

Estimates aggregate demand, totally and by nutrient, through time series
analysis for 1960-72. Effects of economic, physical, and behavioral variables were
evaluated. Estimated fertilizer response functions were used to derive optimum levels
of fertilizer use. Conducted interview survey of 300 farms for information on
variables affecting farmer purchasing patterns. Forecasts national and regional
consumption, both totally and by nutrient, for 1985.

112. Swartzberg, Leon. "The North Indian Peasant Goes to Market." Columbia
University, 1970.
(A) 31/09 p. 5137-B 71-6266

Examination of relationship of a town in Bihar and its market economy with a
nearby village and 15 percent economy. Large contrasts in economic and social
patterns of the village and town allow for separate conceptualization as householding
and marketing.

113. Tamin, Mokhtar. "Rice Self-Sufficiency in West Malaysia: Micro-economic
Implications." Stanford University, 1978.
(E) 39/02 p. 1003-A 7814214

The attempt for self-sufficiency involves transforming rice sector from single
to double-cropping using irrigation. Policies such as subsidized fertilizer and irrigation
water rates and an import mixing and licensing scheme are evalulated for effects on
input demand and output supply. Uses cross-sectional survey of farms in Muda

Irrigation Region in northwest of West Malaysia in model based on profit maximizing
assumption. Empirically estimates: farm output supply function, farm input demand
function, cross-price elasticities of output supply and input demand, indirect produc-
tion function, and relative economic efficiency among categories of farms.

114. Teken, Igusti Bagus. "Supply of and Demand for Indonesian Rubber." Purdue
University, 1971.
(E) 32/02 p. 637-A 71-20555

Quantitative study, using a simultaneous equations model, with data mainly
from Statistical Pocketbook of Indonesia and United Nations publications. Analyzes
trends in production in Indonesia and worldwide, identifies shifters in demand, and
finds demand for Indonesian rubber in world market to be price inelastic. Recom-
mends shifting some resources now devoted to rubber to other uses.

115. Thiam, Tan Bock. "Prices and Trade Prospects for Malaysian Palm Oil." North
Carolina State University at Raleigh, 1973.
(E) 34/09 p. 5439-A 74-5482

Exploration of production and marketing policies for the Malaysian government
to dampen expected fall in palm oil prices. Trade quantities and prices are analyzed in
a market simulation model with reactive programming. Estimates production and
export supplies for the major producing countries for 1975 and 1980 and demand
functions for these years. A program of concessionary sales appears to be one of the
most useful policy alternatives.

116. Tseng, Chieh-Hsin. "The Consumption and Demand for Soybeans in Taiwan,
China." Ohio State University, 1971.
(E) 32/11 p. 5975-A 72-15312

Uses data from 1961 to 1970 market statistics, from family consumption
patterns from 1969 family bookkeeping records, and from supplemental interviews
with participants in soybean marketing system. A multiple regression model is
derived. Identifies marketing problem for local soybeans resulting in lower prices than
imports. Income elasticities are estimated which apparently differ for income groups.
Future demand for soybeans was projected for 1975 and 1980.

117. Von Oppen, Matthias Konrad. "Optimal Size and Location of Marketing
Facilities for Soybeans in India." University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,
(E) 33/10 p. 5379-A 73-10,076

Discusses potential production and consumption of soybeans and importance of
adequate marketing channels. Develops a spatial equilibrium simulation model
consisting of a quadratic programming model of interregional mode and a single
equation location model. Determines optimal flows of soybeans and soy products
among regions, price levels and processing capacities required per region, number and
size of plants and processing costs per region on basis of quantities of soybeans
assembled and processed and of soy meal distributed.

118. Wang, George Shen-yuan. "An Empirical Study of the Marketing System of the
Canning Industry in Taiwan." Saint Louis University, 1975.
(B) 36/06 p. 3861-A 75-26,337

Presents background on Taiwan's economic development. Analyzes the struc-
ture and development of the canning industry for 1952-1972, mainly using data from
government and industry records and documents. Focus is on structure and operations
of the export marketing system, in which government and industry work collectively.
Findings and implications are discussed.

119. Wattanutchariya, Sarun. "Demand and Supply Analysis of Rice Production in
Thailand (with Reference to Government Policies on Prices)." Texas A&M
University, 1978.
(E) 39/07 p. 4397-A 7901024

Investigation of rice export premium and rice reserve requirement. Constructs
an econometric model of supply, demand, and price relationships. Elimination of rice
premium would benefit farmers, exporters, and foreign consumers by higher internal
prices and lower export prices while hurting Thai consumers and the government would
lose a source of revenue. Explores use of rice premium as a tool to stabilize internal
prices in case of crop failure or increased external demand.

120. Whang, Il-Chung. "An Ecological Study of the Food Marketing System of an
Underdeveloped Country With Special Reference to Korea Since 1945 to 1967."
Washington University, 1970.
(B) ,. 31/09 p. 4340-A 70-22,280

Notes the evolution of the system from chaos to more orderly conditions and
increasing competition and rationalization. The food marketing system has been
slower than non-food marketing to respond to the changing environment. Identifies
problems and generalizations about the nature of the Korean food marketing system.

121. Yoo, Jongtack. "A Short and Long-Run Analysis of the Korean Rural Demand for
Food and Its Implications to Agricultural Policies." Michigan State University,
(E) 36/06 p. 3890-A 75-27,360

Complexity of rural demand analysis, because rural consumers are also produc-
ers of most foods consumed, is discussed. Using a state adjustment model, investi-
gates if consumers adjust their consumption according to habit or according to
physical inventory level. Finds no uniformity about magnitudes of short and long-run
effects. Relevance of food characteristics to policy is noted. Considers methodologi-
cal issues and limitations.


122. Epple, George Martin. "Group Dynamics and the Development of a
Fish-Marketing Cooperative: The La Boye Fisherman-Townsmen of Grenada,
West Indies." Brandeis University, 1973.
(A) 34/07 p. 3059-B 73-32,377

Analyzes the social and economic factors affecting the development and
acceptance of a successful marketing cooperative. Study based on data collected in
1969-70 among fishermen in Grenville area, with a substantive, or institutional,
approach within economic anthropology. Tests various assumptions about acceptance
or rejection of cooperatives in other Caribbean fishing communities and formulates a
model of the relationship between problem responses and features of the local social

123. Gussler, Judith Danford. "Nutritional Implications of Food Distribution
Networks in St. Kitts." Ohio State University, 1975.
(A) 36/11 p. 7500-A 76-9976

Analysis of the differential distribution of food within a delimited segment of
Kittitian society and consideration of effects upon individual diet. Data gathered in a
Kittitian village in 1972 and 1973 by a combination of participant observation,
informal discussion, formal interviewing, and food recall. Explores hypothesis that
diet is in part a function of the individual's locus and involvement in a network of
social relationships.

124. Werge, Robert Wendall. "Agricultural Development in Clear Creek: Adaptive
Strategies and Economic Roles in the Dominican Settlement." University of
Florida, 1975.
(A) 36/12 p. 8159-A 76-12,149

Study of two contrasting agricultural systems in a small central mountain
settlement in the Dominican Republic: one producing commercial vegetable crops for
urban markets using modern methods and the other a traditional swidden farming
system. Observes wide adoption of new non-agricultural economic roles linking the
flow of cash and goods between the settlement and the outside. Inability of small
farmers to remain in commercial production and limitations on swidden farming by
more environmental and political constraints are relegating many people to marginal
cash employment.

125. Williams, Randolph Lambert. "The Growth, Structure, and Performance of the
Coffee Industry of Jamaica." Columbia University, 1973.
(E) 35/02 p. 693-A 74-17,917

Considers all coffee growers registered with the Coffee Industry Board and all
processing plants administered by the Board. The main social objectives pursued by
public management since World War II are identified and the industry's performance in
achieving these is evaluated. Among findings is evidence that processing sector is
organized consistently with rational resource use and economies of large-scale
production and that investment policy has been consistent with minimizing long-run
average cost of processing.


126. Alderman, Ralph Heath. "A Geographic Analysis of the Beef Cattle Industry of
Honduras." Michigan State University, 1973.
(G) 34/10 p. 5016-B 74-5995

Historical and physical patterns of the industry are first examined. The spatial
analysis of beef cattle production, transportation, processing, and marketing follows,
based on ranch interviews, field observations, and use of unpublished agricultural
census data. Major regions and sub-regions are defined. Problems are identified and
recommendations made for improving the industry.

127. Alvarez, 3ose. "Traditional and Commercial Farm Supply Response in
Agricultural Development: The Case of Basic Grains in Guatemala." University
of Florida, 1977.
(E) 38/07 p. 4274-A 77-29,221

Market supply functions for each basic grain in different regions are estimated.
Computes income, farm size, and price elasticities of market supply. Formulates a
model conceptualizing the small farmer's basic economic system. Uses data from 1974
Small Farmer Credit Survey conducted by the Guatemalan government and USAID.
Results indicate that the goal of massive increases in supply is not likely to be

128. Ambrose, David Meredith. "A Study of Marketing Fish Protein Concentrate
0 Enriched Products for Preschool Children in Latin America." George Washington
University, 1971.
(B) 32/10 p. 5408-A 72-12640

Considers the relative importance of 17 dominant environmental factors
influencing marketing strategy of a protein-enriched product. Conclusions based on
surveys of experts in marketing, nutrition, food, technology, and Latin American
affairs. Author stresses the need to use new, dynamic strategies in place of
traditional concepts.

129. Andrew, Christopher Otis. "Improving Performance of the
Production-Distribution System for Potatoes in Colombia." Michigan State
University, 1969.
(E) 31/03 p. 892-A 70-14,981

Identification and analysis of marketing problems for potato subsector. Pri-
mary data sources were producers in Boyaca2, Cundinamarca, and Narifio; truckers
entering and leaving Cali and Bogota; processors in Cali and Bogota; and wholesalers,
retailers, and consumers in Bogota. Price instability is the major problem due to
limited storage and other causes. Makes numerous suggestions to improve perfor-

130. Appleby, Gordon. "Exportation and Its Aftermath: The Spatio-Economic
Evolution of the Regional Marketing System in Highland Puno, Peru." Stanford
University, 1978.
(A) 39/09 p. 5590-A 7905814

Studies from a spatial perspective economic and demographic changes in the
rural and urban sectors of the southern department of Puno during the period of wool-

export, 1830-1955. These changes are related to the rise of domestic marketing
system. Central-place theory is used to analyze the structure and operation of the
new regional system. Data for analysis of contemporary marketing based on censuses
and interviews conducted in all markets of Puno in 1973-74.

131. Baby, Vladimir 3aime. "An Analysis of the Economic Feasibility and
Recommendations for Increased Sorghum Production and Utilization in
Colombia." University of Nebraska, 1973.
(E) 34/05 p. 2126-A 73-25,421

Examines the sorghum situation worldwide and in Colombia with respect to area
planted, production, yield, and potential for expansion. The main demand for sorghum
is as an input in poultry rations. Increasing production and utilization appears feasible
since demand by feed mixers is strong, but relatively high poultry prices and low per
capital income may limit improvements in dietary levels in Colombia.

132. Biechler, Michael Joseph. "The Coffee Industry of Guatemala: A Geographic
Analysis." Michigan State University, 1970.
(G) 31/07 p. 4125-B 71-2033

Discusses historical and current role of coffee in national economy. Analyzes
and maps the distribution of production, commerce, and movement. Information
mainly from field investigations and interviews, topographic maps and air photos, and
statistics from growers' associations. Among conclusions, notes that exporters are
doing more processing and producers less than before, while coffee exporting seems to
be getting more concentrated.

133. Brown, Loyd Cecil. "An Economic Analysis of the Bolivian Poultry Industry."
University of Maryland, 1974.
(E) 35/07 p. 4008-A 74-29,755

Considers factors affecting supply and demand for poultry meat and eggs and
conditions of related sectors of the economy in order to identify measures to reduce
costs of production, allowing farmers to expand output. Information drawn from a
sample of 31 egg producers, 39 broiler producers, 4 hatcheries, and 6 feed dealers, as
well as data from other sources. Suggests numerous cost-reducing measures related to
production, marketing, research, and extension. Finds demand highly inelastic but
argues that lower costs could result in consumer price falling into a more elastic range
of the demand curve.

134. Buechler, Judith-Maria. "Peasant Marketing and Social Revolution in the State
of La Paz, Bolivia." McGill University, 1972.
(A) 34/02 p. 499-B Order directly from
National Library of
Canada at Ottawa

Studies historical background, spatial patterning, and interpersonal dimensions
of marketing in rural communities, towns, and the city of La Paz in La Paz State.
Includes analysis of processual network. Since the social revolution and agrarian
reform of 1952-53, incipient market economy, in which Aymara and Quechua Indian

participation was mainly on village level with mestizo intermediaries, has changed to a
market system in which these peasants participate on village, regional, and urban

135. Church, Phillip Ely. "Traditional Agricultural Markets in Guatemala." Univer-
sity of Oregon, 1970.
(E) 32/01 p. 47-A 71-16803

This study looks at marketing services and operations which add to the value of
farm products and at the price mechanism guiding resource allocation. These are
compared to a perfectly competitive model. Data used were: official government
price data for 70 rural markets and Guatemala City, with some personally collected
figures for spot-checks; official census figures and field surveys of producers,
transporters, and food processors for structural information; and interviews with
government agencies, credit institutions, and food manufacturing firms. Concludes
that system results in losses, retarded growth of output, and incomplete communica-
tion of price information. Makes policy recommendations.

136. Clay, Jason W. "The Articulation of Non-Capitalist Agricultural Production
Systems With Capitalist Exchange Systems: The Case of Garanhuns, Brazil,
1845-1977." Cornell University, 1979.
(A) 39/11 p. 6844-A 7910735

Concerns a transitional ecological zone in the interior of the Northeast of
Brazil. Historical discussion of three main types of influences on agricultural
production systems in the region: ecological, local, and extra-local. Traces those
influences which have most conditioned individual strategies of production. Relates
changes in strategies to changes in local, social, and political organization.

137. Del Fa, Mario Jorge. "Economic and Legal Factors in the Marketing of Selected
Agricultural Products in Argentina: The Generation of Transactions Costs."
University of Wisconsin at Madison, 1975.
(E) 36/12 p. 8199-A 76-6078

Concerns farm level marketing transactions for beef cattle, wheat, corn and
sorghum, emphasizing the delayed payment practices. Statistically estimates actual
and potential extent of transactions costs based on primary data from surveys of:
farmers' sales transactions for 1967-70 in the northwestern central area of the
Pampean region; retail beef shop transactions from differentiated urban and rural
locales; and records of 4 law offices located in areas of farmer surveys and city of
Buenos Aires. Also conducted informal surveys of marketing and processing sectors,
government agencies (including banks) and private institutions, offices, and organiza-
tions. Discussion of findings stresses the legal variables impact on costs.

138. Feldens, Aray Miguel. "A Transportation-Storage Network Analysis of Wheat
and Soybeans in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil." Ohio State University, 1978.
(E) 39/10 p. 6248-A 7908144

Determines optimum flows of soybeans, soy meal, and wheat through a
capacitated transportation model, minimizing transportation and storage costs

between production points, processing plants, and export ports. Evaluates the effects
on costs and flows for 11 alternative modes of transportation and storage. Identifies
bottlenecks and constraints in the existing transfer system.

139. Fletschner, Carlos Alberto. "Structural Patterns in the Marketing of Selected
Agricultural Products in Chile: The Position of Small and Large Growers."
University of Wisconsin, 1969.
(E) 31/02 p. 537-A 70-3530

Market structure analysis in the context of agricultural development. The
study includes some institutions external to the market and allowance for dynamic
evolution of the system. Considers three different producing areas for each of three
products: rice, potatoes, and tomatoes. Identifies many problems such as inadequate
infrastructure, poor institutional performance, the disadvantaged position of small
growers, government regulations to protect consumers that hurt producers, and
concentration in agricultural product industries.

140. Frigerio, Norberto. "A Preliminary Cost Comparison of Alternative Wholesale
Facility Arrangements in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Region." Michigan
State University, 1973.
(E) 34/06 p. 2872-A 73-29,699

Examination of the present urban distribution system for fresh fruits and
vegetables, largely based on secondary data. Assesses and compares product market-
ing costs of proposed single wholesale markets, a decentralized alternative with four
or five markets, and current system. Warns that overall improvement in marketing
system requires more substantial changes than facilities alone.

141. Garcia, Philip. "Marketing Linkages of Small Farms: A Study of the Maize
Market in Northern Vera Cruz, Mexico." Cornell University, 1978.
(E) 39/01 p. 380-A 7809826

Examines interactions of small farmer and marketing system. Describes the
rural maize marketing system, evaluating pricing efficiency, and government market-
ing programs, assessing farmer participation in them. Assesses price responsiveness of
marketed surplus. Collected primary data from farmers, local buyers, and government
marketing officials. Despite some monopsony, finds system operating reasonably well.
Little participation in government programs is observed. Suggests more effective

142. Gordon, Donald Raymond. "The Market System of the Mesquital Valley of
Mexico and the Periodic Marketing Model." University of Oregon, 1974.
(A) 35/08 p. 4768-A 75-3877

Discusses the limits of the periodicity paradigm which mainly focuses on
temporal-spatial phenomena but does not evaluate the movement from market to
market of personnel. Study based on data quantitatively tracing the occurrence of
marketeers, concessions, and vehicles through the market area in the Mesquital Valley.

Results suggest that a re-evaluation of the temporal-spatial concepts of market
circuit, ring, or cycle is necessary.

143. Guthrie, Colin Bain. "Food Distribution in a Latin American City (Call,
Colombia)." Michigan State University, 1972.
(B) 33/05 p. 1902-A 72-29,970

Evaluates performance of the food distribution system, based on direct observa-
tion and primary data from interviews and surveys. Examines food consumption habits
through a market basket survey and purchasing habits and preferences through
comparison of purchasing patterns with attitudes towards types of food retailers.
Analyzes performance of the principal food distribution institutions, wholesalers and
retailers and makes recommendations for improvements.

144. Hanneson, Bill. "Periodic Markets and Central Places in the Chiquinquira-Ubate
Area of the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes." University of Oregon,
(G) 31/03 p. 1346-B 70-15,341

Traces the development of the periodic market system from pre-Colombian
times to present. Focuses on central places, the transportation system, and areal units
of administration. Data drawn from historical documents, field observation, and
extensive interviews. Classifies markets and establishes a hierarchy. Main conclusion
is that the periodic market is an efficient exchange mechanism in this region with
limited effective demand.

145. Hilger, Marye Charlese Tharp. "Consumer Perceptions of a Public Marketer:
The Case of CONASUPO in Monterrey, Mexico." University of Texas at Austin,
(M) 37/08 p. 5317-A 77-3914

Describes CONASUPO, a public agency acting as a vertically integrated
channel of distribution, which aims at developing internal markets, subsidizing low
income consumers and producers, and increasing efficiency in marketing of foodstuffs.
Verifies hypothesis that public marketer is perceived as unique by consumers but that
patronage can significantly affect those impressions. Uses a sample of consumers in
Monterrey to profile shoppers and attitudes for both CONASUPO patrons and non-

146. Kelsey, Thomas Fisk. "The Beef Cattle Industry in the Rorafma Savannas: A
Potential Supply for Brazil's North." University of Florida, 1972.
(G) 34/01 p. 270-B 73-15,582

Examines likely impact of new all-weather, 400-mile road from urban center of
Manaus to the Roraima ranching area, now isolated from major markets for most of
the year. Road will give ranchers greater access to material inputs at less cost and
year-round ability to reach Manaus, where a critical shortage of beef currently exists.

147. La Lone, Darrell Eugene. "Historical Contexts of Trade and Markets in the
Peruvian Andes." University of Michigan, 1978.
(A) 39/10 p. 6204-A 7907114

Considers contexts through which Andeans are linked to regional, national, and
world economies. Discusses the economic organization of trade in the Inca Empire,
the Spanish colonial period, and the Republic of Peru and its entanglements to the
world economy and impacts on the southern highlands. Based on fieldwork in 1973 and
1974, studies in detail relations between Sicuani, the principal market town, and
periodic marketplaces in its rural hinterland in Canas and Canchis provinces.

148. Matetic, Jorge Riestra. "An Economic Analysis of the Chilean Fresh Fruit and
Vegetable Export Sector." University of Minnesota, 1971.
(E) 32/03 p. 1152-A 71-22,226

Examines the structure, firm conduct, and inter-firm relationships of the export
marketing industry. Exporting tends to be highly concentrated while the producer side
is largely atomistic. The lack of producer integration and producer ignorance
concerning the export market price situation are also important. The solution requires
both industry and government actions, possibly through well-organized cooperatives
and a fruit and vegetable export board.

149. Paiz, Rodolfo E. "Experimenting with New Concepts of Retail Food Distribution
in a Developing Environment." Harvard University, 1974.
(B) 35/10 p. 6310-A 75-9474

Studies socioeconomic impact of a modern self-service store in an urban, low-
income community in Guatemala. Conducted consumer interviews and closely
monitored management of a pilot store. Finds traditional retailers efficient but
coordination in the food distribution system lacking.

150. Penna, Julio Alberto. "Optimal Storage and Export Levels of a Tradeable
Product and Their Relationship with Annual Price Variability: The Case of Corn
in Brazil." Purdue University, 1974.
(E) 36/02 p. 1000-A 75-10,939

Discusses three policies for regulating price variability: free trade policy in
which exports and imports respond freely to supply and demand conditions; a storage
policy in which some portion of domestic supply can be stored for use in the next year;
and a foreign exchange accumulation policy in which foreign exchange earned by
exports in one year can be used as a buffer to import grain in future years. Also
considers a mixed policy case combining storage and foreign exchange accumulation.
Estimates price variabilities and social gains of the alternative cases.

151. Posada, Alvaro. "A Simulation Analysis of Policies for the Northern Colombia
Beef Cattle Industry." Michigan State University, 1974.
(E) 35/06 p. 3255-A 74-27,471

Analysis concerns the Costa, Colombia's most important beef producing region,
and a cattle development, plan, which includes credit, technical assistance, export

subsidies, and improved marketing and slaughtering facilities. Develops a simulation
model to analyze effects of production incentives on farmers' decisions to adopt new
production methods, and to estimate the effect of expanded regional production on
farmers' incomes, government revenues, domestic consumption, and sustained export

152. Pringle, George Edward. "A Temporal-Spatial Analysis of Sugar Production and
Marketing in Puerto Rico." University of Wisconsin, 1969.
(E) 31/02 p. 541-A 70-3666

Forecasts supply and demand for sugar and approximates an optimal adjustment
by the industry which is on the decline in Puerto Rico. Uses a survey of raw and
refined sugar factories for cost information, a household sample survey for consump-
tion data, and secondary data. Transportation models are employed to analyze
prospective locations of raw and refined sugar processing.

153. Ricardo, 3ose Manual. "An Analysis of the Effects of Alternative Agriculture
Processing Strategies with Multiple Objectives on Colombian Economic
Development." University of Maryland, 1976.
(E) 37/06 p. 3790-A 76-28,717

Linear programming analysis of the agricultural processing sector. Defines and
describes the structure and considers the extent to which alternative economic
strategies with multiple goals might have affected the sector and the economic
development of the country. Five different objective functions are used under three
different sets of alternative strategies. Aim of model is to provide a tool to assist
planners and decision makers in evaluations of overall agro-industrial development
strategies with multiple goals.

154. Sales de Souza, Francisco Araujo. "An Economic Analysis of the Greater Sao
Paulo Fluid Milk Market." Vanderbilt University, 1977.
(E) 38/03 p. 1549-A 77-19,399

Reviews theoretical concepts relevant to the analysis of milk prices. Describes
the market situation in Greater Sao Paulo area and the "grade price plan" adopted.
Production responses and disposal of individual producers are analyzed theoretically
and empirically. Gives descriptive analyses of processing, distribution, and public
control measures. Refers to aspects of U.S. experience and proposes a "workable"
form of control, "insulating" Grade B milk from both the manufacturing section of the
dairy industry and the beef industry, helping to eliminate seasonal shortages and
improve quality.

155. Sampaio, Yony de Sa Barretto. "An Analysis of the Market for Dry Edible Beans
in Northeast Brazil." University of California at Davis, 1974.
(E) 35/04 p. 1836-A 74-21,628

Beans, a subsistence crop grown mainly in the most backward areas, is used as a
case study to analyze the interactions between regions and crop mixes under the
pressure of modernization. Attempts to uncover distributional relations obscured by
aggregate views. Observes the potential increase in poverty as modernization

156. Sanford, Gordon Stuart. "Estimation of Supply and Demand Relationships for
Selected Pulses on the Coast of Peru." North Carolina State University at
Raleigh, 1976.
(E) 37/06 p. 3791-A 76-28,513

Estimates are made for use in evaluating the possible outcome of a farm
support program for yellow beans, lima beans, and chickpeas. The demand equation is
based on a regression analysis of monthly observations of estimated per capital
consumption in the Lima wholesale market paired with corresponding unit price.
Linear programming is applied to representative resource situations to estimate a
supply curve. Estimates a benchmark equilibrium price and quantity, price elasticities
at farm and wholesale levels, and the income elasticity of demand.

157. Sepulveda Silva, Sergio. "The Impact of Modern Technologies Upon Factor
Shares and Employment in Integrated Rural Development Districts in Colombia."
Cornell University, 1978.
(E) 39/04 p. 2429-A 7817842

Assessment of the Colombian Integrated Rural Development program's attempt
to increase yields and also increase employment in regions of minifundios. Based on a
random sample of farmers in Caqueza and Rionegro districts stratified according to
traditional or modern methods used in maize-beans and potato-peas production. Found
that relative proximity to infrastructural services improved access to local markets,
thereby expediting adoption of induced technological change. Analyzes productivity,
factor shares, marketable surplus, time schedules and labor demand, and discusses
policy implications of the study.

158. Shwedel, S. Kenneth. "Marketing Problems of Small Farm Agriculture: A Case
Study of the Costa Rican Potato Market." Michigan State University, 1977.
(E) 38/03 p. 1549-A 77-18,547

Formulates a conceptual framework to explain dualistic marketing system
development. Small farmers make limited use of contract-like agreements for the
exchange of potatoes, in contrast to large farm trade. Poor vertical coordination and
higher risks mark small farm trade. Suggests strategies for improved marketing
performance involving technical assistance, information programs, capital improve-
ments, and group action programs.

159. Silva, Alvaro. "Evaluation of Food Market Reform: Corabastos-Bogota."
Michigan State University, 1976.
(E) 37/12 p. 7877-A 77-11,709

Poor performance of the food marketing system, especially channels serving
low and middle-income consumers, led to formation of Corabastos, a semi-public
agency initially following the market reform approach of LAMP of Michigan State
University. A modified structure, conduct, performance framework combined with an
institution-building approach was used in the analysis. Data included case studies with
Corabastos' leaders and government officials; surveys of farmers, wholesalers, and
retailers; in-depth case studies with farmers, merchants, truckers, wholesalers,
institutional buyers and consumers in key roles, and other sources. Evaluation
indicates benefits from the reforms but also substantial need for more improvements.

160. Simpson, James Rodney. "International Trade in Beef and Economic
Development of Selected South American Countries." Texas A&M University,
(E) 35/04 p. 1836-A 74-21,223

Formulates guidelines for decisions relating to investments, marketing, devel-
opment, and policy in the Latin American beef industry. Considers five types of beef
exports--live cows, bone-in beef quarters, manufacturing beef, cooked/frozen beef,
and canned beef--for Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Describes world
trade in canned beef and all beef with projections to 1985 and estimates output and
income multiplier effects. Makes estimates of market demand, supply, and effect on
economic development from various export forms. Supports the provision of incen-
tives for processed beef products.

161. Smith, Carol Ann Gulley. "The Domestic Marketing System in Western
Guatemala: An Economic, Locational and Cultural Analysis." Stanford
University, 1972.
(A) 33/06 p. 2453-B 72-30,705

Uses central-place theory to analyze the distribution and articulation of market
centers in the maximal hinterland of Quezaltenango. The basic economic and social
characteristics of western Guatemala are discussed and then distribution patterns are
described. Analyzes marketplace centrality through locational analysis. Develops a
model for marketplace location and presents a developmental sequence for central
places. Study includes non-economic aspects and attention to the dualized agrarian

162. Smith, Vernon Arthur. "Beef Cattle Production and Marketing in Guanacaste,
Costa Rica." University of Florida, 1970.
(G) 31/11 p. 6690-B 71-13,460

Examines effects on, and variability of, individual components and correlation
of more important components to each other in the production and marketing system,
with emphasis on regional variation of components. Includes cost-benefit analysis of
investments within system. Concludes that in general the industry is economically
healthy and that marketing services and channels are adequate, although there are
regional disparities.

163. Stulp, Valter Jose. "Effects of Fertilizer Prices Under Risk on the Production of
Wheat and Soybeans in Brazil." University of Kentucky, 1977.
(E) 39/06 p. 3717-A 7824425

Estimates the effects of fertilizer price changes on wheat-soybean production
and fertilizer use at both farm and regional levels. Based on a sample of farms from
Carazinho and Nao Me Toque countries in Rio Grande do Sul region. Uses a
lexicographic utility maximization approach in programming five representative
farms, with consideration of risk due to stochasticity of production.

164. Swanberg, Kenneth Gustaf. "The Potential Impact on Nutritional Status of
Reducing Marketing Costs Through Marketing System Manipulating in Low
Income Developing Countries." Cornell University, 1973.
(E) 34/11 p. 6837-A 74-10,215

Food consumption and marketing systems are observed for the Bogota market
area of Colombia. Conducted survey of low income families for consumption data.

Economic efficiency for the wholesale and retail distribution systems is analyzed by
examination of market channels, structure, capacity utilization, and estimates of
returns to labor for marketing services. Inefficiencies in the form of atomistic
competition and oligopoly at various levels are described. Discusses improvements to
reduce food prices, generating an income shift toward the poor.

165. Swetnam, John Jesse. "The Open Gateway: Social and Economic Interaction in
a Guatemalan Marketplace." University of Pennsylvania, 1975.
(A) 36/12 p. 8157-A 76-12,349

Ethnographic study in Antigua based on 16 months of fieldwork. Marketplace is
seen as an institution relating urban and rural dwellers in social and economic
relationships. Considers the system of favored customers clientses, strategies used to
minimize risk, suppression of interethnic conflicts, and other issues.

166. Symanski, Richard Raymond. "Periodic Markets of Andean Colombia." Syracuse
University, 1971.
(G) 32/08 p. 4665-B 72-6632

Description and explanation of spatial patterns of periodic markets at micro,
intermediate, and macro scales of analysis, using central place theory. Two areas are
considered: the northern portion of Nariio Department in southern Colombia and
parts of Cundinamarca, Boyac, and Santander Departments in north-central Colombia.
More widely applicable Andean spatial market patterns are also discussed.

167. Torrealba, J. Pablo. "Improving the Organization of Fruit and Vegetable
Production--Assembly Systems in the Coffee Zone of Colombia: A Case Study in
the La Mesa Region." Michigan State University, 1973.
(E) 34/03 p. 978-A 73-20,416

Analysis of present systems and evaluation of a proposed improvement strategy
to allow output expansion and greater marketing efficiency. Used special farmer and
assembler surveys and available secondary information, collected prices in the region's
rural markets, and observed pilot marketing projects in other regions within the
Coffee Zone. Emphasizes risk and uncertainty faced by rural assemblers. Proposed
strategy, based on establishment of product assembly centers, appears beneficial but
will require public support.

168. Trigo, Eduardo 3ose. "Structural Changes in the Food Retailing Market in the
Buenos Aires Metropolitan Region of Argentina During the 1960-1970 Decade."
University of Wisconsin, 1972.
(E) 33/04 p. 1291-A 72-22,120

Description of the market system and evaluation of the impact on retail food
prices of a system of special government subsidies for self-service retailers. Observes
two different types of retail outlets: the traditional system of highly specialized small
shops and the new, rapidly growing, horizontally integrated stores. Finds the new self-
service stores a better priced alternative, whose price performance is still improving
relative to the independent traditional stores.

169. Vilas, Andres Troncoso. "A Spatial Equilibrium Analysis of the Rice Economy in
Brazil." Purdue University, 1975.
(E) 37/03 p. 1694-A 76-20,413

Develops a spatial equilibrium model of the interregional rice economy,
involving a quadratic objective function and linear constraints. Analyzes 1966 and
1970 and change in between. Specifies 19 geographic trading regions, with a
representative shipping point selected in each region. Derives regional demand and
supply functions. Estimates regional consumption and transportation costs. Variations
of model are considered for changes in the transportation cost matrix, supply and
demand conditions, population and income, output, and storage capacity.

170. Weber, Michael T. "An Analysis of Rural Food Distribution in Costa Rica."
Michigan State University, 1976.
(E) 37/09 p. 5965-A 77-5913

Concentrates on micro-marketing behavior relationships in rural areas, using a
market structure-conduct-performance framework. Collected primary data from
urban and rural consumers, retailers, and wholesalers in two counties where IFAM, a
county government development institute, was operating. Describes and analyzes the
local distribution subsystems, evaluates proposed public market projects, and discusses
alternative reforms.

171. Weiss, Joseph S. "The Benefits of Broader Markets Due to Feeder Roads and
Market News: Northeast Brazil." Cornell University, 1971.
(E) 32/02 p. 637-A 71-20918

Develops a model of food marketing for developing countries relating structure
to performance. Evaluates investments to improve rural marketing, mainly by
fostering broader markets by better transportation and communications. Examines
road program in Pernambuco and Alagoas by sampling individual transactions for price
and margin information for beans. Benefits estimated are reduced margins, increased
production, and increased consumer surplus on imports to area. A similar approach is
used to estimate benefits of a market news service.

172. Wood, Richard H., Jr. "The Agricultural Supply Industries in the Economic
Development of the Peruvian Sierra." University of Wisconsin, 1972.
(E) 33/07 p. 3119-A 72-23,342

Analysis of marketing of agricultural supplies (i.e., fertilizers, pesticides, and
improved seeds) and contribution it makes to development of the region and country as
a whole. Traces flows of the supplies by interviews based on questionnaires.
Interviewed all or nearly all major firms and government agencies involved in
production, importing, and wholesaling supplies and then interviewed 53 retailers and
184 farmers in Junin, Cajamarca, and Puno departments. Finds that high prices and
lack of information for farmers limit the market for agricultural supplies.

173. Wright, Charles Leslie. "The Economics of Grain Transportation and Storage: A
Brazilian Case Study." Ohio State University, 1977.
(E) 38/08 p. 4952-A 7732009

Considers transportation and storage problems of the Parana "export corridor"
which limit expansion of output. Identifies bottlenecks and associated costs in: the

1976 transfer system; the 1976 system with simulated short-term improvements; and
possible future systems under projected increases in production. Evaluates alternative
strategies for improving the infrastructure for impacts on patterns and costs of grain


174. Abdulelah, Abdulla All. "A Description and Analysis of the Channels of
Distribution for Food Products in the State of Kuwait." North Texas State, 1977.
(M) 38/07 p. 4337-A 77-29,536

Study mainly based on secondary sources and some informal interviews with
government officials, major food distributors, and consumers. Gives background on
Kuwait. Describes and analyzes importers-wholesalers, local producers, retailers,
consumers, consumer cooperatives, and the government's role in the food-distribution
system. Virtually all food is imported, wholesaling and retailing establishments are
small and inefficient, shortages and rising prices are widespread, consumers unin-
formed, and government plays a major role. Makes several recommendations to
relieve problems.

175. Ben Hassine, Ahmed. "An Evaluation of Export Programs of Agricultural
Monopoly Export Marketing Boards of Nearly Independent Countries in Africa
(with Particular Reference to Morocco's and Tunisia's Export of Agricultural
Products)." American University, 1972.
(B) 34/01 p. 5-A 73-16,612

Investigation of marketing inefficiencies preventing expansion of agricultural
exports. Supports hypothesis that export performance does not only depend on
economic factors, such as price fluctuations and elasticity of demand, but also on
efficient international marketing management. Makes reference to general environ-
ment of African countries and their international trade problems and specifically
examines performance in Morocco and Tunisia.

176. Hanafy, Abdalla Abdel Kader Ali. "Implications of Social Change and Economic
Development for a Consumer Market and Marketing System: A Case Study of
the United Arab Republic." University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1970.
(B) 31/12 p. 6217-A 71-14,778

Discusses the relationship between marketing development and economic devel-
opment. Measures and analyzes social changes and economic development in the UAR

from 1952-1965. Hypothesizes that the size of the consumer market has increased and
the structure changed, affecting the philosophy, structure, and performance of the
marketing system. Stresses need to improve performance by switching to a market-
oriented approach on the level of policymakers.

177. Khattab, Mohey El-Din Kamel. "Marketing in Relation to Economic
Development--The Egyptian Experience." University of North Carolina at
Chapel Hill, 1974.
(B) 36/01 p. 398-A 75-15,656

Studies the evolutionary pattern of the Egyptian agricultural marketing system
in response to changes in society over a 20-year period. Supports hypothesis that
unorganized, uncoordinated market institutions are generally accompanied by ineffi-
cient production methods, low quality products, high costs, and low export levels.
Findings based on intensive study of oranges and rice for 1952-1971 period.

178. Moghaddam, Reza. "An Economic Analysis of Wheat Production and Marketing
in Iran." Oregon State University, 1972.
(E) 33/08 p. 3910-A 73-3977

In context of growing deficit of domestic wheat, reviews conditions affecting
domestic supply and demand. Formulates econometric model by regression and then
makes recommendations for improving the production and marketing system, related
to higher buying prices, use of new high yielding varieties, credit arrangements, some
mechanization, and rural education.

179. Muasher, Rajai Saleh. "Marketing in a Developing Economy: A Study of the
Distribution of Jordan's Imports and Exports." University of Illinois at Urbana-
Champaign, 1970.
(E) 31/12 p. 6234-A 71-14,883

First presents theoretical discussion of marketing and development and analysis
of Jordan's socioeconomic characteristics. Then makes analysis of marketing institu-
tions, functions, and alignments. Agricultural products are major imports and exports
in Jordan's economy. Uses data from direct market observation and from personal
interviews with producers, wholesalers, retailers, and government officials.

180. Ponasik, Diane Skelly. "The Role of the Marketing System in a Moroccan
Peasant Economy." State University of New York at Binghamton, 1978.
(A) 38/12 p. 7421-A 7809456

Discusses marketing system models and describes the Moroccan system in terms
of socioeconomic features, historical development, and present-day articulation to the
national economy. Studies particular markets, examining periodicity and social,
economic, and political functions. Considers constraints placed on peasant economic
activity by resource distribution and by the marketplace. Discusses the extent to
which the various roles of the marketplace influence peasant participation in the
national economy.

181. Ronaghy, Hassan Ali. "Iran, Long-Term Projection of Demand for and Supply of
Major Agricultural Commodities for 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985." University of
Wisconsin, 1969.
(E) 31/01 p. 28-A 69-22,466

Economic factors, including population, GNP, and income elasticities of
demand, are studied for the basis of the projections. High and low assumptions
bracket population growth estimates. Policy implications of alternative decisions on
population, migration, employment, institutional change, and price and income distri-
bution are discussed.

182. Salem, Fuad Sheikh. "Critical Analysis and Evaluation of Marketing in Jordan."
Texas Tech. University, 1972.
(B) 33/06 p. 2572-A 72-32061

A broad view of the marketing system, including agricultural marketing. Lack
of cooperation and coordination between government and private sectors have led to
several marketing problems. In agriculture there is no standardization and grading,
and cooperatives are hindered by many organizational problems. Discusses alternative
retailing outlets.

183. Tahoun, Azza El-Gibaly. "An Analysis of Household Consumption Expenditure in
Egypt Using the 1964/1965 Sample Family Budget Survey." University of
Colorado, 1971.
(E) 33/05 p. 1933-A 71-17304

Examines effects of variations in total expenditure, household size, and
geographical location on expenditure for various commodities for both rural and urban
Egypt. Derives estimates of total expenditure and family size elasticities, using least
squares regression. Also compares results with other countries and with the 1959/60
sample family budget.


184. Andah, Emmanuel Nenyi Kweku Issiw. "Cocoa Price Formation and the
Prospects of Its Stabilization." University of Manitoba (Canada), 1974.
(E) 35/05 p. 2503-A Order directly from
National Library of
Canada at Ottawa
Discusses the problems of price fluctuations for cocoa. Considers effects of a
proposed administered pricing scheme on export earnings of producing countries.

Alternative levels of a "remunerative" price administered by an International Cocoa
Council were tested for impacts on supply and demand. Includes provision of buffer
stock. Compares social costs and supply and demand under controlled and free market
conditions. Develops an optimal stabilization policy model.

185. Chaudhry, Ghulam Rasul. "Marketing Institutions and Economic Development."
Kansas State University, 1970.
(E) 31/06 p. 2575-A 70-25,537

Discusses the role of marketing in stimulating output and consumption in LDCs,
stressing the importance of the institutional framework. Considers hypotheses about
the functions and usefulness of marketing boards, government-regulated markets,
cooperatives, middlemen, and structure of market organization.

186. Ford, Derek James. "Coffee Supply, Trade, and Demand: An Econometric
Analysis of the World Market, 1930-1969." University of Pennsylvania, 1977.
(E) 38/03 p. 1544-A 77-19,847

Evaluates previous models of coffee and similar crops. Develops theoretical
models for the production, demand, and determination of prices. Estimates and
discusses relationships on a single-equation basis, then lays out the complete system,
re-estimating relationships by simultaneous equation methods. Uses data for period
1930-1969., Conducts simulation experiments on impact of International Coffee
Organization and export quota system, effects of alternative Brazilian administrative
policies, and impact of variations in export quotas.

187. Jellema, Bouwo Marcus. "Analysis of the World Market for Groundnuts and
Groundnut Products." North Carolina State University at Raleigh, 1972.
(E) 33/12 p. 6551-A 73-13,100

Treats groundnuts, groundnut oil, and groundnut meal independently in a market
simulation model. Uses average export and import data for years 1966 to 1968
combined with transportation and storage costs to identify the seasonal pattern of
commodity flows and most profitable markets for each exporter. Considers effects of
various tariff policies and analysis of income transfers involved.

188. Mujeri, Mustafa Kamal. "The World Market for Jute: An Econometric
Analysis." McMaster University (Canada), 1978.
(E) 39/10 p. 5637-A

Builds an annual simultaneous equation model of the world jute market for post-
World War II years to determine the most important dynamic aspects and the cause of
high variability of world jute prices. Constructs equations for major producing
countries and for "rest of the world." Tests qualitative aspects of model by simulation
over future periods. Considers hypothetical forms of international agreements to
benefit producers.


189. Sentell, Gerald Dewey. "Dualism and Development: Implications for Marketing
and Product Market Measurement in a Dual Economy." Indiana University, 1973.
(B) 34/10 p. 6192-A 74-8479

Synthesizes and modifies a number of policy-oriented theories related to
economic dualism to develop a general theory of dualism directly relevant to
marketing. Briefly analyzes empirical data from countries at various levels of
development to consider implications of the theory and market conditions found in
dual economy countries. Develops a theoretical model linking market potential for
given products to structural conditions in the economy. Includes case studies based on
secondary data for Thailand, Brazil, and Ceylon (Sri Lanka).

(By Entry Number)

Argentina 137, 140, 160, 168
Association of Southeast Asian
Nations (ASEAN)* 81
Bangladesh 71, 79, 103
Bolivia 133, 134
Brazil 136, 138, 146, 150, 154,
155, 160, 163, 169, 171, 173
186, 189
Burma 78
Cameroon 35, 44
Ceylon see Sri Lanka
Chile 139, 148
China, People's Republic of 77
China, Republic of see Taiwan
Colombia 129, 131, 143, 144,
151, 153, 157, 159, 164,
166, 167
Costa Rica 158, 162, 170
Dominican Republic 124
East Africa* 34
East Pakistan see Bangladesh
Egypt 176, 177, 183
Ethiopia 16, 24
The Gambia 28
Ghana 2, 13, 14, 15, 35, 41,
48, 55
Grenada 122
Guatemala 127, 132, 135, 149,
161, 165
Honduras 126
India 61, 65, 71, 82, 83, 88,
91, 92, 93, 95, 97, 104, 105,
112, 117
Indonesia 80, 101, 114
Iran 178, 181
Ivory Coast 35
Jamaica 125
Jordan 179, 182
Kenya 29, 32, 34, 37, 47, 52, 58
Korea, Republic of 84, 94, 99,
111, 120, 121
Kuwait 174
Lesotho 9
Liberia 4, 17
Malaysia 60, 96, 113, 115
Mexico 141, 142, 145
Morocco 175, 180

Nepal 98
Niger 8, 50
Nigeria 3, 5, 10, 11, 12, 18,
19, 20, 22, 23, 33, 35, 36,
39, 40, 42, 43, 45, 49, 54
Pakistan 63, 67, 71, 90, 103,
Paraguay 160
Peru 130, 147, 156, 172
Philippines 59, 73, 74, 106,
108, 109, 110
Puerto Rico 152
St. Kitts 123
Sahel* 56
South Africa I
South Vietnam see Vietnam
Sri Lanka 75, 189
Sudan 25
Taiwan 70, 116, 118
Tanzania 1, 26, 27, 34, 51
Thailand 64, 66, 68, 72, 78,
81, 85, 86, 87, 89, 100, 102,
119, 189
Tunisia 175
Uganda 6, 7, 21, 30, 34, 46
United Arab Republic 176
United States 1, 52, 104, 105,
152, 154
Upper Volta 56
Uruguay 160
Vietnam 62, 69, 76
Zaire 31, 53
Zambia 38, 57

*Only indexed if specific reference made in dissertation.


RDP No. 1*

RDP No. 2

RDP No. 3*

RDP No. 4

RDP No. 5

Akhter Hameed Khan, "Ten Decades of Rural Development: Lessons
from India," 1978.
Lane E. Holdcroft, "The Rise and Fall of Community Development
in Developing Countries, 1950-1965: A Critical Analysis and an
Annotated Bibliography," 1978.
James E. Kocher and Beverly Fleisher, "A Bibliography on Rural
Development in Tanzania," 1979.

Enyinna Chuta and Carl Liedholm, "Rural Non-Farm
Review of the State of the Art," 1979.


David W. Norman, "The Farming System's Approach: Relevancy for
the Small Farmer," 1980.


RDWP No. 1*

RDWP No. 2*

RDWP No. 3*

RDWP No. 4

RDWP No. 5

RDWP No. 6

RDWP No. 7

RDWP No. 8

Benedict Stavis, "Turning Point in China's Agricultural Policy,"
Kathryn M. Kolasa, "The Nutritional Situation in Sierra Leone,"
Benedict Stavis, "Agricultural Extension for Small Farmers,"
Steve Haggblade, Jacques Defay, and Bob Pitman, "Small Manufac-
turing and Repair Enterprises in Haiti: Survey Results," 1979.
Peter Riley and Michael T. Weber, "Food and Agricultural Marketing
in Developing Countries: An Annotated Bibliography of Doctoral
Research in the Social Sciences, 1969-79," 1979.
Harold M. Riley and Michael T. Weber, "Marketing in Developing
Countries," 1979.
Victor E. Smith, Sarah Lynch, William Whelan, John Strauss and
Doyle Baker, "Household Food Consumption in Rural Sierra Leone,"
Omar Davies, Yacob Fisseha and Claremont Kirton, "The Small-Scale
Non-Farm Sector in Jamaica..Initial Survey Results," 1980.

Single copies of the MSU Rural Development Papers and MSU Rural Development
Working Papers may be obtained free by writing to: MSU Rural Development Program,
Department of Agricultural Economics, 206 International Center, Michigan State
University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824; U.S.A.

*Out of print.

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