• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Half Title
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Dedication
 Introduction
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 In the pasture
 The animal tree
 Waffles and a walk
 Climbing the animal tree
 An autumn holiday
 Out-door cookery
 Camp Saturday
 Explanation night: The brotherhood...
 An invitation
 Monarchs in exile
 Rabbit tracks
 The winter woods
 Nez Long's menagerie
 Foxes and snow-shoes
 Wolf!
 Cousins of cats
 Three hardy mountaineers
 On the plains
 Under the Polar star
 A sealskin jacket at home
 Horns, prongs, and antlers
 Nez' big moose
 Fish or flesh
 Rats and mice
 Mischief makers
 The beaver's story
 "B'ars and possums"
 From Moletown to Batville
 A four-footed dance
 Ladder for climbing the family...
 Index of English names
 Advertising
 Back Cover
 Spine






Title: Four-footed Americans and their kin
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086693/00001
 Material Information
Title: Four-footed Americans and their kin
Physical Description: xv, 432, 3 p. : ill. ; 20 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wright, Mabel Osgood, 1859-1934
Chapman, Frank M ( Frank Michler ), 1864-1945 ( Editor )
Seton, Ernest Thompson, 1860-1946 ( Illustrator )
Macmillan Company ( Publisher )
Macmillan & Co ( Publisher )
Norwood Press ( Printer )
J.S. Cushing & Co ( Printer )
Berwick & Smith ( Printer )
Publisher: Macmillan Co.
Macmillan & Co., Ltd.
Place of Publication: New York
London
Manufacturer: Norwood Press ; J.S. Cushing & Co. ; Berwick & Smith
Publication Date: 1898
 Subjects
Subject: Mammals -- Juvenile fiction -- United States   ( lcsh )
Animal behavior -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Natural history -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Naturalists -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Fathers and daughters -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Cousins -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Country life -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
African Americans -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Farm life -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Dogs -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1898   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1898
Genre: Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
novel   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
United States -- New York -- New York
United States -- Massachusetts -- Norwood
 Notes
Summary: Scientific information on four-footed animals given within a fictional narrative structure.
Statement of Responsibility: by Mabel Osgood Wright ; edited by Frank M. Chapman ; illustrated by Ernest Seton Thompson.
General Note: "Index of English names," p. 432-432.
General Note: Publisher's advertisement, 3 p. following index.
General Note: "Ladder for climbing the family tree of the North American mammals," p. 415-430.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086693
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002240102
notis - ALJ0645
oclc - 02146952

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Half Title
        Page i
        Page ii
    Frontispiece
        Page iii
    Title Page
        Page iv
        Page v
    Dedication
        Page vi
    Introduction
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Table of Contents
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
    List of Illustrations
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
    In the pasture
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 6a
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    The animal tree
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Waffles and a walk
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Climbing the animal tree
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    An autumn holiday
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 44a
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Out-door cookery
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 72a
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
    Camp Saturday
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 90a
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
    Explanation night: The brotherhood of beasts
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
    An invitation
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
    Monarchs in exile
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 118a
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
    Rabbit tracks
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 140a
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 154a
    The winter woods
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 158a
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
    Nez Long's menagerie
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 176a
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 180a
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 186a
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 192a
        Page 193
    Foxes and snow-shoes
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 202a
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
    Wolf!
        Page 212
        Page 212a
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
    Cousins of cats
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 228a
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 236a
        Page 237
    Three hardy mountaineers
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 240a
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 246a
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
    On the plains
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 256a
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
    Under the Polar star
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 278a
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 280a
        Page 281
    A sealskin jacket at home
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 284a
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
    Horns, prongs, and antlers
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 302a
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
    Nez' big moose
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 316a
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
    Fish or flesh
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 322a
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
    Rats and mice
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
    Mischief makers
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 352a
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 358a
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
    The beaver's story
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 366a
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
    "B'ars and possums"
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
    From Moletown to Batville
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 390a
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
        Page 396
        Page 397
        Page 398
        Page 399
        Page 400
        Page 401
        Page 402
    A four-footed dance
        Page 403
        Page 404
        Page 405
        Page 406
        Page 407
        Page 408
        Page 409
        Page 410
        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 413
        Page 414
    Ladder for climbing the family tree of the North American mammals
        Page 415
        Page 416
        Page 417
        Page 418
        Page 419
        Page 420
        Page 421
        Page 422
        Page 423
        Page 424
        Page 425
        Page 426
        Page 427
        Page 428
        Page 429
        Page 430
    Index of English names
        Page 431
        Page 432
    Advertising
        Page 433
        Page 434
        Page 435
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
    Spine
        Spine
Full Text






















































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FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS





























p.--


THE AMERICAN DEER.


-See page 306.


6,


4. .L(









FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS



AND THEIR KIN




BY

MABEL OSGOOD WRIGHT


EDITED BY


FRANK M. CHAPMAN


ILLUSTRATED BY

ERNEST SETON THOMPSON











THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
LONDON: MACMILLAN & CO., LTD.
1898


All rights reserved





































COPYRIGHT, 189S,

BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.




























Nortooobt Vrss
J. S. Cushing & Co. Berwick & Smith
Norwood Mass. U.S.A.


























To

WILLIAM T. HORNADAY
DIRECTOR OF TIlE NEW YORK ZOOLOGICAL PARK

Efj)f3 38ook is lBebicateb

BY THE AUTHOR

IN RECOGNITION OF HIS EFFORTS TO PRESERVE THE
LIVING AMERICAN MAMMALS WIIERE THEY
MAY BE KNOWN TO THE CHILDREN
OF FUTURE GENERATIONS














SCENE:

ORCHARD FARM AND TWENTY MILES AROUND.

TIME:

FALL UNTIL SPRING.

CHARACTERS:

DR. Roy HUNTER, a naturalist.
OLIVE, the Doctor's daughter.
NAT and DODO, the Doctor's nephew and niece.
Mn. and MRs. BLAKE, the parents of Nat and Dodo.
RAP, a lame country boy.
MAMMY BUN, an old colored nurse and cook.
Ron, the farmer.
OLAF, a sailor and fisherman.
NEZ LONG, a charcoal burner and woodsman.
TOINETTE, Nez' wife.
QUICK, a fox terrier.
MR. WOLF, a St. Bernard dog.



EXPLANATION. Dr. Hunter, after travelling for many
years, returned to his old home at Orchard Farm, with his
daughter Olive, aged seventeen, and Mammy Bun. He
invited Nat and Dodo, who had always lived in the city, to
spend the summer with him, so that they might learn about
outdoor things, and told them the story of the birds.
Mr. and Mrs. Blake came for the children in the autumn,
and they expected to return to the city to school; but Dr.
Hunter, who was always making delightful surprises, arranged
for the whole family to spend the winter at the Farm. What
they did, and how they became acquainted with the FouR-
FOOTED AMERICANS, is told in this story.
vii

















TABLE OF CONTENTS


CHAPTER I
PAGE
IN TIE PASTURE. 1

CHAPTER II
THE ANIarL TREE .. .11

CHAPTER III
WAFFLES AND A WALK 22

CHAPTER IV

CLIMBING THE ANIMAL TREE 31

CHAPTER V
AN AUTUMN HOLIDAY 41
Woodchucks, Muskrats, etc.

CHAPTER VI

OUT-DOOR COOKERY 60

CHAPTER VII

CAMP SATURDAY 82

CHAPTER VIII

EXPLANATION NIGHT 94
The Brotherhood of Beasts.

CHAPTER IX

AN INVITATION . 110
ix








TABLE OF CONTENTS


CHAPTER X
PAGE
MONARCHS IN EXILE 115
The American Bison.

CHAPTER XI

RABBIT TRACKS 137
Wood Hare Varying Hare Jack Rabbit Marsh Hare
Pika, Little Chief, or Whistling Hare.

CHAPTER XII
THE WINTER WOODS 155
Trails and Trapping.

CHAPTER XIII

NEZ LONG'S MENAGERIE 174
The Little Fur-bearers Otter Skunk Little Striped
Skunk Weasel Sable Fisher Wolverine Mink
Raccoon, etc.
CHAPTER XIV

FoxES AND SNOWI-SHOES 194
Red Fox- Gray Fox -Arctic Fox.

CHAPTER XV
W OLF 212
The Timber Wolf, and the Coyote, or Prairie Wolf.

CHAPTER XVI
CousINs OF CATS. 223
Puma- Ocelot Wildcat, also the Civet Cat, which is no
Cat at all.

CHAPTER XVII
TIIREE HARDY MOUNTAINEERS 238
The Grizzly Bear--Big Horn Sheep -Rocky Mountain
Goat.








TABLE OF CONTENTS


CHAPTER XVIII
PAGE
ON THE PLAINS .. 254
The Pronghorn or Antelope-Prairie Dog-Coyote and
Badger.

CHAPTER XIX

UNDER THE POLAR STAR 270
The Woodland Caribou Musk Ox Polar Bear.


CHAPTER XX

A SEALSKIN JACKET AT HOME 282
The Walrus Sea Lion Sea Bear or Fur Seal and the
Harbor Seal.

CHAPTER XXI

HORNS, PRONGS, AND ANTLERS 298
Elk American Deer Growth and Difference between
Horns and Antlers explained.


CHAPTER XXII
NEZ' BIG MOOSE 309


CHAPTER XXIII
FIsR OR FLESH 320
Manatee Sperm Whale Bowhead Whale Finback
Whale Porpoise Dolphin.


CHAPTER XXIV

RATS AND MICE 331
Muskrat White Lemming White-footed Mouse Cot-
ton Rat Wood or Pack Rat Marsh Rat Pouched
Gopher Gray Pocket Gopher Kangaroo Rat Pocket
Mouse Jumping Mouse.









TABLE OF CONTENTS


CHAPTER XXV
PAGE
MISCHIEF MAKERS .. 349
Red Squirrel-Flying Squirrel--Gray Squirrel-Fox Squir-
rel Chipmunk -- Striped Spermophile Line-tailed or
Rock Spermophile.


CHAPTER XXVI

THE BEAVER'S STORY. .. 365


CHAPTER XXVII
"B'ARS AND PossuNMS" .. 376
Mammy Bun's Story.


CHAPTER XXVIII

FRoar MOLETOWN TO BATVILLE 387
Common Mole Star-nosed Mole Short-tailed Shrew -
Least Shrew Hoary Bat Little Red Bat Brown Bat
Little Brown Bat House or Snouty Bat.


CHAPTER XXIX
A Foun-FooTED DANCE 403


LADDER FOR CLIMBING THE NORTH AMERICAN
MAMMAL TREE .. 415


INDEX


. 431



















LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


[The artist has furnished his own incidents for many of these
illustrations, and the author wishes to express her thanks for the
use of the same in the stories.]

PAGE
THE AMERICAN DEER Frontispiece
Tome, JERRY, AND COMET 6
VERTEBRATE BRANCHES OF THE ANIMAL TREE 37
THE WOODCIIUCK 44
FRONT PAW AND TAIL OF MUSKRAT .49
THE LUMBER CAMP .. 72
THE COLLARED PECCARY 90
WHITE-FOOTED MOUSE 91
NORTH AMERICAN MAMMIAL TREE 98
TIE BISON 118
Woon HARE 140
MARSH HARE 146
JACK RABBIT .. 148
VARYING HARE .. 151
SPIKA, LITTLE CHIEF, OR WHISTLING HARE 154
A RED Fox, HUNTING 158
CANADA PORCUPINE 162
COMrrON SKUNK 176
OTTER AND FISHER 178
LITTLE STRIPED SKUNK 180
WEASEL OR ERMINE 183
THE MINK 185
PINE MARTEN AND RED SQUIRREL 186
xiii









LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


WOLVERINE .
THE RACCOON .
THE AICTIC Fox .
TIMBER WOLF
CIVET CAT....
THE OCELOT
HEADS OF HOUSE CAT, WILDCAT, AND CANADA LYNX
THE PUMA HUNTING ELK ..
GRIzzLY BEAR AND BIGHORN SIEEP
MOUNTAIN GOATS
DRAMA OF THE PLAINS
THE BADGER
WOODLAND CARIBOU .
MUSK Ox
POLAR BEAR AND SEAL .
ATLANTIC WALRUS .
SEA BEAR OR FUR SEAL .
HARnOR SEAL .
HEADS OF ANTELOPE OR PRONGIIORN, MOUNTAIN GO
HORN, AND MUSK Ox .
HEADS OF WOODLAND CARIBOU, MOOSE, AND ELK.
NEZ' BIG MOOSE .
THE MANATEE
THE SPERM WIALE
FINBACR WHALE
TIE PORPOISE
DOLPHINS
MEADOW MOUSE. .
THE MUSKRAT
COTTON RAT
MARSH RAT. .
WOOD AT......
POUCHED OR MOLE GOPHER
GRAY POCKET GOPHER


PAGE
S 189
192
202
212
225
.228
229
236
.240
S246
256
268
276
278
S 280
284
.289
.294
T, BIG-
.300
.302
S 316
22
325
27
.328
30
.332
S 337
S339
40
3.41
S843
3 44


A'








LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xv

PAGE
KANGAROO RAT .. 345
POCKET MOUSE 347
JUMPING MOUSE .. 348
FLYING SQUIRRELS 352
GRAY SQUIRREL .. 358
THE CHIPMUNK .. 360
STRIPED SPERMOPHILE 362
RocIc SPER OPIIILE 364
BEAVERS AT WORK 366
BLACK BEAR 379
TIE OPossUM . 383
LITTLE BROWN BAT .. .389
CoMMON MOL 390
STAR-NOSED MOLE .. 391
SHORT-TAILED SHREW 394
LEAST SHREW ...... 395














FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS


I

IN THE PASTURE

r'. .. .:ircus day down at East Village.
.'- \,t the common circus, with a Lion,
S- 1Elephant, a cage or two of Monkeys,
.~t at clown turning somersaults, and
,- ....' a beautiful lady floating through
Paper hoops, but a real American
...,. circus -the Wild West Show,
With its scouts, frontiersmen, Bron-
_* cos, bucking Ponies, Indians,
Sand Buffaloes.
Of course the House People at Orchard Farm made
a holiday and went down to see the show, giving many
different reasons for so doing. Dr. Hunter and Mr.
Blake said it was their duty as patriotic Americans
to encourage native institutions, and Mrs. Blake said
that she must surely go to see that the young people
did not eat too many peanuts and popcorn balls. The
young people thought that going to the circus was a
must be, unless one was ill, or had done something very,
very wrong, that merited the severest sort of punish-
ment. Mammy Bun, too, who had been groaning







FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS


about pains in her bones for fully a week, took out
her best black bonnet trimmed with a big red rose, -
headgear that she only wore on great occasions,-
saying : -
Pears to me nuffin eber does ma reumatiz de heap
o' good like hearing' a real circus ban' a playing Land
alibe, honies I feel so spry already seems like I'se
could do a caike walk dis yer minit."
*
It was October. Everything looked cheerful at the
farm. The maples were dressed in dazzling red and
yellow ; heaps of red and yellow apples lay under the
orchard trees, and the house and barns wore a glisten-
ing new coat of yellow paint, with white trimmings
and green blinds.
A deeper yellow shone from the fields where jolly
pumpkins seemed to play hide-and-seek behind the
corn stacks, which the children called wigwams when
they played Indian. Everything looked as thrifty as
if the outdoor season was beginning instead of nearly
at an end; and well it might, for it had been many
years since the old farm held such a family. There
would be no closed blinds, leaf-choked paths, or snow-
drifts left to bury the porch, this winter.
"Yes, the Chimney Swift was right," said the
Meadowlark in the old field, to the Song Sparrow who
was singing cheerfully in a barberry bush. We shall
be better off than before these House People came ;
they have already begun to scatter food in the barn-
yard, though there are enough gleanings about to last
us citizens until snow comes. The village boys never
think of coming up here now to shoot, as they used







IN THE PASTURE


to every season when the wind began to blow cold ";
and the Meadowlark flew to the top rail of the fence,
boldly showing his yellow breast, and giving a note or
two to tell how trustful he was.
Where have you been all summer? asked Comet,
the young trotter, of the big brown farm horses, who
had come to drink at the spring in the pasture below
the barns. It is so long since I have seen you I was
afraid that you had been sold."
Oh no, youngster replied Tom. "Jerry and I
have only been summering up at the wood lots at the
far end of the farm. We had our shoes off all the
time, and could amuse ourselves as we liked. We
never saw a harness or wagon; all the work we did
was to roll in the grass or wade in the river to keep
the flies off. The grazing up there was simply deli-
cious, you know,- all sorts of relishing little bits of
herbs mixed in with the grass.
"Now that we have had our rest, it is our turn to
work, and gray Bess and Billy have gone to the pad-
dock, and we have come to take their places. There is
plenty to do on this farm in fall and winter, though
it is very lonely. I can remember, when I was a four-
year-old, that House People lived in the big barn with
all the windows, and they used to ride over the snow
in the low wagon without wheels, and we all had fine
times together."
"There are fine times here now," said Comet, shak-
ing his mane importantly; "but of course you do not
know about them, because you have been away. House
People are living here again. We all have great fun
and the best of eating, with more picnics than plough-






FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS


ing for the horses. Children play about the farm, who
feed me with bunches of pink clover and little lumps
of nice-tasting stuff they call sugar. I mistrusted it
at first, it looked so like the hard pebbles in the brook,
but it chewed up all right when I nibbled some."
"You don't look as if you had been having half enough
to eat, in spite of the good times," said Tom, pityingly.
"Only look at your ribs. I can count every one of
them. If you were harnessed to a plough, you would
come apart at the very first pull. How could you
drag a load of hay? As for working in the thresh-
ing-machine, those little feet of yours would catch
between the slats. What use are thin horses, any-
way?" concluded Tom, rather rudely, not realizing
that his remarks were impolite, while Jerry looked
proudly along his fat sides and pawed the ground with
a hoof nearly as large as a dinner plate.
Comet was going to answer angrily and say some-
thing very saucy about clumsy work horses, but he
stopped himself in time, being every inch a thorough-
bred; for good breeding shows in the manners of
animals as well as in House People.
"No," he answered after a moment, "I can't plough,
nor drag a load, nor work the threshing-machine; but
horses are made for different kinds of work. You do
not think a cow useless because she gives milk instead
of doing any sort of pulling, do you? Now I can drag
the little wagon over to the railway station where
the great iron horse drags the string of covered wagons
along the ground on the queer shiny fence rails-in
half the time it takes you to go round the ten-acre
lot. When I hear that horse coming, breathing hard







IN THE PASTURE


and roaring, I prick up my ears, and you can hardly
see my feet when they touch the road, for I do not
want that great roaring horse to get there before I do.
So the master is pleased, and always takes me. How
would you like to go fast like that? said Comet,
smiling behind a bunch of grass.
"I couldn't go fast if I wanted to," said Tom, hon-
estly. "I tried it once, when a plough-chain fell and
banged my heels. They called it running away, I
believe. My how warm I was. Everything looked
red as the sun in August, and a warm rain storm
rolled off my coat on to the grass. That is what it
seemed to me, but the farmer said, Tom is too fat and
soft. See how he sweats!' and they skimped my
dinner for a month."
"Well, then, to continue," said Comet. "We ani-
mals haven't been shut up all summer except in
stormy weather; the bars have been down between all
the best pastures. Even Sausage, the sow, and her
nine little pigs, have been out walking every day, and
her sty has had fresh bedding in it the same as if they
were Cow or Horse People.
We had so much freedom that I thought at first
that there would be a great many fights, but we have
all behaved beautifully. Even Nanny Baa, the stub-
born old sheep, and Corney, the mischievous goat, have
not butted any one or fought each other.
We've had a chance to hear about the world and
the other animals in it too, for a circus has been camp-
ing a few fields further down."
"I don't like a circus," interrupted Jerry, decidedly.
"There are always a lot of bad-smelling, foreign beasts







FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS


in cages with a circus, that a respectable farm four-
foot should not encourage. Then there is a terrible
noise, worse than milk-pans falling off the fence, -
that they call a band ; it makes me forget myself and
dodge and dance all over the road. Yes, indeed, I
well remember the first circus I ever heard. It came
here when we were five-year-olds. Tom and I upset a
load of cabbages, and they rolled all the way down
Long Hill into the brook."
"There were no foreign wild beasts in this circus,"
said Comet, proud of his knowledge. I put my head
through the fence bars and had a fine chance to talk
to some of the horses. There were several kinds of
Horse Brothers there that I had never seen before;
different even from the long-eared Donkey and Mule
Brothers." Here Comet stopped, took a bite of grass
and a drink of water, waiting to see if Tom and Jerry
were interested.
They were, and as Comet looked up he saw that
some of the other animals were coming down to drink,
-Daisy, the finest cow in the herd, and Nanny Baa,
sauntering all alone, the other sheep not having yet
missed her, while Corney, the goat, whose whole name
was Capricornus, danced about on a rock, charging at
an imaginary enemy in the sky.
What other horses did you see ?" asked Tom and
Jerry together, as the others came up.
"There were small horses, homely and thin, with
straight necks and rolling eyes. Some of these were
brown, and some all mixed brown and white. They
ran up andc down the field, clearing the old division
fence at a jump. These were called Indian Ponies,
































































TOM, JERRY, AND COMET.







IN THE PASTURE


and men they called Indians, with small eyes and dark
rusty faces, rode on them for exercise. Beside these
there were some others, called Burros, with longish
ears, who did not seem to know how to either trot or
run, and some of the small horses kept jerking and
humping up their backs, so that the men could not
ride them.
"Who told you all these names?" asked Tom,
suspiciously.
There was an old horse who did not work in the
circus, but only helped draw wagons, who stayed by
the fence and talked to me. He had seen a great deal
of life in his day, and what do you think he said about
those strange horses ? That they were not born and
raised on nice farms like you and me ; that they came
from the west country where they run wild until they
are old enough to work, and they live in great flocks as
the Crows do hereabouts. Every horse has a mark on
his side, put there by the man who owns him. When
they are young they have fine sport, but when it is
time for them to work, men ride after them on swift
horses and catch them by throwing a rope loop over
their heads, and sometimes this hurts them very much,
and they are also sorry to leave their friends.
Out in the west country where these horses lived,
the plains are full of fourfoots, -not Horse and Cow
People,- but real wild fourfoots, strange as any of the
Elephants or Lions. There are more kinds of them
than you could ever dream of, even if you ate a whole
bushel of oats for supper.
"The Horse said that they belong to older American
families than any of us farm animals, and that once







FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS


these four-footed Americans and the Red Indian
Brothers, who lived in tents, owned all the country,
and there were no real House People or farm fourfoots
here at all."
"That must have been a long time ago," said Jerry.
" I remember my grandmother, and she never said any-
thing about wild people, and I never knew about any
other animals but ourselves."
"Who am I, pray ?" squealed a Squirrel, scamper-
ing along the fence. How ignorant you are not to
know that I belong to a very old family."
"You don't count," neighed Jerry. "I never thought
you were an animal."
"Not an animal, hey ? I will show you what a sharp-
toothed animal I am, some fine day, and nibble up your
dinner when you are asleep," and the Squirrel jumped
over Jerry's back, and ran up a tree.
My friend told me," continued Comet, "that some
of those wild fourfoots are working for their living in
this very circus. They are quite rare now, though
they used to be as plentiful in the west pastures as
ants in a hill. He showed me some of these beasts
this very morning when they were being led down to
the village."
"What did they look like ?"
"Something like bulls, with low backs and great
heavy heads, all bushy with thick brown wool. My
friend said they are called Bison by the Wise Men; but
in the circus and out where they used to live, every one
calls them Buffaloes."
"I wonder if they are related to me ? said Daisy,
who had joined the group.







IN THE PASTURE


"They are not as handsome as you, though they
might belong to your family," said Comet, politely.
Perhaps I may have some wild cousins," said
Sausage, rooting up the turf. I wonder what they
eat?"
I should like to go and meet my wild relations, if
I have any," said Corney. I wonder if they could
beat me at butting and sliding down hill? "
Humph, it is very strange about all these wild
things," said Jerry. "I My, they are making that
bang noise again, down at the village "
"That is the band. I think the circus is over," said
Comet.
Which Horse Brother dragged the people down
there, and who went ?" asked Daisy, who was always
inquisitive.
They all went, and they walked with their own
feet, because the Doctor knows that we do not like
smells and noises," said Comet. "They are coming
back up the hill now. Nat is following 'way behind,
carrying something. Ugh! It is a big snake, and he
has it by the tail. I hate snakes; they look up so
suddenly out of the grass when one is feeding, and
they always seem to be by the nicest bunch of clover."
Perhaps the people will stop here to rest, and we
may hear something about our wild brothers," said
Daisy.
I think Dodo has sugar for me," said Comet to Tom
and Jerry. I will drop a piece, and you can pick it
up, and see how you like it."
"Comet is quite a gentleman, if his ribs do show,"
muttered Tom to his companion, looking pleased, while







10 FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS

the other animals lingered about the spring, waiting for
the House People.
"Here are the horses that I haven't seen before from
the grass farm ; and Comet, too, and Daisy! cried
Dodo, climbing over the fence. Please stop a bit,
Uncle Roy, and let me give them some of my popcorn
balls ; I'm sure they will like them, and Corney simply
loves peanuts."
"What did I tell you?" whispered Comet to Tom,
as Dodo chirped for him to come to her.
















THE ANIMAL TREE

S.. '-:--'. ME up on the fence too, please,
i ni0ille," coaxed Dodo, and Dr.
Hunter climbed over the
pasture bars, seating him-
if on the fence in answer to
S -I 0 rI request to 'stop a bit while
.i -ihe fed the animals.' He mo-
S. irined to Rap, who was rather
tired with his walk, to come
beside him, while Nat and Dodo divided the contents
of their pockets into little heaps.
Give the popcorn to Daisy and the horses," said
Dodo. "The peanuts are for Corney; we can toss
them up, and see him hop and scramble to catch them.
It's lots of fun. Sausage can have all the mixed
crumbs, 'cause she likes grubby things. Please, Nat,
won't you bury your snake, or hang it up, or some-
thing ? Whichever way I look, it seems to be too near."
"I'll hang it up on the tree, because I'm going to
put it in a glass jar to keep. Daddy has gone back
to the village to buy me some alcohol to pour on it."
"Ugh what do you want it for? If I were you,
I'd rather have the money the alcohol costs to buy
a new butterfly net."







FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS


"Uncle Roy says it is as fine a rattlesnake as he
ever saw. That is why he bought it of the man from
the mountain, who killed it. There aren't any here-
abouts now. A good thing, too, because they are
biters; but. I want it for my collection. I haven't
many reptiles, you know; only a garter snake, two
lizards, and a frog whoa Tom, eat fair ; your
mouth is twice as big as Comet's."
"How queer Daisy's tongue feels-it tickles my
hand," said Doco. She licks everything into her
mouth, but the horses take food in their lips. Uncle
Roy, please come down here and see -how queerly
Daisy eats, and oh, my she hasn't any top front
teeth, either. Is she very old? Do look; her jaws
wiggle as if she was chewing gum! "
"No, little girl; none of the Cow Family have any
front upper teeth. A well-behaved cow sticks out
her tongue with a sidewise motion to guide the grass
into her mouth, while in the Horse Family the habit
is to seize it with the lips, and then nip it between
the teeth."
"Yes, but, uncle cried Nat, jumping hastily over
the fence to dodge Corney, who was tired of eating
peanuts one by one, and, giving a sudden butt, had
seized bag and all; "Uncle Roy, cows are ever so fond
of chewing. They eat all the morning, and then they
go under the trees and chew, chew, chew, all the after-
noon ; but horses gobble their food once for all."
"I'm very glad you have noticed this, Nat. The
cow is built upon a different plan from the horse.
The horse has a complete set of upper and under
teeth, and a single stomach-something like our own







THE ANIMAL TREE


-to receive the food. The cow has four stomachs.
When she eats, the food goes into the first stomach,
where it stays a while to grow soft. After Daisy has
filled this first stomach, she goes to rest for a while,
brings up the softened food into her mouth, and chews
it again. This softened food is called the 'cud.' "
Oh, now I know what Rod meant," cried Dodo,
clapping her hands, "when he said the cows were
chewing their cud.' They were lying under the trees,
and didn't seem to have anything near them to eat.
I thought cud must be moss or something. Do any
other of our animals beside cows have several stom-
achs and chew cud ? "
Yes, all the animals that belong to the Meat Fam-
ily: Sheep and Goats, and, among their wild Ameri-
can brothers, the Deer and the very Buffalo that you
saw at the show this afternoon."
Were those strange beasts any relations of our
farm animals ? asked the children in one breath.
Were our farm animals once wild like the Buf-
faloes, and did they live far out West? Who first
caught them and made them tame ?" gabbled Dodo,
only stopping when her breath failed.
"Our farm animals were never, in the true sense,
natives of this country. In the far back days, before
the pale-faced voyagers came to these shores, the Red
Brothers had no horses to carry them, nor cows to give
them milk. They followed the war-path and game-
trail on foot, and their clothing and tent homes were
made of the skins of the beasts they took with bow,
arrow, and spear. Time was when they had not even
spears and arrows.







FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS


"When the pale-faced settlers came to America they
brought the useful animals from their old homes with
them: pigs, sheep, horses, goats, cows, dogs, cats,
etc.,--so though these have lived here as the people
have, long enough to be citizens, they are not native
or indigenous Americans any more than we ourselves.
That distinction belongs to the Indian, Peccary, Buffalo,
Musk Ox, \l. iu t.i. Goat, Bighorn, Wolf, and Wild-
cat, who are the wild cousins of House People and
their farm fourfoots. The horse alone has no living
wild cousin here, though there were horses in America
ages ago."
"Then those horses that the Indians rode at the
show, who hopped around so, weren't really wild at
all," said Nat, with a look of great disappointment.
"They seemed really, truly wild, and how the Indians
stuck on and dodged and fired their guns! "
"They are wild in the sense that they were born on
the open prairie and lived in vast herds, but they are
the gre.it -. i.i il. 1 l.ldi of tame horses. In the south-
west, as well as in South America, vast herds of these
horses, descended from those brought in by the Span-
ish,roamed at large. From time to time the Indians
dashed into the troops and lassoed those that they de-
sired and rode them as we saw the Indians do this
:,fi,- i ii.. ii, but they are not true four-footed Americans
like that little Chipmunk over there, who is stealing a
few peanuts that C(.' i i- overlooked, or like the sly,
fat Woodchucks that we are tr,. i-:' to trap in the
orchard."
"Please, Uncle Roy, can Dodo and I put halters on
Tom and Jerry and see if we can ride them round the







THE ANIMAL TREE


field without any saddles ? said Nat, looking fearlessly
up at the big horses, whose mouths barely touched the
top of his head.
"You can try, if you like," laughed the Doctor, "but
I'm afraid it will be too hard travelling for Dodo. No,
you will risk a bumping ? Very well, then, but tell
Rod to bring blankets and surcingles."
In a few minutes Rod came, strapped a folded
blanket on each horse, and gave Nat Jerry's halter, but
insisted upon keeping hold of Tom.
Now, if I only had something to shoot with, we
could play circus. Hoo-oo-ooh cried Nat, trying to
imitate an Indian cry, at which sound Jerry galloped
very quietly down the pasture, switching his tail. But
to Nat it seemed as if he was seated on an earthquake,
and he clutched Jerry's mane, whereupon the horse
gave a little kick of surprise and cantered heavily back
to the spring.
"I think T-o-m is falling to pieces," chattered Dodo,
as -Rod ran him round the pasture. He is so -
fat, too, my legs can't bend down; guess I'll
stop, please," and Rod swung her down to the wall
beside her uncle.
A circus isn't as easy as it looks," said Nat, wiping
his face, and Rap laughed heartily and pounded his
crutch on the fence.
"Farm horses are not saddle horses," said Comet to
himself.
"I'm all mixed up about animals," said Dodo in a
few minutes when she had caught her breath. Our
farm animals aren't real Americans, yet Daisy is a
kind of cousin of the wild Buffalo, because she has no







FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS


upper front teeth and chews a cud. Birds seem so
much easier to understand. Birds are animals with a
backbone, a beak for a mouth, and two legs. They
wear feathers and lay eggs. But these others are
different in their mouths and stomachs and feet, and
some have horns and some don't. Some have little
tails like Corney, and some long hairy tails like the
horses, and oh, Uncle Roy, that snake there is all tail !
Olive says bugs, and beetles, and flies, are animals,
too, and. beetles are crusty, and caterpillars are squashy,
and flies are buzzy, and I'm sure I never can tell who
is who. Birds look something alike, even when they
are as different as a Hummingbird and a Duck; but I
can't understand how all the other animals are re-
lated."
Not so fast, dearie," said the Doctor, laughing at her
inquiries until the tears ran down his cheeks. "The
differences and the relationships of these animals are
no harder to remember than they are among the birds.
You know that with them their beaks and feet were
arranged to suit their needs. Have you forgotten how
we classified the birds, and the little table of the Animal
Kingdom that you wrote? "
"Yes," said Nat, hesitating ; "that is, I did know,
but I've forgotten most of it."
"I remember," said Rap, "that you said classifying
was to put the animals together that were the nearest
alike, and the two great divisions of the Animal King-
dom were animals without backbones and animals with
them."
"Olive says my sponge is an animal," said Dodo,
doubtfully. "Surely it can't have any backbone, for







THE ANIMAL TREE


if it did it would scratch my face; but then it was full
of prickles when it was new, perhaps its backbone was
crumpled up "
I must try to make this Animal Kingdom and its
chief divisions more clear to you," said the Doctor,
pausing a minute as he looked across the pasture. "Do
you see that great chestnut tree yonder, with the thick
trunk and wide-spreading branches ? "
Yes, indeed," said Rap, "and it bears the fattest,
sweetest nuts of any tree hereabouts; but it takes a
very hard frost to open them."
"I remember how good the nuts used to be, but now
I want you all to notice the way in which the tree
grows. Above ground there is a thick straight part
which is called the trunk; then this soon divides
into large branches. A little further up these thick
branches separate into smaller branches yet, until they
end in little slender twigs.
The Animal Kingdom is like this tree in the way
in which the different members all are developed side
by side, interlacing and depending upon each other. It
is difficult to tell some of the lowest branches of the
animal tree from plants: as none of these animals of
the first branches have any backbones, they are called
Invertebrates, and their inside parts are held together
in a little tube."
"Are birds on one of the high branches?" asked
Dodo.
"Yes, one of the very highest, next to the great
branch, where man himself sits, surrounded by all his
faithful four-footed friends, just as he is when he walks
about every day."
C







FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS


"Do House People and fourfoots belong on the same
great branch?" said Rap, looking puzzled. "What is
it called, please?"
"It is the Mammal branch, the highest of all, and it
has so many little branchlets and twigs that it is large
enough to be a tree all by itself."
"Exactly how are the other Mammals like us, and
what does Mammal mean? Do they all have warm red
blood like ours?" asked Dodo, who was celebrated for
cutting her fingers.
They all have warm red blood, but so have birds;
there are other differences that you will learn later.
The one thing that makes them Mammals is that they
suckle their young with milk."
M mammals ; m milk," sang Dodo. Why,
that is as easy to remember as 'Billy Button bought a
buttered biscuit'! Please tell us the names of some
nearby Mammals, Uncle Roy."
"All the farm and house fourfoots are Mammals;
also the wild Deer, Wolves, Foxes, Rats, Mice, Squir-
rels, Moles, Skunks, Weasels, and Woodchucks, beside
many others you do not know even by name."
"So all those nuisance animals are Mammals too,"
said Dodo, meditatively.
"Nuisance animals Which are those?" asked
Rap.
The naughty, bothersome ones that eat things and
bite holes in the house, and dig up the orchard, and
smell, oh, so bad! Why, Rap, don't you remember
the evening we thought there was a black and white
rooster by the orchard wall, and Quick and I tried to
catch it, and it turned out to be a Skunk ? Then my







THE ANIMAL TREE


clothes had to be boiled so hard they were no more use,
and Quick tried to get away from himself for almost
two weeks."
Oh, yes, I do. Mammals must have a great many
shapes, Doctor," continued Rap, thoughtfully. "How
are they made into families ? the same way as
birds ?"
"In very much the same way. To-night, after sup-
per, I will draw you a picture of a part of this wonder-
ful animal tree, and tell you the names of some of its
branches, and perhaps you will remember a few of them.
I do not wish to bother you with long words, but there
are a few that you must learn.
"The history of this animal tree is the most inter-
esting story in the world, and the Wise Men call it
Zoology, after two Greek words that mean the
'history of animal life.' "
"Then that is the reason why an out-door menag-
erie is called a Zo-o-logical Garden," said Nat, stum-
bling a trifle over the word. "Daddy was reading to
mother about such a beautiful garden for wild animals
that is going to be made near New York, the very
biggest in the world, -so that every one in America
can see how the animals live. Perhaps we can go
there some day and see all the Mammals."
"Daisy gives milk, so I am very sure I know one
Mammal anyway," said Dodo, who was growing a little
tired. Oh oh she cried, suddenly jumping off
the fence. "The sun is going down pop. I never
noticed it, and Rod said I might help milk to-night.
He's taking the cows in now. Won't you come and
see ne do it, Uncle Roy ? "







FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS


"You help milk?" laughed Nat. "Who taught
you how? "
Rod; I've had four lessons, and I can milk almost
a quart. Then my hands grow all weak and shaky,
and Rod says it's enough for once, both for me and for
the cow. Daisy is the only one that will let me."
"Poor, patient Daisy," laughed the Doctor. "To
be sure we will come and see this famous milkmaid."
Dodo led the way to the cow barn, where each cow
had a clean stall marked with her name. Then she
.tied a queer sort of apron round her waist, made, like
Rod's, out of a meal sack, hunted for a small stool, also
like Rod's, and prepared in a very businesslike man-
ner to wash off Daisy's bag with a sponge and some
clean water.
"Bravo Bravo cried the Doctor. My little
farmer has already learned that everything about milk,
from the animal to the pans, should be very clean."
"Zig-zig-zig-zig," said the milk, spattering on the
bottom of the pail. In a few minutes the spattering
stopped.
"Now it's beginning to purr like a cat," explained
Dodo. It does that when the milk begins to fill up a
little."
Dodo kept bravely at it until her fingers, now red
and tired, had coaxed about a quart from Daisy.
"That will go for to-night," she said, "though I'm
sure I milked more last time. I'm dreadfully thirsty;
suppose we drink this now, Uncle Roy. There's a
glass by the well, Nat,"--and the milk rapidly
disappeared.
"M-mammals; m-milk," sang Dodo, skipping







THE ANIMAL TREE


ahead toward the house, as the short twilight hurried
after the sun.
"I wish the days were longer," sighed Rap, turning
to go home.
But evening with a wood fire in the wonder room
is lovely," sang Dodo, and to-night uncle he, will
draw a tree," -she sang; then stopped and laughed
at her rhyme.
"Uncle Roy," she whispered, "it's been such a
happy day, can we have Rap to help finish off by
toasting crackers in the wonder room, and see you
draw the animal tree? Yes? I'll give you a bear's
hug "
"I reckon there will be a frost to-night," said Rod,
passing on his way to the house with the milk-pail.
Frost !" shouted Nat, dancing round in glee.
"Frost- chestnuts, Rap,--and to-morrow will be
Saturday !"
*
"How do you like this?" said Comet, looking up
from his oats over to Tom and Jerry, as the stable
door closed with a click. Box stalls and two bundles
of clean straw apiece, and warm bran mash for you
beside. Did you ever have anything as nice as this
where you were this summer ?"
"I think the House People here understand a
horse's feelings," answered Jerry, plunging his nose
into his supper.
















WAFFLES AND A WALK

AMMY BUN cooked a delicious
Supper for the children that
Night, for the circus had put
S her in extra good humor.
S As it was the first of the
.'': really cool evenings, she sur-
prised them with hot cocoa
II in the place of their usual
Glasses of milk, and there was
cream toast, and cold chicken
and tongue sliced daintily together.
The children had famous appetites, and Mr. Blake
said he expected by spring they would all be as fat as
Sausage herself.
"Not if you carry out all the plans I have for mak-
ing you work and keeping you out-of-doors," said the
Doctor.
"What ? What are we going to do ? Is there a sur-
prise ?" asked Dodo eagerly, reluctantly setting down
her teacup. School takes so much time and the rest
of it is nearly all dark. Oh I smell waffles "
"What is nearly all dark, -the school, or the time,
or the waffles ? asked the Doctor, as soon as the laugh,
caused by Dodo's mixed-up sentences, had stopped.







WAFFLES AND A WALK


"I mean that night comes nowadays very soon after
we come home from school. Why are the days so short
in winter, Uncle Roy, just when we need the sun to
warm us, and so long and hot in summer when we
want to be cool?"
Why, it's the other way round," said Rap; "it is
because the sun stays up so long in spring and sum-
mer that the days are warm, and because it comes so
late, and hurries to bed, that the days are cold."
But why does the sun stay longer some times than
others? Why need the days ever be so very short? "
"Your supper would grow cold if I stopped to
explain," said the Doctor. "Some day we must make
ourselves into a class in astronomy and learn how
the sun, moon, and stars all go bowling about in
the sky, and how the old earth looked when she was
young."
"There is the moon now. Oh, how fat it is to-
night," said Dodo, looking toward a window where the
curtains had not been drawn.
The hunter's moon," said Mr. Blake, "and many a
good time I've had by the light of it."
"Why is it called hunter's moon, daddy," asked
Dodo, and what did you do with the light of it ?"
"It is the moon that comes in October when all the
game birds and wild food and fur beasts are through
raising their families, and it is fair for House People
who need fur or food to go and hunt them."
"Did you ever need food and fur, daddy ?" per-
sisted Dodo.
"Yes, sometimes I really did; and should have
starved except for my gun and what it brought me;







FOUB-FOOTED AMERICANS


and sometimes perhaps I thought 1 did," said Mr. Blake,
looking at the Doctor, who was shaking with laughter.
"Did you ever shoot anything just to see if you
could hit it ? asked Nat.
Yes ; I'm afraid I did often, before I had travelled
over the wild west country and learned for myself that
shooting food and fur beasts to 'see what you can hit,'
is making this wonderful land of ours as bare of four-
footed things as it will be of birds."
Say, Mis' Cherry, can de young uns hab a spoon o'
jam 'long o' dere waffles ? asked Mammy Bun in what
was meant to be a whisper, popping her head in at the
door.
"I'm afraid not, to-night, mammy," said Mrs. Blake,
whose girlish name of Cherry, mammy still used.
"We should have the children dreaming of Buffaloes
and Indians and rolling out of bed. Waffles are quite
enough."
"But Mammy Bun's waffles are such well-behaved
things that they never hurt anybody," said Olive.
Yes," echoed Dodo, mammy says it's all in the
beating up; if you beat waffles ever so hard when
you're making them, they'll never talk back after you
eat them. I know something that does talk back,
though it's turnips if you eat them raw like apples,
and chew rather quick and then drink water. Oh, it
was dreadful! "
So, missy has been having indigestion, has she ?"
laughed the Doctor.
"Yes; if that name means that inside your chest is
too big for your skin. What makes indigestion, Uncle
Roy? "







WAFFLES AND A WALK


Indigestion comes when the food you eat is not of
the right kind or quality for your stomach mill to turn
into good flesh and blood. Then it stays in the mill,
swelling up, growing stale and sour, choking up the
little wheels, and souring the wheel grease that helps
them move, causing pain and sickness, until it is turned
out in some way. That is the reason why we should
be careful what we put into the mill.
"To make sure that mammy's waffles do not grumble,
suppose we all take a little walk down the road before
we go into the wonder room to draw the animal tree.
" Come, Cherry," said the Doctor, drawing Mrs. Blake's
hand through his arm, you, too. I'm not going to
have you stay in the house all the time. We need you,
and you need the fresh air to give you back the red
cheeks that gave you your pet name. Olive, dear,
please get your aunt's warm wrap never mind gloves;
here is a coat-pocket for each hand," and the proces-
sion stepped out into the bright moon path.
"There will be no frost until this wind dies down,"
said Mr. Blake.
"What nice clean shadows the trees make," said
Olive, after they had walked in silence down a lane that
led from the turnpike toward the pastures and spring.
"Hush what was that ?"
"A bird, maybe, that was sleepy and fell off its
perch."
"No, a Flying Squirrel," whispered the Doctor.
"There it goes and on looking up they saw a dark
object, a little larger than a Chipmunk, half spring,
half drop from a birch tree on one side of the lane to
a maple on the opposite side.







FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS


Can Squirrels fly ? I thought only birds could do
that," whispered Dodo, awe-struck.
Look yonder, but keep very still," said Mr. Blake,
holding back some branches that hid the view of the
spring.
"It is a little dog drinking," said Nat. "What a
bushy tail he has. See, he is going over toward the
barns; perhaps he is a friend of Quick, or Mr. Wolf."
"No, it is a Fox, and he is going to see where the
chickens live."
"A Fox !" screamed Dodo, forgetting the need for
silence. "A real wild animal Oh, uncle, do let us
catch it "
"I very much wish you would," said the Doctor,
as the Fox raised one paw, sniffed the air, and disap-
peared like magic between some low bushes.
"He is the most cunning of our. beasts, and if the
wind had been the other way, he would not have given
us even this peep at him."
What difference does the wind make ? asked Nat.
"Is he afraid of it ? "
"I know," said Rap; "for before my leg was hurt
I went often with the miller and his dog to hunt Foxes
that stole his turkeys. Little wild beasts look for
food mostly at night, or late in the afternoon, or early
in the morning, when it isn't so easy to see, so they use
their smeller to tell them a great many things that
they can't see with their eyes. They can smell so well
that if the wind was blowing from us to them they
would know we are here and would run away."
"That is right, my lad," said the Doctor. "The
wild beasts have a much keener sense of smell and







WAFFLES AND A WALK


hearing than we House People, and you will do well
when you wish to watch even a Squirrel to keep from
stepping on a dry leaf and to see which way the wind
blows."
Only think, we've seen a real wild animal," chuckled
Dodo to Nat.
I've seen a Coon and a Muskrat and a Mink," said
Rap, "besides Foxes and Squirrels."
"I know what Mink is," said Dodo; "it's nice
brown fur, and I have some of it on my winter coat.
Uncle Roy is going to take us to the old log camp in
the Owl woods some day, and there are fur beasts up
around there, he says."
Daddy has been all about the wild west country on
business, and he has seen dreadful fierce, wild animals,
and he is going to tell us about them by and by. You
know daddy goes round to find out about the country
and look for mines that are hidden in the ground,"
explained Nat to Rap, and that's why we haven't seen
much of him for a long time. You see mines are often
in very savage places, and now daddy is staying here
this winter to write down all he has seen and draw
plans for people to work by in the spring."
"Oh, then your father is a miner," said Rap ; "I've
read about them."
"No, a miner is the man that digs with a pick and
shovel; daddy is the one who digs with his brain and
tells the miner how to work so that the earth won't
fall in on him, and how to cut away the rock and get
to the treasure. Daddy is what they call a Mining
Engineer !" and Nat stopped suddenly, as if the two
big words were too much for him.







FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS


Some day I suppose you will go with him and see
all these things. It is nice to have two legs," said
Rap, half sadly, looking at his crutch.
"Never mind; we will be partners. I will go out
and hunt, and you shall write the book about it the way
uncle does, for I don't like to write."
I do," said Rap, cheering up ; "that will be splen-
did."
Don't try to walk through the fence," said Olive.
Then the children found that they had been so busy
talking that they did not realize they were walking
back toward the farm, until they had bumped into the
front fence instead of opening the gate.
The log fire in the wonder room was not a bit too
warm, and as they gathered around it Mr. Wolf and
Quick came in from the kitchen licking their lips, as if
they had been so busy with supper that they had not
missed their friends.
Wolf settled himself at Mrs. Blake's feet with all the
dignity of a St. Bernard, but Quick kept prancing and
springing from one to another with Fox-Terrier ner-
vousness.
"In the spring when we began to learn about birds,
I told you a few facts about their bones and feathers,
the way in which they were made and for what they
were useful," said Dr. Roy, sitting at his desk and tip-
ping back his chair. We found the bird was a good
American citizen, and I think you feel now as if you
really had a bowing acquaintance with some of these
feathered folk."
"Yes," said Dodo, "I forget some things you said
about them for a while, and then I remember again.






IVAFFLES AND A TALK


We saw a Screech Owl in the woods yesterday, and I
remembered its name right off, and that it was one of
the good Owls that mustn't be shot."
Good girl, that encourages your old uncle to tell
you more stories this winter about some of the other
creatures that are branches of the wonderful animal
tree."
Nat and Rap brightened up, and Olive said she
could not imagine anything pleasanter for winter even-
ings.
But we have to do our lessons in the evenings,"
said Nat, dolefully.
Uncle Roy will manage it somehow," said Dodo,
shaking her head confidently; "there is a surprise
somewhere, I know. I've been expecting it." At this
Mr. and Mrs. Blake and the Doctor smiled, but said
nothing.
"Uncle Roy," persisted Dodo, after a pause, "won't
you do as you did with the birds, and tell us about
the wild American animals instead of about menagerie
beasts, and then make us a book about them? There
must be as many as fifty kinds of usual animals in
America, counting all those in the west country. I'm
so tired of menagerie beasts-
"' L is for Lion who roars in his rage,
T is for Tiger who snarls in his cage,'

that was on my picture blocks when I was a little child.
I had picture books of Cockatoos and other strange
birds, too, but they never seemed to mean anything
until you told us about our American birds."
You are right, Dodo," said the Doctor, and you







30 FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS

have given me some new ideas for my surprise. Yes,
there is a surprise hiding somewhere near We are
to have a winter camp here at the farm, and the
stories told at the campfire shall all be about four-
footed Americans, with a few about some no-footed
and wing-handed ones thrown in."
















CLIMBING THE ANIMAL TREE

~-E I.'LENDID!" cried Nat and Rap to-
-.' gether, as soon as they realized what
Dr. Roy said. When shall we have
.. the stories?"
S "What is a campfire? Is it made
S of logs or coal ? asked Dodo.
S i Where ae you going to have
1. the camp? Here in the wonder
room?" asked Olive, who .was as
much surprised as her cousins.
What are no-footed Americans, fishes? persisted
Dodo.
"Fishes have no feet, and yet these no-footed beasts
are not fishes. The Americans you shall hear about
will all be our blood brothers, the Mammals -the
highest branch of the animal tree, the one that I
said has so many smaller branches that it seems almost
like a whole tree by itself."
"I -mammals; m--milk," said Dodo, proud at
not having forgotten. "But, Uncle Roy, we can't
see all these M mammals outdoors, as we did the
birds, and there aren't any here in your wonder room.
-low can we tell how they look ? "
"You will probably see some of the smaller ones







FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS


this winter, just as you saw the Fox to-night. I
have the skins of others packed away in chests; and
some you must learn to know by pictures, until you
have a chance to see them in the Zoo or in a Museum.
No more questions to-night. You will hear more
about the surprise to-morrow. Now I must try to
tell you how to climb the animal tree, so that you may
step easily from branch to branch and have a general
understanding of its groups and families."
"This will be harder than learning about bones
and feathers that built the bird."
"Yes and no When you began to learn the
geography of our country, what was the first map
you saw, Nat ? A map of one state, with all the
mountains, rivers, cities, and towns, large and small ? "
"Ah, no, uncle ; a plain, easy map of the whole of
North America, with only the very big chief moun-
tains, rivers, and land divisions put down. It took
us a long time only to learn the names of the states
and how they were bounded ; then by and by we
took them in groups, until at this school we are hav-
ing each state by itself."
Precisely. Now, in drawing this animal tree, I
will not put down all small branches and twigs, but
merely the chief branches, so that you may have what
is called a 'general idea' of the whole. Then from
time to time you can study by itself any branch that
particularly interests you.
"Now watch," said the Doctor, drawing rapidly on
a large sheet of cardboard. "Your old uncle is no
draughtsman, but this will do for a beginning, and I
will copy it neatly by and by, so that we can hang







CLIMBING THE ANIMAL TREE


it on the wall of our camp. This animal tree has a
straight trunk, and first come eight branches."
Ah Ah cried Dodo. Mother Daddy!
Come and look Uncle is making each branch end
in an animal, so we can see with one peep where
they belong, and the little first animal that belongs to
the trunk hasn't any more shape than an ink blot !
What is that queer little spot, uncle? Has it
a name ? Ah now you are writing the name on
each branch," chattered Dodo.
After everybody had looked at the sketch of the
animal tree, the Doctor hung it up on the door, and
said he would try to answer a few of their questions
about it.
"These," said the Doctor, pointing to the lower
branches of the tree that he had drawn, "are the
animals which have no backbones, -Invertebrates, the
Wise Men call them,-and though I do not want
to trouble you with long names, you must try to
remember this one, because it is important and you
will meet it often in reading.
"With these branches begin the lowest forms of
animal life. This little thing on the trunk that Dodo
called an ink blot is the very first form of animal life,
it is called a Protozoin, and it is really so small that
you could not see it without a microscope."
"That is a pretty big name for next-to-nothing,"
said Rap.
"Yes; but the name, like many of those the Wise
Men give, explains the meaning. It comes from the
Greek words protos (first) and zo'n (animal), so among
ourselves we will call the trunk of the tree the first







FOUB-FOOTED AMERICANS


animal, as it is the first step from the vegetable to
the animal kingdom."
"If it is so small and has so little body, how can
you tell it isn't a vegetable ?" asked Olive.
"It is very difficult indeed to distinguish between
the lower forms of animal and vegetable life, and we
must leave the reason why to the Wise Men; for it
puzzles them very often, and I could not explain it
without using long words."
"Why, Uncle Roy," said Dodo, "I know a real
simple reason, animals can move and plants can't "
Wrong, missy; many of the lower animals cannot
move. The coral, for instance, and the oysters, are as
much fixtures as the geraniums in their pots over by
the window.
But to return to our animal tree. Besides having
no backbones, these lower animals have no hearts,
lungs, or brains; they are not built around a bony
skeleton, as birds are or we ourselves. Their vital
parts are held in a single tube. These animals are
of various shapes and live in many ways and places,
- on the earth, in the water, and in mud. Among
the lower branches of the animal tree, you will find
things that are familiar to you, though you probably
never have thought what they were, whether animals
or vegetables.
"To repeat all the names, even of tl;e animals that
belong on each branch, would confuse and tire you
sadly, so I will only tell you of some of the principal
kinds that you are most likely to see, to act as steps, so
to speak, by which you may climb to the branch where
our four-footed Americans live.








CLIMBING THE ANIMAL TREE


On the next branch to the trunk, or First Animal,
belong the Sponges; they are plant-like water animals
that cannot move. Then the Jelly Fishes and Sea
Anemones, which are masses of clear, jelly-like stuff
floating in the sea, and many of these are beautifully
colored."
"I saw some Jelly Fish when we were at the shore this
summer," said Dodo. "I walked on some, and though
they felt so slimy they sort of made my feet tingle."
"Olive," said the Doctor, "suppose you take out the
blackboard and write the names of these lower branches
who have no backbones."


THE TRUNK AND SOME OF THE LOWER BRANCHES
OF THE ANIMAL TREE

Protozoa or The trunk. The lowest form of animal life,
First Animals body; a single cell. Most of them too small
to be seen without microscope.
1. Sponges . Plant-like water animals that cannot move.
2. Jelly Fishes .Round masses of clear, jelly-like stuff floating in
the sea. Sea Anemones, etc.
3. Corals ..... The white, lace-like specimens that you have
seen in cabinets, or the polished pink sprays
that are made into ornaments or carved into
beads. You may have thought these some
sort of stones, but corals are tiny, soft-bodied
animals living in cases made of lime. Many
of these cases built up close together form the
beautiful shapes that you know.
4. Star Fishes .. The five-pointed prickly animals found on sea
beaches. Sea Urchins, etc. Crinoids, etc.
5. Worms ..... Long squirming animals, of both land and
water; also living as parasites upon the in-
sides of other animals.








FOLUR-? -FOOTED AMIERICANMS


6. Mollusks Shell Fish, such as Oysters, Clams and Mussels,
Snails, Slugs, Cuttle Fish, etc.
7. Crustaceans .Animals covered with a hard shell, having
many legs aud a pair of feelers, or antennae,
breathing through gills the air that is dis-
solved in the water. Lobsters, Crabs, etc.,
are Crustaceans.
8. Spiders and (Called Arachnidne, from Arachue, the Spinner,
Scorpions because they spin webs.) Are a sort of
cousin to Crabs, but live on the earth instead
of in the water.

"The top branches of this group contain the Insects,
with many legs, their bodies being divided into three
parts. Insects go through many changes in the course
of development. Take the butterfly as an example.
First an egg is laid by a fully grown butterfly; second,
a caterpillar is hatched from the egg ; third, the cater-
pillar spins itself into a chrysalis, or cocoon, out of
which comes the winged butterfly. Ants, mosquitoes,
flies, and beetles are all insects.
"Among the next circle of branches we find the ani-
mals having backbones, the Vertebrates. I think you
will feel more at home with them, and we are more
nearly concerned with them now, as our mammals be-
long in this order, although there are many things you
must some day learn of the many backboneless twigs,
especially about the insects with their wonderful wings
and stings."
"I suppose my Rattlesnake is a rather low-down Ver-
tebrate, Uncle Roy," said Nat.
"No, my boy, there are two grades below him and
two above. See," and the Doctor drew a branch
with five divisions.




































'--- -j


VERTEBRATE BRANCHES OF THE ANIMAL TREE.

37








FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS


THE VERTEBRATE BRANCHES OF THE ANIMAL
TREE
ANIMALS HAVING BACKBONES
Animals with bony skeletons; never having more than two
pairs of limbs. These animals inhabit both land and water, and
may either swim, fly, crawl, or walk.
Fishes . Cold-blooded animals that live in water; usually
covered with scales. They breathe through gills,
and in their fins we see the very beginnings of
limbs.
Frogs, etc. .. (Amphibians.) Going through several transforma-
tions, from egg to perfect animal, but having legs
when fully grown. The stepping-stones between
fishes and reptiles.
Reptiles Cold-blooded, egg-laying animals, either with a shell
or scaly covering, living on land or in the water;
some kinds doing both. They have simple, three-
chambered hearts. Alligators, Turtles, and Snakes
are Reptiles.
Birds . Warm-blooded, air-breathing animals. They are
covered with feathers, have four-chambered hearts,
and the young are hatched from eggs.
Mammals .The highest order of animals. Warm-blooded, air-
breathing, having a four-chambered heart and
double circulation. The young are born alive and
nourished by their mother's milk. Mammals are
all more or less covered with hair. The Whale,
Seal, Cat, Cow, Dog, Rabbit, Mouse, Bat, Monkey,
and Man are Mammals.
"The Mammal branch is so large and important and
has so many small branches and twigs of its own that
by and by I shall make you a tree of it by itself."
Are you going to draw the Mammal tree to-night ? "
asked Dodo, anxiously. "Because I think my head is
as full of thinking as it will hold."







CLIMBING THE ANIMAL TREE


"No, missy, not another word to-night; it is half-
past eight, and your mother has been making time-to-
go-to-bed' signs at me for half an hour."
"But, mother," pleaded Dodo, "though my head is
full, my stomach feels real hollow, and we were going
to toast crackers, you know."
"Very well Nat, rake open the hot ashes and see
if you can find another pair of tongs. Two crackers
and a glass of milk make a very comfortable night-
cap; for if you go to bed with an empty stomach, you
will probably wake up with an empty head," said the
Doctor, rubbing his hands together. "Am I invited to
this feast? "
"Of course; you and mother and daddy. Olive
belongs with us children. It wouldn't be a real feast
without you all," said Dodo, a look of perfect content
resting on her round face.
"Here are three pairs of tongs. Nat, you toast for
mamma, and Rap for uncle, and I'll toast for papa and
Olive; then afterwards we can toast for each other.
It's lots more fun doing it for somebody else, and then
having somebody do it for you."
In a moment the three children were crouching in
front of the fire, holding the crackers by the rims with
old-fashioned tongs, over the bed of glowing hickory
fragments.
"The crackers that fall into the fire belong to the
dogs," said Dodo, consolingly, to Rap, who had just
dropped his first one. "They don't mind a few
ashes."
Here is mammy with the big pitcher," said the
Doctor. "Now all stand in a row and drink a health,







FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS


in milk, to home, and the blood-brothers whose
acquaintance we are to make-the Four-Footed
Americans."
"Is Rap going to stay here all night? '.' asked Nat,
as they put down their glasses.
"No; his mother would worry. Your father and I
will walk home with him; we have some things to talk
over."
"Is it anything to do with the surprise?" asked
Dodo.
Miss Inquisitive, if you poke your precious nose
so far into things, some day it may be shut in the crack
of a door," laughed her father.
"Ah the wind has fallen and the frost has come.
I'm glad Rod covered those pumpkins," said the
Doctor, who was already out on the porch.
"Then we can go nutting to-morrow," said Nat,
capering. Come up early, Rap."
"We shall go nutting to-morrow, but Rap need not
come up ; we will call for him," said the Doctor.
"But the chestnuts are all up this way," persisted
Dodo.
"I did not say we were going chestnutting," replied
the Doctor, closing the door so suddenly, that if Dodo's
nose had been anything longer than a pug it might
really have been squeezed in the crack.
"M-mammals; m-milk," she half sang, half
whispered, as she stumbled sleepily up to bed, hanging
on her mother's arm.

















AN AUTUMN HOLIDAY

SEIEN Nat awoke the next
P mi.-ening, he lay quite still
4 Ii-t' a moment, rubbing his
S,' -,es and wondering what
it was that he was trying
S- remember.
He did not seem to be in
any more of a hurry to get
S ,' up than the sun, who was
only beginning to peep
through the most southerly corner of the orchard trees,
instead of being up above them at this hour, as had
been his habit all summer.
Nat finally opened his eyes and looked toward the
window, still half dreaming about Wild West Shows,
animal trees, and four-footed Americans, wondering
why the light was so speckled. Then as he saw the
frost crystals that covered the panes with their beauti-
ful fern traceries, it all came back like a flash, and he
jumped out, shouting, There's been a hard frost, and
we are to go nutting to-day, and hear about the
surprise "
At the same moment Dodo's sturdy fist pounded on
the door. Bang, bang, bang "Aren't you up yet,
41







FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS


Nattie? I am, and all dressed." Bang. "My boots
laced to the very top, and my teeth cleaned with
powder." Bang, bang, bang Lacing her boots and
cleaning her teeth were usually two weak spots in
Dodo's toilet, and the fact that she had done both so
early in the morning made Nat feel sure that some-
thing unusual was afoot.
"Yes, I'm up," said Nat, and I'll be ready in a
minute."
Father says, put on your thick very old clothes,
and the old boots with the scraped skin."
"Where are we going? Was there a big frost?"
spluttered Nat, struggling with his sponge full of water.
"Uncle Roy said he would tell when we are all
dressed. I can't seem to make Olive hurry one bit,
and breakfast will be at seven, and it's a quarter to,
now. Only look out, and you'll see what kind of a
frost there was," and Nat could hear the squeak and
flop that she made as she slid down the bannisters and
landed on the rug at the foot of the stairs.
He wiped off the frost with his towel and looked
out. Near the house everything was glittering with
diamonds, for Jack Frost had only fingered the nearby
things, but down in the low pasture by the spring the
blackened ferns showed where he had walked with his
heaviest boots. There was quite a commotion and
bustle over by the barns. The long market wagon
with all three seats screwed in place was pulled out of
its shed, and Rod was putting bundles of straw in the
bottom. Mysterious baskets stood about, and in one
Nat thought he saw a tea-kettle. Who was that man
in a queer furry-looking cap, thick short coat, and leg-







AN AUTUMN HOLIDAY


gins buttoned up to his knees ? Nat looked again and
then exclaimed to himself, Why, it's daddy, and the
other humpy-looking man is uncle Then he hurried
on with dressing as the only means of solving the
mystery.
This morning there was a roaring fire in the Franklin
stove in the dining-room. This stove, which is a sort
of open fireplace on legs that stands out a little way
from the chimney, throws more heat into the room
than a hearth fire.
"Now," said the Doctor, coming in with his arm
around Olive, who met him in the hall, hold your ears
wide open and stand away from the table so that you
will not break the china.
We are going to the far-away hickory woods, where
we expected to go on Dodo's birthday to look for owls !
Stop a moment that is not all. Instead of taking
sandwiches and such things for lunch we are going to
take pots and pans and food and play camp-out and
cook our dinner and supper in the woods, and come
home by moonlight "
That will be fine," said Olive. "I half expected
this last night."
Jolly cried Nat.
"But," said practical Miss Dodo, "if we are to cook,
Mammy Bun will have to go, and being out after dark
will make her grumble about her bones."
"I am the c-oo-k who is going with you to-day," said
Mr. Blake, coming in ; "and a very good cook, too,
I can tell you."
"Why, daddy," exclaimed both children, "can you
cook, and out in the woods, without any stove, too ? "







FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS


Indeed I can, and many's the day that your Uncle
Roy and I have not only had to cook for ourselves, but
catch or shoot our own provisions, and as for stoves -
we often hadn't even a bough wind-break over us, and
slept on the ground in our blankets."
"On the ground ? And wasn't it wet, and didn't
things bite you? Ah, what is that? Come, look out
here, Uncle Roy. Wolf and Quick have caught some
kind of a wild beast. It's too small for a Fox. What
is it?"
"One of the big Woodchucks who would not go
in the trap we set in the rocky pasture, and who is
rather late in holing up. They generally go to sleep
for the winter before hard frost."
"Why don't they freeze ? said Dodo. "You told
us once that it was very extra dangerous to go to sleep
out doors in cold weather, that we would freeze in a
twinkling."
Is that beast one of the four-footed Americans you
are going to tell us about ?" asked Nat. "What queer
long teeth he has: two upper and two under ones, with
straight edges, and no little pointed ones like our eye-
teeth. Do the four-footed Americans belong to guilds
the same as the birds do, Uncle Roy ? "
"Yes, my boy ; and those four powerful teeth show
to what guild the Woodchuck belongs, the greatest
guild among the Mammals, the Gnawers.
"Mother is coming," said Dodo, going to the stairs
to meet her, as Mammy Bun came in the opposite door
with the coffee-pot. "Now everything is started,
'cause nothing really begins right end up until mother
comes "


















-i.--g
..~. ,
".~ ~
L;c
I
~4 L:_
1~
d g
,i


THE WOODCHUCK.


.I I





C



C,'


7 I-F r Tf, u,







AN AUTUMN HOLIDAY


The Doctor would not let the children hurry their
breakfast, and Mr. Blake said, "Eat all you can now,
for you may not like my cooking."
"Are you not going to take some cake or bread, or
at least cold chicken ?" asked Mrs. Blake.
No, dear ; not even bread. Ginger cookies are the
only cooked food allowed. I want to give the children
a nibble at the way people live who explore, or hunt,
or for any other reason take to a wild life. Don't
worry; we shall neither starve nor be out quite all
night, though it may be late before we return."
Tom and Jerry were harnessed to the farm wagon,
so Comet was left home by himself. "You see this
wagon is only suitable for stout horses," said Tom, with
a wink to his mate, as they drove round to the house.
"Are you sure you have everything ? asked Mrs.
Blake, anxiously.
"I will give you a list of our belongings: a tea-
kettle, a coffee-pot, a frying-pan, and a small tin kettle,
six tin plates, cups, knives and forks, salt, pepper,
sugar, coffee, flour, part of a ham, a dozen eggs, a small
bag of potatoes, a quart of beans, a ball of stout cord,
my shot-gun, a small axe, a shovel, and plenty of
Matchess"
"'Pears like you uns was calkerlatin' to plant a gar-
din, wif beans and p'taters and a shovel," chuckled
Mammy Bun, who was never far away when a picnic
was about to start. "For de law's sakes, Massa Doctor,
do fetch along a jar o' sas, all dem vittles am chokin'
dry!" -
Mr. Blake is the cook, and you know, mammy, cooks
don't like to be interfered with."







FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS


"No mo' do they," she chuckled.
*
They stopped at Rap's house and found him waiting,
with a feed-bag, all ready for the nuts he expected to
get.
Which way are the hickory woods ? asked Olive;
"toward the shore or inland ? "
Inland and almost twenty miles due north of here.
There was a logging camp there years ago. I am sure
that you have never been in that direction."
"Is there any river in the woods?" asked Rap.
"Perhaps we may see some wild ducks."
"There is a strong, swift river beyond where we are
going, though I am not sure that we shall get so far to-
day, but there is a small river and pond near the hick-
ory woods, where you may see ducks. It is by the big
river that the lumber camp is, where Olaf expects to
stop for a few months this winter."
Some of the trees that were almost covered the day
before had dropped their leaves entirely after the hard
frost, and the Red Squirrels were chattering and running
along the stone fences. One little fellow was carrying
a nut in each cheek, and looked very comical, as if he
either had the mumps or a toothache.
"I never noticed before how many Squirrels there
are about here. I suppose because the leaves hid them.
Are they Mammals, Uncle Roy, and what guild do they
belong to ?" asked Dodo.
"Yes, they are Mammals, and they belong to the
same guild as the Woodchuck, the Gnawers. Watch
that little fellow as he sits up and turns the nut about
with his paws, which he uses quite as we do our







AN AUTUMN HOLIDAY


hands. See how quickly he gnaws through the hard
shell."
"So he does," cried Nat.
"Chipmunks gnawed up a lot of our seckle pears
this year before they were ripe," said Rap. They
seemed to want the seeds, for they left the fruity part
chipped up all over the grass under the tree."
"That is one of their habits ; in fact, the bad habit
of the whole guild, that they destroy much more than
they need for food."
"Most of the little beasts hereabouts belong to the
Gnawers, don't they, Doctor asked Rap. "Squirrels,
Chipmunks, Muskrats, Rats, Mice, Woodchucks, Rab-
bits, and all such things ? "
"Yes, all those belong to the Gnawers, and some of
them we call vermin, or, as Dodo says, Nuisance Ani-
mals,' who do more harm than good. Yet many of
them are wonderfully intelligent, and it seems hard
sometimes to say that we should kill even one of these
little mischief-makers.
"The great balance wheel of Nature is so carefully
made and well planned by its Maker that we must
always touch it reverently."
"What do you mean by balance wheel, Uncle Roy ?"
asked Nat.
"This, my lad. In this world of ours nothing, from
the least grain of sand to the strongest animal, was
made for itself alone. Each thing depends upon some
other thing, which is equally dependent in its own turn.
So we may compare this plan to a wheel which, though
it is made of many different parts, -hub, spokes, rim,
and tire, would not be a useful, perfect wheel if even







FOUR-FOOTED AIMEICANS


a single spoke were missing, so much does the strength
of the whole depend on even the least part. We may
think that this animal or that is of no use, until we
find by experience that it filled its place as a small but
important spoke in this life-wheel."
But, father," said Olive, "it is surely necessary for
us to kill Rats and Mice and other nuisance animals?"
"Certainly, we must kill them now because the
balance wheel has been so disturbed that these animals
have multiplied out of their due proportion and we have
made ourselves responsible for their increase. This is
a penalty man has to pay in many ways for eating of
the fruit of the tree of knowledge. He has to labor to
accomplish many things that Heart of Nature intended
doing for him."
Then maybe if people hadn't shot so many Owls
and good Cannibal Birds, it would have helped keep
down the nuisance animals," ventured Dodo. Oh,
uncle, what are those funny little haystacks down in
the water in the marsh meadow?"
Muskrat huts. Stop a minute, Olive, and let us
look at them," said the Doctor, shading his eyes with
his hands. The animals who make their homes in
those haystacks, as Dodo calls them, are very curious
as well as both mischievous and useful. They look
like something between the Woodchuck the dogs
brought in this morning and a great Rat. They are
a little under a foot long, and they can swim as fast
as a Duck. Their front toes have long claws for
scratching, and their back toes webs for swimming.
They live in the banks of rivers and ponds in summer,
and retire into these huts, made of rushes and old weeds,






AN AUTUMN HOLIDAY


before winter. They will suck eggs and steal poultry
like common Rats. They have a stiff, hairy-looking
coat, but underneath it is soft, beautiful fur. Why,
that old cap your father is wearing is Muskrat fur -
where did you get it, Blake? "
Out West, with many other such things to keep out
cold. But this is only the common uncolored skin;













FRONT PAw AND TAIL OF MIUSKRAT.

the furriers dye it a soft brown, selling it for French
seal,-and a very pretty fur it is, too, for caps and
mittens."
"There seem to be a good many wild animals about
here, even though it's a pretty tame place I mean a
civilized place," said Nat, correcting himself. I never
thought that we should find fur beasts so near home.
I'd like to see into one of those Muskrat houses, uncle."
".And so you shall, as soon as it is cold enough for
the water that surrounds it to be frozen so that we can
walk to them. The story of that animal and his cousin,
the Beaver, is enough to fill a book all by itself."






FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS


After they had jogged along a fairly level road for
a couple of hours, the children asking questions and
begging to get out at intervals, to pick up some par-
ticularly nice apple that had fallen outside a fence and
been passed by in the general harvest, they turned into
a lane road with turf between the wheel tracks. The
ground now began to rise in a zig-zag fashion between
a wall of hemlock and pine trees, under which were
mats of ground pine, partridge berry, and wintergreen.
Whirr-whirr, and a pair of large brownish birds flew
up from the roadside and disappeared in some bushes.
What were those birds as big as chickens ?"
screamed Dodo. "Oh, why didn't some one catch
them ? They went right by your nose, Olive "
"I think partly because I was as much surprised as
they were," laughed Olive.
As fine a pair of Ruffed Grouse as one could wish
for dinner," said Mr. Blake.
"Ah, papa, you wouldn't eat them? wailed Dodo.
"Why not, girlie ? They are game birds made for
food; their nesting is over, and this is the season that
the Wise Men say we may take them by fair hunting."
What is fair hunting ? I don't think any hunting
is fair."
"Using no trap or snare, but following the game
afoot, if it be birds with gun and dog, killing no more
than you need. If it is a Deer, Elk, Moose, or Ante-
lope, using your own .perseverance and rifle without a
dog, and never taking a doe or fawn unless absolute
starvation stares you in the face."
"But if you are trying to kill nuisance animals?"
asked Rap.







AN AUTUMN HOLIDAY


Then use gun, trap, snare, poison, or any other
means you have; but never put a nuisance animal to
torture never leave even a rat to die miserably in a
trap."
"I guess I'll let you do my hunting for me, daddy,"
said Dodo, duly impressed. I'd rather not kill any-
thing myself."
"And I had much rather you would not," said Mr.
Blake, putting his arm around her. Keep your little
heart tender. There is greater need for such things
than for game and guns in this world nowadays, little
daughter. I would not now willingly kill a big game
animal myself and see the light fade from its bright
eyes and the last flutter of its breast."
It wouldn't be any harm if we learned how to shoot,
would it, daddy ?" asked Nat. "'Way back in the sum-
mer Uncle Roy said perhaps you would teach me some
time, and Rap, too," for the boys had long since become
inseparable.
Certainly, you shall learn this very fall. Every
man should know how to shoot and handle a gun prop-
erly, if need requires. Shooting game fairly is a manly
art, and it is also a manly art to know when and what
not to shoot."
See the river," said Dodo. "You called it little,
but it is much bigger and swifter than our river. Oh,
what a queer bridge, and all the evergreen trees are on
the rocks on one side, and great tall barky trees with
no leaves on the other."
"This is the beginning of the hickory wood, where
we are going. It looks to me as if some one had been
making improvement here, since my day," said the







FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS


Doctor. Though the biggest trees are gone, the dead
ones seem to have been taken away from year to year,
and the young growth encouraged."
"Stop a minute, Olive; your father, Nat, and I will
walk this last mile; the road is too steep and rough
for a full load."
"Is the far west country wilder than this ? asked
Dodo, who of course wished to walk with the others,
holding tight to her uncle's hand. "I think it's lonely
enough for Tigers here, if it was only warm enough."
Bless my heart, this is not wild You have a road
to walk on ; you know where you came from and where
you are going. To call a country really wild it must
have no roads, but only gaps or trails between the trees,
and often not even these, but you must cut a path for
yourself. You will more frequently know where you
wish to go than where you are going; and you are
never sure when, if ever, you will get back to the place
from which you started."
What is that ahead ? Smoke coming from the hill-
side. It must be from the charcoal-burner's hut that
Olaf spoke of last summer. I supposed that was the
other side of the mountain, but I see the wood here is
about right for making charcoal."
The Doctor and Dodo had fallen behind Mr. Blake
and Nat. When they overtook them they found that
the lane ended in some high hickory woods, and Mr.
Blake suggested they couldn't find a better place to
halt and make their play camp.
While they were discussing where it would be best
to tie the horses, a tall, thin, but wiry man, came noise-
lessly from among the trees and stood looking at the







AN AUTUMN HOLIDAY


party. He had a long, straight nose like a Fox, and
deep-set eyes ; his face was as brown as his beard, and
his clothes were very much like some of those worn by
the scouts in the Wild West Show, his shoes being
without seams, like moccasins.
In spite of his strange face and dress there was noth-
ing forbidding about him, and he had a pleasant smile
as he stepped noiselessly up.
"A woodsman, I know," said Mr. Blake to himself,
scarcely looking at the man's face, but judging by his
soft tread.
The man stood still a second, looking as if he saw
some familiar object, but from a great distance, and
then exclaimed, "I want to know "
The Doctor and Mr. Blake both started forward, and
the strange man grasped each by the hand.
"Nez Long! Is it possible?" said the Doctor, clap-
ping him on the back with his free hand, while the
children stood looking on in amazement. Olive, how-
ever, knew who he was as soon as she heard the name,
and explained to the others, while the three men con-
tinued to talk eagerly.
Nez was a man from northern Maine whom her father
and uncle had known out West. He had been a trapper,
hunter, and cowboy, all by turns, and the head of a lum-
ber camp in Canada. The French Canadians called
him'Nez Long, which means "long-nose" in their lan-
guage. He had once saved Mr. Blake's life, when he
was almost crushed by a falling tree and in danger of
being torn by a bear, but how he came in the hickory
wood she of course did not know.
"Yes, I'm the charcoal-burner, I reckon, now, and







FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS


canoe-maker, too, and do a bit o' huntin' and trappin'
round about, and raise some truck t'other side o' the
woods, and get out railroad ties. I've a camp o' my
own inside the first belt, and a wife, and she isn't a
squaw neither, and two young uns. You see I've got
some property at last, Doe, in spite of being a sort of
wild Injun myself. We live in a log house, though;
we'd choke in any other kind, my woman an' me's
agreed on that. She was 'Toinette Pardeau old
Dominique's daughter. You'll remember him; he was
your guide the day you got that thunderin' big Bear.
All these your young uns, Jake?"
What a queer man," said Dodo. "And not very
polite. He calls Uncle Roy, Doe, and daddy, Jake. I
don't think he is nice."
You must remember," said Olive, "that he has
been with them in wild places and they have shared
danger, and worked and hunted together as if they
were brothers, and when men do this, the Mister drops
away from their names, and they feel to each other
as you and Nat and Rap do."
Of course they must," said Dodo, repentantly, "and
he picked the tree off daddy; so, without hesitating,
she walked up to him, holding out her hand, and saying
solemnly, Good morning, Mr. Long Nose, I'm glad to
meet you and thank you very much for taking the tree
off daddy's leg."
"I want to know stuttered Nez, more surprised
than if a Grizzly Bear had spoken to him.
Every one laughed then, and it did not take long to
explain why they were there, and how they were going
to cook dinner camp-fashion; and Nat feeling the sud-







AN AUTUMN HOLIDAY


den confidence in Nez that young people and dogs have
in those who really love them, said, I'm going to
learn to shoot this winter and hear all about the wild
American animals, and sometimes you will let us come
to see you, won't you, and you'll tell us stories ?"
Oh, do," echoed Dodo, looking up at him with a
smile that generally had yes, as its reward, and per-
haps you'll tell us just one story for dessert to-day."
"Sure enough I will," he answered; "and I'll set
you a camp and a fire all slick and ready while you're
a-gettin' your nuts. Then you can come over yonder,"
and without more ado he disappeared in the trees.
"Where are the nuts ?" asked Dodo, looking up to
the sky.
"On the ground partly and in the trees mostly,"
said Olive. "If these trees in front of us had a good
shaking, we could pick up enough hickories to last all
winter."
The horses were unharnessed, tethered to stumps
and blanketed; for in spite of the bright sun the air
was keen, and the wind had suddenly sprung up, scat-
tering the leaves and sending down quite a hailstorm
of nuts.
When Mr. Blake and the Doctor, climbing some of
the smaller trees, aided the wind in its work, the nuts
gave the gatherers such a pelting that they had to stop
until the squall was over.
"It's almost too easy to be fun," said Nat, as they
tied up the mouth of Rap's bag, which was already
filled. "I think I'd rather hunt for things a little
longer."
Good boy," said his father ; "that is the spirit that







FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS


makes a real sportsman, the watching and waiting
and finding, not simply the greedy getting that makes
the selfish sort of man I call a Hunting Wolf."
You had better make the most of this easy nutting,
though," said the Doctor, "for when it comes to pick-
ing up chestnuts, you will have to look and poke about
between the leaves and stones, I can tell you."
"I wonder what Mr. Long Nose is doing, and how
he is going to fix our camp for us," said Dodo, empty-
ing her little basket into the big one for the third time.
" I think we have enough now."
"I thought there was some other reason for your
hurry beside the filling of the bags. I never knew
before that children could have too many nuts. But
don't call your friend Long Nose, Dodo; he has a real
name, though it was never used among his camp-mates."
What shall I call him then Mr. Long ? "
No; simply Nez, pronounced as it is spelled; he
will understand it better, for if you called him Mister,
he would be put out, perhaps."
Oh, what a big Squirrel! called Nat. Twice as
large as those about the farm, and all one color, like a
Maltese cat, only a little browner. There is another,
and another yet, chasing about like anything See,
Uncle Roy; up there "
"Gray Squirrels, and fine ones, too. These are
exactly the sort of woods that suit them; plenty of
hickories and beech trees, and water not far away."
How many kinds of American Squirrels are there ? "
asked Dodo, and is the lining of mother's coat made
of the fur of this gray kind ? "
"There are sixty or seventy kinds in North







AN AUTUMN HOLIDAY


America, but the Red, Gray, the big Fox Squirrel, and
the little Chipmunk, or Ground Squirrel, are the ones
most likely to interest you. The lining of your
mother's coat is probably made of the skins of a
Russian Squirrel. Strange as it may seem, the skins
of our species are too thin and tender to let them go
in the list of valuable fur-bearing animals."
"I suppose they are like the Moleskin that Rod
gave me to make a muff for my doll. It cracked like
a piece of paper, and wouldn't stay sewed well, and
it had a very queer smell that took a day to wash off
my hands. Why do some animals have such strange
smells, Uncle Roy ?"
"For two reasons. There are protective smells and
signal smells. The Skunk's odor belongs to this first
sort, and he uses his evil odor as a weapon of defence
and seems to thoroughly understand its power, for very
few of the large beasts of prey ever care to get within
range of it.
"The signal smells are as important to the Four-
footed People as speech is to House People. In fact,
the power of scent largely takes the place of speech
with them. What they lack in tongue is made up by
a wonderful keenness of ear and nose.
"A Fox goes through a lane and can tell by the
smell whether it is a dog who has been there before
him or a brother Fox. The dog in his turn who fol-
lows knows by the scent where the Fox has gone and
can find him unless he crosses water."
Why can't he follow him across water ? Does it
wash away the smell ?" asked Nat.
"Exactly, but -"







FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS


"What is that terrible noise," cried Olive, starting,
and they all listened, somewhat startled, while Dodo
crept close between her father and uncle, saying, "It
must be a very wild sick cow that is hurt."
"If we were in a swamp a couple of hundred miles
further north, instead of here in a hickory wood, I
should say it was either a cow Moose or else some one
imitating one," said Mr. Blake.
Why, it's Nez, of course," said Dr. Roy. "He used
to be one of the best Moose callers along the border.
He is ready for us to come up, and has taken that way
to call us, though we are not Moose."
Let's go quick and see," said Dodo, recovering her
courage, and hurrying the party along. What are
Moose, and what do people call them for?"
"Moose are the largest of our Deer. The cry we
have just heard is the cow Moose's call to her mate.
Men who hunt the Moose imitate this call, and the
bull (which is the name given male Moose and Elk)
comes hurrying up to meet, not his mate, but a bullet."
Do you call that fair hunting, daddy?" asked
Nat.
"No, I do not; unless the hunter is hungry and can-
not get food in any other way, it seems to me little bet-
ter than setting a trap. A sportsman should show his
skill in finding the Moose, not calling him by a trick."
"Yes," said Nat, I understand that. It's the same
as if when we play hide-and-seek I wanted Dodo, and
instead of hunting for her I cried or did something to
make her come out, and then cried 'I spy.'"
"Look, father! Look there said Olive. "It's
like the old days in Canada."






AN AUTUMN HOLIDAY


As they left the narrow footpath where they had
been walking in Indian file they stepped into an open
space from which all the trees had been cut, as well as
the underbrush. At the further side, with its back
against the hill toward the north, was a log-cabin with
small windows in the front and sides. A little way from
it was a sort of long shed, roofed with hemlock boughs,
under which was a grindstone, some tools, etc. In the
centre of the open square the earth was black, and there
were many ashes, as if a fire had often burned there.
At one side Nez himself was at work, axe in hand,
before a sort of tent made of two upright poles, and
a crosspiece against which he was laying hemlock
boughs. Not far from this two logs about five feet
long were placed side by side on the ground. The
upper side was shaved off; at one end they were about
four inches apart and at the other eight. Between this
was a line of glowing charcoal, kept from burning the
logs by the earth which was heaped against them. At
either end there was an upright stake, and a bar was
laid between these so that it came about a foot and a
half above the fire.
















OUT-DOOR COOKERY

ETCH yer blankets. Thar's
yer lean-to and thar's yer
stove," said Nez, pointing to
S the slanting hemlock roof
Sand the line of glowing
i coals. "Now git out yer
kit and yer grub, and let's
v' .,l see what sort of a feed we
.. 5'- *can cook up."
"The woman and the
young uns are gone over the mountain to Chestnut
Ridge trading but they'll be home before night. I'd be
pleased to have yer eat in the cabin b'yon' there, but
yer seemed to want to play campin'."
The three children looked on in open-eyed wonder,
but Olive, who had some experience in woodcraft, be-
gan sorting and arranging the things that Mr. Blake,
the Doctor, and Nez brought up from the wagon.
First she put the food and cooking utensils on
planks near the fire, and then spread the wagon
cushions at the back of the brush lean-to, and laid
some extra horse blankets upon them.
"I wonder why uncle brought six blankets when
there are only two horses," said Nat.
60







OUT-DOOR COOKERY


We'll see before we get home," said Dodo; "we
always do."
Next Olive filled the tea-kettle from a pail of water
Nez brought from a spring on the hill above the cabin,
and hung it on the crossbar over the fire.
"I know what that stick is for, anyway," said Nat.
"I've fixed sticks like that to hold a kettle, and I've
roasted chestnuts and potatoes in hot ashes," said Rap;
"but I can't think what those two logs are for, and
why they are fixed wider apart at one end than at
the other."
"That is easily explained," said Mr. Blake, begin-
ning to untie his packages of groceries. "You see
the bottom of the coffee-pot is smaller than the tin
kettle, and the frying-pan is larger than either. Now,
if we set the coffee-pot on the narrow end, it fits nicely,
but the kettle would not get enough heat, so that
stands where the logs are wider apart, and the frying-
pan further along; and if we wanted to cook some-
thing in a wire broiler, it could go at the very end.
Isn't this log stove a great invention ? "
"Y-e-s," said the children; "but what are you go-
ing to cook ?"
"Roast the potatoes in the ashes, boil the coffee,
fry the ham and eggs in this pan, tie strings to the
stems of these apples and hang them on the rod by
the tea-kettle.
"We will begin with the potatoes and apples," said
Mr. Blake, "for they take the longest to cook. How
is it for game about here, Nez? I brought my gun,
thinking I might get a few Quail; but it's taken us
so long to come up that there is not time."







FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS


Quail and Grouse, plenty, and some Woodcock,
if you know where to go. The woman is takin' a
bunch now to trade over the mountain, and Stubble,
my dog, has gone with her, or I'd send him out with
you. Here's a pair o' Grouse that have hung since
day before yesterday; they'll roast first-rate, if you'll
have 'em."
Nez went to the shed and brought back a pair of
Partridges, or Ruffed Grouse, as they should be called,
both males, with ruffs of lustrous green feathers.
How pretty said Dodo, stroking them ; would
it be any harm for me to wear those wings in my hat
after we have eaten the birds? "
"It is no harm to use the wings of food birds for
ornament ; the only danger is that people, who do
not care or know the difference, or understand about
Citizen Bird, may wear the wings of Song Birds by
mistake."
"How can we roast them without an oven ? asked
Rap, as they watched Nez pulling off the wing and
tail feathers, but not otherwise plucking the Grouse.
"Hang them with a string over the fire? "
"In the ashes along o' the potatoes," replied Nez,
at the same time going near the spring and bringing a
spadeful of pliable, clayey earth, which, by wetting, he
kneaded- into two sheets a little thicker than pie crust.
"What can he be doing?" whispered Dodo to
Olive ; "do you suppose he really eats mud pies ?"
"No, dear; of course not. Watch "
Nez laid a bird in the centre of each sheet of
clay dough, after wetting its feathers, which he
wrapped all around it as if it were an apple in a







OUT-DOOR COOKERY


little dumpling. Then he dug out a small oven-
like hole under the broadest part of the fire, into
which he put the Grouse, covered them with ashes,
and raked the live coals back over the spot.
"Won't they be all burned and dirty?" whispered
Dodo to Olive.
Wait and see," was her answer.
While the dinner was cooking, Nez led the party,
all except the cook, about his clearing, as he called it.
At first the cabin seemed very dark, but they soon
saw that it had two rooms separated by a great chim-
ney piled up of broad rough stones. One room was
the kitchen and living room, and the other the bed-
room. This had berths nailed to the wall, not unlike
those in a ship or sleeping car. The bedding con-
sisted of coarse gray blankets, spread over fresh hem-
lock boughs and straw.
The fireplace was open and wide, and on the living-
room side some long logs were piled one on top of the
other, with smaller sticks and kindlings in front.
"We keep er sort uv campfire in here cold nights,
yer see, Doctor. When once you've been uster sleeping'
by a fire, you miss it dredful. I've got a stove in
here," he said, pointing to the kitchen; "but in warm
weather we cook outside on the logs. When you've
spent twenty or thirty years sleeping' mostly under
the sky, any kind uv a roof seems crampy, so in sum-
mer season I lie out yet."
Did you ever sleep all night outdoors, like daddy
and uncle, with no tent or anything ?" asked Dodo,
in an awe-struck tone, leaving the boys, who were look-
ing at the strange assortment of things that hung from







FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS


the rafters of the cabin, stood in corners, or were stuck
in the little cracks between the logs. -Fishing-poles,
a Winchester rifle, a double-barrel shot-gun, bunches
of herbs, the furry skins of several kinds of small
beasts, a Fox tail fastened to a stick for a duster, and
many other fascinating objects.
Sleep out all night, missy? said Nez in astonish-
ment; why, o' course, that wuz always the kind of
campin' I did when I wuz trappin'."
Why didn't wild beasts eat you, and why didn't
you get all damp and mouldy? persisted Dodo.
Mostly on account of the dry air in those places,
and campfires, I reckon, and sleeping' with one eye
open," said Nez, laughing. "Here comes Renny, he
wants his supper, I guess."
"Why, it's a Fox! Won't he bite? I thought
Foxes were wild beasts," said Nat, as a young Fox,
looking something like a small collie dog, trotted up
to the cabin, sniffing about and eyeing the strangers
suspiciously.
"That Fox won't bite, he's a pet of the young uns.
His mother was killed for chicken stealin', I reckon,
along in May; and Stubble nosed out the hole on the
other side of the mountain, and I found two pups in
it. One died, and we raised this. We've got a
young Coon, too, somewhere about."
"He is just as pretty as a dog. Will he never run
away and try to find his mother?" asked Rap. "I
had a tame Coon once, and it stayed round all right,
but along in the second spring it ran away."
"I reckon the Fox will too, when he gits old enough
to take a mate and set up house for himself. They all







OUT-DOOR COOKERY


do,- birds and beasts and folks too, everybody likes
to have a place of his own. Don't he, Doctor? Here
I was a-roamin' all over creation, no idea uv stayin'
put anywhere, and here I am settled down and what
they call civilized."
The Doctor laughed and walked off with Nez to see
his charcoal pit and bit of cleared land, where he
raised potatoes and beans, while the children still
looked wonderingly about the cabin.
"I wonder why the leaves are swept away so clean
all about here?" said Dodo. "It looks so much pret-
tier to have leaves and pine needles on the ground."
On account of fire," said Olive. When you
camp out, you have to be very careful about fire, espe-
cially in places where there are many evergreen trees.
Nez cooks out of doors and works often under that
shed, and has a log fire to warm him; and if the
ground were covered with dry leaves, the fire might
spread all through the woods.."
I'm so very hungry," said Dodo, presently; suppose
we go over and see how daddy is getting along with
his cooking."
There must be Coons living around here," said Rap,
looking eagerly into some old trees. "I see lots of
likely holes, and there's a splendid lot of brush down
hill there for Rabbits. Say, Nat, I wonder when we
learn to shoot if Nez wouldn't let us come here and get
something to eat and then cook it? It would be great
sport !"
We can ask him, anyhow. There, daddy is beckon-
ing to us, and I smell ham. C-o-m-i-n-g, c-o-m-i-n-g,"
Nat shouted.







FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS


"It's all ready," said Dodo, who had gone ahead,
"only Uncle Roy and Nez have wandered away, and
daddy says we must not dig out the roast birds until
they come back. Can't you moo-oo to call them,
daddy, the same way that Nez did? "
"I can try, girlie. Nat, go over to the cabin and
see if you can find a great cone-shaped thing made of
bark."
Nat soon returned breathless, but with the desired
article.. "It was hanging by the chimney on an old
pair of some kind of queer flat spiked Deer horns."
"Antlers, Nat; we don't call those things horns when
they belong to Deer. They must be the antlers of Nez'
famous Moose. You must ask him to tell you about it
some day. Let me have the horn."
"It's like a little megaphone, you know," said Nat;
"the thing they called out the programme with at the
circus, only that was tin and this is old dry bark."
"So it is, and that, like many other things, had its
beginning in some simple invention of a woodsman.
Let me have it-Moooo-oo-oo-o Wher Moo-oo-oo-oo-o "
Oh, what a queer foggy noise cried Dodo, stop-
ping up her ears.
"I'm afraid, Uncle Jack," said Olive, "if I were a
Moose I should run away from a mate with such a
voice."
May I try ?" said Rap.
Certainly. I never was a good Moose caller, it
always gave me a sore throat."
Rap took the cone and called gently at first, raising
the horn and then lowering it to the ground, making a
very good imitation of Nez' call.







OUT-DOOR COOKERY


"Bravo cried Mr. Blake; "some one must have
taught you that, my boy."
"I've seen the lumbermen do it over at the far
mountain."
"Are there Moose anywhere near here ? asked Olive.
Oh, no; but the men had worked in North Maine
and Canada, and they used to sit round the fire and tell
boast stories of what they had done, and showed how
they called Moose."
"Boast stories, what are those ? asked Olive.
"Stories about animals they had hunted so long ago
that every time they told about the beast it got bigger
and bigger, until it wouldn't have known itself."
Mr. Blake laughed heartily at Rap's description, as if
he thoroughly appreciated his meaning.
"When we sit by the campfire thinking of past days
that have pleased us, we often see them through the
firelight as we do things in dreams, which are part
imagination and part memory. Always remember, boys,
that the adventures we have under the open sky and
the friends we make around the campfires and in the
silence of strange places open prairie or trackless
wood-are different from the doings and acquaintances
of every day, and the account of them must always seem
unreal to those who have not been there."
"You called fust rate the second time," said Nez to
Mr. Blake, returning from showing his farm, as he
called it. It was a little onsertin at fust -"
"Praise Rap; the call I gave was called a 'foggy
noise' by Dodo."
"Was that you, little chap ? .Want to know Was
you raised in the North Woods ? "







FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS


"No, but I've always wanted to live in the woods
the way you do; but you see woods are too far away
from people for mother to get any washing to do."
"Never you mind," said Nez, "after the first snow
you come up and stop with me a spell, and I'll show you
how to git some Rabbits and a Grouse or two for your
mammy, when I've got my Muskrat and Mink traps
set. There's no big game hereabouts, at least none
bigger than a Fox or a Porkipine, a Coon or maybe a
couple o' Wild Cats strain' about. But you can see
how the night comes in the woods, and I'd learn you
the tracks of some o' the fur beasts. If we get good
deep snow down along the river medders, I'll show you
how to walk on snow-shoes, too; maybe it'll come in
handy some day."
"I couldn't learn that on account of my leg, but Nat
could, and he'd love it," said Rap, cheerfully.
"Dinner, dinner," called the Doctor, "and stories
afterward. Dodo is very anxious to see you open the
mud pies, Nez."
Come and sit on the cushions under this nice wind
break," said Olive, going to the lean-to that Nez had
made- of the hemlock boughs. Here are your plates
and cups, you be waiter, Nat, and take them to Uncle
Jack."
"What do you call your camp, Nez ?" asked Mr.
Blake.
"Settledown," said Nez, laughing, "'cause we've set-
tled here nigh two years."
Bill of Fare for Dinner at Camp Settledown, served
by Chef Jacque," called Mr. Blake. Ham and eggs,
potatoes in jackets, frying-pan bread, roast Grouse with







OUT-DOOR COOKERY


clay pastry. Dessert -roast apples on strings, ginger
cookies, and as Nez came from the cabin with a jar
- wild plum jam, and coffee with condensed cream! "
The first course was eaten with much relish, and then
they gathered around the fire to see Nez uncover his
famous pies. The first one being opened disclosed a
mass of blackened feathers.
I knew it wouldn't be any good," whispered Dodo
to Nat.
"You know too soon then," he replied, as Nez with
a skilful pull took feathers, skin, and all from the bird,
showing its smoking, nicely cooked body all ready to
be eaten.
Oh said the children, as they cut it, or, I should
say more truthfully, pulled it apart.
"It's terribly good with a little salt on it," said
Dodo; "here's a dear little wish-bone for you, Olive,
and both top legs." And for the next half hour the
conversation was nearly extinguished by the food.
"Please, are you going to tell us a story now?"
asked Dodo of Nez, as he began collecting the tin
plates, cups, pots, and pans.
"Wash up yer kit first, then campfire and talking.
You see, missy, in the woods it don't do to let yer
vittles cool on the dishes; it's too hard to clean 'em.
Got a kittle? Yes ? and he filled the largest tin with
water, which he set on the fire to heat for dish-washing.
"Any dish-rag? and Nez carefully put the good
scraps in a pail to feed to Stubble when he should
return, wiped each article out with a handful of leaves
which he carefully burned as soon as soiled,- then the
dish-washing was an easy matter.







FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS


You see," he explained, if you are camping in any
one place for a spell, it gets dreadful mussy if you don't
keep cleaned up, and then you may want yer duds in
a hurry. Always keep yer kit ready, whether it's guns,
or harness, or kittles; that's camp law."
So the children strayed about for an hour or so until
Nez and their father had finished their work and smoked
their after-dinner pipes.
Now we'll have a campfire, though it's the wrong
time o' day," continued Nez, piling some logs from his
shed against a couple of charred tree trunks that stood
side by side about four feet apart; he put sticks and
kindling in front of the logs, arranging the heap so that
the wind blew from the front to the back.
"Why don't you put the sticks in a stack, like corn
stalks?" asked Nat. "That is the way we do when
Uncle Roy lets us make bonfires in the gravel-bank lot;
it burns up as quick as a flash, only it eats a great lot
of wood."
"That's the reason we don't do it," said Nez, "just
'cause it does burn up quick and eat the wood so fast
and then slumps out. This isn't the real time o' day
that in nature' a woodsman or a plainsman would stop
to build a campfire, but it'll do to show you by.."
"When do people generally build them ?" asked
Rap.
"Along about dark," said Nez, "after supper, when
the day's work is done, if it's a cattle round-up, or a
huntin' or a lumber camp. In the north and northwest
country the air is dry and fine enough in the daytime,
but as soon as the sun goes down down goes the
weather, too. If you go to sleep with no fire, or let







OUT-DOOR COOKERY


your fire go out, you'll get up with stumblin' feet and
hands all thumbs in the morning. That's why we pile
the logs this way, so that the fire gets a good hold and
creeps up slowly, and lasts long.
Then you'll lie under yer bush shanty, or lean-to, or
canvas, or whatever kind of a shelter you have, or stretch
out on the ground in yer blanket, and yer so glad of rest
that yer wouldn't change with any one in a castle.
Some one throws on the logs, and the camp settles down
for the night to smoke and talk and then sleep. Wolves
may bark in the distance, and Wildcats yowl and
sneeze ; as long as the fire blazes they'll keep away."
"Please tell us about all the sorts of tents you've
slept in," said Olive.
"And about the wild beasts that sneezed at you,"
added Nat, as they all watched the fire dreamily in the
comfortable silence brought by a day in the open air
and a good meal.
"My furst regular campin' was in a lumber camp in
Canada, the Saskatchewan country they call it. All
day long we were out in the woods cutting trees, trim-
ming them down and branding the logs to be hauled
over the snow in the winter to the river, so that the
spring freshets would wash them down. I don't think
I ever struck a camp that had more game, big and little,
come about it. Maybe it was 'cause I was young then,
and everything seemed wonderful.
"The camp was clear out in the wilderness, in a sort
of holler between a marshy place all brushed over and
a woody hill; it was just half dugout, half log-cabin,
like my own yonder. In fact, I made this as like as I
could to the remembrance of that one. Only, like most







FOUR-FOOTED AMERTCANS


camps thereabouts, it had a pair uv Moose horns over
the door to bring good hunting .
"It was the furst winter that I was there I learned
from the Indians and half-breeds how to read signs; to
know by the footprints jest what animal had been that
way, and by the way young twigs were nibbled and
torn whether it was a Moose,--if it was a bull with
antlers or the smaller cow without them. Then I
learnt the footmarks of all the fur beasts, and their
toothmarks on the bark, and when there were scratches
on the trees I knew how big a B'ar had sharpened his
claws there, and how tall he was."
Oh, uncle, don't you remember how you said the
Wise Men .- .de animals into classes by looking at their
feet and teeth, but I didn't know people could tell them
only by their footprints.
Please, Nez, can you tell by smell where all the dif-
ferent animals are, as uncle says they can tell about
each other ? asked Nat.
"Not quite," said Nez, laughing, "though there are
a few I can nose out besides Skunks. I did some tall
huntin' and trappin' then for a season or two, before
the game got too skary, and folks came that killed
just for getting the antlers of the bulls and leaving' the
meat to rot, folks that took a fawn or doe just the
same as a buck. Hunting Wolves, I call them, for
a Wolf is a wasteful beast in his killing. "
"That's what daddy calls such people, too. Tell us
the names of some of the bea, ts you saw," coaxed Nat.
It would be easier to name those I didn't," said Nez,
hesitating; "but of a moonlight night after an early
snow, when all of the outfit but me was away, I've






















*fit














WLr SKUNKS. CANADA LYNX. MOOSE.
"1

,j .;:; p, 2 ..- -





"WOLF. S][UNKiS. CANADA- IIYNX.- MOOSE.







OUT-DOOR COOKERY


seen a Moose come from the windward side of the
cabin, while a Fox sulked in the shade of some firs
watching the Skunks fighting over the scrap-pail, and
a Lynx crouched, grinning, on a log, taking it all in.
Meanwhile white northern Hares and Ermines nosed
about dreadful careless, not knowing when they might
make food for Owls, and Meadow Mice squealed among
the logs and left their little tracks like birds' claws in
the snow. When they think there's nobody round,
beasts have their playtime, just like folks."
Oh sighed Rap and Nat in chorus, "all those
beasts you saw are four-footed Americans ; if we could
only live in a camp and see them."
"It was a nice place to see the animals, but pshaw,
some folks would find the camp smoky in winter and
full o' black flies in summer. Don't I remember the
time I shot my big Moose? I'll tell you that story
some day, and about another time out in Montana how
your dad was huntin' for Sheep and met a Grizzly B'ar.
That is, if he don't."
And did you ever see a great white Polar Bear,
or find Seals swimming on the ice? asked Dodo.
"No, I never was so far north. There is a friend of
mine, a Finlander, who follows the sea, who has been as
fur north as most men go and get back again, and he
knows those beasts and their ways. He's comin' to
stop with me a spell this snowfall, and he's been fishing'
and keeping' a light down on the shore two summers.
I thought maybe you'd met him, his name is -"
"Olaf cried the children and Olive in chorus.
"Want to know said Nez, looking pleased, and
puffing vigorously at his pipe.







FOUR FOOTED AMERICANS


Oh, uncle! Oh, daddy! cried Nat and Dodo,
rolling off the blankets in their excitement. "Nez
knows Olaf and he's coming here Don't you see how
much we could learn about the fourfoots if we could
only live up here in a log house ? "
Doubtless you could, and you would perhaps enjoy
it vastly for a while, but how about school? You must
begin by being fitted for your lives as House People;
few of us can live the wild life, except now and then
for pleasure and as a rest from too much tameness.
Don't look so blue, Nat. Dodo, cheer up, even if you
may not live in a log house you are not going to be
shut up in a prison this winter. Listen, and I will
tell you the whole of the surprise that you partly
learned yesterday."
Four heads crowded together, and eight wide-open
eyes gazed at Dr. Roy, for Olive was as much in the
dark as the others.
"Must we guess? asked Dodo, clapping her hands.
You may all try, if you like, but I do not think you
can possibly guess the whole of the secret."
We are coming up here on Saturdays to learn to
shoot and hear Nez tell stories," ventured Nat.
"No," said Olive, "it can't be that, because it would
be too far and too cold in winter. Perhaps you will
ask Nez to come down some time and tell us stories,"
said Olive.
It takes too long to guess," cried Dodo, wriggling
about in her impatience, "please tell us now "
"Very well; the surprise has three parts to it. Sit
still, Dodo, and remember that you are not to jump up
and down or hug me until I have quite finished.







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"You all remember the old summer kitchen at the
farm that is filled with boxes, tools, and rubbish,-
the long, low room back of the dairy, with the brick
floor and wide fireplace? "
Oh, yes," said Nat, "I've looked in there trying to
find Bats that I've seen go through a place where the
glass was broken, but it was stuffed so full of every-
thing that I couldn't get in at the door."
Now," continued the Doctor, "this very day Rod
is clearing out all the rubbish, and I am going to let
you fit up that old room like a log-cabin camp. The
fireplace is large enough to hold a fine campfire. This
is part first.
"Part second.- Every Saturday afternoon that it
is pleasant your father or I will teach you to shoot at
a target.
"Part third. When it is dark you shall go into
'camp' and cook your own supper, after the same fash-
ion as you have seen the dinner cooked to-day, then
after supper we will have stories about the four-footed
Americans. Nez has promised to tell some of them,
and Olaf others. Rap can tell what he knows of the
nearby beasts, while your father and I will fill in the
chinks."
"How did you ever think of anything so lovely ?"
exclaimed Olive.
"I can hug you now," said Dodo, immediately doing
it vigorously.
Hurrah Moo-oo-o! was Nat's response, trying
to blow a joyful blast on the Moose horn, and failing
utterly, while Rap sat in silence, but with a beaming
face.







FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS


"Let's go home and begin right away," said Dodo.
"It is high time to go home," said Mr. Blake, jump-
ing up. Who would think it was nearly five o'clock?
The sun sets in a hurry these days, and we shall have
to ask the moon to escort us, I think. Cold ham and
cookies must do for supper."
Somebody is coming," said Rap, pointing to the
path that wound around the steep, wooded crest, where
his quick ears detected a rustling in the dead leaves.
At the same time a ginger-colored setter dog came in
sight, followed by two sturdy little boys, who, on see-
ing strangers, dodged into the cabin like frightened
Rabbits.
"That's Toinette and the young uns," said Nez.
Then added by way of apology, The young uns don't
see many folk and they are skary. Here, Toinette,"
speaking to a rather pretty, dark-haired, black-eyed
young woman, who came up carrying a basket on her
head, "make you acquainted with some old tent mates
o' mine."
The woman gravely held out her hand to each with
a pretty gesture of welcome that said more than words.
She's half French, you see," explained Nez, and
she isn't much on talking' American."
But the moment Mr. Blake spoke to her in the soft
slurring French of the Canadian woods, she answered
readily, and her face was wreathed with smiles.
"You must bring your wife and children down to
visit us, Nez," said the Doctor; "it will do them good
to see other young folks."
"I reckon it would. The boys go to school now,
over the mountain; book learning' is some good even to







OUT-DOOR COOKERY


woodsmen, I say, and by the time they've grown up
there won't be much of a living' left in the woods,
anyhow."
"But it's more than five miles over to the Ridge
school by the road."
"Yes, but that's nothing' fine days, and when snow
comes I calkerlate ter put on snow-shoes and ride 'em,
one on each shoulder, across country; they don't weigh
much compared to camp kits and Deer I've carried."
Dodo, how would you like to go ten miles a day
through the woods to school?" asked her father, for
Dodo sometimes grumbled at walking the smooth mile
that lay between the farm and schoolhouse.
"At first, for about a week, it would be fun, and
then perfectly dreadful," she answered promptly.
They left Nez' camp reluctantly, and returned to
where they had left the wagon and horses, who greeted
them with neighs of pleasure. Tom had walked so
many times around the tree to which he was tethered
that he was wound up tight to the trunk, while Jerry
had nibbled his rope loose and was having a fine time
rolling on the ground, though his thick coat, long mane,
and tail were knotted with burrs which would give Rod
a good hour's work to comb out.
"Never mind," he neighed, as the Doctor said "Look
at what a pickle Jerry is in," -" I've had my fun to-day
as well as you."
The sun disappeared exactly at the moment that the
wagon turned into the lane again, and every one waved
good-by to Nez, who watched them out of sight.
"I know what all the extra blankets and things were
put in for," said Dodo, as her father made her sit on a







FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS


blanket which he folded over her knees and drew about
her shoulders like a shawl, so that only her head peeped
out, while the others arranged theirs to match. It's
like being in a bag. How nice and warm it feels," she
said, nestling down. I didn't know just one blanket
could be so comfortable."
Just one skin robe or wool blanket is all that the
Indian hunter, or plainsman, has to stand between him
and the bitter cold night," said the Doctor; "so that
many people who are living the out-door life continu-
ally, have their blankets sewed into this shape and
lined with fur, and they are called sleeping bags."
"That is what Dodo's blanket will be long before we
get home," said Olive, as Dodo nodded and swayed on
the seat.
"No, I'm going to stay awake so as to see every-
thing," said she, suddenly stiffening up and opening
her eyes very wide.
"Look at the mist coming up out of the river and
lowlands," said Rap ; "it's just as if they had gone to
sleep and it was their breath."
We shall save three miles by following the river
lane," said the Doctor to Mr. Blake, who was driving.
By this time the light that guided them came from
the great full hunter's moon, and all that was left of
daylight was a few dull red shadows in the west.
There are lots of little beasts out to-night," said
Rap, his eyes being almost as keen in the darkness as a
cat's. Oh, Doctor, do you hear that barking down
the river bank? I'm as sure as anything that it's a
dog that has treed a Coon, for the noise keeps coming
from the same place. Can't we stop and see ? "







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Mr. Blake drew in the horses, and they all listened
for several minutes. The barking turned to a yelp
and then a baying, and almost at the same time a good-
sized beast, bigger than the largest Angora cat, with
a full tail, sprang from the bushes into the road,
stopped to listen, and then scenting the horses con-
tinued on its way through the bushes and disappeared
among the rocks, while the barking dog seemed to be
taking a zig-zag course in the opposite direction.
We have seen the Coon without leaving the wagon,"
said Mr. Blake, whipping up again. "He evidently
sprang from the tree across one of the brooks that feed
the river, and the dog has lost the scent."
"It is a very queer animal," said Olive. Father,
did you notice when it sat up to listen it looked like
a little Bear, in spite of its long tail? "
That is not strange, considering that it is a cousin
of Bears," said the Doctor.
Coons are real clever," said Rap. The one I had
could do ever so many tricks, and used its paws as if
they were hands."
What are Coons good for to eat or wear ? asked
Dodo.
Both," said the Doctor. "Their fur is soft and
prettily brindled, and if they are young, the flesh is
not unlike Rabbit."
"Mammy Bun says they used to have Coons down
where she lived, but their fur wasn't good for much."
The fur of an animal living in the South is never
as good as the fur of the same species living in the
North."
"Why is that?" asked Nat.







FOUR-FOOTED AMERICANS


Because fur is given animals to protect them from
the cold; the summer coat of a fur beast is thin, as
you see the summer coat of a horse is short, com-
pared to the thick coat that grows out at the first cold
weather. (Look at Tom and Jerry and see how woolly
they are now.) As it is never very cold in the South,
the fur animals do not need such thick, soft coats as
they do here, while in Canada and northward, where the
winter is far longer and colder than with us, the fur
is heavier yet."
There is a word I've heard hunters use for the fur
of animals, the same as plumage means the feathers of
birds, only I've forgotten it," said Rap.
"Pelage, is it not? It comes from peau (pelt),
which means furry skin a skin used for the leather
instead of fur is called a hide."
Two men stepped across the road, with what looked
like Rabbits and Grouse hanging over their shoulders,
but slunk into the shadow of some bushes when they
saw the wagon.
"Pot hunters, I know," said Mr. Blake, "snaring
and trapping, as usual."
How do you know they trapped the birds, daddy? "
said Nat.
Because they had no guns and hid when they saw
us. If you watch wood life much, my boy, you will soon
learn to see the reason why for things, and it is very
often the reason that helps you to see the thing itself."
Hoo-hoo-hoooo came a cry from over a very
dark bit of road through which they were going.
"Nat, there is one of your friends, the Great
Horned Owl," said the Doctor.




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