• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Half Title
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 The fate of the Melcart
 Cleanor, son of Lysis
 The last of a veteran
 Scipio
 A great scheme
 The mission
 The last of the Greeks
 The Corinthian assembly
 At Thermopylae
 A Pinchbeck Alexander
 The two Hasdrubals
 Scipio sets to work
 In the Roman camp
 The Megara
 The prisoners
 Baal Hammon
 Move and countermove
 Help from the hills
 The battle on the isthmus
 Treachery
 Polybius
 A pleasure trip
 Diplomacy
 In sore need
 A refuge in the storm
 The storming of the upper city
 A precious book
 The end of Carthage
 At Delos
 Corinth
 Mummius
 The slave-dealer
 To Italy
 At Misenum
 The world well lost
 Beyond the sunset
 Note
 Back Matter
 Back Cover
 Spine






Group Title: Lords of the world : a story of the fall of Carthage and Corinth
Title: Lords of the world
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086695/00001
 Material Information
Title: Lords of the world : a story of the fall of Carthage and Corinth
Physical Description: 387 p., 10 leaves of plates : ill. ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Church, Alfred John, 1829-1912 ( Author, Primary )
Peacock, Ralph ( Illustrator )
Charles Scribner's Sons ( Publisher )
Trow Directory ( Printer )
Publisher: Charles Scribner's Sons
Place of Publication: New York
Manufacturer: Trow Directory, Printing and Bookbinding Company
Publication Date: 1897
 Subjects
Subject: History, Ancient -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Kings and rulers -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Children -- Conduct of life -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Conduct of life -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Adventure and adventurers -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Prisoners -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Youth and death -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
War -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
War stories   ( lcsh )
Soldiers -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Voyages and travels -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Discoveries in geography -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile fiction -- Carthage (Extinct city)   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile fiction -- Corinth (Greece)   ( lcsh )
History -- Juvenile fiction -- Rome   ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature -- 1897   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1897
Genre: Juvenile literature   ( rbgenr )
novel   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by the Rev. Alfred J. Church ; with twelve illustrations by Ralph Peacock.
General Note: Pictorial front cover and spine.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086695
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002224207
notis - ALG4468
oclc - 00490024

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page i-a
    Half Title
        Page ii
    Frontispiece
        Page iii
    Title Page
        Page iv
        Page v
    Preface
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
    List of Illustrations
        Page ix
    The fate of the Melcart
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Cleanor, son of Lysis
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    The last of a veteran
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 28a
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Scipio
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    A great scheme
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    The mission
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    The last of the Greeks
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    The Corinthian assembly
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 84a
    At Thermopylae
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
    A Pinchbeck Alexander
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 110a
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
    The two Hasdrubals
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
    Scipio sets to work
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
    In the Roman camp
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
    The Megara
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 156a
        Page 157
    The prisoners
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
    Baal Hammon
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 188a
        Page 189
        Page 190
    Move and countermove
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
    Help from the hills
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
    The battle on the isthmus
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
    Treachery
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 218a
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
    Polybius
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
    A pleasure trip
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
    Diplomacy
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
    In sore need
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 266a
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
    A refuge in the storm
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
    The storming of the upper city
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 292a
        Page 293
    A precious book
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
    The end of Carthage
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 314a
        Page 315
    At Delos
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
    Corinth
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 332a
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
    Mummius
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
    The slave-dealer
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
    To Italy
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
    At Misenum
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 368a
        Page 369
        Page 370
    The world well lost
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
    Beyond the sunset
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
    Note
        Page 387
    Back Matter
        Page 388
    Back Cover
        Page 389
        Page 390
    Spine
        Page 391
Full Text








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LORDS OF THE WORLD


















































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"FASTEN HIS HANDS, AND FIRMLY TOO; THAT YOUTH
MIGHT GIVE US TROUBLE"








LORDS OF THE WORLD



A STORY OF

THE FALL OF CARTHAGE AND CORINTH





BY THE
REV. ALFRED J. CHURCH
AUTHOR OF "TWO THOUSAND YEARS AGO," "STORIES FROM HOMER," ETC.







WITH TWELVE ILLUSTRATIONS BY RALPH PEACOCK








NEW YORK
CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS
1897









































COPYRIGHT, 1897, BY

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS
































TROW DIRECTORY
PRINTING AND BOOKBINDING COMPANY
NEW YORK












PREFACE


THE year 146 B.C. was an annus mirabilis in the
development of Roman dominion. Of course it had
long been a foregone conclusion that Carthage and
Corinth must fall before her, but the actual time of
their overthrow was made all the more striking by
the fact that both cities perished in the same year,
and that both were visited by the same fate. I have
attempted in this story to group some picturesque
incidents round the person of a young Greek who
struggles in vain to resist the destiny of the con-
quering race. The reader will also find some sug-
gestion of the thought which the Roman historian
had in his mind when he wrote: "Carthage, the
rival of the Roman Empire, perished root and
branch, sea and land everywhere lay open before
us, when at last Fortune began to rage against us
and throw everything into confusion." The day
when Rome rid herself of her rivals seemed to some
of her more thoughtful sons to be the first of her
corruption and decline.
A. J. C.
ASHLEY, April 22, 1897.



















CONTENTS


CHAPTER
I. THE FATE OF THE MELCART,
II. CLEANER, SON OF LYSIS,

III. THE LAST OF A VETERAN,

IV. SCIPIo,

V. A GREAT SCHEME,

VI. THE MISSION, .
VII. THE LAST OF THE GREEKS,

VIII. THE CORINTHIAN ASSEMBLY,

IX. AT THERMOPYLIE,

X. A PINCHBECK ALEXANDER,
XI. THE TWO HASDRUBALS,
XII. SCIPIO SETS TO WORK,
XIII. IN THE ROMAN CAMP,
XIV. THE MEGARA,

XV. THE PRISONERS,

XVI. BAAL HAMMON, .
XVII. MOVE AND COUNTERMOVE,

XVIII. HELP FROM THE HILLS,

XIX. THE BATTLE ON THE ISTHMUS,
XX. TREACHERY, .


PAGE
1
10

16

32

39

S 52
1

S 73

S 85

S 101
117
S 131
S142
148

158

S 172
S191

S199

.207
215








CONTENTS


CHAPTER PAGE
XXI. POLYBIUS, 224

XXII. A PLEASURE TRIP, . 236
XXIII. DIPLOMACY, . 248

XXIV. IN SORE NEED, 261
XXV. A REFUGE IN THE STORM, 272

XXVI. THE STORMING OF THE UPPER CITY, 281
XXVII. A PRECIOUS BOOK, . .. 294
XXVIII. THE END OF CARTHAGE 307

XXIX. AT DELOS, 316
XXX. CORINTH, .. 325
XXXI. MUMMIous, . .. 336
XXXII. THE SLAVE-DEALER, . .. 342

XXXIII. To ITALY, 352
XXXIV. AT MISENUM, . 357
XXXV. THE WORLD WELL LOST,..... .. 371

XXXVI. BEYOND THE SUNSET, 381














ILLUSTRATIONS

PAGE
" FASTEN HIS HANDS, AND FIRMLY TOO; THAT YOUTH MIGHT
GIVE US TROUBLE," Fontispiece 16

" THE OLD KING, THOUGH HIS EYES WERE OPEN, DID NOT SEEM
TO SEE CLEANER," 28

THE ROMAN ENVOYS TO CORINTH ARE COMPELLED TO LEAVE
TIE AMPHITHEATRE, .. 84

THE MACEDONIAN PRETENDER PERFORMS THE PYRRHIC DANCE, 110

"DO YOU YIELD?" SAID CLEANER WHIIEN THE ROMAN HAD
REACHED THE SHORE, 15

" THE HIGH PRIEST PLACED THE SACRIFICE ON TIE OUT-
STRETCHED ARMS OF THE GOD," .. 188

" I SAW YOU STOOP AND LIFT YOUR COMPANION FROM THE
GROUND," 218

SCLEANOR PRODUCED FROM THE PACK WHICH IE CARRIED SOME
TWICE-BAKED BREAD,". 266

THE LADY SALAMO DEFIES THE ROMANS FROM THE WALLS OF
CARTHAGE, 292

" SCIPIO, THROWING HIS TOGA OVER HIS FACE, BURST INTO A
PASSION OF TEARS," 314

A CORINTHIAN NOBLEMAN BEING SOLD AS A SLAVE IN THE
MARKET-PLACE, 332

"HALF AN HOUR AFTERWARDS CLEONE EMERGED AS A BRILL-
IANT YOUNG BEAUTY," 368
















LORDS OF THE WORLD


CHAPTER I

THE FATE OF THE MELOART

0 HE Melcart, the sacred ship of Carthage,
was on its homeward voyage from Tyre,
and had accomplished the greater part
of its journey in safety; in fact it was
only a score or so of miles away from its destination.
It had carried the mission sent, year by year, to
the famous shrine of the god whose name it bore,
the great temple which the Greeks called by the title
of the Tyrian Hercules. This was too solemn and
important a function to be dropped on any pretext
whatsoever. Never, even in the time of her deepest
distress, had Carthage failed to pay this dutiful
tribute to the patron deity of her mother-city ; and,
indeed, she had never been in sorer straits than now.
Rome, in the early days her ally, then her rival, and
now her oppressor, was resolved to destroy her,
1







LORDS OF THE WORLD


forcing her into war by demanding impossible terms
of submission. Her old command of the sea had
long since departed. It was only by stealth and
subtlety that one of her ships could hope to traverse
unharmed the five hundred leagues of sea that lay
between her harbour and the old capital of Phcenicia.
The Mielcart had hitherto been fortunate. She was
a first-rate sailer, equally at home with the light
breeze to which she could spread all her canvas, and
the gale which reduced her to a single sprit-sail. She
had a picked crew, with not a slave on the rowing
benches, for there were always free-born Carthagin-
ians ready to pull an oar in the Melcart. Hanno,
her captain, namesake and descendant of the great
discoverer who had sailed as far down the African
coast as Sierra Leone itself, was famous for his
seamanship from the Pillars of Hercules to the har-
bours of Syria.
The old man-it -was sixty years since he had
made his first voyage-was watching intently a
dark speck which had been visible for some time
in the light of early dawn upon the northwestern
horizon. "Mago," he said at last, turning to his
nephew and lieutenant, "does it seem to you to be-
come bigger ? Your eyes are better than mine."
"Not that I can see," answered the young
man.
"She hardly would gain upon us if she has no







THE FATE OF THE MELCART


more wind than we have. Well, I shall go below,
and have a bite and a sup."
He wetted his finger and held it up. "It strikes
me," he went on, that the wind, if you can call it
a wind, has shifted half a point. Tell the helmsman
to put her head a trifle to the north. Perhaps I
may have a short nap. But if anything happens,
call me at once."
Something did happen before ten minutes had
passed. When Mago had given his instructions to
the helmsman, and had superintended a slight shift-
ing of the canvas, he looked again at the distant
ship. It had become sensibly larger. The wind
had freshened out at sea, and was rapidly bringing
the stranger nearer. Mago hurried below to rouse
his uncle. The old man was soon up on deck.
"I wish we were ten miles nearer home," he
muttered, after taking a long look into the distance.
"Get the oars out. If she is an enemy and wants
to cut us off, half a mile may make all the differ-
ence."
The order was promptly obeyed, and the rowers
bent to their work with a will. But all the will in
the world could not make the Melcart move very
fast through the water. She was stoutly built, as
became a ship that had to carry a precious burden
through all weather, and she was foul with the long
sea-voyage. The goal of the race between her and






LORDS OF THE WORLD


the stranger, which could now be seen to be a
Roman ship-of-war, was a headland behind which,
as Hanno knew, was the harbour of Chelys. Let
her reach that and she was safe. But it seemed as
if this was not to be. The Roman ship had what
wind there was right aft, and notwithstanding all
the efforts of the Melcart's crew, moved more rap-
idly through the water. She would manifestly cut
off the Mlelcar before the headland was reached.
But Hanno was not yet at the end of his resources.
"Call Mutines," he said to his lieutenant.
Mutines was a half-caste Carthaginian, whose
thick lips, flat nose, and woolly hair indicated a
negro strain in his blood. "Mutines," said the old
man, "you used to have as good an aim with the
catapult as any man in Carthage. If your hand
has not lost its cunning, now is the time to show
your skill. Knock that rascal's steering-gear to
pieces, and there is a quarter-talent for you."
"I will do my best, sir," said Mutines; but I
am out of practice, and the machine, I take it, is
somewhat stiff."
The catapult, which was of unusual size and
power, had been built, so to speak, into the ship's
forecastle. It could throw a bolt weighing about
seventy-five pounds, and its range was three hun-
dred yards. While Mutines was preparing the en-
gine, word was passed to the rowers that they were






THE FATE OF THE MELOART


to give six strokes and no more. That, as Mutines
reckoned, would be enough to bring him well within
range of the enemy. The calculation was sufficiently
exact. When the rowers stopped, the two ships,
having just rounded the headland, were divided by
about three hundred and fifty yards. The impetus
of the Melcart carried her over about one hundred
more. When she was almost stationary Mutines
let fly the bolt. He had never made a happier shot.
The huge bullet carried away both the tillers by
which the steering-paddles were worked. The ship
fell away immediately, and the Melcart, for whose
rowers the fugleman set the liveliest tune in his
repertory, shot by, well out of range of the shower
of arrows which the Roman archers discharged at
her. In the course of a few minutes she had reached
the harbour of Chelys.
But her adventures were not over. The captain
of the Roman ship was greatly enraged at the es-
cape of his prey. To capture so famous a prize
would mean certain promotion, and he was not pre-
pared to resign his hopes without an effort to realize
them. As soon as the steering-gear had been tem-
porarily repaired, he called his sailing-master, and
announced his intention of following the Carthagin-
ian into the harbour.
The man ventured on a remonstrance. "It's not
safe, sir," he said; "I don't know the place, but I







LORDS OF THE WORLD


have heard that the water is shallow everywhere
except in the channel of the stream."
"You have heard my orders," returned the cap-
tain, who was a Claudius, and had all the haughti-
ness and obstinacy of that famous house. The sail-
ing-master had no choice but to obey.
Chelys, so called from the fancied resemblance of
its site to the shape of a tortoise, was a small Greek
settlement which lay within the region dominated
by Carthage. It was a place of considerable an-
tiquity-older, its inhabitants were fond of assert-
ing, than Carthage itself. For some years it had
maintained its independence, but as time went by
this position became more and more impossible.
Had Chelys possessed any neighbours of the same
race, a league might have given her at least a
chance of preserving her freedom. But she stood
absolutely alone, surrounded by Phoenician settle-
ments, and she had no alternative but to make
her submission to her powerful neighbour. She
obtained very favourable terms. She was free from
tribute, no slight privilege, in view of the enormous
sums which the ruling city was accustomed to ex-
act from her dependencies.' She was allowed to
elect her own magistrates, and generally to manage
her own affairs. To contribute a small contingent
'One paid a talent (. 15) per day, making an annual amount, allowing for
the difference in the value of money, of not less than a quarter of a million.






THE FATE OF THE MELCART


to the army and navy of the suzerain state was all
that was demanded of her. It was natural, there-
fore, that Chelys should be loyal to Carthage-far
more loyal, in fact, than most of that city's depend-
encies. Rome, which had more than once exacted
a heavy sum as the price of the little town's immu-
nity from ravage, she had no reason to like.
The incident described above had taken place
within full view of the piers and quays of Chelys.
The excited population which crowded them had
hailed with an exulting shout the fortunate shot
that had crippled the Roman vessel, and had warmly
welcomed the Melcart as she glided into the shelter
of the harbour. Their delight was turned into rage
when it became evident that the enemy was intend-
ing to pursue her. The insolent audacity of the pro-
ceeding excited the spectators beyond all bounds.
Stones and missiles of all kinds were showered upon
the intruders. As the ship was within easy range
of the quays on both sides of the harbour, which
was indeed of very small area, the crew suffered
heavily.
Claudius perceived that he had made a mistake,
and gave orders to the rowers to back, there not
being space enough to turn. It was too late, and
when a huge pebble, aimed with a fatal accuracy,
struck down the steersman from his place, the
doom of the Melicerta-for this was the name of






LORDS OF THE WORLD


the Roman ship -was sealed. A few moments
afterwards she grounded.
This was, of course, the signal for a determined
attack. Hundreds of men waded through the shal-
low water and climbed over the bulwarks. The
crew made a brave resistance, but they were hope-
lessly outnumbered and were cut down where they
stood. The magistrates of the city happened to be
in consultation in the town-hall. Disturbed in the
midst of their deliberations by the sadden uproar,
they hurried down to the water-side, but were too
late to save any but a very few lives. Claudius had
stabbed himself when he saw how fatal a mistake
he had made.
Chelys was, of course, in a tumult of delight at
its brilliant success in destroying a Roman ship-of-
war. Its responsible rulers, however, were very far
from sharing this feeling. A defenceless city, and
Chelys was practically such, for its walls, never
very formidable, had been suffered to fall into de-
cay, must take no part in the hostilities of a cam-
paign. So long as it observes this neutrality it is
really better off than a fortified town, but to depart
from this policy is sheer madness.
The magistrates did all they could. They sent
back the few prisoners whom they had been able to
rescue from the hands of the populace, to the com-
mander of the squadron to which the Melicerta had







THE FATE OF THE MELCART


belonged. They offered to pay an indemnity. They
went so far as to promise that the ringleaders of
the riot should be handed over for trial. The Ro-
man admiral, a Flamininus,' and so belonging to a
family that had more than once made itself noto-
rious for unusual brutality, would not hear of
making any conditions. He determined upon a
vengeance which was not the less pleasing because
it would be as lucrative as it was cruel. Chelys
was to be visited with the severest penalty known
in warfare-all the male inhabitants of the military
age and over were to be put to death, the women
and children were to be sold as slaves. The slaves
from Chelys, as Flamininus, a shrewd and unscru-
pulous man of business, well knew, would fetch a
high price. They were Greeks, if not of the purest
blood, and while barbarians in any number could
be easily obtained, Greek slaves were a rare article
in the market.
His resolve once taken, Flalnininus took every
precaution that its execution should be as complete
as possible. The magistrates, who had come to
intercede for their countrymen, were detained ; no
hint of what was intended was allowed to reach the
doomed city. Landing the half legion of marines
which the squadron carried he occupied in irresist-
SC. Flamininus was degraded from the Senate for killing a captive in cold
blood to entertain his company at dinner.







LORDS OF THE WORLD


ible force Chelys and all the roads by which it could
be approached or left. His next step was to make
what may be called an inventory of the prey which
had fallen into his hands. The census roll of citi-
zens was seized, and information about their families
was purchased from some prisoners who were will-
ing thus to redeem their lives. A few wealthy men
and women were allowed to ransom themselves at
the highest prices that could be extorted from their
fears; and then, when a few days had been allowed
for the assembling of the slave-dealers, who, with
other animals of prey, human and non-human, fol-
lowed the armies and fleets of Rome, Flamininus
allowed the deputation to return, and proceeded to
execute his sentence.



CHAPTER II

CLEANOR, SON OF LYSIS

THE wealthiest, best born, and generally most
influential citizen in Chelys was Lysis, son of
Cleanor, father himself of another Cleanor, so
named, according to a custom common in Greek
families, after his grandfather. He was descended
in a direct line from the original founder of the set-
tlement, an Ephesian Greek, and was also distin-







CLEANOR, SON OF LYSIS 11
guished by the possession of the hereditary priest-
hood of Apollo. The family prided itself on the
purity of its descent. The sons sought their brides
among four or five of the noblest Ephesian families.
The general population of Chelys, though still
mainly Hellenic in speech and habits of life, had a
large admixture of Phoenician blood, but the house
of Lysis could not be reproached with a single bar-
barian mesalliance.
Lysis had been the leader and spokesman of the
deputation which had vainly approached the Roman
commander. His house, in common with all the
principal dwellings in the town, had been occupied
by the Roman marines. But a douceur, judicious-
ly administered to the sub-officer in command, had
procured for him the privilege of a brief period of
privacy. He found that his wife and children were
still in ignorance of the Roman admiral's decision.
They did not, indeed, expect any very lenient
terms-they looked for a fine that would seriously
cripple their means; but they were not prepared
for the brutal reality. Lysis tasted for the first
time the full bitterness of death when he had to
dash to the ground the hope to which they had
clung.
"Yes," he said in answer to a question from his
wife, unable or unwilling to believe her ears; yes,
it is too true-death or slavery."






LORDS OF THE WORLD


Dione-this was the wife's name-grew pale foi
a moment, but she summoned to her aid the courage
of her house-she claimed to be descended from the
great Ion himself, the legendary head of the Ionic
race-and recovered her calmness. Stepping for-
ward, she threw her arms round her husband's neck.
Her first thought was for him; her second, scarcely
a moment later, for her children.
And these?" she said.
Recovering himself with a stupendous effort of
self-control, Lysis spoke:
"Listen; the time is short, and there are grave
matters to be settled. It was hinted to me, and
more than hinted, that I might purchase your life,
Dion6, and my own. These Romans are almost
as greedy for money as for blood. What say
you ? "
"And these? said the woman, pointing to her
children, while her cheek flushed and her eyes
brightened with the glow of reviving hope. "Can
they also be ransomed ?"
"That is impossible," said Lysis.
"Then we will die."
That is what I knew you would say, and I gave
the fellow-it was the admiral's freedman who
spoke to me about the matter-the answer, 'No,'
without waiting to ask you. Our way is clear
enough. My father learnt from the great Hannibal







CLEANOR, SON OF LYSIS


the secret of his poison-ring,' and he handed it on
to me. You and I can easily escape from these
greedy butchers, but our children- "
He struggled in vain to keep his self-command.
Throwing himself on a couch hard by, he covered
his face with his cloak.
The children were twins, very much alike, as in-
deed twins very commonly are, and yet curiously
different. Apart, they might easily have been mis-
taken for each other, supposing, of course, that they
were dressed alike; seen together, anyone would
have said that such a mistake would hardly be
possible, so great was the difference in colour and
complexion a difference that impresses the eye
much more than it impresses the memory. But
whatever dissimilarity there was was accidental
rather than natural. Cleanor had been seized at a
critical period of his growth with a serious illness,
the result of exposure in a hunting expedition.
This had checked, or more probably, postponed his
development. His frame had less of the vigour,
his cheek less of the glow of health than could be
seen in his sister's, of whom, indeed, he was a some-
what paler and feebler image.

1 Hannibal carried about with him in the cavity of a ring a poison so
deadly that it would destroy life in a few seconds. When about to be
delivered up to the Romans by the petty sovereign-Prusias, King of
Bithynia-with whom he had taken refuge, he killed himself in this way







LORDS OF THE WORLD


"We will die with you," said the twins in one
breath. They often spoke, as, indeed, they often
thought, with a single impulse.
"Impossible again said Lysis. The priest-
hood which, as you know, I inherited from my
fathers, I am bound, under curses which I dare not
incur, to hand on to my son. If the gods had made
me childless-and, for the first time in my life, I
wish that they had-I must have adopted a succes-
sor. This, indeed, I have done, to provide for the
chances of human life; but you, Cleanor, must not
abdicate your functions if it is in any way possible
for you to perform them. And then there is ven-
geance ; that is a second duty scarcely less sacred.
If you can live, you must, and I see a way in which
you can."
And I see it too," cried the girl, with sparkling
eyes. "Cleanor, you and I must change places.
You have sometimes told me that I ought to have
been the boy; now I am going to be."
"Cleon6 !" cried the lad, looking with wide eyes
of astonishment at his sister; "I do not know what
you mean."
Briefly," replied the girl, "what I mean is this.
You masquerade as a girl, and are sold; I masque-
rade as a man, and am killed."
Impossible !" cried the lad; I cannot let you
die for me."







CLEANER, SON OF LYSIS


Die for you, indeed and there was a touch
of scorn in her voice. "Which is better-to die, or
be a slave ? Which is better for a man? You do
not doubt; no one of our blood could. Which is
better for a woman ? It does not want one of our
blood to know that. The meanest free woman
knows it. By Castor! Cleanor, this is the one
thing you can do for me. Die for you, indeed!
You will be doing more, ten thousand times more,
than dying for me! "
She is right, my son," cried Lysis. This was
my very thought. Phoebus, the inspire, must
have put it into her heart. Cleanor, it must be so.
This is your father's last command to you. The
gods, if gods there are-and this day's work might
make me doubt it-will reward you for it. But the
time is short. Hasten, and make such change as
you need."
The twins left the chamber. When they returned,
no one could have known what had been done, so
complete was the disguise which Cleone's skilful
fingers had effected. The girl's flowing locks, which
had reached far below her waist, now fell over her
shoulders, just at the length at which it was the
fashion of the Greek youth to wear them, till he
had crossed the threshold of manhood. His were
rolled up, maiden-fashion, in a knot upon his head.
She had dulled her brilliant complexion by some






LORDS OF THE WORLD


pigment skilfully applied. His face, pale with
misery, needed no counterfeit of art.
Lysis and his wife had gone. By a supreme
effort of self-sacrifice they had denied themselves
the last miserable solace of a farewell, and were
lying side by side, safe for ever from the conquer-
or's brutality. While Cleanor and his sister waited
in the expectation of seeing them, a party of ma-
rines entered the room.
"Fasten his hands, Caius," said the sub-officer
to one of his men, "and firmly too, for he looks as
if he might give us trouble. By Jupiter a hand-
some youth! What a gladiator he would make!
Why do they kill him in this useless fashion ? The
girl is your business, Sextus. Be gentle with her,
but still be on your guard, for they will sometimes
turn. But she looks a poor, spiritless creature."



CHAPTER III

THE LAST OF A VETERAN

THE fate of Chelys caused wide-spread indigna-
tion and disgust even among the enemies of
Carthage. No one was more indignant than Masta-
nabal, King Masinissa's second son. The prince had
tastes and habits very uncommon in the nation of







THE LAST OF A VETERAN


hunters and fighters to which he belonged. He was
a lover of books, and disposed to be a patron of
learning, if he could only find learning to patron-
ize. The Greek population of Chelys had always
preserved some traces of culture, and the Numidian
prince was on terms of friendship with the settle-
ment. He was an occasional visitor at its festivals,
had received the compliment of a crown of honour
voted to him in a public assembly, and had shown
his appreciation of the distinction by building for
the community a new town-hall.
His intercession had been implored by the mag-
istrates when they found themselves repulsed by
the Roman commander. Unfortunately he was
absent from home when their messenger arrived.
Immediately on his return he hurried to the spot.
Too late, even if it had in any case been possible,
to hinder the brutal vengeance of Flamininus, he
was yet able to mitigate the lot of the survivors.
By pledging his credit to the slave dealers, them-
selves disposed to accommodate so powerful a per-
sonage, he was able to secure the freedom of all the
captives.
He made special inquiries about the family of
Lysis, whose hospitality he had always enjoyed
during his visits to the town, and learnt enough to
induce him to make a personal inspection of the
captives. As the melancholy procession passed
2







LORDS OF THE WORLD


before him, his keen eyes discovered Cleanor under
his disguise. He had, of course, too much delicacy
and good taste to inflict upon him the pain of a pub-
lic recognition. The young man was transported
in a closed litter to a hunting-lodge that belonged
to the prince. Here he found himself an honoured
guest. His personal wants were amply supplied;
a library of some extent was at his disposal; and
the chief huntsman waited upon him every morning
to learn his pleasure in case he should be disposed
for an expedition.
In the course of a few days a letter from the
prince was put into his hands. Beginning with a
tactful and sympathetic reference to his misfort-
unes, it went on thus:
Use my home as if it were your own for as long
as you will& You cannot please me better than by
pleasing yourself. But if you are minded to find
solace for your sorrows in action-and to this I
would myself advise you-proceed to Cirta, and
deliver the letter which I enclose herewith to the
king, my father. My steward will provide you
with a guide and an escort, and will also furnish
such matters of dress and other equipment as you
may need. Farewell!
Cleanor's resolution was taken at once. In the
course of a few hours he was in the saddle. Two







THE LAST OF A VETERAN


days of easy travel brought him to Cirta, and he
lost no time in presenting himself at the palace of
King Masinissa. His letter of introduction, bearing
as it did the seal of Prince Mastanabal, procured
for him instant admission. The major-domo of the
palace conducted him to a guest-chamber, and
shortly afterwards one of the king's body-guard
brought him a message that Masinissa desired to
see him as soon as he had refreshed himself after
his journey.
The chamber into which the young Greek was
ushered was curiously bare to be the audience-room
of a powerful king. The walls were of mud, roughly
washed with yellow; it was lighted by two large
openings in the walls, unglazed, but furnished with
lattices which could be closed at will by cords sus-
pended from them; the pavement was of stone, not
too carefully smoothed; for furniture it had a side-
board, with some cups, flagons, and lamps upon it,
a table, two or three chairs for the use of visitors
who were accustomed to these comfortless refine-
ments, and a divan piled up with bright-coloured
mats and blankets. Near the divan was a brazier
in which logs were smouldering.
Masinissa, king of Numidia,1 was a man whose
intellect and physical powers were alike remarkable.
He had consolidated the wandering tribes of North-
'Numidia corresponds roughly to Algeria, Mauretania to Morocco.







LORDS OF THE WORLD


ern Africa into a kingdom, which he had kept to-
gether and aggrandized with a politic firmness which
never blundered or wavered. His stature, though
now somewhat bowed with years, was exceptional.
His face, seamed with a thousand wrinkles, and
burnt to a dark red by unnumbered suns, the snowy
whiteness of hair and beard, and the absolute ema-
ciation of his form, on which not a trace of flesh
seemed to be left, spoke of extreme old age. And
indeed he had more than completed his ninetieth
year, an age not phenomenally rare among us,
where the climate and the habits of life are less ex-
hausting, but almost unheard of in a race whose
fervid temperament seems to match their burning
sky.
The old man's strength was now failing him.
Two years before, he had commanded an army in
the field, and commanded it with brilliant success,
routing the best troops and the most skilled generals
that Carthage could send against him. He was not
one of the veterans who content themselves with
counsel, while they leave action to the young.
That day he had remained in the saddle from sun-
rise to sunset, managing without difficulty a fiery
steed, whose saddle was no seat of ease. He had
showed that on occasion he could deal as shrewd a
blow with the sword, and throw as straight a jave-
lin, as many men of half his age. But at ninety






THE LAST OF A VETERAN'


years of age two or three years may make a great
difference. Masinissa had fought his last battle.
His senses were as keen as ever, the eyes flashed
with their old fire, but his breathing was heavy and
laboured, and his hands shook with the palsy of
age.
"Welcome, Cleanor! he said, with a full res-
onant voice that years had not touched, my son
commends you to me. Can you be content to wait
on an old man for a month or so ? I shall hardly
trouble you longer. I have never been a whole day
within doors, save once for a spear wound in the
throat, and once when they tried to poison me; and
those who have lived in such fashion don't take
long about dying."
Cleanor found his task an easy one. The old
king suffered little, except from the restlessness
which comes with extreme exhaustion. Even over
this he maintained a remarkable control. It was
not during his waking hours, but in his short pe-
riods of fitful slumber, that the uneasy movements
of his limbs might be observed. His intelligence
was as keen as ever, and his memory curiously ex-
act, though it was on the far past that it chiefly
dwelt. What a story the young Greek could have
pieced together out of the old man's recollections!
He had seen and known the heroes of the last fierce
struggle between Carthage and Rome, had ridden






LORDS OF TIE WORLD


by the side of the great Scipio at Zama, and had
been within an ace of capturing the famous Hanni-
bal himself as he fled from that fatal field. The
young Greek, surprised to find himself in such a
position, was naturally curious to know why the
old man preferred the companionship of a stranger
to that of his own kindred. When he ventured to
hint something of the kind, the king smiled cynically.
"You don't understand," he said, the amiable
ways of such a household as mine. What do you
think would have been the result if I had chosen
one of my three sons to be with me now? Why,
furious jealousy and plots without end on the part
of the other two. And if I had had the three of
them together? Well, I certainly could not have
expected to die in peace. Quarrel they certainly
will, but I can't have them quarrelling here. Mind,
I don't say that they are worse than other sons; on
the contrary, they are better. I do hope they may
live in peace when I am gone; at least, I have done
my best to secure it."
As the days passed, the king grew weaker and
weaker, but his faculties were never clouded, and
his cheerfulness was unimpaired.
About ten days after the conversation recorded
above, a Greek physician, whose reputation was
widely spread in Northern Africa, arrived at the
palace. The three princes had sent him. Masinissa,






THE LAST OF A VETERAN


informed of his coming, made no difficulty about
seeing him. I am not afraid of being poisoned,"
he said, with a smile; "I really do not think that
my sons would do such a thing. It would not be
worth while, and, anyhow, they could not agree
about it. Yes, let him come in. Of course ie can't
do me any good; but it is one of the penalties that
has to be paid for greatness, that one must die ac-
cording to rule. No one of any repute is allowed
to die in these parts without having Timmus to help
him off. Yes, I will see him. And mind, Cleanor,
when he has examined me have a talk with him,
and make him tell you the absolute truth."
That afternoon, soon after the physician had de-
parted, the king summoned the young Greek to his
chamber.
"Well, what does he say, Cleanor he asked.
The young man hesitated.
"Come," cried the old king, raising his voice, "I
command you to speak. As for these physicians,
it is quite impossible for a patient to get the truth
out of them. It seems to be a point of honour not
to tell it. But I suppose he told it to you. Speak
out, man; you don't suppose that I am afraid of
what I have faced pretty nearly every day for
nearly fourscore years."
"He said," answered Cleanor, in a low voice,
" that your time, sire, was nearly come."






LORDS OF THE WORLD


"And how many days, or, I should rather say,
hours did he give me ."
"He said that you could hardly live more than
two days."
"Well, I am ready. I have had my turn, a full
share of the feast of life, and it would be a shame-
ful thing if I was to grudge to go. But there is
trouble ahead for those who are to come after me.
I have done my best for my kingdom, yet nothing
can save it long. You know, I had to choose, when
I was about your age, between Rome and Carthage,
and my choice was the right one. If I had taken
sides with Carthage, Rome would have swallowed
up this kingdom fifty years ago; as it is, she will
swallow us up fifty years hence. Sooner or later
we are bound to go. But it has lasted my time,
and will last my sons' time too, if they are wise.
And now, as to this matter. I have something to
put in your charge. You have heard of Scipio ?"
Cleanor nodded his assent.
"He came over here some two months ago, when
I had had my first warning that my time was short,
and that I had best set my affairs in order. No one
had any notion but that he came on military busi-
ness. The Romans had asked me for help, and I
didn't choose to give it just then. They hadn't
consulted me in what they had done, and it was
time, I thought, that they should have a lesson.







THE LAST OF A VETERAN


We did discuss these matters; but what he really
came for was a more serious affair. I left it to him
to divide my kingdom between my three sons. I
had thought of dividing it in the usual way; this
and that province to one, and this and that prov-
ince to another. But he had quite another plan in
his head, and it seemed to me wonderfully shrewd.
'Don't divide the kingdom,' he said; 'the three
parts would be too weak to stand alone. Divide
the offices of the kingdom. Let each prince have
the part for which he is best fitted-one war and
outside affairs, another justice, the third one civil
affairs.' Well, I took his advice, and had his set-
tlement put in writing. The chief priest of the
temple of Zeus in Cirta here has the document in
his keeping."
After this the old man was silent for a time.
Rousing himself again, for he had been inclined to
doze, he said:
"Clean or, are you here ?."
"Yes, sire," replied the Greek.
"Don't leave me till all is over. And now give
me a cup of wine."
"But, sire, the physician said- "
"Pooh what does it matter if I die one hour or
two or three hours before sunrise? And I want
something that will give me a little strength."
Cleanor filled a cup and handed it to the king.







LORDS OF THE WORLD


"It hardly tastes as good as usual," said the old
man, when he had drained it, yet that, I can easily
believe, is not the wine's fault, but mine. But tell
me, do you think that I shall know anything about
what is going on herewhen I am gone ? What does
Mastanabal say? I haven't had time to think
about these things; but he reads, and you are some-
thing of a student, too. What do the philosophers
say ?."
"Aristotle thinks, sire, that the dead may very
well know something about the fortunes of their
descendants-it would be almost inhuman, he says,
if they did not-but that it will not be enough to
make them either happy or unhappy."
Well, the less one knows the better, when one
comes to think. To see things going wrong and not
be able to interfere! But enough of this.
And now, Cleanor, about yourself. You do
not love the Romans, I think ? "
The young Greek's face flushed at the question.
"I have no reason to love them, sire."
"Very likely not. Indeed, who does love them ?
Not I; if I could crush them I would, as readily as
I stamp my foot on a viper's head. But that is not
the question. Can you make use of them ? You
shake your head. It does not suit your honour to
pretend a friendship which you do not feel. That
has not been my rule, as you know, but there is







THE LAST OF A VETERAN


something to be said for it. Well, it is a pity that
you can't walk that way. Whether we love them
or no, depend upon it, the future belongs to them.
And I could have helped you with some of their
great men. I have written a letter to Scipio, and
two or three others to powerful people in Rome who
would help you for my sake. You can deliver
them or not, as you please. But tell me, what are
you going to do if the Romans are out of the ques-
tion ? "
"I thought of going to Carthage," answered the
young man in a hesitating voice.
Carthage !" repeated the king in astonishment.
"Why, the place is doomed. It can't hold out
more than a year-or two at the outside. And
then the Romans won't leave so much as one stone
standing upon another. They won't run the chance
of having another Hannibal to deal with. Car-
thage! You might as well put a noose round
your neck at once "
I hope not, sire," said the young man. And
in any case I have only Carthage and Rome to
choose between."
"Well," replied the old king after a pause, "you
must go your own way. But still I can help you,
at least with some provision for the journey. Put
your hand under my pillow and you will find a
key."







LORDS OF THE WORLD


The young man did as he was told.
"Now open that chest in yonder corner, and
bring me a casket that you will find wrapped up in
a crimson shawl."
Cleanor brought the casket and put it into the
king's hands. Masinissa unlocked it and took out
a rouleau of gold pieces, which he gave to Cleanor.
"That will be useful for the present," he said;
"but gold is a clumsy thing, and you can hardly
carry about with you what would serve for a single
year. This bit of parchment is an order for a thou-
sand ounces of gold-five hundred thousand ses-
terces in Roman money-on Caius Rabirius, knight,
of the Ccelian Hill in Rome, who has kept some
money for me for thirty years or more. You can
sell the parchment to Bocchar the banker in Cirta
here. He will charge you something for his com-
mission, but it will save you trouble. And he will
keep the money for you, or whatever part of it you
please. It is a very handy way of carrying about
money; but there is another that is more handy
still."
The old man took out a small leather bag full of
precious stones. "These," he said, "you can al-
ways hide. It is true that the merchants will cheat
you more or less when you want to sell them. Still,
you will find these stones very useful."
The jewels were worth at least five times as much








































































"THE OLD KING, THOUGH HIS EYES WERE OPEN, DID NOT
SEEM TO SEE CLEANER"







THE LAST OF A VETERAN


as the order on the parchment. "It is too much,"
murmured the Greek. "I did not expect- "
"It is true that you did not expect. I have seen
that all along, and that is one of the reasons why I
give it. And as for the 'too much,' you must leave
me to judge about that. My sons will find treasure
enough when they come to divide my goods between
them. I have been saving all my life, and this is
but a trifle which they will not miss, and which you
will find very useful. And now give me another
cup of wine. After this I will sleep a while. You
will stay-and don't let that young villain Jugur-
tha come near me."
Two or three hours afterwards Cleanor was star-
tled to see the old man raise himself in bed, a thing
which he had not been able to do without help for
three or four days past. He hastened to the bed-
side, but the king, though his eyes were wide open,
did not seem to see him. Yet something there was
that he saw; his was no vacant stare, but a look
full of tenderness. Then he began to speak, and
his voice had a soft tone of which Cleanor could
not have believed it capable.
So, sweetest and fairest, you have not forgotten
me; you, as all men know, no one can forget. Why
am I in such haste ? Nay, dearest, look in your
mirror for an answer. And besides, when you are
mine, the Romans can have nothing more to say.







LORDS OF THE WORLD


Till to-morrow, then-but stay, let me give you a
little token. Nay "-and his voice changed in an
instant to a note of horror-" what, pray, has
changed my love-gift into this ? Faugh 1"
And with a gesture as of one who dashed some-
thing to the ground, he sank down upon the bed,
and in another moment was sleeping again.'
Early the next morning the king's three sons, who
had heard the physician's report of their father's
health, arrived at the palace. Their emotion, as
they knelt by the dying king, was genuine, though
probably not very deep. The old man was perfectly
self-possessed and calm.
"My sons," he said, "I have done my best for
you. Probably you will not like it. What is there,
indeed, that you would all like? But lay your
hands on my head and swear that you will accept
what I have done. What it is you had best not

'In his youth Masinissa was betrothed to Sophonisba, the accomplished
and beautiful daughter of Hasdrubal, son of Gisco. The engagement was
broken off for political reasons. Hasdrubal made Sophonisba's hand the
price of an alliance which he wished Syphax, Masinissa's rival in the struggle
for the Numidian throne, to contract with Carthage. In the war that fol-
lowed, Syphax was defeated, first by the Romans, afterwards by Masinissa
himself, who took Cirta, his capital, and in it Sophonisba. To marry her at
once seemed to the conqueror the only way of saving her from the Romans.
But the marriage did not suit the policy of Rome, which dreaded the hostile
influence which such a woman might exercise. Scipio (the Elder), who was
in command, insisted that Sophonisba should be given up; and Masinissa, to
save her the humiliation of captivity, sent her a cup of poison.







THE LAST OF A VETERAN


know till I am gone. But trust me that I have
been just to all of you."
The princes took the oath.
Cleanor here knows where I have put away my
testament, but he is bound by me not to tell till I
am buried. And now farewell! Don't wait for the
end. You will have your hands full, I warrant, as
soon as the tribes know that the old man is gone."
The princes left the room and the old man turned
his face to the wall and seemed to sleep. All the
rest of that day Cleanor watched, but noticed no
change. Just before dawn he heard the sleeper
draw two or three deep breaths. He bade the slave
who was in waiting in the ante-chamber call the
physician.
But the man of science found no movement either
of pulse or heart. When he held a mirror to the
mouth, there was not the faintest sign of breath
upon it. The world had seen the last of one of the
most wonderful of its veterans.







LORDS OF THE WORLD


CHAPTER IV

SCIPIO

THE old king's body was roughly embalmed, in
order to give some time before the celebration
of the funeral. This was a more splendid and im-
pressive ceremony than had ever been witnessed in
that region. The news of Masinissa's death had
been carried far into the interior with that strange,
almost incredible rapidity with which great tidings
commonly travel in countries that have no regular
means of communication. The old man had been
one of the most prominent figures in Northern Africa
for a space more than equal to an ordinary lifetime.
Nor had he been one of the rulers who shut them-
selves up in their palaces, and are known, not in
their persons, but by their acts. His long life had
been spent, one might say, in the saddle. There was
not a chief in the whole region that had not met
him, either as friend or as foe. Many had heard
from their fathers or grandfathers the traditions of
his craft as a ruler and his prowess as a warrior,
and now they came in throngs to pay him the last
honours. From the slopes of the Atlas range far to
the west, and from the south as far as the edge of
what is now called the Algerian Sahara, came the







SCIPIO


desert chiefs, some of them men who had never been
seen within the walls of a city. For that day, at
least, were suspended all the feuds of the country,
many and deadly as they were. It was the greatest,
as it was the last, honour that could be paid to the
great chief who had done so much to join these
warring atoms into a harmonious whole.
The bier was carried by representatives of the
states which had owned the late king's sway. Be-
hind it walked his three sons; these again were fol-
lowed by the splendid array of the war-elephants
with their gorgeous trappings. The wise beasts,
whom the degenerate successors of the old African
races have never been able to tame,' seemed to feel
the nature of the occasion, and walked with slow
step and downcast mien. Behind the elephants
came, rank after rank, what seemed an almost inter-
minable cavalcade of horsemen. The procession
was finished by detachments of Roman troops, both
infantry and cavalry, a striking contrast, with their
regular equipment and discipline, to the wild riders
from the plains and hills of the interior.
The funeral over, there was a great banquet, a
scene of wild and uproarious festivity-a not un-
natural reaction from the enforced gravity of the
morning's proceedings. Cleanor, who had the sober
SIt is the Asiatic elephant only that has been domesticated in modern
times, and taught to utilize his strength in the service of man.
3







LORDS OF THE WORLD


habits which belonged to the best type of Greeks,
took the first opportunity that courtesy allowed of
withdrawing from the revel.
He made his way to a secluded spot which he
had discovered in the wild garden or park attached
to the palace, and threw himself down on the turf,
near a little waterfall. The fatigues of the day,
for he had taken a great part in the ordering of
the morning's ceremonial, and the exhausting heat
of the banqueting hall had predisposed him to
sleep, and the lulling murmur of the water com-
pleted the charm.
When he awoke, he found that he was no longer
alone. A stranger in Roman dress was standing
by, and looking down upon him with a kindly
smile. When the young Greek had collected his
thoughts, he remembered that he had already seen
and been impressed by the new-comer's features
and bearing. Then it dawned upon him that he
was the officer in command of the detachment of
Roman soldiers that had been present at the obse-
quies of the king.
And, indeed, the man was not one to be hastily
passed over, or lightly forgotten. In the full vigour
of manhood-he was just about to complete his
thirty-seventh year-lie presented a rare combina-
tion of strength and refinement. His face had the
regularity and fine chiselling of the Greek type, the






SCIPIO


nose, however, having something of the aquiline
form, which is so often one of the outward charac-
teristics of military genius. The beauty of the
features was set off by the absence of moustache
and beard, a fashion then making its way in Italy,
but still uncommon elsewhere. To the Greek it at
once suggested the familiar artistic conception of
the beardless Apollo.
But the eyes were the most remarkable feature
of the face. They expressed with a rare force, as
the occasion demanded, kindliness, a penetrating
intelligence, or a righteous indignation against evil.
But over and above these expressions, they had from
time to time a look of inspiration. They seemed to
see something that was outside and beyond mortal
limits. In after years it was often said of Scipio-
my readers will have guessed that I am speaking
of Scipio-that he talked with the gods. Ordinary
observers did not perceive, or did not understand it.
To a keen and sensitive nature, such as Cleanor's,
it appealed with a force that may almost be called
irresistible. All this did not reveal itself imme-
diately to the young man, but he felt at once, as no
one ever failed to feel, the inexplicable charm of
Scipio's personality.
"So you, too," said the Roman, "have escaped
from the revellers ?"
Cleanor made a movement as if to rise.






LORDS OF THE WORLD


Nay," said the other, do not disturb yourself.
Let me find a place by you ; and he seated himself
on the grass. "What a home for a naiad is this
charming little spring! But you will say that a
Roman has no business to be talking of naiads. It
is true, perhaps. Our hills, our streams, our oaks
have no such presence in them. We have borrowed
them from you. Our deities are practical. We have
a goddess that makes the butter to come in the
churn, curdles the milk for the cheese, and helps
the cow to calve. There is not a function or an
employment that has not got its patron or pa-
troness. But we have not peopled the world of
nature with the gracious and beautiful presence
which your poets have imagined. Nor, I fancy,"
he added, with a smile, have your African friends
done so."
Cleanor, who would in any case have been too
courteous to show to a casual stranger the hostility
which he cherished against the Roman nation, fel t
at once the charm of the speaker's manner. He was
struck, too, by the purity of the Roman's Greek
accent, and by the elegance of his language, with
which no fault could have been found except, per-
haps, that it was more literary than colloquial.
He laughingly acknowledged the compliment which
the Roman had paid to the poetical genius of his
countrymen.






SCIPIO


A brisk conversation on literary topics followed.
Cleanor, who was of a studious turn, had spent a
year at Athens, listening to the philosophical
teachers who were the successors of Plato at the
Academy, and another year at Rhodes, then the
most famous rhetorical school in the world. Scipio,
on the other hand, was one of the best-read men of
his age. He was a soldier and a politician, and had
distinguished himself in both capacities, but his
heart was given to letters. In private life he sur-
rounded himself with the best representatives of
Greek and Roman culture. He now found in the
young Greek, with whose melancholy history he was
acquainted, a congenial spirit. Cleanor, on the other
hand, who had something of the Greek's readiness
to look down upon all outsiders as barbarians, was
astonished to see how wide and how deep were the
attainments of his new acquaintance.
The two thus brought together had many oppor-
tunities of improving the acquaintance thus begun.
Scipio had to carry out the details of the division
of royal functions mentioned in my last chapter.
This was not a thing to be done in a day. The three
brothers accepted the principle readily enough,
though they felt that the one to whom the army
had been allotted had the lion's share of power.
But when the principles came to be applied there
were endless jealousies and differences of opinion.






LORDS OF THE WORLD


It required all Scipio's tact and personal influence
to keep the peace unbroken.
When this complicated business was finished, or
at least put in a fair way of being finished, an un-
toward event cut short Scipio's sojourn in Africa.
Two new commanders came out to take charge of
the Roman army before Carthage. Scipio knew
them to be rash and incompetent, and was unwilling
to incur the. responsibility of serving under them.
Accordingly he asked for permission to resign his
command-he held the rank of tribune.1 The con-
suls, on the other hand, were not a little jealous of
their subordinate's reputation, and, above all, of
his name. A Scipio at Carthage had a prestige
which no one else could hope to rival, and they
were glad to get rid of him.
This interruption of an acquaintance which was
rapidly ripening into friendship had an important
bearing on Cleanor's life. If anyone could have
reconciled him to Rome, Scipio was the man.
Scipio gone, the old feelings, only too well justified
as they were, revived in full force. Hostility to
Rome became, indeed, the absorbing passion of his
life. It was a passion, however, which he concealed
with the finesse natural to his race. For the pres-
ent his purpose could, he conceived, be better served
'About equivalent to a colonel in our army. There were five tribunes in
the legion or brigade, and these commanded in turn.






A GREAT SCHEME


outside the walls of Carthage than within them.
Accordingly he accepted an offer from Mastanabal
that he should undertake the duties of a private
secretary.



CHAPTER V

A GREAT SCHEME

SCIPIO'S forebodings as to the incapacity of the
new generals were rapidly justified. The siege
operations had not been uniformly successful before
they took over the command. There had been losses
as well as gains. Still, on the whole, the besiegers
had the balance of advantage. The defence had
been broken down at more points than one. Car-
thage was distinctly in a worse position than it had
been three months after the breaking out of the
war. The besieged had done some damage to the
Roman fleet, had burnt a considerable extent of
siege-works, and had suffered a distinctly smaller
loss in killed and wounded than they had been able
to inflict on their assailants.
But if the damage that they suffered was less
than that which they did, still it was less capable
of being repaired, often indeed could not be repaired
at all. If a ship was burnt, they could not build an-






LORDS OF THE WORLD


other; the losses of the garrison could not be filled
up; the general waste of strength could not be re-
paired. Carthage, in short, had only itself to draw
upon as a reserve ; Rome had all the countries that
bordered on the Mediterranean, from Greece west-
ward. These were advantages which were certain
to tell in the long run, but meanwhile much might
occur to delay the final victory.
The first thing to happen in the Roman camp was
that supplies began to fall short. The country round
Carthage was, of course, so much wasted by this
time that practically nothing could be drawn from
it. Further off, indeed, there was plenty of food
and forage, but the natives showed no readiness in
bringing it into camp. The fact was that there was
no market; buyers there were in plenty, but not
buyers with money in hand, for the military chest
was empty, and the pay of the soldiers months in
arrear.
The consequence of this was that the Roman
generals practically raised the siege of Carthage,
and devoted their time and strength to reducing the
Carthaginian towns, hoping thus to supply their
wants. But in this attempt they made very little
progress. They began by attacking the town of
Clypea. Here they failed. The fleet could not make
its way into the harbour, which the townspeople
had effectually protected by sinking a couple of






A GREAT SCHEME


ships in the entrance, and the Roman engineers
could not reach the walls of the town.
They had better fortune with another small town
in the neighbourhood, though their success was
gained in a not very creditable way. The towns-
people were disposed to come to terms, and a con-
ference between their representatives and the Roman
generals was accordingly held. Terms were agreed
upon, and the agreement had been actually signed,
when some soldiers made their way into the town.
The Romans at once broke up the meeting, and
treated the place as if it had been taken by storm.
This conduct was, of course, as unwise as it was
wicked. Next to nothing was gained by the false-
hood, while every Carthaginian dependency resolved
to resist to the uttermost.
Hippo was the next place to be attacked. After
Carthage and Utica-the Roman head-quarters were
at Utica-Hippo was the largest and most impor-
tant town in Northern Africa. Its docks, its har-
bour, its walls were on a grand scale. Two hundred
years before, Agathocles, tyrant of Syracuse, in his
desperate struggle with Carthage, had made it the
base of his operations. A lavish expenditure, di-
rected by the best engineers of the time, had made
it almost impregnable.
The Roman generals had, indeed, excellent rea-
sons for attacking it. Till it was in their power,







LORDS OF THE WORLD


they could hardly hope to capture Carthage, for it
stood almost between their own head-quarters and
that city, and commanded the route by which
stores had to be carried to the besieging army. But
the Roman forces were quite unequal to the under-
taking. Twice did the people of Hippo, helped by
a sally from Carthage, destroy the siege-works, and
when the time for retiring to winter quarters ar-
rived, nothing had been accomplished by the be-
siegers.
All this did vast damage to the prestige of the
Romans. Far-seeing persons were convinced, as I
have said, that the future belonged to them; but
ordinary observers began to think, and not without
some excuse, that their decline had begun. Among
these were two out of three sons of King Masi-
nissa. Possibly dissatisfaction had something to
do with their state of mind. Each had expected to
get more than Scipio's award had given him ; both
grudged to Gulussa the command of the troops,
suspecting that this meant in the end their own
subjection to him. Gulussa himself seemed to be
still loyal to Rome, but the general discontent had
not failed to reach some of the high placed officers
in his army.
Cleanor was still with Mastanabal, and, of course,
watched the progress of affairs with intense interest.
His hopes rose high when tidings reached the palace







A GREAT SCHEME


that the Romans had abandoned the siege of Hippo.
At the evening meal that day the subject was dis-
cussed, but in a very guarded way, for the prince
was still, at least in name, an ally of Rome, and
his young secretary, for this was the office which
Cleanor now filled, was too discreet to ignore the
fact. The hour for retiring had almost come when
the confidential slave who waited on the prince
hurriedly entered the chamber and placed a letter
in his hands. It was a double tablet closely bound
together with cords of crimson silk, these again
being secured by seals. Hastily cutting the cords
with the dagger which he carried at his waist, the
prince read the communication with that impassive
and inscrutable look which it is one of the necessi-
ties of a despotic ruler to acquire. Rising shortly
after from table he bade the young Greek good-
night, but added, as if by an after-thought, "But
stay, I have a book, a new acquisition, to show
you. Come into the library."
The library was a small inner room, of a semi-
circular shape, which opened out of the dining-hall.
It had this great advantage, contemplated, no
doubt, by the builder who designed it, that conver-
sations held in it could not by any possibility be
overheard. It had an outer wall everywhere except
on the side which adjoined the dining-hall. It was
built on columns, so that no one could listen be-







LORDS OF THE WORLD


neath, and there was no storey over it. As long as
the outer chamber was empty, absolute secrecy was
ensured. Only a bird of the air could carry the
matters discussed in it.
"Listen, Cleanor," said the prince, and pro-
ceeded to read the following letter:

Hasdrubal, son of Gisco, to King Mastanabal
greeting. Know that if you would save Africa,
now, and now only, you have the opportunity.
The Romans have fled from Hippo fewer by a
third than when they first attacked it. Bithyas,
commander of Gulussa's cavalry, has come over
to us with seven hundred of his best troopers.
Strike then along with us such a blow as shall
rid us of this devouring Beast now and for ever.
Else you shall yourself surely be devoured.
Think not that when Carthage is destroyed, there
shall be any hope left for Numidia. Farewell!
"What think you of this, Cleanor?" the king
asked, after a pause. "I know well enough that
you have no liking for the Romans. Indeed, why
should you? But you can judge of how things
stand; judge, doubtless, better in some ways than I
can, for there are many things that we kings never
see. Speak frankly. No one can overhear us."
"Sire," replied the young Greek, "it wants, I
fear, more wisdom than I possess to give you any






A GREAT SCHEME


profitable counsel. I hate Rome, but I fear her.
She makes blunders without number, -but always
manages to succeed in the end. She chooses mere
fools and braggarts for her generals, but always
finds the right man at last. So I read her history.
There was a time when everyone believed that
Hannibal would make an end of her, and yet she
survived. She lost army after army, yet conquered
in the end. After a Flaminius and a Varro' she
found a Scipio. And she has a Scipio now. I saw
him, sire, the other day, and felt that he was a
great man."
"But he is too young," interrupted the king.
"He wants some five years yet of the age when he
can be put in chief command."
"True, sire; but when a man is absolutely nec-
essary they will have him, be he young or old."
Then there is their unending civil strife. What
of that "
"It makes for us, no doubt. But even that they
can drop on occasion."
After a pause of some minutes Mastanabal spoke
again.
"Then, what do you advise ?"
Sire," replied the young Greek, "I would ad-
vise you for the present to do nothing. Let me an-
SFlaminius commanded at the disastrous battle of Lake Trasumennus,
Varro at the still more disastrous defeat of Cannae.






LORDS OF THE WORLD


swer this letter in person, and answer it as I think
best, if you can trust me so far. I have a plan, for
I have been thinking of these matters night and day.
But don't ask me what it is. It is better that you
should know nothing about it. I will start at once.
It might look well if you were to send some troopers
in pursuit. Of course they must not catch me.
Put Juba in command, and we may rely on their
not being too active."
Will you carry any token from me ?" asked the
king.
"No, sire, it is better not. Let me have the let-
ter; that will be enough. Will you forgive me if
I steal Whitefoot from her stable ?"
"Take her or any other horse that you want.
Have you money enough ?"
"'Ample, sire ; your good father provided me with
that."
Then, farewell! You make me curious, but I sup-
pose that I may not ask any questions. In any case,
and whatever happens, count me as a sure friend."
Before midnight Cleanor was well on his way to
Carthage. At the first signs of dawn he drew rein,
and halted for the day at a small cluster of palms,
where there was abundance of herbage for his horse.
Starting again at nightfall he reached the camp of
Hasdrubal just as the light was showing itself in
the east. The camp, it should be explained, was







A GREAT SCHEME


pitched outside the city. The larger half of the
Carthaginian army occupied it. The remainder of
the troops were stationed within the walls under
the command of another Hasdrubal.
Cleanor, who had contrived to learn something
about the arrangements of the camp, gave himself
up into the hands of the officer commanding an out-
lying picket. Hasdrubal's letter proved, as he had
anticipated, a sufficient passport, and he was con-
ducted, after taking a few hours' rest, into the
general's presence.
The personality of Hasdrubal was not by any
means attractive, and Cleanor could not help com-
paring his puny physique and sinister expression
with the commanding figure and noble countenance
of Scipio. The Carthaginian may be best described
by saying that he resembled the more ignoble type
of Jew. It is often forgotten that the Phoenician
race, of which the Carthaginian people was the
principal offshoot, was closely akin to the Hebrew
in blood and language.1 Hasdrubal showed the
relationship plainly enough. His black, ringlety
hair, prominent nose, thick, sensual lips, and keen
but shifty eyes, were just such as might have been

1 Carthage was Kirjath-Hadeschath, the "new town" (opposed to Tyre,
which was the old); its chief magistrates were Shophetim (Latinized into
Suffetes), the Hebrew word for "judges." Barca was a well-known name,
corresponding to the Hebrew Barak, and meaning lightning."







LORDS OF THE WORLD


seen at that day in the meaner quarters of Jeru-
salem or Alexandria (then become the second capital
of the Jews), and at the present time in the London
Whitechapel or the Roman Ghetto.
On the present occasion, however, Hasdrubal wore
his most pleasing expression. He was genuinely
delighted to see Cleanor, as much delighted as he was
astonished, for he had taken it for granted that the
young man had perished in the destruction of Chelys.
"Hail, Cleanor he cried with a heartiness that
was not in the least affected. "What good fortune
has restored you to us ? we had long given you up
as dead."
Cleanor gave him in the fewest possible words a
sketch of what had happened.
And what can I do for you ?" continued Has-
drubal. If, as I hope, you are come to join us, I
can find plenty of work for you. Things are look-
ing more bright for Carthage than they have done
for years past. We shall soon have all Africa with
us. When that happens the Romans will have
nothing left them but the ground that they stand
on, and even that, I hope, not very long. You have
heard of Bithyas with his squadron coming over to
us ? We shall soon have the rest of Gulussa's army
following him, and then there will be Gulussa him-
self and his brothers. You have been in Mastana-
bal's household; tell me how he stands."







A GREAT SCHEME


Cleanor produced in answer Hasdrabal's own let-
ter. "The king's position," he went on, is a very
difficult one, and he must act with the greatest cau-
tion in your interests as well as in his own. If lie
declares himself too soon, his brothers will most
certainly take the other side. What is wanted is
a combination so strong as to compel all the three
to declare themselves together. He wishes well to
you; that I can say positively."
That is good as far as it goes, though I should
have liked something more definite."
"May I put before you," said Cleanor, "an idea
which has been working for some time in my head ?
I am afraid that it is somewhat presumptuous in a
youth such as I am to discuss such things; still, if
you are willing to hear- "
Say on, my young friend," cried the Cartha-
ginian; "a son of your house is not likely to say
anything but what is worth hearing."
"I spoke of a combination which would enable
Mastanabal to declare himself. Don't you think
such a combination might be made among all those
who hate Rome or fear her ? First there is my own
nation. The League' is, I have heard, little satis-

I By the "League" Cleaner means the Achean League, a combination orig-
inally of the cities of Achaia proper, or the southern shore of the Corin-
thian Gulf, but afterwards extended over the greater part of Mainland
Greece.







LORDS OF THE WORLD


fled with its powerful friends, and it needs only a
little blowing to set that fire a-blazing. Then there
are the Macedonians, who haven't forgotten that
they were masters of the world not so very long
ago. There is Syria, there is Egypt, both of them
afraid of being swallowed up before long. There
are the Jews, kinsmen of your own, I believe Is it
not so "
"Yes," said the Carthaginian, "kinsmen, but not
friends I fear that we shall not get much help
there."
"Then there is Spain. What do you know, sir,
of Spain ? Is there any chance of a rising ?"
"The northern tribes' still hold their own, but
they will hardly go outside their own borders.
They are quite content to be free themselves with-
out thinking of others. Still, there is something
that might be done in Spain. Only, unluckily, the
Spaniards don't love us any more than they love
the Romans. Perhaps they love us rather less.
However, this is a promising scheme of yours, my
young friend. Ah! if it had not been for you
Greeks we should have had all the shores of the
Sea' long ago. We never could get you out of

1 The Cantabri (now the Basques), who were not subdued by Rome for
more than a century after this time.
2 By the Sea Hasdrubal means the .Mediterranean; outside the Pillars
of Hercules (Gibraltar and Tanglers) was the Ocean (the Atlantic).






A GREAT SCHEME


Sicily. It would be strange if you were now to
make amends to us for all the mischief that you
have done."
Cleanor, who had read history to some purpose,
could not help thinking to himself that mankind
would hardly have been better off than it was if
Carthage had been mistress of the west. But he
put away the thought. His lot was cast, and he
could not, would not change it. The memory of the
inexpiable wrong that he had suffered swept over
his mind, and he set himself resolutely to carry out
his purpose.
"And what do you suggest?" continued Has-
drubal.
"To go myself and see what can be done," re-
plied the Greek.
"Good! And let no time be lost. I don't mean
that you are one to lose time; that you certainly
are not; I mean that we had better not say any-
thing about this to the authorities inside the walls.
There will be questions, debates, delays, nothing
settled, I feel sure, till it is too late. You must go
unofficially, but I will give you letters of commen-
dation which you will find useful. Succeed, and
there is nothing that you may not ask, and get,
from Carthage and from me. When shall you be
ready to start "
"To-day."






LORDS OF THE WORLD


"And whither do you propose to go first? "
"First, of course, to Greece; then to Macedonia.
I hear that there is someone there who calls him-
self the son of King Philip, and that the Macedo-
nians are flocking to his standard."
"So be it. Farewell; and Hercules be with
you!"



CHAPTER VI

THE MISSION

CLEANOR'S interview with Hasdrubal was fol-
lowed by a long conversation with one of his
staff, Gisco by name, in which were discussed the
best and safest means of crossing from Africa to
Greece. The Greek might have had at his command
the best and fleetest war-galley in the docks of Car-
thage, but the idea did not at all commend itself to
him. The harbour was not actually blockaded-
Roman seamanship was hardly equal to maintain-
ing a blockade, which often means the imminent
peril of lying off a lee-shore-but it was pretty
closely watched ; the sea in the neighbourhood was
patrolled by Roman ships, and the chances were at
least equal that a Carthaginian galley would be
challenged and brought to bay before it could






THE MISSION


reach Europe, and more than likely that if so chal-
lenged it would be captured. Some kind of dis-
guise seemed to be far more promising of safety,
and the more obscure the disguise the better the
promise.
A little fleet of vessels was about to sail from one
of the coast villages for the autumn tunny-fishing,
and Cleanor resolved to embark on one of them. It
had been one of his boyish delights to spend a few
days from time to time at sea, and he had a long-
standing acquaintance, which might almost have
been called a friendship, with the veteran master of
one of these craft. The tunny-fishing had always
been too long an affair for the lad, who had his
duties at home to attend to. The boats were about
a month or more from home if the shoals had to be
followed far, for the tunny is a fish that lives
mostly in deep water. But there was a standing
engagement that some day or other, when he hap-
pened to have leisure sufficient, the thing was to be
done. Syphax-this was the old fisherman's name
-knew nothing about his visitor except that he
was a merry, companionable lad who had a suffi-
cient command of gold pieces. To politics he paid
no attention whatever. If there was war, it made no
difference to him except, possibly, to increase the
market for his tunnies, and raise the price. Romans
and Carthaginians agreed in liking his wares; if






LORDS OF THE WORLD


they paid honestly for them, it did not matter to
the fisherman what they did in other matters.
When, therefore, two or three days after his visit
to Hasdrubal's camp, the Greek knocked at the
door of Syphax's little house by the sea, he received
a hearty welcome, and was asked no inconvenient
questions.
"You're just in time, young sir," cried the old
man, "if you are come for the tunnies. We start
at sunset, and, if we have luck, we shall be among
them by dawn to-morrow. Just now the shoals are
pretty near, and we may catch a boat-load before
the new moon-it is just full to-day. But you are
not in a hurry, I hope, if we should have to go
further afield."
"All right, Syphax! replied Cleanor. I shall
be able to see it through this time."
The old man, who had, indeed, the experience of
sixty years to draw from, was quite right in his pre-
diction that they would find themselves among the
tunnies at dawn. They had been able to get over
a considerable distance during the night. At first
their progress had been slow, for it was a dead calm,
and the sweeps had to be used. About midnight,
when they were well out of the shelter of the land,
a light breeze from the south sprang up. The broad
lateen sail was gladly hoisted, and the little craft
sped gaily along, making, with the wind due aft,







THE MISSION


some six or seven miles an hour. Cleanor, who had
fallen asleep shortly after midnight, not a little
fatigued by the share which he had insisted on
taking in the rowing, was awakened, after what
seemed to him five minutes of slumber, by the
captain.
See," cried the old man, there they are yon-
der. Thanks to Dagon, we have got among them
quite as soon as I hoped."
And sure enough, about three hundred yards off,
just in a line with the sun, which was beginning to
lift a crimson disk out of the sea, the water seemed
positively alive with fish, little and big. The tun-
nies had got among a shoal of sardines, and were
busy with the chase. Every now and then some
score of small fry would throw themselves wildly
out of the water to escape their pursuer; behind
them the water swirled with the rush of some mon-
sterfish, whose great black fin might be discerned,
by a keen eye, just showing above the surface.
Elsewhere, one of the tunnies would leap bodily
into the air, his silvery side gleaming in the almost
level rays of the rising sun. The sail had already
been lowered, and the sweeps, after some dozen
strokes to give a little way to the vessel in the right
direction, had been shipped again. In another min-
ute the little craft had quietly glided into the mid-
dle of the shoal.







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Cleanor, in spite of all the grave preoccupation
of his mind, was still young enough to enjoy the
brisk scene which followed. There were two ways
of securing the fish: the harpoon was one; the
hand-line was the other, the hook being baited with
a small fish or with a bit of brilliant red cloth.
Syphax and two of his sailors used the former.
Cleanor and the third sailor, a young man of about
the same age, as being not sufficiently expert with
the harpoon, were furnished with hand-lines.
The fun was fast and furious. At his very first
shot the captain drove his harpoon into the side of
a huge tunny. So strong was the creature that it
positively towed the boat after it for a few minutes.
This gave to Cleanor's baited hook exactly the mo-
tion that was wanted. It was soon seized with a
force which jerked the line out of his hand, and
would infallibly have carried it away altogether,
had it not been wound round his leg, more, it must
be confessed, by accident than by design.
A sharp struggle followed. For some time the
fisherman seemed to get no nearer to securing his
fish. It would suffer itself to be drawn up a few
yards, and would then by a fierce rush recover and
even increase its distance. But the line was of a
thickness and strength which allowed any strain to
be put upon it, and the hook was firmly fastened
into the leathery substance of the fish's mouth. The







THE MISSION


creature's only chance of escape was that the tre-
mendous jerks it gave might flatten the barb of the
hook. This did not happen, for Syphax took good
care that all his tackle should be of the very best
quality, and, after a conflict of half an hour, Cleanor
had the satisfaction of seeing his prey turn helpless
and exhausted on to its side. He drew it up close
to the vessel, glad enough to give a little rest to his
fingers, which were actually bleeding with the fric-
tion of the line. A sailor put his fingers into the
animal's gills, and lifted it by a great effort over
the gunwale. It weighed a little more than a hun-
dred pounds.
The sport continued till noon, only interrupted
by a few short intervals when the shoal moved away
and had to be followed. By noon so many fish had
been secured that it became necessary to take meas-
ures for preserving them. They were split open and
cleaned. The choicest portions were immersed in
casks which held a liquid used for pickling; other
parts were salted lightly or thoroughly, according
as they were intended for speedy consumption or
otherwise.
"You have brought us good luck," said Syphax
to his guest, as they shared the last meal after a
day's hard work. "In all my experience-and it
goes back sixty years at least-I don't remember
getting such sport so soon. Another day or two of







LORDS OF THE WORLD


this and we shall have a full cargo, and may go
home again."
He had hardly spoken when his eye was caught
by a strange appearance in the water-strange,
that is, to Cleanor, but only too familiar and intel-
ligible to the old man.
"Ah !" he cried, I thought that it was too good
to last. Do you see that eddy yonder ? And look,
there is the brute's back-fin."
"What is it ? asked Cleanor.
"A shark, of course," replied the old man.
"They never bode any good to anyone. Dagon
only knows where we shall find the tunnies again.
They will be leagues away from here by sunrise to-
morrow, and there is no telling what way they will
go. However, we have done pretty well, even if we
don't see them again this moon. To-night we will
lie-to ; it will be time enough in the morning to de-
cide what is to be done."
Cleanor had begun to fear that his experiment
might turn out to be a failure. Nothing, he knew,
would induce the old man to sail another league
away from home when once his cargo had been
completed. Accordingly he had hailed the shark's
appearance with delight as soon as he comprehend-
ed what it meant, and now he turned to sleep with
a lighter heart.
Again did the old fisherman show himself a true







THE MISSION


prophet. The next morning, and for many morn-
ings afterwards, not a tunny was to be seen. The
weather, however, continued fine, and the little
craft made its way in a leisurely fashion towards
the north-east, a sharp look-out being kept by day,
and, as far as was possible, by night, for the object
of pursuit.
Two days had passed in this way when masses
of floating sea-weed and flocks of gulls began to
warn the captain that he was drawing near the land.
'"We have been on the wrong tack," he said to
Cleanor, "and must put her head about. We are
more likely to find the fish in deep water than here."
Where are we, then? asked the Greek.
"Almost within sight of Lilybaeum, as far as I
can guess."
Cleanor felt that it was time to act. Will you
do me a favour ?" he said.
"Certainly," replied the old man, "if I possibly
can."
"Well, then, put me ashore."
"That is easy enough, if I am not wrong in my
guess as to our whereabouts. How long do you
want to stay? I should not like to lose this fine
weather. As for landing, I should have had to do
that in any case, for we are getting short of water."
"I don't want you to wait for me. Only land
me and leave me."







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"What! Tired of the business, I suppose. Well,
we have been a long time doing nothing, but we
must come across the tunnies soon."
Cleanor, who was anxious above all things not to
be thought to have any serious object in view, al-
lowed that the time did seem a little long. He had
friends and kinsfolk, too, in Sicily, he said, and it
would be a pity to lose the opportunity of paying
them a visit. It was arranged, accordingly, that he
should be landed, and that the crew should replen-
ish their water-casks at the same time. He parted
with his friends on the best of terms. Two gold
pieces to the captain and one to each of the crew
sent them away in great glee, singing his praises as
the most open-handed young sportsman that they
had ever had to do with.
It is needless to relate in detail our hero's journey
through Sicily. He bought a stout young horse,
one of the famous breed of Sicilian cobs, at Agri-
gentum, near which place he had been landed, and
reached Syracuse without further adventure. At
Syracuse he found a merchant vessel about to start
for Corinth, secured a berth in her, and reached
that city after a rapid and prosperous voyage.







THE LAST OF THE GREEKS


CHAPTER VII

THE LAST OF THE GREEKS

M OST of Cleanor's fellow-passengers on board
the Vereid-for this was the name of the sin-
gularly un-nymphlike trading vessel that carried
him to Corinth-were a curious medley of races
and occupations. Corinth was the mart of the
western world, and was frequented, for business or
for pleasure, by all its races. There were soothsay-
ers from Egypt, who found their customers all the
more credulous because they boasted that they be-
lieved in nothing; Syrian conjurors; Hebrew slave-
dealers; a mixed troop of commercial travellers;
and a couple of grave-looking, long-bearded men
who, in spite of their philosophers' cloaks, were
perhaps the greediest, the most venal of all.
One passenger, however, was of a very different
class. He was a Syracusan noble, erect and vigor-
ous, notwithstanding his seventy years, whose dig-
nified bearing and refined features spoke plainly
enough of high breeding and culture. He was a
descendant of Archias, the Corinthian emigrant,
who, some six centuries before, had founded the
colony of Syracuse, and he was coming, as he told
Cleanor, in whom he had discovered a congenial






LORDS OF THE WORLD


companion, on a religious mission. The tie that
bound a Greek colony to the mother city had a cer-
tain sanctity about it. Sentiment there was, and
the bond of mutual advantage; but there was more,
a feeling of filial reverence and duty, which was ex-
pressed by appropriate solemnities.
I am bringing," said Archias-he bore the same
name as his far-away ancestor-" the yearly offering
from Syracuse the daughter to Corinth the mother.
I have done it now more than thirty times. But I
feel a certain foreboding that I shall not come on
the same errand again. If that means only that
my own time is near, it is nothing. I have had my
share of life. The gods have dealt bountifully with
me, and if they call me I shall go without grumbling.
But I can't help feeling that it is something more
than the trifle of my own life that is concerned, that
some evil is impending either over Syracuse or over
Corinth. As for my own city, I don't see where the
trouble is to come from. We have long since bowed
our necks to the yoke, and we bear it without
wincing. For bearable it is, though it is heavy.
But for Corinth I own that I have many fears. She
is restless, she is vain; she has ambitions to which
she is not equal. The gods help her and save
her, or take me away before my eyes see her
ruin!"
As they were drawing near their journey's end







THE LAST OF THE GREEKS


Archias warmly invited his young friend to make
his home with him during his stay in Corinth.
"I have an apartment," he said, "reserved for
me in the home of the guest-friend of Syracuse.
The city rents it for me, and makes me an allowance
for the expenses of my journey. I feel bound to
accept it, though, without at all wishing to boast of
my wealth, I may say that I don't need it. You
must not think that you are burdening a poor man
-that is all. I can introduce you to everybody
that is worth knowing in Corinth, and, if you have
any business on hand, shall doubtless be able to
help you. And it will be a pleasure, I assure you,
to have a companion who is not wearied with an old
man's complaints of the new times."
Cleanor thankfully accepted the invitation. When
the Nereid reached the port of Corinth he found
that the Syracusan's arrival had been expected. A
chariot was in waiting at the quay to convey them
to the city. At the apartment all preparations for
the comfort of the guests were complete-it was a
standing order that a provision sufficient for two
should be made. First there was the bath-more
than usually welcome after the somewhat squalid
conditions of life on board the merchantman-and
after the bath a meal, excellently cooked and ele-
gantly served.
The meal ended, Cleanor felt moved to become







LORDS OF THE WORLD


more confidential with his new friend than he had
hitherto been. Naturally he had been very reserved,
giving no reason for Archias to suppose that he had
other objects in his travels than amusement or in-
struction. But he felt that it would be somewhat
ungracious to maintain this attitude while he was
enjoying so kind and generous an hospitality. In a
conversation that was prolonged far into the night
he opened up his mind with considerable freedom.
His precise schemes he did not mention; they were
scarcely his own secret; and he said nothing about
Hasdrubal, feeling-for he had studied history with
intelligence and sympathy-that a Syracusan noble
would scarcely look with favour on anything that
came from Carthage, the oldest and bitterest enemy
of his country. But he gave a general descrip-
tion of his hope and aim, a common union of the
world under the leadership of the Greek race
against the domination with which Rome was
threatening it.
The Syracusan listened with profound attention.
"It has done me good," he said, "to hear you. I
did not know that such enthusiasm was to be found
nowadays. The very word has gone out of fashion,
I may say fallen into disrepute. It used to mean
inspiration, now it means madness. Our young men
care for nothing but sport, and even their sport has
to be done for them by others. They have chariots,







THE LAST OF THE GREEKS


but they hire men to drive them; the cestus' and
the wrestling ring are left to professional athletes.
The only game which they are not too languid to
practise with their own hands is the kottabos, and
the kottabos2 is not exactly that for which our
fathers valued all these things, a preparation for
war. I hate to discourage you, but I should be
sorry to see you ruining your life in some hopeless
cause."
'' But, if I may say so much with all respect, isn't
this exactly what has been said time after time?
May there not be something better than you think,
than anybody would think, in these frivolous young
fellows ? Who would have thought Alcibiades any-
thing but a foolish fop, and yet what a soldier he
was when the time came! "
Well, I hope that you are right," replied the old
man; "only your Alcibiades must make haste to
show himself, or else it will be too late. But it is
not only this, the folly and frivolity of the youth,
that discourages me; it is the hopeless meanness
and jealousy of the various states. If I could raise
from the dead the very best leader a Greek city ever
had, I should still despair. Now listen to the story

1 The ancient boxing-glove, a formidable construction, fitted to the hand,
of leather thongs heavily loaded with lead.
2 This consisted in throwing wine out of a cup into a bowl placed at some
distance. The game was played in various ways.







LORDS OF THE WORLD


that I have to tell you. Don't think that I am a
mere grumbler, who does his best to discourage
thoughts that are too high for him to understand;
I speak from a bitter experience. But you shall
hear.
"I am just old enough to remember the storm
and sack of my native city by the Romans. I was
but five years old, but even a child of five does not
forget when he sees, as I saw, his father and his
elder brother killed before his eyes. I should have
been killed myself-for the soldiers, who had suf-
fered terribly in the siege, spared no one-but for
Marcellus himself.' He let the slave who waited on
me carry me off to his own hut. That worthy slave
and his good wife kept me for five years out of their
scanty wages-he was a workman in the stone-
quarries, and she sold cakes to schoolboys in the
streets-till I was ten years old. Then interest was
made with the Senate at Rome, and part of the
family property was given back to me. You will
understand that I was very restless at Syracuse, but
I could not move till I was twenty-five, for my
father's will had fixed this age for my becoming my
own master. It is a custom in our family, and I
was too dutiful to think of breaking it. But the
moment I became my own master I made haste to
carry out a plan which I had long been thinking of.
1 Marcellus was the Roman general in command.






THE LAST OF THE GREEKS


The famous soldier of the time was Philopcemen,
the Arcadian. It was a privilege to serve under
him as a volunteer, and there were always ten times
more applications than there were places to fill.
However, by great good luck, and partly, I may
say, through my having had the good fortune to
win the foot-race at Olympia, I was chosen. I
landed here-it is more than forty-five years ago-
and made my way to his home in Arcadia. He had
himself just come back from Sparta, which he had
brought over to the cause of Greece. Sparta, as I
dare say you know, has always cared much for her-
self, and very little for anything or anybody else.
I shall never forget what happened a few days after
my arrival. The Spartans, or, I should rather say,
the reforming party among the Spartans-for there
never was a Greek city yet but had two parties in it
at the very least-felt greatly obliged to him for
what he had done, and determined to make him a
present. Well, they sent three of their chief citi-
zens to offer it to him. They came, and Philopemen
entertained them. Of course he knew nothing about
the object of their coming, and they said nothing
about it. They seemed ill at ease-that I could not
help observing--though their host was all that was
courteous and agreeable; but speak they couldn't.
There was something about the man which posi-
tively forbade their mentioning such a matter. The






LORDS OF THE WORLD


next day they went away, leaving their offer un-
spoken. But as they could hardly go back to
Sparta with this story, they put the matter into the
hands of an old friend to carry out.
"It seems an easy thing to get rid of a pocketful
of gold, but this man didn't find it so. Everything
about Philopcemen was so simple, so frugal, he
seemed so absolutely above things of the kind, that
it was impossible to offer him money. The man
went away without saying anything. He came a
second time, and it was the same thing all over
again. I don't say but what Philopoemen had now
some inkling of what was on hand. There was a
twinkle in his eye, as if he was enjoying some joke
greatly. As for me, I was completely mystified.
Then the three Spartans came back again, and this
time they forced themselves to speak, and, of course,
did it in the clumsiest, most brutal fashion. It was
a large sum, too, a hundred and twenty talents,1
if I remember right.
"Philopoemen smiled. 'My friends,' he said,
'you would have laid out this money very badly if
I were to take it. Don't buy your friends; you
have them already. Buy your enemies.'
"And a good friend he showed himself. He

1 27,000 in our money, reckoning by weight at five shillings per ounce for
silver. This would mean a great deal more in purchasing power, not less
than 100,000.







THE LAST OF THE GREEKS


wasn't in office then, and the President of the
League, having a difference with the Spartans in
some matter of no great importance, was all for us-
ing force.
'' Pray,' said Philopoemen to him, don't do any-
thing of the kind. It is sheer madness to quarrel
with a great Greek state, when the Romans are on
the watch to take advantage of our divisions.'
"And when he found that speaking was of no
use, he mounted his horse and rode straight to
Sparta-I was with him-to warn them of what was
going to be done. Sure enough, in the course of
ten days or so, the President comes with some five
thousand men of his own and half a Roman le-
gion; but Sparta was ready. They had to go back
again without doing any harm. Some two months
afterwards he was chosen President-for the eighth
time it was-very much against his will, for he had
passed his seventieth year, and was hoping to spend
the rest of his days in peace. But it was not to be.
There was a revolution in Messene, one of the end-
less changes which tempt one to think, against
one's own conscience, that the steady, fixed rule of
an able, honest tyrant is the best kind of govern-
ment that a state can have. The Messenians, ac-
cordingly, renounced the League. This might have
been endured; but it was another matter when they
proceeded to seize a strong place outside their own






LORDS OF THE WORLD


borders. Philopoemen was lying sick with fever
at the time in Argos, but he left his bed immediately,
and was on horseback in less than an hour. I was
with him; indeed, I never left him of my own free
will. Before nightfall we had reached his home in
Arcadia, four hundred furlongs was the distance,
and the roads about as rough and steep as you will
find anywhere in Greece. The next day he sent
round the city calling for volunteers. Some three
hundred joined him-gentlemen, all of them, who
furnished their own arms, and rode their own horses.
We had a smart brush with the enemy, and got the
better of them. But they were strongly reinforced,
and as we were now heavily overmatched, Philo-
pcemen gave the signal to fall back. His one
thought now was to save the volunteers.
"' They are the heart's blood of the city,' he said
to me, and they must not be wasted.'
"He placed himself with a few troopers, who
formed his body-guard, in the rear, and protected
their retreat. He was a famous swordsman, you
must know, and old as he was, there were very few
who cared to come to close quarters with him. But
of course they had their darts, and he was soon
wounded in several places, as, indeed, we all were.
And then on some very rough ground his horse
stumbled and threw him. He was an old man, you
see, and he had had two days of hard riding, and






THE LAST OF THE GREEKS


the fever fit-which was of the ague kind, caught
some years before when he was campaigning in
Crete-was coming upon him.
Save yourselves,' he said to us ; 'your country
will want you for many years yet, but I am an old
man.'
However, he gave me leave to stay; the others
he commanded on their obedience to go. When
the enemy came up he had fainted. They thought
he was dead, and began to strip him of his arms,
but before they had finished he came to himself.
My blood boils to this day when I think how they
treated him. They bound his hands behind his
back, and drove him before them on foot as he was,
half-dead with fatigue and sickness.
That night we bivouacked in the open. Some of
the troopers had a feeling of pity or shame. One
lent him his cloak to keep the cold off, though he
had to go without one himself ; another shared his
ration of bread, dried meat, and rough wine with
him. On the evening of the next day we came to
Messene town, and I must do the townsfolk the
justice to say that the sight was not at all to their
liking. I heard many of them cursing the man-
Deinocrates was his name, and he was as ill-con-
ditioned a scoundrel as there was in Greece-who
had given the orders for it to be done. Still, no one
had the courage to interfere, and Deinocrates de-






LORDS OF THE WORLD


termined to finish matters before he was hindered ;
for he knew perfectly well that the League would
spare nothing to get back their president.
"He thrust him, therefore, into a dungeon that
was called the Treasury, a dreadful hole without a
window or door, but having the entrance to it
blocked by a huge stone. Deinocrates then held
a hurried council with some of his own party.
They voted with one accord for death. What fol-
lowed I heard from the executioner himself, who
was one of Deinocrates' slaves. His story was this:
'My master said to me, Take this cup "-I
guessed from the look and the smell that it was
hemlock-" to the prisoner, and don't leave him till
he drinks it." I went in-it wanted but a little time
to midnight and found Philopoemen awake.
" Ah! he said, when he saw me, "your master is a
generous man, and sends me, I doubt not, a draught
of one of his richest vintages. But before I drink
it, answer me, if you can, one question. Have any
prisoners been brought in ?" I said that I had not
heard of any. "None of the young horsemen that
were with me ?" I said that I had not seen them.
He smiled and said, You bring good tidings.
Things have not gone altogether ill with me." Then
he took the cup and drank it up without another
word. This done he lay down again. I watched
by him, but though I heard him breathing heavily






THE CORINTHIAN ASSEMBLY


he never moved. Just before cock-crow I judged
that he died, for it was then that breathing ceased,
and when I put my hand on his heart I could feel
nothing.'
"That was the end of Philopcemen, 'the last of
the Greeks,' as I heard an enemy, a Roman, call
him. And what, my dear young friend, can Greece
do without Greeks ?"




CHAPTER VIII

THE CORINTHIAN ASSEMBLY

LEANOR was of far too sanguine a tempera-
ment to allow himself to be daunted by the
gloomy reminiscences of his friend. Things," he
said to himself, are altered since then. Rome is
more manifestly formidable, for she has rid herself
of more than one rival. The mere instinct of self-
preservation must make those that are left unite."
Still, he could not hide from himself various dis-
couraging facts that forced themselves upon his
notice. In the first place Corinth, or, rather, the
Corinthian people, disappointed him. The place
itself was intensely interesting; he did not know
whether to admire more the splendid remains of the







LORDS OF THE WORLD


past that it had to show, or the evidences of a pros-
perous present with which it abounded.
At one time he would make his way to the high-
est point of the citadel, the Acro-Corinthus, and
look down upon the city, crowded as it was with
temples, public halls, mansions, on which the
wealth of centuries had been lavished. At another
he would spend long hours in wandering about the
docks, that one which brought to the "City of the
Two Seas" the commerce of the West, or that
other which was filled with the merchandise of the
East.
There were vessels of all sizes and of every kind
of rig, manned with seamen of every nationality,
and bringing the merchandise of every country,
from the Atlantic shores on the west to remote re-
gions of the east of which no European knew ex-
cept by repute. Blocks of tin and strings of amber
from far-off islands of the north, ivory and precious
stones from the African coasts far to the south of
the Pillars of Hercules, iron from Elba, cattle and
fruit from the Balearic Isles, wines from Sicily and
the shores of the Adriatic, were among the most
common articles in the western harbour; to the
eastern harbour came silks from China, metal work
from India-then as now famous for the skill of its
handicraftsmen-dried fruits from Lesser Asia, salt
and pickled fish from the Black Sea, wheat from







THE CORINTHIAN ASSEMBLY


Egypt, and wines, some of them the finest vintages
in the world, from the islands of the JEgean. Co-
rinth, then, was interesting enough, making the im-
pression upon a stranger of being one of the busiest
and wealthiest places in the world.
But what of the Corinthians? A more mixed, I
may say mongrel, multitude could not be seen any-
where. Cleanor's first impression was that the pop-
ulation contained specimens of every nation upon
earth- except Greeks. There were swarms of
Asiatics from the Lesser Asia and from Syria, yel-
low-skinned Egyptians, Arabs and Moors showing
every variety of brown, and negroes with their
glossy black. In effective contrast to these might
be seen a few Gauls, blue-eyed and yellow-haired,
whose imposing stature seemed to dwarf to pygmies
the crowds through which they shouldered their
way. Now and then a Roman, conspicuous in his
white toga edged with a narrow purple stripe,1
moved along with slow, dignified step, which seemed
to speak of a man born to rule. It was curious to
note the expression of fear and hatred with which
he was regarded. Again and again, as he watched
this motley crowd thronging the streets with an end-

This narrow stripe indicated the knight; the broad stripe indicated the
senator. The knights were the capitalists of Rome, farming the revenues of
the state, a business becoming yearly more important as the dominions of
the republic continued to grow.







LORDS OF THE WORLD


less variety of costume, colour, and dress, Cleanor
felt disposed to say, "Here is Corinth, but where
are the Corinthians ?" And when he did see speci-
mens of the genuine Corinthian, he had to own to
himself that they did not greatly impress him.
The city had its gilded youth, most of them belong-
ing to the second or third generations of families
enriched by trade, but some claiming to be Bacchi-
ade,1 or even descendants of the mythical Sisyphus
who had founded the city some fourteen centuries
before. A more debauched, spendthrift, and gen-
erally useless set he had never seen. They made
no pretence to culture ; they shuddered at the idea
of a campaign ; even the sports of the arena were
too much for their effeminate frames. Cleanor felt
his spirits sink and his hopes diminish day by day,
for Corinth was now the capital of Greece. Archias,
his host, watched him meanwhile with a compas-
sionate interest. He had had something of the same
enthusiasm himself in bygone days, and had known
the inexpressible pain of having to own that it was
a delusion.
"Do you know," he said to his young guest
some ten days after their arrival, that there is to
be an important meeting of the Assembly to-mor-
row ? "
"I heard Polemon say something about it to-day.
1 This was the ancient aristocracy of Corinth.







THE CORINTHIAN ASSEMBLY


He asked one of the young fellows who were play-
ing at kottabos with him whether he thought of
going, and seemed to surprise him very much by
the question. Polemon, you see, has not been living
in Corinth for much more than a year, and has not
quite caught the high-toned Corinthian manner.
He actually imagines it possible for a man to have
some interest in public affairs. You should have
heard the astonishment in his friend's voice when
he answered him, 'Going to the Assembly, did you
say ? Why, my dear fellow, I have never been to
the Assembly, and certainly never shall, till they
make me Eparch or whatever they call it, when I
shall have to, I suppose. And to-morrow of all
days in the year! Why, don't you know that Pin-
tocles of Megara is coming over with his champion
team of quails, and that I am going to meet them
with mine ? We have a wager of a hundred gold
pieces on the event. If one side kills all the birds
on the other side, the loser is to pay double stakes.
In any case the winner is to give a dinner to the
loser and his friends. Going to the Assembly, in-
deed I' That is all that I have heard about it."
"Then I had better enlighten you," replied Ar-
chias. "You know that the Assembly has been
called to hear the envoys from Rome state the
terms which the Senate is willing to agree to. You
ought to be there. You will find it very interesting,







LORDS OF THE WORLD


whatever these young gentlemen with their teams
of fighting quails may think about it.'
"Certainly I should like to go; but how am I to
get in ? At Athens they were very particular not to
admit anyone that was not a citizen."
"Don't trouble yourself on that score. Here
they are not particular at all. Simply follow the
crowd. There will be no one to stop you."
And so it turned out. There were door-keepers
at the entrances to the vast amphitheatre in which
the meeting of the Assembly was held, but they did
not attempt to exclude anyone. Cleanor found
himself, when he was seated, in the midst of a crowd
almost as variegated and as polyglot as that at which
he was accustomed to gaze in the streets. No one
could suppose that any large proportion of them
were genuine Corinthian citizens. The fourth hour'
was the time appointed for the commencement of
business, and the multitude spent the interval much
in the same way that a waiting crowd would do now-
adays. They cheered or hissed any well-known
citizen as he took his place, yelled out witticisms
which seemed to please the more the coarser and

'The fourth hour, reckoned, i.e., from sunrise. As the time is supposed to
be late in the autumn, sunrise would be at 7, and the fourth hour about 10.20,
each hour being of fifty minutes duration, i.e., the twelfth part of the hours'
day between 7 A.M. and 5 P.M. Whatever the length of the day it was di-
vided into twelve hours.







THE CORINTHIAN ASSEMBLY


more personal they were, sang songs with noisy cho-
ruses, and kept up generally an incessant uproar.
Men carrying baskets of cakes and sweetmeats, or
jars of wine, passed up and down the spaces be-
tween the blocks of seats, and did a brisk business
in their respective wares.
A brief hush fell upon the noisy crowd when,
after the signal had been given by the blast of a
trumpet, the doors leading into what may be called
the magistrates' box were thrown open, and the
officials who were to conduct the business of the
day filed in. There was nothing noteworthy about
their reception, but when the figures of the two
Roman envoys became visible, a storm of groans
and hisses broke out ten times louder and fiercer
than the noisiest manifestation that had greeted the
most unpopular Corinthian. The two Romans bore
themselves with characteristic indifference, took
their seats in the places allotted to them, and
watched the furious multitude with the utmost un-
concern.
After the howling and stamping had gone on for
some quarter of an hour, the demonstration began
to die away. One of the magistrates dropped a few
grains of incense into a fire that was burning in
front of him, and poured out a little wine, mutter-
ing at the same time an invocation to Zeus, the
patron deity of Corinth. This was equivalent to







LORDS OF THE WORLD


our opening the proceedings with prayer." This
ceremony completed, a herald proclaimed that the
Assembly was constituted, and the presiding magis-
trate stepped forward to open the proceedings.
His speech was of the briefest. "Citizens of
Corinth," he said, "you are called together to-day
to hear the terms on which the Senate and People
of Rome are willing to make a treaty of perpetual
friendship with you. They have sent two distin-
guished citizens, both members of the Senate, who
will set the matter before you, and whom you will
receive with that courtesy which it is the custom of
Corinth to show to the ambassadors of other na-
tions."
The Romans stepped to the front of the platform.
They were met for a few moments with a renewal
of the uproar which had greeted their first appear-
ance. But the Assembly was genuinely anxious to
hear what they had to say, and the disturbing ele-
ment was hushed into silence.
Rome had paid the Greek people the compliment
of sending them envoys who could address them in
their own language. Titus Manlius-this was the
name of the senior envoy-was one of the most cult-
ured men of the time, one of the Scipio circle, and
feeling a genuine admiration for Greece, for the
Greece, i.e., of the past, for he had no little con-
tempt for the Greece of the present. On the present







THE CORINTHIAN ASSEMBLY


occasion, however, he had every wish to please and
conciliate.
When it was seen that he was going to address
the Assembly without the aid of an interpreter, he
was greeted with applause, which was renewed after
he had uttered a few sentences with a fluency and
purity of accent which much impressed his hearers,
few of whom, indeed, could in these respects have
rivalled him. When he went on, in a few well-
turned phrases, to compliment his hearers on the
dignity and antiquity of their city, and on the ser-
vices which they had rendered to Greece in repel-
ling the barbarians from without, and checking un-
due ambition from within, he was met with loud
applause.
But after compliments came business, after sweets
bitter. The first statement was that the Senate and
People of Rome desired that every Greek city
should enjoy complete freedom, electing its own
magistrates, and being governed by its own laws.
This was received with some applause, though
the Assembly was acute enough to be aware that a
generality of this kind might not mean very much.
The speaker went on: "Every city may form
such alliances as may seem expedient, provided only
that they be not to the injury of the public peace.
No city shall be compelled to enter into or to give
up any alliance against its will."
6







LORDS OF THE WORLD


At this there were loud expressions of disap-
proval. It was a cardinal point with the League,
of which Corinth was the ruling member, that every
city in Greece must join it. At this very time
Sparta was insisting on her right to stand alone, and
the other states, headed by Corinth, were insisting
that she must join them. And now Rome had pro-
nounced in favour of Sparta.
The third item in the programme pleased the au-
dience still less, for it touched their pride at a very
tender point. "A Roman garrison will occupy the
citadel until affairs shall have been finally arranged.
The occupation is for a time only, and will cease
as soon as this may be done without injury to the
public good."
But when the last condition was announced it
was met with a perfect storm of rage. "Anxious
to promote the general welfare of Greece, the Senate
and People of Rome decree that the island of Delos
shall be a free port."
This was a thing that everybody could under-
stand. Freedom, after all, was not much more than
a sentiment, and alliances were a matter for rulers
to settle. Even a garrison in the citadel might be
endured, for it meant the spending of a good deal
of money. But Delos a free port! That was be-
yond all bearing. There was not a man in the






THE CORINTHIAN ASSEMBLY


whole of the Assembly but would be distinctly
the poorer for it.
The Roman had scarcely sat down when Crito-
laiis, the president of the League, sprang to his feet,
and poured out a furious oration, in which he de-
nounced the hypocrisy, the arrogance, and the
greed of Rome. As he spoke, the temper of his
audience rose higher and higher. The whole mul-
titude sprang to their feet, howling, and shaking
their fists at the Romans as they sat calm and in-
different in their place. Still the crisis, dangerous
as it looked, might have passed off but for the mis-
chievous act of some half-witted fellow who had
found his way into the Assembly.
"As for these men who have come hither to in-
sult us," cried the orator in the peroration of his
speech, "let them carry back to their employers at
home the message of our unanimous contempt and
defiance." "And this too," shouted the man, "as
a little token of our affection," throwing at the
same time a rotten fig. It struck one of the envoys
on the shoulder, making a disfiguring stain on the
white toga. "Good! good shouted the crowd,
and followed it up with a shower of similar missiles.
Some stones followed, and then came a leaden bul-
let propelled from a sling, which struck the wall
behind the chairs of the Romans, and only a few
inches above their heads.






LORDS OF THE WORLD


The magistrates awoke to the gravity of the situ-
ation. They were responsible for good order, were
unwilling, in any case, to be themselves compro-
mised, and had an uneasy feeling that the excite-
ment of such proceedings would have to be dearly
paid for. They caught the two Romans by the
arms, and literally forced them out of the building
by the door which served as a private entrance for
official persons. The usual escort was in waiting
outside. Under this protection the envoys were
able to reach the citadel in safety. They had re-
ceived a few blows, but had not sustained any seri-
ous injury.
What think you of this asked the Syracusan
of his young friend as they walked back to their
lodging.
"A grievous business indeed, and of the very
worst augury for the future," replied Cleanor.
Yes," said Archias. "Who can help thinking
of Tarentum, and how the robe of Postumius' was
soiled and washed white again."
SC. Postumius was sent in the year 286 B.C. to deliver to the people of
Tarentum the ultimatum of Rome. While he was speaking a buffoon be-
spattered his toga with some filth. He held up the robe in the sight of the
Assembly, with the words, Verily this shall be washed white."
















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/~

f /t .9.



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TIE ROMAN ENVOYS TO CORINTH ARE COMPELLED TO
LEAVE THE AMPHITHEATRE






AT THERMOPYLE


CHAPTER IX

AT THERMOPYLE

SO far Cleanor's experiences had been distinctly
disappointing. But he still clung to his hopes,
trying to comfort himself with the thought that
Greece meant much more than the little tract of
country which bore the name. It was to be found
in Egypt, in Syria, in the finest regions of Lesser
Asia; and the country from which the most power-
ful Greek influence had come forth was not Athens
or Sparta, or any one of the ancient states, but half-
barbarous Macedonia. The next thing was to see
what promise Macedonia held forth.
The season was now growing late for travel by
sea, and Cleanor gladly joined a party which was
about to make its way overland to Pella, the old
capital of Macedonia. The route lay through a
number of famous places. His study of history
had long since made him familiar with their names
and associations. They were now seen for the first
time with the most vivid interest, an interest which
reached its climax in the famous Pass of Thermop-
yle. The place, which has now been altered by
the action of nature and time almost beyond recog-
nition, was then but little changed. The wall be-






LORDS OF THE WORLD


hind which the Greek army took up its position,
though almost in ruins, was still to be seen; the
mound upon which the immortal Three Hundred
made their last stand could easily be recognized.
So could the tomb of the heroes, with the epi-
taph, so appropriate in its simplicity and modesty,1
which Simonides the poet had written for it. Close
by was the separate sepulchre of the valiant king
Leonidas, with an epitaph of its own not less
happy.2 Cleanor saw with regret that there was
not enough of local patriotism to keep these me-
morials of a splendid past in decent repair. The
letters of the inscriptions were so grown over with
moss that it was very difficult to decipher them.
Some of the stones of the tomb of the Three Hun-
dred were out of place; and it would not be long,
unless some repairs were done to it, before the
whole must fall into ruin. The lion, too, had a
weather-beaten, almost dilapidated look. Some
mischievous hand, possibly that of a collector of
relics-a class which was as unscrupulous in its
greed for specimens then as now-had chipped off
1 It ran thus:
Go tell to Sparta, thou that passes by,
That here obedient to her laws we lie."
2 Bravest of beasts am I, who watch the grave
Of him that, living, was of men most brave.
Lion he was alike in name and heart,
Else had I ne'er endured the watcher's part."







AT THERMOPYLE


a portion from one of the ears. The pedestal was
covered with rudely carved initials, for this foolish
practice was as great a favourite with idle hands in
the ancient world as it is now.
The young man was meditating sadly on the want
of public spirit that suffered so scandalous a neglect
of national glories, when he received another rude
shock to his feelings. Something had been said in
the course of the morning's march-it was about
noon when they halted in the Pass-about the tribes-
men near Thermopyle not having the best of char-
acters, but it had been in a half-jesting way, and
Cleanor had paid little attention to the remark.
Nor had he noticed that the party, which, indeed,
had soon exhausted its slender interest in the place,
had gone some distance further to make their halt
for the noonday meal in the open country beyond
the Gates.1 He was roused from a fit of musing by
feeling a hand laid roughly on his shoulder. In a
moment the chance words of the morning came back
to him. He swung himself violently aside, and so
released himself from the grasp of the intruder.
Instantly facing about he dealt the man a -heavy
blow straight from the shoulder, which tumbled
him to the ground. But he was unarmed, except for
a short dagger which he carried in his belt, and
I Thermopylae-the Hot Gates; so called from the hot springs found in the
neighbourhood.






LORDS OF THE WORLD


which was meant to serve for a feast rather than for
a fray. And he was overmatched. For themoment,
indeed, he was free; his assailant had been alone.
But looking up and down the Pass he saw small
parties of armed men advancing in both directions.
Flight, too, was impossible, for the rocks rose sheer
on either side of him. There was nothing to be done
but to submit to his fate, which manifestly was to
be captured by bandits. Throwing his dagger to
the ground, he held up his hands in token of sur-
render.
A man somewhat better clad and better armed
than his companions-they were a ragged, ill-
equipped set-advanced from one of the approach-
ing parties and accosted our hero. Nothing could
be more polite than his manner of address.
"You will excuse us, sir," he said, "for detain-
ing you for a short time. Nothing but the exigen-
cies of business could have induced us to put you
to any inconvenience."
The fellow whom Cleanor had knocked down had
regained his feet, and was coming up with a threat-
ening air.
"Be quiet, Laches," said the leader. My friend
did nothing but what was quite right and natural.
You took a great liberty. To put your hand upon
a gentleman's shoulder, indeed And your blow,
sir, was well delivered," he went on, turning to Clea-




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