• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Advertising
 Preface
 Table of Contents
 Suggestions to teachers
 Introduction
 First epoch: Early discoveries...
 Second epoch: Development of the...
 Third epoch: The Revolutionary...
 Fourth epoch: development of the...
 Fifth epoch: The Civil War
 Sixth epoch: Reconstruction and...
 Questions for class use
 Historical recreations
 Declaration of Independence
 Constitution of the United...
 Table of states
 Table of the presidents
 Index
 Back Cover
 Spine






Group Title: Barnes's historical series
Title: A brief history of the United States
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086662/00001
 Material Information
Title: A brief history of the United States
Series Title: Barnes historical series
Physical Description: 332, l p. : ill., maps, ports. ; 21 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Steele, Joel Dorman, 1836-1886
Steele, Esther Baker, 1835-1911
American Book Company ( Publisher )
Publisher: American Book Company
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: c1900
 Subjects
Subject: History -- Juvenile literature -- United States   ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature -- 1900   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1900
Genre: Juvenile literature   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
United States -- Illinois -- Chicago
United States -- Ohio -- Cincinnati
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Joel Dorman Steele and Esther Baker Steele.
General Note: Imprint also notes publisher's locations in Cincinnati and Chicago.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086662
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001605534
oclc - 02885377
notis - AHM9814
lccn - 00003384

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Frontispiece
        Frontispiece
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Advertising
        Advertising
    Preface
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Suggestions to teachers
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Introduction
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 18a
    First epoch: Early discoveries and settlements
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
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    Second epoch: Development of the English colonies
        Page 45
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    Third epoch: The Revolutionary War
        Page 101
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    Fourth epoch: development of the states
        Page 149
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    Fifth epoch: The Civil War
        Page 215
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        Page 280a
    Sixth epoch: Reconstruction and passing events
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
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        Page 285
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        Page 331
        Page 332
    Questions for class use
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
    Historical recreations
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
    Declaration of Independence
        Page xxii
        Page xxiii
        Page xxiv
        Page xxv
    Constitution of the United States
        Page xxvi
        Page xxvii
        Page xxviii
        Page xxix
        Page xxx
        Page xxxi
        Page xxxii
        Page xxxiii
        Page xxxiv
        Page xxxv
        Page xxxvi
        Page xxxvii
        Page xxxviii
        Page xxxix
    Table of states
        Page xl
        Page xli
    Table of the presidents
        Page xlii
    Index
        Page xliii
        Page xliv
        Page xlv
        Page xlvi
        Page xlvii
        Page xlviii
        Page xlix
        Page l
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
    Spine
        Spine
Full Text






















































































I








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THIS BOOK

belongs co

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If thmo art borrowed by a friend,
Right u.elcome shall he be;
To read, to study. nor to tend.
But to return to me,
S-Nor hat imparred knowlledge
Doth diminish learning's store:
SBut books, I find, if often lenr.
4 Return to me no more.
4
4 -
RFAD SLOWLY PAUSE FREQUENTLY
SRITURN DULY
WITH THE CORNERS OF THE LEA.'VES
;.4 NOT TURNED DOWN
4 t*



























The Baldwin Library
m Univraigy
















7 b- 4- 1' '
~--, 2


Father and Sons for Liberty


If\


~rri-







BARNES'S HISTORICAL SERIES



A




BRIEF HISTORY



OF THE




UNITED STATES



BY
JOEL DORMAN STEELE, PH.D., FG.S.
AND
ESTHER BAKER STEELE, LIT.D.









NEW YORK :. CCININNATI *: CHICAGO
AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY





















BARNES'S HISTORY SERIES.



Primary History of the United States, o$.60
Brief History of the United States, I.oo

Brief History of France, ... I.oo
Brief History of Ancient Peoples, i.oo

Brief History of Modern Peoples, I.oo

Brief General History of the World, 1.60
Brief History of Greece, . .75
Brief History of Rome, . .. I.oo



Sent, postage paid, on receipt of price.


Copyright, 1871, 1879, i88o, and 1885, by A. S. BARNES & CO.
Copyright, 1898 and 1900, by AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY.

Br. U. S.
W. P. 30































... --



U-_ ief- ._ .


THIS work has been prepared with -
the following design, viz.: to state only
those important events in our history which every American citizen should know,
and to tell them in such a way as to arouse the pupil's interest and inspire enthu-
siasm for the study. In carrying out this idea, the author has sought to avoid all
sectional and partisan statements; to explain, from the standpoint of the Union,
those principles which, coming to an issue at different times, have been decided
by the progress of events; and, incidentally, to inspire, by the sweep of the story,
a love for our common country, and an intelligent solicitude for her destiny.
Experience has taught the value of certain general methods of teaching this
study.
1. To divide the history into Epochs, giving each a characteristic name.
2. To precede each Epoch by a map and questions in order to familiarize the
pupil with the localities of the events about which he is to read; and to follow each
Epoch with a Chronological Table and a list of Reading References for further
study.
3. To furnish copious notes containing collateral facts, minor events, sketches of
the lives of presidents and noted men, and, especially, those anecdotes of heroism
and devotion that so brighten the record of our national growth.
4. To give each paragraph a distinct title to aid the pupil in learning, and the
teacher in hearing, the lesson; and to arrange these topics in such a way as to form
a systematic analysis of the subject.









PREFACE.


6. To make the great battles easy of remembrance by associating with the
description of each the pivotal point on which its issue turned.
6. To introduce something of the philosophy of history by stating the plan of
each campaign, and the objects sought by, and the results of, important engage-
ments, thus leading pupils to appreciate the fact that events hinge upon each
other.
7. To stimulate flagging interest, and also induce a more comprehensive study
of history, by means of review questions like the Historical Recreations of this
series.
The constantly-increasing adoption of this book, since its appearance in 1871,
has shown the excellence of the plan on which it was prepared. New plates and
illustrations being now called for, the author has seized the opportunity to revise
the text carefully, and to introduce blackboard analyses, additional chapters on
civilization, and fresh material on manners and customs. It is his hope that his
fellow teachers will find the book as much more useful as it is attractive.
This work is offered to American youth in the confident belief that, as they study
the wonderful history of their native land, they will learn to prize their birthright
more highly, and treasure it more carefully. Their patriotism must be kindled
when they come to see how slowly, yet how gloriously, this tree of liberty has
grown, what storms have wrenched its boughs, what sweat of toil and blood has
moistened its roots, what eager eyes have watched every out-springing bud, what
brave hearts have defended it, loving it even unto death. A heritage thus sanc-
tified by the heroism and devotion of the fathers can not but elicit the choicest
care and tenderest love of the sons.
J. D. S.

























'""~-~ ~
,
: ~b~ I
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PAGE
INTRODUCTION ..................... ......... ... ....................... ... ................ 9
Remains of Prehistoric Peoples....................... ................ 9
The Mound Builders......... ............................................ 10
The Indians and their Characteristics.................................... 10
The Coming of the Northmen............................................. 15
The Division of American History into Six Great Epochs .............. 16
References for Reading ..................................................... 17
Blackboard Analysis of the Introduction.................................... 18


FIRST EPOCH.

EArLY DISCOVERIES AND SETTLEMENTS... ........................ ................ 1!)
The Commercial Problem of the Fifteenth Century...................... 19
Christopher Columbus and his Voyages................................... 20
Naming the New Continent................... ................... 24
The Cabots and their Discoveries .............. ...................... 25
Some Spanish Explorers................................................ 26
Some French Explorers..................................................... 30
Some English Explorers ............................................. 34
New Netherland ................ ..................... .......... 39
Settlements at the End of the Sixteenth Century.......................... 40
Sea-life in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries.......................... 41
Table of Contemporary European Sovereigns.............................. 42
Chronological Summary.............................. .................. 42
References for Reading ................... .. ..... ..................... 43
Blackboard Analysis of the First Epoch.............................. ..... 44


SECOND EPOCH.

DEVELOPIMENT OF THE COLONIES.......... ................... .... ............. 45
Settlement of the Thirteen Colonies............................. ...... 45
The Four Inter-Colonial Wars .......... .......... .............77-90










4 CONTENTS.

PAGE
Colonial Civilization....................................... .................... 91
General Condition of the Colonies...................................... 91
Manners and Customs................................ ................ 93
Education................... ............................................. 96
Table of Contemporary European Sovereigns.............................. 97
Chronological Summary.................... .... ................... 97
References for Reading ....................................................... 99
Blackboard Analysis of the Second Epoch.................................. 100


THIRD EPOCH.

THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR.................................. ...... 101
Causes of the Separation from Great Britain.............................. 101
The Seven-Years Struggle for Independence............................106-142
Condition of the Country at the Close of the War......................... 142
Adoption of Federal Constitution and Formation of Parties ............ 143
Rural Life One Hundred Years Ago ...................................... 144
Chronological Summary.................................. .............. 146
References for Reading ........................................................ 147
Blackboard Analysis of the Third Epoch.................................. 148


FOURTH EPOCH.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE STATES........................ ......................... 149
Washington's Administration................. .................... 149
Adams' Administration.................................................... 154
Jefferson's Administration....................................... 155
Madison's Administration.................... ........................ 159
Second War with Great Britain..................................... 160
Monroe's Administration............................ .............. 172
John Quincy Adams' Administration............... ............... 174
Jackson's Administration................................................... 175
Van Buren's- Administration... ............................................. 178
Harrison and Tyler's Administration ............ ..................... 180
Polk's Administration ................................. ........ 185
War with Mexico........................................................ 185
Taylor and Fillmore's Administration .................................... 191
Pierce's Administration.................................... 194
Buchanan's Administration...................................... 196
Secession of the South ....... .................................. 198
New States..................... .............. 200
C ivilization........... .................. .................. ..... ....... ..... 210
Distinctions of Dress-the Five Classes............................... 210
The Laborer ................ ...................................... 210
The Schools .................................................... 210
The Middle of the Century.......................... ............. 211
Chronological Summary...... ............................................ 211
References for Reading ....................................................... 213
Blackboard Analysis of the Fourth Epoch .............................. 214









CONTENTS. 0


FIFTH EPOCH.
PAGE
THE CIVIL WAR .................................................. ............... 215
Lincoln's Administration....................... .............................. 215
The Five-Years Struggle for National Unity........................ 216
vWhat the War Cost...................................................... 275
Assassination of the President ........................................ 275
N ew States ....................... ........ ................................... 277
Chronological Summary............................. ........................ 277
References for Reading.................................................... 279
Blackboard Analysis of the Fifth Epoch............................ .... ... 280

SIXTH EPOCH.

RECONSTRUCTION AND PASSING EVENTS .......... .... ..... ......................- 281
Johnson's Administration ..... ..................... .............. ........ 281
Grant's A dm inistration ...................................................... 287
Bayes' Administration......................... .. ...... .............. 294
Garfield and Arthur's Administration................ ....... ...... ...... 295
Cleveland's First Administration .......... ........................... ...... 297
Harrison's Administration ................................ ..... ..... 299
Cleveland's Second Administration. ....... .............................. 301
McKinley's Administration .................................................. 303
N ew States ....... ........................................................... 322
Progress in Civilization ........ .... ............. ................... 323
Blackboard Analysis of the Sixth Epoch ................................ 332

APPENDIX.

Questions for Class Use................. ................... .................
Historical Recreations ........................... .......................... xvi
Declaration of Independence................................................ xxi
Constitution of the United States, with Questions, and Notes............. xxvi
Table of States..................... ............... ........................ xl
Table of Presidents ........................ ..... ....................... xlii
Index ....................................... ........ .. ............... xliii

LIST OF MAPS.
EARLY VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES ..................................... Opposite 18, 19
DEVELOPMENT OF COLONIES ...... .....................** ... ..... 45
REVOLUTIONARY VWAR-THE COLONIES.................... ..... ... 101
REVOLUTIONARY WAR-CAMPAIGNS NORTH AND SOUTH ............ 120, 121
WAR OF 1812, AND WAR WITH MEXICO............................ 149
CAMPAIGNS IN WAR OF 1812, AND WAR wITH MEXICO.......... 160, 161
THE CIVIL W AR ............................. ...... ....... ........ 215
CAMPAIGNS OF THE CIVIL WAR...................................... 22, 223
PENINSULAR CAMPAIGN..................................... ...............*..... 236
VICINITY OF VICKSBURG .....................................*..... .............. 245
VICINITY OF CIATTANOOGA ...................................** ...................... 247
ICINITY OF GETTYSBURG ............................................... .......... 252
GRANT'S CAMPAIGN AROUND RICHOND ............................................ 261
TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNITED STATES ........... ........Opposite 281
H AWAIIAN ISLANDS ...........................*....****...* *......... 302
CUBA AND PORTO RIC0 ............................. ................. 306
UNITED STATES AND OUTLYING POSSESSIONS................. ......*...............* 317
PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.................... ........... ...........Opposite 320, 321









ILLUSTRATIONS.


PAGE
FATHER AND SONS FOR LIBERTY,
Frontispiece.
PREFACE (Illustrated Heading) ..... 1
TABLE OF CONTENTS (Illustrated
Heading) ....................... 3
INTRODUCTION (Illustrated Heading). 9
Relics of Early American Races. 11
Scene in Indian Life............. 13
Indian Hieroglyphics............ 14
Landing of Northmen ............ 15
EPOCH I. (Illustrated Heading)...... 19
Portrait of Columbus ............ 20
Tomb of Columbus..... .......... 24
Burial of Do Soto ................ 28
La Salle at the Mouth of the
Mississippi ................... 34
EPOCe II. (Illustrated Heading) .... 45
Smith Trading with Indians .... 47
The Ruins of Jamestown ........ 52
Puritans Going to Church ....... 54
Canonious Receiving Powder
and Shot ....................... 55
Morning Attack by Indians...... 58
The Charter Oak ................. 03
Dutch Trading at New York..... 06
Portrait of Penn ................. 71
Mr. Dustin Defending his Chil-
dren from the Indians......... 78
An Incident of WVashington's Re-
turn............................ 82
Quebec in Early Times ........... 88
A Scold Gagged................... 92
New England Kitchen Scene.... 94
EPocH III. (Illustrated Heading) .. 101
Retreat from Lexington ......... 107
Prayer before Bunker Hill ...... 109
Capture of Ticonderoga......... 110
Surrender of Rall................ 117
Portrait of La Fayette .......... 110
Arnold at Saratoga............... 123
In Camp at Valley Forge ........ 126
Portrait of Franklin.............. 127
Capture of Stony Point .......... 131
Portrait of Marion................ 134
Development of the Flag ......... 138
Capture of a Redoubt at York-
town ........................... 141
EPoCn IV. (Illustrated Heading) ... 149
Portraits of Washington, Hamil-
ton, and Jefferson ............ 151
Battle of Tippecanoe ............ 159
Constitution and Guerriere...... 162


PAGE
American Leaders, Rev. & 1812-
Putnam, Perry, Greene, Jones,
Montgomery, I-Iull ........... 164
Death of Lawrence............... 167
Battle of New Orleans............ 170
Portrait of Jackson ............. 176
Portrait of Taylor .............. 177
View of Salt Lake City.......... 182
IIomes of Eminent Americans.. 184
Taylor at Buena Vista .......... 186
Washing out Gold ................ 191
Portraits of Clay, Calhoun, and
Webster ....................... 192
Portrait of Lincoln............... 198
Portrait of Davis ............... 199
San Francisco Bay and City..... 207
EPOCH V. (Illustrated Heading) .... 215
Jackson at Bull Run ............ 219
Attack on Fort Donelson ........ 224
Federal Leaders Sheridan,
Foote, Grant, Farragut, Sher-
man, Porter................... 227
Monitor and Merrimac.......... 232
Confederate Leaders-Jackson,
Johnston, Lee, Longstreet,Bu-
chanan, Mitchell............... 238
Battle of Missionary Ridge...... 249
Grant Writing the Telegram.... 256
Guarding a Train ............... 257
Sheridan at Cedar Creek......... 261
Sinking the Alabama ............ 268
Sherman's March to the Sea..... 271
Death of J. E. B. Stuart......... 276
ErocH VI. (Illustrated Heading)... 281
Landing the Atlantic Cable ..... 285
Portrait of Greeley............... 290
Custer's Death .................. 293
Riot at Pittsburgh, Pa.............. 294
Portrait of Garfield ............. 296
Portrait of Cleveland ........... 298
Portrait of Harrison............. 300
Portrait of AMcKinley ........... 303
Wreck of the Maine............... 308
Portrait of Schley ................ 309
Portrait of Sampson.............. 310
Battle of Manila Bay............ 311
Portrait of Dewey................ 312
Portrait of Shafter. ............ 313
The Oregon off Santiago, July3.. 314
Portrait of Miles ................ 314
Portrait of Otis .. ................ 320
Progress of Inventions ...... 325, 326
















~ C






I I



T ^ ,





THE following method of using this work has been successfully employed by
many teachers. At the commencement of the study, let each pupil be required
to draw an outline map of North America, at least 18 x 24 inches in size. This
should contain only physical features, viz., coast-line, mountains, lakes, and rivers.
If desired, they may be marked very faintly at first, and shaded and darkened
when discovered in the progress of the history. As the pupils advance in the text,
let them mark on their maps, day by day, the places discovered, the settlements,
battles, political divisions, etc., with their dates. They will thus see the country
growing afresh under their hand and eye, and the geography and the history will
be indissolubly linked. At the close of the term, their maps will show what they
have done, and each name, with its date, will recall the history which clusters
around it.
Recitations and examinations may be conducted by having a map drawn upon
the blackboard with colored crayons, and requiring the class to fill in the names
and dates, describing the historical facts as they proceed. In turn, during review,
the pupil should be able, when a date or place is pointed out, to state the event
associated with it.
It will be noticed that the book is written on an exact plan and method of
arrangement. The topics of the epochs, chapters, sections, and paragraphs form
a full analysis; thus, in each Presidential Administration, the order of subjects
is uniform, viz.: Domestic Affairs, Foreign Affairs, and Political Parties-the sub-
sidiary topics being grouped under these heads. The teacher is therefore recom-
mended to place on the board the analysis of each Epoch, and, when possible, conduct the
recitation from that without the use of the book in the class.
Specimen Analyses are given at the close of each Epoch. These are merely
suggestions, and should be used to elicit other and more elaborate ones from the








8 SUGGESTIONS TO TEACHERS.

pupils. In these analyses may also be inserted the titles of additional material
gathered by teacher and class. Good analyses thus, incidentally, serve as pigeon-
holes for classifying as well as preserving one's knowledge.
The Reading References at the end of each Epoch contain a list of books that
will be found valuable for additional information. It is not the intention to make
the References a mere catalogue of United States Histories and biographies of
celebrated Americans, but simply to name a few works to interest a class and
furnish matter for collateral reading. Bancroft's and Hildreth's Histories, Irving's
Life of Washington, and Sparks' American Biographies are supposed to be in
every school library. They are, therefore, not referred to in these lists. The
Lives of the Presidents, the Histories of the different States, and all works of local
value are useful, and should be secured, if possible. The Magazine of American
History will be found serviceable for reference on disputed points of American
History and Biography. The recent volumes of Harper's Magazine, and the
Century abound in excellent articles on special subjects. The American Cyclo-
pedia and Thomas' Dictionary of Biography will afford material for preparing
essays. With a little effort, a poem, a prose selection, or a composition on some
historical topic may be offered by the class each day to enliven the recitation.
Formal debates, oral or written, should be held, to stimulate research, upon
such subjects as the tariff, civil service reform, treatment of the Indians, etc.
For Courses of Reading, and for information concerning the value and char-
acter of various historical works, refer to Adams' Manual of Historical Literature-
a most reliable and excellent bibliography. Hall's Methods of Teaching History
will also furnish the teacher with suggestive ideas.
The Tables of Contemporary European Sovereigns, inserted at the end of the
early Epochs, should be used to link American history to that of the old world,
in which it had its origin.
The Suggestions on page i of the appendix, about topical recitation, are com-
mended by universal experience. At each recitation, let some of the pupils write
a few of the paragraphs on their slates, on paper, or on the blackboard; after-
ward, let other pupils criticise the language, spelling, punctuation, use of capitals,
etc. Remember, however, that the chief end of class-work is to kindle an interest
in history. The reading of a beautiful poem, or the narration of a curious cir-
cumstance, a noble sentiment, or a deed of heroism, in some way connected with
an event, will arouse attention and fix the fact permanently in the mind. For
example, the third attack on Charleston (page 132), is a dry, dull statement, but
how it brightens when we read the reply of Colonel Moultrie, who was there
taken prisoner, to the offer of money and the command of a British regiment in
Jamaica, if he would desert the American cause:-"Not the fee simple of all
Jamaica would induce me to part with my integrity." The class may care little
about the former way of choosing the Vice-President; but they will be eager to
see how Adams, the federalist, and Jefferson, the republican, came to be elected
together. The inauguration of Van Buren will take on a new meaning when the
pupil is told that Van Buren, with General Jackson at his side, rode to the
Capitol in a carriage made of wood from the ship Constitution, and, as they
passed, the crowd shared, its cheers between "Old Hickory" and "Old Ironsides ".
Just so, Stedman's, "Oh, evil the black shroud of night at Chantilly", will stir
a class when reading the second Bull Run campaign; while Whittier's "Angels
of Buena Vista" will temper the patriotic ardor aroused by that bloody victory.












OF H-E _
N.. g[hIU o STATES







'...Who first
-- I ...TF. 0 c--..~ -' d
Ir" o' r THL A ._:.J: ^. L ... .









S settled Amer-
Aiica ?-To i con-
I hlt was
i f n r i" .....of "e':':' -' .-t th e the

,-- haoppcnnd, v e do iit knu-ow. Chinese
vessels, coasting along the sore according to the custom
of early voyagers, may have been driven by storms to
cross the Pacific Ocean, while the cre re ere thankful
to escape a watery grave by settling an unknown coun-
try; or, parties wandering across Bering Strait in search
of adventure, and finding on this side a pleasant land,
may have resolved to make it their home.
American Antiquities.-In various parts of the con-
tinent, are found remains of the people who occupied
this country in prehistoric times. Through the Mississippi
valley, from the Lakes to the Gulf, extends a succession
of defensive earth-works.* The largest forest trees are
It is a singular fact that banks of earth grassed over are more enduring than
any other work of man. The grassy mounds near Nineveh and Babylon have
remained unchanged for centuries. Meantime, massive buildings of stone have been
erected, have served long generations, and have crumbled to ruin.







INTRODUCTION.


often found growing upon them. The Indians have no
tradition as to the origin of these structures. They gen-
erally crown steep hills, and consist of embankments,
ditches, etc., indicating considerable acquaintance with
military science. At Newark, Ohio, a fortification exists
which covers an area more than two miles square, and
has over two miles of embankment from two to twenty
feet high.
Mounds, seemingly constructed as great altars for
religious purposes or as monuments, are also numerous.
One, opposite St. Louis, covers eight acres of ground,
and is ninety feet high. There are said to be 10,000 of
these mounds in Ohio alone.
A peculiar kind of earth-work has the outline of gi-
gantic men or animals. An embankment in Adams
County, Ohio, represents very accurately a serpent 1,000
feet long. Its body winds with graceful curves, and in
its wide-extended jaws lies a figure which the animal
seems about to swallow. In Mexico and Peru, still more
wonderful remains have been discovered. They consist
not only of defensive works, altars, and monuments,
but also of idols, temples, aqueducts, and paved roads.
The Mound Builders is the name given to the people
who erected the mounds of North America. The old pits
where the Mound Builders dug copper are still found in
the mining region of Lake Superior. They seem, also,
to have occupied Central America, and there to have
developed a high civilization. They built cities, wove
cotton, worked in gold, silver, and copper, labored in the
fields, and had regular governments.
The Indians who were found on this continent east
of the Mississippi, by the first European settlers, did not
exceed 200,000 in number. In Mexico, Peru, and the







INTRODUCTION.


Indies, however, there was an immense population. The
Indians were the successors of the Mound Builders, and


1. CLIFF-DnWELLERS OF NEW MEXICO. 2. ~CULPTUI.ED HEAD FROM YUCATAN. 3. INDIAN
VASE. 4. INCENSE BURNER. 5, 6. STONE HATCHET AND VASE FROM MEXICO. 7. FORTIFIED
ONONDAGA VILLAGE. 8. MOUNDS AT SPRING CREEK, TENNESSEE. 9. TEMPLE IN YUCATAN.

were by far their inferiors in civilization.* We know not
why the ancient race left, nor whence the Indians came.

This view was generally accepted until recently. Many now hold that all the
aboriginal inhabitants of this country were of one race; and that the agriculture,
pottery, and other arts of the Mound Builders, as well as of the Indians, came from
the superior civilization of Central America and Mexico, illustrating what is termed
" the northern drift of civilization on this continent.







INTRODUCTION.


It is supposed that the former were driven southward by
the savage tribes from the north.
Indian Characteristics.* rts and Inventions. -The
Indian has been well termed the "Red Man of the For-
est ". He built no cities, no ships, no churches, no school-
houses. He constructed only temporary bark wigwams
and canoes. He made neither roads nor bridges, but
followed foot-paths through the forest, and swam the
streams. His highest art was expended in a simple
bow and arrow.
Progress and Edueation. He made no advancement,
but each son emulated the prowess of his father in the
hunt and the fight. The hunting-ground and the battle-
field embraced every thing of real honor or value. So the
son was educated to throw the tomahawk, shoot the
arrow, and catch fish with the spear. He knew nothing
of books, paper, writing, or history.
Domestic Life.-- The Indian had neither cow, nor
beast of burden. He regarded all labor as degrading, and
fit only for women. His squaw, therefore, built his wig-
wam, cut his wood, and carried his burdens when he
journeyed. While he hunted or fished, she cleared the
land for his corn by burning down the trees, scratched the

The chief exceptions to this description of the Indians within the present limits
of the United States were the Mobilians, who lived along the South Atlantic and the
Gulf; the Iroquois Confederacy, or the Five Nations of Central New York; and the
Pueblos or Village Indians of New Mexico and Arizona. (1.) The Mobilians worshiped
the sun; built timber houses, sometimes clustered in towns and fortified with a
ditch and wall; made pottery, and cultivated corn, hemp, and flax. (2.) The Iroquois
Confederacy was styled the Long House ", because these Indians dwelt in wigwams
often 250 feet in length and 30 feet wide, and each holding 20 or 30 families. This
league formed, in fact, a republic, with a chief magistrate, a cabinet, and a congress
of the sachems of the different tribes. Fierce, blood-thirsty, and fond of conquest,
the Iroquois would probably have subdued the continent if the white man had not
come. Early travelers called them the Romans of the new world. (3.) The Pueblo
Indians lived in huge stone or adobe buildings, a single one often containing several
thousand people. They tilled the land, and dressed in cloth of their own manufacture.







INTRODUCTION.


ground with a crooked stick or dug it with a clam-shell,
and dressed skins for his clothing. She cooked his food by
dropping hot stones into a tight willow basket containing
materials for soup. The leavings of her lord's feast sufficed
for her, and the coldest place in the wigwam was for her.


o .. ; .--". --- : -
.i


; Mr- r,
.


S- -I- D


SCENE IN INDIAN LIFE.


Dispositio.--In war, the Indian was brave and alert,
but cruel and revengeful, preferring treachery and cun-
ning to open battle. At home, he was lazy, improvident,
and an inveterate gambler. He delighted in finery and
trinkets, and decked his unclean person with paint and
feathers. His grave and haughty demeanor repelled the
stranger; but he was grateful for favors, and his wigwam
always stood hospitably open to the poorest and meanest
of his tribe.
Endiucrance.--He could endure great fatigue, and in







INTRODUCTION.


his expeditions often lay without shelter in the severest
weather. It was his glory to bear the most horrible tort-
ures without a sign of suffering.
Religion.-If he had any ideas of a Supreme Being,
they were vague and degraded. His dream of a Heaven
was of happy hunting-grounds or of gay feasts, where his
dog should join in the dance. He worshiped no idols,
but peopled all nature with spirits, which dwelt not only
in birds, beasts, and reptiles, but also in lakes, rivers, and


>e 1o14












SPECIMEN OF INDIAN HIEROGLYPHICS.*

water-falls. As he believed these had power to help or
harm men, he lived in constant fear of offending them.
He apologized, therefore, to the animals he killed, and
made solemn promises to fishes that their bones should
be respected. He placed great stress on dreams, and his
camp swarmed with sorcerers and fortune-tellers.
The Indian of the Present.-Such was the Indian two
hundred years ago, and such he is to-day. He opposes
This cut represents a species of picture-writing occasionally used by the Indians.
Some Indian guides wished to inform their comrades that a company of fourteen
whites and two Indians had spent the night at that point. Nos. 9, 10 indicate the
white soldiers and their arms; No. 1 is the captain, with a sword; No. 2 the secre-







INTRODUCTION.


the encroachments of the settler, and the building of
railroads. But he can not stop the tide of immigration.
Unless he can be induced to give up his roving habits
SA.-..


...s,-.


and cultivate the soil, he is doomed to destruction. It
is to be earnestly hoped that the red man may yet be
Christianized, and taught the arts of industry and peace.
The Northmen (inhabitants of Norway and Sweden)
claim to have been the discoverers of America. Accord-
ing to their traditions, this continent was first seen about
the year 1000, by one Biorne (be ern'), who had been
tary, with the book; No. 3 the geologist, with a hammer; Nos. 4, 5, 6 are attend-
ants; Nos. 7, 8 are the guides, without hats; Nos. 11, 12 show what they ate in
camp; Nos. 13, 14, 15 indicate how many fires they made.







INTRODUCTION.


driven to sea by a tempest. Afterward, other adventurers
made successful voyages, established settlements, and bar-
tered with the natives. Snor'ri, son of one of these settlers,
is said to have been the first child born of European parents
upon our shore.* The Northmen claim to have explored
the coast as far south as Florida. How much credit is
to be given to these traditions is uncertain. Many his-
torians reject them, while others still think there are
traces of the Northmen remaining, such as the old tower
at Newport, R. I., and the singular inscriptions on the
rock at Dighton, Mass. Admitting, however, the claims
of the Northmen, the fact is barren of all results. No per-
manent settlements were made, the route hither was lost
and even the existence of the continent was forgotten.
The true history of this country begins with its dis-
covery by Columbus in 14'i-'. It naturally divides itself
into six great epochs.
First Epoch.-Early Discoveries andr Settlementes.--
This epoch extends from the discovery of America in
1492, to the settlement at Jamestown, Va., in 1607. Dur-
ing this period, various European nations were exploring
the continent and making widely scattered settlements.
Second Epoch.-Developnment of the Colonies.-This
epoch extends from the settlement at Jamestown, Va., in
1607, to the breaking out of the Revolutionary War in
1775. During this period, the scattered settlements grew
into thirteen flourishing colonies, subject to Great Britain.
Third Epoch. -Bevolutionary TWar.-This epoch ex-
tends from the breaking out of the Revolutionary War

Snorri was the founder of an illustrious family. One of his descendants is said
to have been Albert Thorwaldsen, the great Danish sculptor of the present century.
The beautiful photographs of Thor'wald sen's Day ", Night ", and The Seasons ",
which hang in so many American parlors, thus acquire a new interest by being
linked with the pioneer boy born on New England shores so many centuries ago.







INTRODUCTION.


in 1775, to the adoption of the Constitution in 1787.
During this period, the colonies threw off the govern-
ment of England and established their independence.
Fourth Epoch.-Development of the States.-This
epoch extends from the adoption of the Constitution in
1787, to the breaking out of the Civil War in 1861.
During this period, the States increased in number from
thirteen to thirty-four, and grew in population and wealth
until the United States became the most prosperous
nation in the world.
Fifth Epoch.-The Civil War.-This epoch extends
from the breaking out of the Civil War in 1861, to the
surrender of Lee's army in 1865. During this period, a
gigantic strife was carried on between the Northern and
the Southern States, the former struggling for the per-
petuation of the Union, and the latter for its division.
Sixth Epoch.-R-econstructionl arn Passin Events.--
This epoch extends from the close of the Civil War in
1865, to the present time. During this period, the
seceding States have been restored to their rights in the
Union, peace has been fully established, and many inter-
esting events have occurred.


REFERENCES FOR READING.
Beamish's Discovery of America by the Northmen.-Bradford's American Antiquities.-
Baldwin's Ancient America.-Squier and Davis' American Antiquities, and Discoveries in the
West.-Sinding's History of Scandinavia.-Catlin's North American Indians.-Thatcher's In-
dian Biography.-Stone's Life and Times of Red Jacket, and Life of Brandt.-Cooper's Leather
Stocking Tales.-Morgan's League of the Iroguois.-Schoolcrqft's Memoirs of Residence Among
the Indians, and other works by the same author.-Foster's Prehistoric Races of the United States
of America.-Bancroft's Native Races.-Lowell's Chippewa Legend (Poetry).- Whittier's Bridal
of Pennacook (Poetry).-Jones' Mound Builders of Tennessee.-Ancient Monuments in America,
harper's Magazine, vol. 21; The First Americans, The Pueblos, and Visit of the Vikings, vol.
65; also many excellent articles in vols. 66 and 67.-The Old Mill at Newport, Scribner's
Monthly, vol. 17 -The Beginning of a Nation, Century Magazine, Nov., 1882; Prehistoric Re-
mains in the Ohio Valley, and The Serpent Mound of Ohio, March and April, 1890.









BARNES' BRIEF HISTORY.


BLACKBOARD ANALYSIS.


1. Who first settled America.


2. American Antiquities.



3. The Mound Builders.


4. The Indians.











5. The Northmen.








6. Natural Divisions o0
United States History


1. Mounds.
2. Earthworks.
8. Peruvian and Mexican Ruins.


1. Their Number.


2. Indian Characteristics.


a. Arts and Inven
tions.
b. Progress and Edu.
cation.
c. Domestic Life.
T d. Disposition.
e. Endurance.
f. Religion.


3. The Indians of To-day.

1. Who were they ?
2. Story of Biorni.
3. Who was Snorri ?
4 Traces of Northmen.
5. The Results.

1. First Epoch.
2. Second Epoch.
S 3. Third Epoch.
4. Fourth Epoch.
5. Fifth Epoch.
6. Sixth Epoch.


































J"Pl~~~r ~''~ J
~ .cs
~1411







7
4).1~?\ ,-
/I
r



r?_~
(S-'J-- .r


Map to mniustlrale
EARLY VOYAGES .,o DISCOVERIES
OAF

NORTH AMERICA

-0 I'M"k -d----

(.p.,', Itht.J A 8.Bdra


Ice


I
I


r















-$ ----


A Ifl


I Geographical Knowledge
in the Fifteenth Century.-
T!i- if-"t- 'l F -f Eu.niu-pe had then
ie-- rc.:.a. About
1' l.,4 ti,-, .',...t ,-sire for geo-
.1i;, l:h !:,,._,,:. was awak-
,-,,l. Thl ."''I.-'- ,-nd the astro-
."ii..--n i-t. n tl.... -t for reckoning
'- --,titui.p,:--a.l .. :-. n-,: impulse to navi-
gation. Voyagers were no longer compelled
to creep along the shore, but began to strike out boldly
into the open sea. The art of printing had just come into
use, and books of travel were eagerly read. Marco Polo

Questions on the Geography of the First Epoch.-In the accompanying map
there are no divisions of the continent, as none existed at that time. When they are
called for in the following questions, the object is to test the pupil's knowledge.
Locate the West Indies. San Salvador, [now called Guanahani (gwah nah hah ne),
though many assert a neighboring island to be the true San Salvador]. Cuba.
Hispaniola or Hayti (ha ti). Cape Breton. Roanoke Island. Manhattan Island.
Describe the Orinoco River. Mississippi River. St. Lawrence River. James
River. Ohio River. Colorado River. Columbia River.
Whereis Labrador? Central America? Florida? Mexico? XewMexico? Cali-
fornia? Oregon? Peru?
Locate St. Augustine. Santa F6 (sahn tah fa). New York. Montreal. Quebec.
Albany. Jamestown. Port Royal. Isthmus of Darien. Cape Henry. Cape Charles.
Cape Cod. Chesapeake Bay. Hudson Bay.







EPOCH I.


and other adventurers returning from the East told won-
derful stories of the wealth of Asiatic cities.
Genoa, Florence, and Venice, commanding the commerce
of the Mediterranean, had become enriched by trade with
the East. The costly shawls, spices, and silks of Persia and
India were borne by caravans to the Red Sea, thence on
camels across the desert to the Nile, and lastly by ship over
the Mediterranean to Europe.
The great problem of the age was how to reach the East
Indies by sea, and thus give a cheaper route to these rich
products.
Columbus* conceived that
by sailing west he could reach
the East Indies. He believed
^ the earth to be round, which
was then a novel idea. He,
however, thought it much
'' smaller than it really is, and
-''' that Asia extends much far-
f their round the world to the
east than it does. Hence, he
argued that by going a few
COLeTBS. hundred leagues west, he would

Christopher Columbus was born in Genoa, Italy, about 1435. He was trained for
the sea from his childhood. Being the eldest of four children, and his father a poor
wool-comber, much care devolved upon him. It is said that at thirty his hair was
white from trouble and anxiety. His kind and loving disposition is proved by the
fact that in his poorest days he saved part of his pittance to educate his young
brothers and support his aged father.
Columbus was determined, shrewd, and intensely religious. He believed himself
to be divinely called to carry the true faith into the uttermost parts of the earth ".
Inspired by this thought, no discouragement or contumely could drive him to de-
spair. It was eighteen years from the conception to the accomplishment of his plan.
During all thigh time his life was a marvel of patience, and of brave devotion to his
one purpose. His sorrows were many; his triumph was brief. Evil men maligned
him to Ferdinand and Isabella. Disregarding their promise that he should be gov-
ernor-general over all the lands he might discover, the king and queen sent out an-


[1474.









touch the coast of Eastern Asia.* He was determined to
try this new route, but was too poor to pay for the neces-
sary ships, men, and provisions.
Columbus at the Court of Portugal. -He accordingly
laid his plan before King John of Portugal, who, being
pleased with the idea, referred it to the geographers of his
court. They pronounced it a visionary scheme. With a
lurking feeling, however, that there might be truth in it, the
king had the meanness to dispatch a vessel secretly to test
the matter. The pilot had the charts of Columbus, but
lacked his courage. After sailing westward from Cape Verde
Islands for a few days, and seeing nothing but a wide waste
of wildly tossing waves, he returned, ridiculing the idea.
Columnbus at the Court of Spain.--Columbus, disheart-
ened by this treachery, betook himself to Spain. During
seven long years, he importuned King Ferdinand for a reply.
All this while, he was regarded as a visionary fellow, and
when he passed along the streets, even the children pointed
to their foreheads and smiled. At last, the learned council
declared the plan too foolish for further attention Turn-
ing away sadly, Columbus determined to go to France.

other governor, and by his order Columbus was taken home in chains No
wonder that the whole nation was shocked at such an indignity to such a man. It
is sad to know that although Ferdinand and Isabella endeavored to soothe his
wounded spirit by many attentions, they never restored to him his lawful rights.
From fluent promises they passed at last to total neglect, and Columbus died a
grieved and disappointed old man. At his request, his chains were buried with
him, a touching memorial of Spanish ingratitude.
Several facts served to strengthen the faith of Columbus in the correctness of
his theory. The Azores and the Madeira, Canary, and Cape Verde islands being the
most westerly lands then known, were the outposts of geographical knowledge.
There had been washed on their shores by westerly winds, pieces of wood curiously
carved, trees, and seeds of unknown species, and especially the bodies of two men of
strange color and visage.
t "It is absurd", said those wise men. "Who is so foolish as to believe that there
are people on the other side of the world, walking with their heels upward, and their
heads hanging down? And then, how can a ship get there? The torrid zone,
through which they must pass, is a region of fire, where the very waves boil. And


1482.]


COLUMBUS.






EPOCH I.


Columbus Successful.-His friends at the Spanish court,
at this juncture, laid the matter before Queen Isabella, and
she was finally won to his cause. The king remained
indifferent and pleaded the want of funds. The queen in
her earnestness exclaimed: "I pledge my jewels to raise
the money." But her sacrifice was not required. St.
Angel, treasurer of Aragon, advanced most of the money,
and the friends of Columbus the remainder. Columbus
had succeeded at last, after eighteen years of waiting.
Coblumbus' Equipnent.-Though armed with the king's
authority, Columbus obtained vessels and sailors with the
greatest difficulty. The boldest seamen shru -1: fi.. ,, -iuch a
desperate undertaking. At last, three small vessels were
manned; the Pinta (pin'ta), Santa Maria (ma r'a), and
Nina (nYin'y). They sailed from Palos, Spain, Aug. 3, 1492.
Incidents of the Voyage.-When the ships struck out
boldly westward on the untried sea, and the sailors saw the
last trace of land fade from their sight, many, even of the
bravest, burst into tears. As they proceeded, their hearts
were wrung by superstitious fears. To their dismay, the com-
pass no longer pointed directly north, and they believed that
they were coming into a region where the very laws of nature
were changed. They came into the track of the trade-wind,
which wafted them steadily westward. This, they were sure,
was carrying them to destruction, for how could they ever re-
turn against it? Signs of land, such as flocks of birds and
fresh, green plants, were often seen, and the clouds near
the horizon assumed the look of land, but they disappeared,
and only the broad ocean spread out before them as they
advanced. The sailors, so often deceived, lost heart, and in-

even if a ship could perchance get around there safely, how could it ever get back?
Can a ship sail up hill?" All of which sounds very strange to us now, when hun-
dreds of travelers make every year the entire circuit of the globe.


[1492.






COLUMBUS.


sisted upon returning home. Columbus, with wonderful tact
and patience, explained all these appearances. But the more
he argued, the louder became their murmurs. At last, they
secretly determined to throw him overboard. Although he
knew their feelings, he did not waver, but declared that he
would proceed till the enterprise was accomplished.
Soon, signs of land silenced their murmurs. A staff artifi-
cially carved, and a branch of thorn with berries floated near.
All was now eager expectation. In the evening, Columbus
beheld a light rising and "`:,1.11 in the distance, as of a torch
borne by one walking. Later at night, the joyful cry of
"Land!" rang out from the Pinta. In the morning, the
shore, green with tropical verdure, lay smiling before them.
Tihe Landing.-Columbus, dressed in a splendid military
suit of scarlet embroidered with gold, and followed by a reti-
nue of his officers and men bearing banners, stepped upon the
new world, Friday, Oct. 12, 1492. He threw himself upon
his knees, kissed the earth, and with tears of joy gave thanks
to God. He then formally planted the cross and took posses-
sion of the country in the name of Ferdinand and Isabella.
The wondering natives, who crowded the shore, gazed on
the spectacle with awe. They supposed the ships to be huge
white-winged birds, and the Spaniards-to have come from
heaven. How sadly and how soon these simple people were
undeceived !
Further Discoveries.-Columbus found the land to be an
island, which he named San Salvador. He supposed that he
had reached the islands lying off the eastern coast of India,
and he therefore called the dark-hued natives, Indians.
Careful inquiries were also made concerning the rich prod-
ucts of the East, such as spices, precious stones, and espe-
cially gold. But the simple people had only a few golden
ornaments. These they readily bartered for small bells.


1492.






EPOCH I.


Cuba, Hayti, and other islands were discovered and visited
in the vain hope of securing Oriental treasures. Columbus
even sent a deputation into the interior of Cuba, to a famous
chief, supposing him to be the great king of Tartary !
At last, urged by his crew, he relinquished the search
and turned his vessels homeward.
His Reception, on his return, was flattering in the ex-
treme. The whole nation took a holiday. His appearance
was hailed with shouts and the ringing of bells. The king
and queen were dazzled by their new and sudden acquisi-
tion. As Columbus told them of the beautiful land he had
discovered, its brilliant birds, its tropical forests, its delightful
climate, and above all, its natives waiting to be converted
to the Christian faith, they sunk upon their knees, and
gave God thanks for such a signal triumph.


\( ~ c :'






ry1 I >I


S



TOME OF COLIOMfES AT HAVAMA .*


Subsequent Toyages.-Colum-
bus afterward made three voy-
ages. In 1498, he discovered
the mainland, near the Orinoco
River. He never, however, lost
the delusion that it was the
eastern coast of Asia, and died
ignorant of the grandeur of his
discovery.
How the Continent was
named.-Americus Vesputius
(A mer'"Y eUs v6s pu'shi ns), a
friend of Columbus, accompa-
nied a subsequent expedition to


the new world. A German named Waldsee-Miiller published
The body of Columbus was buried at Valladolid. It was thence transported, in
1513, to the Carthusian Monastery of Seville, where a monument was erected by Fer-
dinand bearing the famous inscription-" To Castile and Leon, Colon gave a new
world." In 1536, his body was removed to the city of Saint Domingo, Hayti. But, in


[1493.







THE CABOTS.


a spirited account of this mariner's adventures, and sug-
gested that the country should be called America. This
work, being the first description of the new world, was very
popular, and the name was soon adopted by geographers.
John Cab' ot, a navigator of Bristol, England, by studying
his charts and globes, decided that since the degrees of longi-
tude diminish in length as they approach the pole, the short-
est route to India must be by sailing north-west instead of
west, as Columbus had done. He easily obtained authority
from King Henry VII., to make the attempt. After a pros-
perous voyage, he came in sight of a sterile region, prob-
ably Labrador,* and sailed along the coast for many
leagues. This was in 1497, FOURTEEN MONTHS BEFORE
COLUMBUS DISCOVERED THE CONTINENT. Cabot supposed that
he had reached the territory of the Great Cham," king
of Tartary. Nevertheless, he landed, planted a banner,
and took possession in the name of the king of England.
On his return home, he was received with much honor,
was dressed in silk, and styled the Great Admiral."
Sebastian Cabot continued his father's discoveries.
During the same year (p. 24) in which Columbus reached
the shore of South America, and Vasco da Gama found
the sea-route to India (p. 41), Sebastian, a youth of twenty-
one, discovered Newfoundland ana coasted as far south as
1796, the remains, as was supposed, were taken to Havana with imposing ceremo-
nies. The tomb in the Cathedral is inscribed in Spanish:
0, rest thou, image of the great Colon,
Thousand centuries remain, guarded in the urn,
And in the remembrance of our nation."
In 1877, however, while excavating near the Cathedral in Saint Domingo, the vault
was opened and a leaden coffin found containing human bones, and inscribed in
Spanish-"Illustrious and renowned man, Christopher Columbus". It is therefore
thought that the body carried to Havana was not that of the great admiral.
Very little is definitely known of John Cabot, and even the time and place of
his birth and death are matters of conjecture. Sebastian went with his father on
the first voyage, and some give him the credit of all that is attributed above to John
Cabot.


1499.]







EPOCH I.


Cape Cod. As he found neither the way to India, nor
gold, precious stones, and spices, his expedition was consid-
ered a failure. Yet, by his discoveries, the English acquired
a title to a vast territory in the new world. Though he
gave to E ._1. i.1 a continent, no one knows his burial-place.
We shall now follow the principal explorations made
within the limits of the future United States, by the
SPANISH, FRENCH, ENGLISH, and DUTCH. The Spanish ex-
plored mainly the southern portion of North America; the
French, the northern; and the English, the middle portion
along the coast.


SPANISH EXPLORATIONS.

Feeling in Spain.--America, at this time, was to the
Spaniard a land of vague, but magnificent promise, where the
simple natives wore unconsciously the costliest gems, and the
sands of the rivers sparkled with gold. Every returning ship
brought fresh news to quicken the pulse of Spanish enthu-
siasm. Now, Cortez had taken Mexico, and reveled in the
wealth of the Montezumas; now,Pizarro had conquered Peru,
and captured the riches of the Incas; now, Magellan, sailing
through the strait which bears his name, had crossed the
Pacific, and his vessel returning home by the Cape of Good
Hope, had circumnavigated the globe. Men of the highest
rank and culture, warriors, adventurers, all flocked to the
new world. Soon, Cuba, Iispaniola, Porto Rico, and Ja-
maica were settled, and ruled by Spanish governors.
Among the Spanish explorers of the sixteenth century we
notice the following:
Ponce de Leon (pon'tha da la on') was a gallant soldier,
but an old man, and in disgrace. He coveted the glory of
conquest to restore his tarnished reputation, and, besides, he


[1498.







SPANISH EXPLORATIONS.


had heard of a magical fountain in this fairy land, where one
might bathe and be young again. Accordingly, he equipped
an expedition, and sailed in search of this fabled treasure.
On Easter Sunday (Pascua Florida, in Spanish), 1512,* he
came in sight of a land gay with spring flowers. In honor of
the day, he called it Florida. He sailed along the coast, and
landed here and there, but returned home at last, an old
man still, having found neither youth nor glory.
Bal b6 a crossed the Isthmus of Darien the next year, and
from the summit of the Andes beheld a wide expanse of the
Pacific Ocean. Wading into its waters with his naked sword
in one hand, and the banner of Castile in the other, he sol-
emnly declared that the ocean, and all the shores which it
might touch, belonged to the crown of Spain forever.
De Narvaez (nar va'6th) received a grant of Florida,
and (1528) with 300 men attempted its conquest. Striking
into the interior, they wandered about, lured on by the hope
of finding gold. Wading through swamps, crossing deep
rivers by swimming and by rafts, fighting the lurking Indians
who incessantly harassed their path, and nearly perishing
with hunger, they reached at last the Gulf of Mexico.
Hastily constructing some crazy boats, they put to sea.
After six weeks of peril and suffering, they were shipwrecked,
and De Narvaez was lost. Eight years afterward, four per-
sons-the only survivors of this ill-fated expedition-reached
the Spanish settlements on the Pacific coast.
Ferdinand de Soto, undismayed by these failures, under-
took anew the conquest of Florida. He set out with 600
choice men, amid the fluttering of banners, the flourish of

Eight years afterward, De Ayllon (da ile yon') made a kidnapping expedition to
what is now South Carolina. Desiring to obtain laborers for the mines a.nd planta-
tions in Hayti, he invited some of the natives on board his vessels, and, when they were
all below, suddenly closed the hatches and set sail. The speculation did not, how-
ever, turn out profitably. One vessel sunk with all on board, and many of his cap-


1512.]







EPOCH I.


trumpets, and the gleaming of helmet and lance. For month
after month, this procession of cavaliers, priests, soldiers, and
Indian captives strolled through the wilderness, wherever
they thought gold might be found. They traversed what is
now Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. In the third year










W- I










BURIAL OF DE SOTO.

of their wanderings (1541), they emerged upon the bank of
the Mississippi. After another year of fruitless explora-
tions, De Soto died. At the dead of night, his followers
sunk his body in the river, and the sullen waters buried his
hopes and his ambition. "He had crossed a large part of
the continent," says Bancroft, "and found nothing so re-
markable as his burial-place." De Soto had been the soul
of the company. When he died, the other adventurers were
tives, preferring starvation to slavery, died on the voyage. History tells us that in
1525, when De Ayllon went back with the intention of settling the country, the
Indians practiced upon him the lesson of cruelty he had taught them. His men
were lured into the interior. Their entertainers, falling upon them at night, slew
the larger part, and De Ayllon was only too glad to escape with his life.


[1539.







SPANISH EXPLORATIONS.


anxious only to get home in safety. They constructed
boats and descended the river, little over half of this gallant
array finally reaching the settlements in Mexico.
Menendez (ma nen' dcth), wiser than his predecessors, on
landing (1565), forthwith laid the foundations of a colony.
In honor of the day, he named it St. Augustine. THIS IS THE
OLDEST TOWN IN THE UNITED STATES.*
Explorations on the Pacific.- California, in the six-
teenth century, was a general name applied to all the region
north-west of Mexico. It is said to have originated in an old
Spanish romance very popular in the time of Cortez, in
which appeared a queen whose magnificent country bore
this name. The Mexicans told the Spaniards that most of
their gold and precious stones came from a country far to
the north-west. Cortez, therefore, turned his attention in
that direction and sent out several expeditions to explore
the Californias. All these adventurers returned empty-
handed from the very region where, three centuries after-
ward, the world was startled by the finding of an El Do ra'do
such as would have satisfied the wildest dreams of Cortez
and his credulous followers.
Cabrillo (ka brel'yo) made the first voyage along what is
now the California coast (15 4 2); he died in San Diego harbor,
but his pilot went north past the present limits of Oregon.
.Jew Mexico was explored and named by Espejo (6s pa' ho)
who (1582) founded Santa Fe, which is the second oldest
town in the United States. This was seventeen years after
the settlement of St. Augustine.
Extent of the Spanish Possessions. -Spain, at the close
of the sixteenth century, held possession not only of the
Many Spanish remains still exist. Among these is Fort Marion, once San Marco,
which was founded in 1565 and finished in 1755. It is built of coquina (ko ke'na)
-a curious stone composed of small shells.
t The conquests of the new world enriched Spain, which became the wealthiest








EPOCH I.


West Indies, but of Yucatan, Mexico, and Florida.* The
Spanish explorers had traversed a large portion of the present
Southern States, and of the Pacific coast. All this vast
territory they claimed by the rights of discovery and pos-
session.



FRENCH EXPLORATIONS.

The French were .- to share in the profits which Spain
was i' *.i i,. in the new world. Within seven years after
the discovery of the continent, the fisheries of Newfound-
land were frequented by their mariners.t
Verrazani (za'ni), a Florentine, was the first navi-
gator sent by the French king to find the new way to the
Indies. Sailing westward from Madeira (1524), he reached
land near the present harbor of Wilmington. He supposed
this had never been seen by Europeans, although we know
that Cabot had discovered it nearly thirty years before. He
coasted along the shores of Carolina and New Jersey, entered
the harbors of New York and N.--;'port, and returned with
a glowing description of the lands he had found. He named
the country New France.
Cartier (kar tya') ascended the River St. Lawrence
(1535) to the Indian village of Hochelaga (h6 she la'ca), the
present site of Montreal. The town was pleasantly situated

and most powerful country in Europe. This made other nations all the more anxious
to find the western passage to India. The routes by the Cape of Good Hope and by
the Strait of Magellan were long and dangerous. To discover the shorter north
western route now became the great wish of all maritime nations, and has been
anxiously sought down to the present time.
A writer of that time locates Quebec in Florida; indeed, the Spaniards applied
the name, Florida, to all North America, as far as Canada and Newfoundland.
t Cape Breton (brit un) was named by the fishermen in remembrance of the:r
home in Brittany, France.
t The name, St. Lawrence, was that of the day on which Cartier entered the gulf


[1600.







FRENCH EXPLORATIONS.


at the foot of a lofty hill, which Cartier climbed. Stirred
by the magnificent prospect, he named it Mont Real
amongg ra al'), Regal Mountain.
John Ribaut (re bo') led the first expedition (15 6 2) under
the auspices of Coligny (ko len ye').t The company landed at
Port Royal, S. C. So captivated were they, that when volun-
teers were called for to hold the .. f. F rance, so many
came forward with such a good will a-nd joly courage ", wrote
Ribaut, "as we had much to do to stay their importunitie ".
They erected a fort, which they named Carolina in honor of
Charles IX., King of France. The fleet departed, and this
little band of thirty were left alone on the continent. From
the North Pole to Mexico, they were the only civilized men.
Food became scarce. Ti,..- tired of the eternal solitude of
the wilderness, and finally built a rude ship, and put to sea.
Here a storm shattered their vessel. Famine overtook them,
and, in their extremity, they killed and ate one of their
number. A vessel at last hove in sight, and took them on
board, only to carry them captives to England.1 Thus per-
ished the colony, but the name still survives.
Laudonniere (1o d6'ne 6r), two years after, built a fort, also
called Carolina, on the St. John's River. Soon the colonists

Jean Ribaut, as his name is given in Coligny's MS. and in his own journal.
t Coligny was an admiral of France, and a leader of the Huguenots (ht' ge niz),
as the Protestants were then called. He had conceived a plan for founding an
empire in America. This would furnish an asylum for his Huguenot friends, and
at the same time advance the glory of the French. Thus religion and patriotism
combined to induce him to send out colonists to the new world.
$ The most feeble were landed in France. It is said that Queen Elizabeth, while
conversing with those sent to England, first thought of colonizing the new world.
The history of this colony records an amusing story concerning the long life of
the natives. A party visited a chief in the midst of the wilderness, who gravely
assured them that he was the father of five generations, and had lived 250 years.
Opposite him, in the same hut, sat his father, a mere skeleton, whose age was so
great that the good man had lost his sight, and could speak one only word but with
exceeding great paine ". The credulous Frenchmen gazed with awe on this wonder-
ful pair, and congratulated themselves on having come to such a land,-where cer.
tainly there would be no need of Ponce de Leon's fabled fountain.


1535.]







EPOCH I.


were reduced to the verge of starvation.* They were on the
point of leaving, when they were reinforced by Ribaut.
The French now seemed fairly fixed on the coast of Florida.
The Spaniards, however, claimed the country. Menendez,
about this time, had made a settlement in St. Augustine.
Leading an expedition northward through the wilderness,
in the midst of a fearful tempest, he attacked Fort Carolina
and massacred almost the entire population.
Champlain (sharn plan'), at the beginning of the seven-
teenth century, crossed the Atlantic in two pigmy barks-
one of twelve, the other of fifteen tons-and ascended the
St. Lawrence on an exploring tour. At Hochelaga all was
changed. The Indian town had vanished, and not a trace
remained of the savage population which Cartier saw there
seventy years before.t Champlain was captivated by the
charms of the new world, and longed to plant a French
empire and the Catholic faith amid its savage wilds.
De Monts (mong) received a grant of all the territory be-
tween the fortieth and forty-sixth parallels of latitude.:t This
tract was termed A ca'di a, a name afterward confined to New
Brunswick and the adjacent islands, and now to Nova
Scotia. With Champlain, he founded Port Royal, N. S., in
1605, THE FIRST ATTEMPT TO FOUND AN AGRICULTURAL COLONY
IN AMERICA. It was three years before a cabin was built in
Canada, and two before the James River was discovered.
Champlain returned in 1608, and established a trading
Their sufferings were horrible. Weak and emaciated, they fed themselves with
roots, sorrel, pounded fish-bones, and even roasted snakes. "Oftentimes," says
LaudonniBre, our poor soldiers were constrained to give away the very shirts from
their backs to get one fish. If at any time they shewed unto the savages the exces-
sive price which they tooke, these villaines would answer them roughly: 'If thou
make so great account of thy merchandise, eat it, and we will eat our fish'; then fell
they out a laughing, and mocked us with open throat."
t This fact illustrates the frequent and rapid changes which took place among
the aboriginal tribes.
$ Between the sites of Philadelphia and Montreal.


[1564.







FRENCH EXPLOIATIONS,


post at Quebec. THIS WAS THE FIRST PERMANENT FRENCH
SETTLEMENT IN CANADA. The next summer, in his eager
desire to explore the country, he joined a war party of the
Hurons against the Iroquois, or Five Nations of Central New
York.* On this journey he discovered the beautiful lake
that bears his name. Amid discouragements which would
have overwhelmed a less determined spirit, Champlain
firmly established the authority of France on the banks of
the St. Lawrence. The Father of New France ", as he has
been termed, reposes in the soil he won to civilization.
The Jesuit Missionaries.-The explorers of the Missis-
sippi valley were mostly Jesuit priests. The French names
which they gave, still linger throughout that region. Their
hope was to convert the Indians to the Christian faith. They
pushed their way through the forest with unflagging energy.
They crept along the northern shore of Lake Ontario. They
traversed the Great Lakes. In 16 6 8, they founded the mis-
sion of St. Mary, the oldest European settlement in Michigan.
Many of them were murdered by the savages; some were
scalped; some were burned in rosin-fire; some scalded with
boiling water. Yet as soon as one fell out of the ranks, an-
other sprung forward to fill the post. We shall name but
two of these patient, indefatigable pioneers of New France.
Father JIMarquette (mar ket'), hearing from some wander-
ing Indians of a great river which they termed the Father
of Waters", determined to visit it. He floated in a birch-
bark canoe down the Wisconsin to the Mississippi (1673),
and thence to the mouth of the Arkansas (ar'k6n saw).f

The interference of Champlain with the Indians secured the inveterate hostility
of the Iroquois. Not long after, they seized the missionaries who came among them,
tortured and put them to death. This cut off any further explorations toward the
south. The French, therefore, turned their attention toward the west. The Iro-
quois afterward made an alliance with the English (see p. 77)
t Soon after, while on another expedition, he went ashore for the purpose of quiet








EPOCH I.


XIV., King of France.
Results of French Enterprise.-Before the close of the
seventeenth century, the French had explored the Great
Lakes, the Fox, Maumee (mamee'), Wabash (wa' lash),
Wisconsin, and Illinois rivers, and the M\;- -'- 1ipi from the
Falls of St. Anthony to the Gulf. They had traversed a
vast region extending from Newfoundland to Texas; and
devotion. After waiting long for his return, his men, seeking him, found that he
had died while at prayer. He was buried near the mouth of the Marquette. Years
after, when the tempest raged, and the Indian was tossing on the angry waves, he
would seek to still the storm by invoking the aid of the pious Marquette.
As we shall see hereafter, the English at this time clung to a narrow strip along
the Atlantic coast, but their colonies contained 200,000 inhabitants.


[1682.







ENGLISH EXPLORATIONS.


planted, here and there in the wilderness, rude settlements-
the beginnings of civilization. In 1688, New France pos-
sessed a population of 11,000.


ENGLISH EXPLORATIONS.

We have seen how the Cabots, sailing under an English
flag, discovered the American continent, exploring its coast
from Labrador to Albemarle Sound. Though the English
claimed the northern part of the continent by right of this
discovery, yet during the sixteenth century they paid little
attention to it. At the close of that period, however, mari-
time enterprise was awakened, and British sailors cruised on
every sea. Like the other navigators of the day, they were
eager to discover the western passage to Asia.
Frobisher (fr6b'ish er) made the first of these attempts
to go north of America to Asia -Cabot's plan repeated. He
pushed through unknown waters, threading his perilous
way among icebergs, until (1576) he entered Baffin Bay.
Here he heaped a pile of stones, declared the country an
appendage of the British crown, and returned home,*
Sir Francis Drake was a famous sailor. In one of his
expeditions on the Isthmus of Panama, he climbed to
the top of a lofty tree, whence he saw the Pacific Ocean.
Looking out on its broad expanse, he resolved to "sail
an English ship on those seas." Returning to England,
he equipped a squadron. He sailed through the Strait of
Magellan, coasting along the Pacific shore to the south-
ern part of Oregon. Having refitted his ship, probably
One of the sailors brought back a stone which was thought to contain gold. A
fleet of fifteen vessels was forthwith equipped for this new El Dorado. The north-
west passage to Cathay was forgotten. After innumerable perils incident to Arctic
regions, the ships were loaded with the precious ore and returned. Unfortunately,
history neglects to tell us what became of the cargo I


1576.]








EPOCH I.


[1579-'80.


in Bod6ga Bay (1579), he sailed westward, and returned
home by way of the Cape of Good Hope.*
Sir Humphrey Gilbert was not a sailor, but he had studied
the accounts of American discoveries and concluded that.
instead of random expeditions after gold and spices, com-
panies should be sent out to form permanent settlements.
His attempts to colonize the new world, however, ended
fatally. Sailing home in a bark of only ten-tons burden, in
the midst of a f. fi ii storm the light of his little vessel sud-
denly disappeared. Neither ship nor crew was ever seen
again.
Sir Walter Raleight (raw'l), a half-brother of Gilbert,
adopted his views of American colonization. Being a great
favorite with Queen Elizabeth, he easily obtained from her a
patent of an extensive territory, which was named Virginia
in honor of Elizabeth, the Virgin Queen.
Raleid'h's first attempt to plant a colony was on Roanoke
Island. The settlers made no endeavor to cultivate the soil,
but spent their time in hunting for gold and pearls.: At

He was thus the first Englishman who explored the Pacific coast, and the second
European who circumnavigated the globe.
t Raleigh was not only a man of dauntless courage, but he also added to a hand-
some person much learning and many accomplishments. Meeting Queen Elizabeth
one day while she was walking, he spread his mantle over a wet place in her path.
She was so pleased with his gallantry that she admitted him to court, and he con-
tinued a favorite during her entire life-time. Conversing with her once upon the
singular properties of tobacco, the new Indian weed which was coming into use, he
assured her that he could tell the exact weight of smoke in any quantity consumed.
The incredulous queen dared him to a wager. Accepting it, Raleigh weighed his
tobacco, smoked it, and then carefully weighing the ashes, stated the difference.
Paying the bet, Elizabeth remarked that she "had before heard of turning gold into
smoke, but he was the first who had turned smoke into gold ". This incident illus-
trates the friendly relations between Raleigh and the queen. After her death, he
was accused by James I. of treason, was imprisoned for many years, and finally,
executed. On the scaffold, he asked for the ax, and feeling the edge, observed, with
a smile, "This is a sharp medicine, but a sound cure for all diseases." Then com-
posedly laying his head on the block, and moving his lips as in prayer, he gave the
fatal signal.
$ They were told that the Roanoke River had its head-waters in golden rocks, by






ENGLISH EXPLORATIONS.


last, they were nearly starved, when Drake, happening to
stop there on one of his exploring tours, took pity on them
and carried them home. (See page 42.)
They had lived long enough in America to learn the use
of tobacco from the Indians. This they introduced into
England. The custom of "drinking tobacco ", as it was
called, soon became the fashion.*
Ralei~h's Second 4Attempt.-Raleigh,undiscouraged by this
failure, still clung to his colonizing scheme. The next time,
he sent out families, instead of single men. John White
was appointed governor of the City of Raleigh, which they
were to found on Chesapeake Bay. A granddaughter of
Gov. White, born soon after they reached Roanoke Island,
was the first English child born in America. The governor,
on returning to England to secure supplies, found the public
attention absorbed by the threatened attack of the Spanish
Armada. It was three years before he was able to come back.
Meanwhile, his family, and the colony he had left alone in
the wilderness, had perished. How, we do not know. The im-
agination can only picture what history has failed to record.
Raleigh had now spent about $200,000, a great sum for
that day, on this American colony; and, disheartened, trans-
ferred his patent to other parties (1589).
Trading Voyages.-Fortunately for American interests,
trading ventures were more profitable than colonizing ones.
English vessels frequented the Banks of Newfoundland, and,
probably, occasionally visited Virginia. Gos'nold,f a master

the Pacific Ocean, and that the walls of a great city near its fountain were thickly
studded with pearls.
An amusing story is told of Raleigh while he was learning to smoke. One morn-
ing his servant on entering the room with a cup of ale for his master, saw a cloud
of smoke issuing from Sir Walter's mouth. Frantically dashing the liquor in his
face, he rushed down stairs imploring help, lest his master should be burned to ashes 1
t The English ships were at that time accustomed to steer southward along the
coast of Spain, Portugal, and Africa, as far as the Canary Islands; then they followed


1586.]









of a small bark, discovered (1602) and named Cape Cod and
some of the islands about Martha's Vineyard. Loading his
vessel with sassafras-root, then highly esteemed as a medi-
cine, he returned home to publish the most favorable reports
of the region he had visited. Some British merchants ac-
cordingly sent out the next year a couple of vessels under
Captain Pring. He discovered several harbors in Maine, and
brought back his ships loaded with furs and sassafras.
As the result of these various explorations, many felt an
earnest desire to colonize the new world. James I. accord-
ingly granted the vast territory of Virginia, as it was called,
to two companies, the London and the Plymouth.
The London Company, whose principal men resided at
London, had the tract between the thirty-fourth and thirty-
eighth degrees of latitude. This was called South Virginia.
They sent out a colony in 1007 under Captain Newport.
He made at Jamestown* THE FIRST PERMANENT ENGLISH
SETTLEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES.
The Plymouth Company, whose principal men resided
at Plymouth, had the tract between the forty-first and forty-
fifth degrees of latitude. This was called North Virginia.
The Charter granted to these companies was the first
under which English colonies were planted in the United
States. It is therefore worthy of careful study. It contained
no idea of self-government. The people were not to have the
election of an officer. The king was to appoint a council,
the track of Columbus to the West India Islands, and thence past the coast of Florida
northward to the point they wished to reach. Navigators knew this was a round-
about way, but they were afraid to try the northern route straight across the
Atlantic. Gosnold made the voyage directly from England to Massachusetts, thus
shortening the route 3,000 miles. This gave a great impulse to colonization, since it
was in effect bringing America 3,000 miles nearer England.
The river was called James, and the town Jamestown, in honor of the King of
England. The headlands received the names of Cape Henry and Cape Charles from
the king's sons, and the deep water for anchorage which put the emigrants in good
comfort", gave the name Point Comfort.


EPOCH I.


[1602.







DUTCH EXPLORATIONS.


to reside in London and have general control of all the col-
onies; and also a council, to reside in each colony and have
control of its local affairs. The Church of England was the
established religion. Moreover, for five years, all the pro-
ceeds of the colonial industry and commerce were to be ap-
plied to a common fund, no person being allowed the fruit
of his individual labor.


DUTCH EXPLORATIONS.

During all this time, the Dutch manifested no interest in
the new world. In the beginning of the seventeenth cen-
tury, however, Captain Henry Hudson, an English navi-
gator in the Dutch service, entered the harbor of New York.
Hoping to reach the Pacific Ocean, he afterward ascended
the noble river which bears his name (1609).*
On this discovery, the Dutch based their claim to the
region extending from the Delaware River to Cape Cod.
They gave to it the name of New Netherland.


EXTENT OF THESE EXPLORATIONS.

1. The Spanish confined their explorations to the West
Indies and the adjacent mainland, and in the United States
made settlements only in Florida and New Mexico.
2. The French claimed the whole of New France and
made their first settlements in Acadia and Canada.
3. The English explored the Atlantic coast at various
points, and claimed this vast territory, which they termed
Virginia, having made their first settlement at Jamestown.t

It is now believed that Verrazani (p. 30) was the true discoverer of this stream,
over three quarters of a century before.
t After this time, the English is the only nation that directly influences the his-


1606.]







EPOCH I.


[1613.


4. The Dutch laid claim to New Netherland, but made
no settlement till 1613.
The Rival Claims.-These four claims overlapped t one
another and necessarily produced much confusion. While
the first few settlements were separated by hundreds of miles
of savage forests, this was of little account. But as the set-
tlements increased, the rival claims became a source of con-
stant strife and were decided principally by the sword.
The Permanent Settlements.-At the close of the six-
teenth century, neither the English nor the French had
planted a single stable colony, and the only permanent
settlements, north of the Gulf of Mexico, were those of
the Spaniards at St. Augustine and Santa Fe. In the
beginning of the seventeenth century, permanent settle-
ments multiplied. They were made, as we have seen, by
The FRENCH at Port Royal, N. S., in 1605;
The ENGLISH at Jamestown, in 1607:
The FRENCH at Quebec, in 1608;
The DUTCH at New York, in 1613 ;t
The ENGLISH at Plymouth, in 1620.

tory of the United States. The country was settled mainly by emigrants from
Great Britain, and in the next epoch all the colonies became dependencies of
that empire.
t It is noticeable that the English grants extended westward to the Pacific Ocean;
the French, southward from the St. Lawrence to the Gulf; and the Spanish, north-
ward to the Arctic Ocean. None of the European nations had any idea -f the im-
mense territory it was donating.
t Here lay the shaggy continent from Florida to the Pole, outstretched in savage
slumber along the sea. On the bank of the James River was a nest of woe-begone
Englishmen, a handful of fur-traders at the mouth ot the Hudson, and a few shiver-
ing Frenchmen among the snow-drifts of Acadia; while, deep within the wild
monotony of desolation, on the icy verge of the great northern river, Champlain
upheld the banner of France over the rock of Quebec. These were the advance
guard of civilization, the messengers of promise to a desert continent. Yet,
not content with inevitable woes, they were rent by petty jealousies and miser-
able quarrels, while each little fragment of rival nationalities, just able to keep
up its own wretched existence on a few square miles, begrudged to all the rest
the smallest share in a domain which all the nations of Europe could not have
sufficed to fill.-Parkman.









1789.] EARLY NAVIGATORS. 41


SEA-LIFE IN THE FIFTEENTH AND SIXTEENTH
CENTURIES.

AT the opening of modern history, the known world comprised only Europe, south-
western Asia, and a strip of northern Africa. The southernmost point in Africa then
discovered was Cape Non (Nun), so called because it was considered the limit of navi-
gation. The most absurd ideas prevailed with regard to the regions beyond. The
water at the equator was thought to be boiling hot; the tropic sun, it was said, would
permanently blacken the sidn of any white man who ventured farther south; while
the unknown seas were supposed to be peopled by terrible sea-monsters.
To the Portuguese belongs the glory of having dissipated many of these errors,
and opened the way to the discovery of new lands. In the fifteenth century, they
were the most enlightened and enterprising people in Europe. Prince Henry devoted
himself to the study of astronomy, founded an observatory and a naval college, col-
lected all existing information concerning the earth's surface, and prepared new and
more accurate charts for navigators. His father, John I., and his grand-nephew,
John II., encouraged maritime explorations. Under such auspices, the Portuguese
sailors discovered the A z0res'* and Cape Verde Islands, crossed the dreaded equator,
and finally described the southern extremity of Africa. Diaz (dee'ath), the discov-
erer, well named it the Stormy Cape; but the king, believing the long-desired route
to India was now found, rechristened it the Cape of Good Hope. His hope was
realized fifteen years later, when Vs co d Giima rounded the cape and reached
India. The problem of a sea-route (p. 20) was solved. The Portuguese quickly
established settlements and opened a direct trade by sea between India and Europe.
The old land-routes to India across the Mediterranean and the Levant being aban-
doned, Venice and the other Italian cities lost the profitable Eastern trade.
The sixteenth century, however, had already dawned. The discoveries of Colum-
bus had kindled the zeal and fired the imagination of Spain,-then fast becoming the
leading nation of Europe. Pope Alexander VI. had apportioned the unknown
regions of the Earth to the Portuguese and the Spaniards, giving to the former all east
and to the latter all west of an imaginary line running north and south 100 leagues
west of the Azores. Spanish warriors who "united the valor of the knight-errant
with the rapacity of pirates", flocked to the new world. The West Indies, Mexico,
Peru, and Chili were discovered and conquered, and the spoils were sent to Europe.
Soon, the coffers of Spain were running over with American gold and silver. While
the Spanish flag was planted, step by step, on the eastern coast of America, from the
St. John's to the river Platte ", the whole western coast of South America fell into
Spanish hands. The Spanish explorations in America surpassed the Portuguese in
Africa. Portugal was too busy with her discoveries to turn aside, except to possess
the territory of Brazil, and Spain was left unmolested to prosecute her conquests.
While Spain was thus building up an empire in the western world, English sea-
men were content with a humbler harvest in the Newfoundland fisheries. During
the reign of Elizabeth, however, English navigators began to dispute with Spain the
sovereignty of the sea.. The British Channel swarmed with privateers-" sea-dogs ",

The explorers were accustomed to take formal possession of the country they discovered.
Thus Cartier (p. 30) erected a cross thirty feet high, on which he hung a shield containing the
arms of France and the inscription, Vive le Roi ". Gilbert (p. 36) raised a pillar in Newfound-
land with a lead plate, on which were engraved the queen's arms. A piece of turf and a bit of
twig were presented to him, and he received these symbols of possession with a hazel wand.









42 EPOCH I. [1577.

as they were called-and it was a lucky galleon that could run the gauntlet of these
swift cruisers. The greed of gold, the love of adventure, a chivalrous contempt of
danger, and the bitter hatred then existing between Protestant England and Catho-
lic Spain, combined to inspire the sea-dogs to the most daring deeds. In 1577, Drake
set sail with five ships, his own scarcely larger than a channel schooner, the others
still smaller, resolved to fly the English flag in waters where it had never been seen.
The first of Englishmen to pass through the Strait of Magellan, he swept along the
coast of Chili and Peru, plundering towns and vessels, and capturing the great gal-
leon that yearly sailed from Lima to Cadiz with precious stones, gold dust, and silver
ingots. Finding a squadron was stationed in the Strait of Magellan to intercept
him on his return (p. 35), he took the bold resolution of crossing the Pacific and going
home via the Cape of Good Hope. His venture succeeded, and he reached Plymouth,
England, after an absence of three years. Though he had escaped with only one
ship-the Golden Hind-it was laden with treasure to the amount of 800,000. The
queen received a large share of the spoils, knighted the freebooter, wore his jewels
in her crown, and ordered the Golden Hind to be preserved in memory of this
remarkable voyage. Open war having at last broken out between England and Spain,
Drake again went to the West Indies, plundered the towns of St. Domingo and Car-
thagena, burned Forts San Antonio and St. Augustine, and,visiting Virginia, brought
back the remains of Raleigh's colony (p. 37). The success of these adventures, lured
other freebooters to the Spanish Main ". Cavendish fitted out a fleet and sailed
thither (1586); he roamed about for months, burning villages and capturing coast-
ing vessels, until at last he overhauled the Santa Anna, a merchantman loaded with
a rich cargo of gold, silver, and spices, from the Manillas. Returning via the cape,
he was the second Englishman to circumnavigate the globe.
The English privateers, however, could fight for their country as well as for gain,
and Drake, Hawkins, and Frobisher were in the very front of the little fleet that
destroyed the "Invincible Armada" (1588) and broke the Spanish power.

CONTEMPORARY EUROPEAN SOVEREIGNS.
ENGLAND. FRANCE. GERMANY. SPAIN.
Henry VI... 1485 Charles VIII..1483 Frederick III..1440 Ferdinand &
Henry VIII... 1509 Louis XII......1498 MaximilianI..1493 Isabella..... 1479
Francis I......1515 Charles V......1520
Edward VI....1547 Henry II......1547 Charles I...... 1516
Mary .......... 1553
Elizabeth......1558 Francis H.....1559 Ferdinand I...1556 Philip II......1556
Charles IX....1560 MaximilianII.1564
James I........1603 Henry III.....1574 Rudolph II....1576
Henry IV......1589 Matthias ......1612 Philip I ......1598

CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY.
PAGE
1492. Columbus discovered the new world, October 12 23
1497. The Cabots discovered Labrador, June 24 25
1498. The Cabots explored the Atlantic Coast 25
South America was discovered by Columbus, August 10 24
Vasco da Gama sailed round the Cape of Good Hope and discovered a
passage to India 41









1512.] CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY. 43

PAGE
1512. Ponce de Leon discovered Florida, March 27 27
1513. Balboa saw the Pacific Ocean, September 26 27
1519-'21. Cortez conquered Mexico 26
1520. Magellan discovered and sailed through the strait which bears his
name, into the Pacific Ocean; his vessel returning home by the
Cape of Good Hope, made the first circumnavigation of the globe. 26
1524. Verrazani explored the coast of North America 30
1528. Narvaez explored part of Florida 27
1534-'35. Cartier explored the Gulf of St. Lawrence and ascended the river 30
1539-'41. De Soto rambled over the Southern States and in 1541 discovered
the Mississippi River 28
1542-'43. Cabrillo explored California and sailed along the Pacific Coast. 29
1562. Ribaut attempted to plant a Huguenot colony at Port Royal 31
1564. LaudonniBre attempted to plant a Huguenot colony on the St.
John's River. It was destroyed by the Spaniards 31
1565. Menendez founded a colony at St. Augustine, Florida; first perma-
nent settlement in the United States 29
1576-'77. Frobisher tried to find a north-west passage; entered Baffin Bay,
and twice attempted to found a colony in Labrador, but failed 34
1578-'80. Drake sailed along the Pacific Coast to Oregon, and circumnavi-
gated the globe.. 35
1582. Espejo founded Santa F6; second oldest town in the United States, 29
1583. Gilbert was lost at sea 36
1584-'87. Raleigh twice attempted to plant a colony in Virginia 36
1602. Gosnold discovered Cape Cod, May 15 37
1605. De Monts established a colony at Port Royal, Nova Scotia; first
attempt to found an agricultural colony in America 32
1607. The English settled Jamestown; first permanent English settle-
ment in America, May 13 38
1608. Champlain planted a colony at Quebec; first permanent French
settlement in Canada, July 3 . 32
1609. Hudson discovered the Hudson River. 39
Champlain discovered Lake Champlain 33
1613. Settlement of New York by the Dutch. .. 39
1620. Pilgrims settled at Plymouth; first English settlement in New
England, December 21. .. 40

REFERENCES FOR READING.
Irving's Columbus.-Parkman's Pioneers of France, Jesuits in North America, and Dis-
covery of the Great West.-Longfellow's Sir Humphrey Gilbert (Poem).-De Vere's Romance of
American History.-Abbott's Biography of Illustrious Men and Women.-T. Irving's De Soto in
Florida.-Help's Spanish Conquest of America.-Biddle's Sebastian Cabot.-Nicholls' John
Cabot.-Barlow's Vision of Columbus (Poem), and Poems on Columbus by Samuel Rogers and
J. R. Lowell.-Simms' Damsel of Darien (Poem).-Prescott's Ferdinand and Isabella (Colum-
bus).-Hawks' history of N-orth Carolina (Lost Colony of Roanoke).-Shea's Discovery and
Exploration of the Missssippi Valley.- Wallace's Fair God (Fiction).-Barnes' Popular History
of the United States.-Harper's Magazine, Vol. 49, The First Century of the Republic; Vol. 65,
Overthrow of the French Power in America, and The Spanish Discoverers.-Scribner's Monthly,
Vol. 9, Picturesfrom Florida.-Weise's Discoveries of America to the Year 1525.









BARNES' BRIEF HISTORY.



BLACKBOARD ANALYSIS.


1. Geographical Knowledge in the Fifteenth Century.

1. His Views.
2. At Court of Portugal.
3. At Court of Spain.
4. His Success.
2. Columbus. 5. His Equipment.
6i. His Voyage.
7. The Landing.
8. Further Discoveries.
9. His Reception Home.
10. Subsequent Voyages.


How America was Named.

S1. John Cabot.
The Cabots. 2. Sebastian Cabot.

1. The Feeling in Spain.
2. Ponce de Leon.
3. Balboa.
4. De Narvaez.
J5. Ferdinand de Soto.
Spanish Explorations. 6 enen de. oto
Sa. -.
7. Explorations on Pacific. b. '
I c. New Mexico.
8. Extent of the Spanish Possessions.

1. Newfoundland Fisheries.
2. Verrazani.
3. Cartier.
4. John Ribaut.
5. Laudonnibre.
French Explorations. 6 Chaplain. Founds Q ecla.
7. De Monts and Port Royal.
I a. Their zeal.
8. Jesuit Missionaries. b Marquette.
Sc. La Salle.
9. Results of French Enterprise.

1. British Claim and Maritime Zeal.
2. Frobisher.
3. Francis Drake.
4. Humphrey Gilbert.
M First attempt to plant
English Explorations. 5. Raleigh. a Colony.
( Second attempt.
6. Trading Voyages.
[ a. London Co.
7. Companies formed. b. Plymouth Co.
c. Their Charter.

Dutch Explorations. 1 Henry CHdsn.

a. The Spanish.
1. Claims of the Four b. The French.
Nations. c. The English.
Extent of these Ex- Td. he Dutch.
plorations. 2. Result of these Rival Claims.
3. Permanent Settlements at the End of the Sixteenth
Century and the Beginning of the Seventeenth
Century.


3.

4.





5.










6.


7.


8.



9.













S l,1 T, ILLLITR.TiTE THE
.- '--- DEVELOPMENT OF COL(
S ". IAND EArL,
T .- WESTERN EXPLORATION
S- ''
i,., .,, ,,,

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-4A




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.a PO r CH .ir..'
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Island, New York, New J .:_-- *..
ii. 1'(



T HIS Epoch






Pennsylvania, Delaware, MA I
land, South Carolina, North
Carolina, and Georgia. The Cavaliers land in Virginia,
and the Puritans in Massachusetts Immigration increases
and the settlements multiply along the whole coast. The
colonies, however, have little history in common. Each
by itself struggles with the wilderness, contends with the
Indian, and develops the principles of liberty.
Questions on the Geography of the SeconId epoch.-Locate Jamestown. Salem.
Boston. Swansea. Providence. Bristol. Hadley. Hatfield. Portsmouth. Dover.
Hartford. Wethersfield. New Haven. Windsor. Saybrook. New York. Albany.
Schenectady. Elizabethtown. Wilmington. Philadelphia. St. Mary's. Charleston.
Savannah. Haverhill. Deerfield. St. Augustine. Quebec. Louisburg.
Locate Fort Venango." Oswego. Presque Isle. Fort Le Bceuf. Crown Point. Fort
Ticonderoga. Fort Niagara. Fort Duquesne. Fort William Henry. Fort Edward.
Describe the Ohio River. Monongahela River. French Creek. Chowan River.
Ashley River. Cooper River. River St. John. Potomac River. James River.
Hudson River. Connecticut River. Mohawk River. Delaware River. Kennebec
River. Penobscot River. Miami River. St. Lawrence River.
Locate Manhattan Island. Alleghany Mountains. Cape Breton. Massachusetts
Bay. Chesapeake Bay.








EPOCH II.


I.-VIRGINIA.

The Character of the colonists was poorly adapted to en-
dure the hardships incident to a life in a new country. The
settlers were mostly gentlemen by birth, unused to labor.
They had no families, and came out in search of wealth or
adventure, expecting, when rich, to return to England. The
climate was unhealthy, and, before the first autumn, half of
their number had perished.
John Smith* saved the colony from ruin. First as a mem-
ber of the council, and afterward as president, his services
were invaluable. He persuaded the settlers to erect a fort,
and to build log huts for the winter. He made long voyages,
carefully exploring Chesapeake Bay, securing the fi i. n1il-L Ip
of the Indians, and bringing back boat-loads of supplies. He

Captain John Smith was born to adventure. While yet a boy he leaves his home
in Lincolnshire, England, to engage in Holland wars. After a four-years service he
builds a lodge of boughs in a forest, where he hunts, rides, and studies military
tactics. Next we hear of him on his way to fight the Turks. Before reaching France
he is robbed, and escapes death from want only by begging alms. Having embarked
for Italy, a fearful storm arises; he, being a heretic, is deemed the cause, and is
thrown overboard, but he swims to land. In the East, a famous Mussulman wishes
to fight some Christian knight to please the ladies "; Smith offers himself and slays
three champions in succession. Taken prisoner in battle and sold as a slave, his head
is shaved and his neck bound with an iron ring; he Idlls his master, arrays himself
in the dead man's garments, mounts a horse and spurs his way to a Russian camp.
Having returned to England, he embarks for the new world. On the voyage, he ex-
cites the jealousy of his fellows and is landed in chains; but his worth becomes so
apparent that he is finally made president of the colony. His marvelous escapes
seem now more abundant than ever. A certain fish inflicts a dangerous wound, but
he finds an antidote, and afterward eats part of the same fish with great rehsh. He
is poisoned, but overcomes the dose and severely beats the poisoner. His party of
fifteen is attacked by Opechancanough (Op e k6n'ka no), brother and successor of
Powhatan, with seven hundred warriors; Smith drags the old chief by his long hair
into the midst of the Indian braves, who, amazed at such audacity, immediately sur-
render. He is shockingly-burned on a boat by the explosion of a bag of powder at
his side; but he leaps into the water, where he barely escapes death by drowning.
These and many other wonderful exploits he published in a book after his return to
England. Historians very generally discredit them. His services were, however, of
unquestionable value to Virginia; and his disinterestedness appears from the fact
that he never received a foot of land in the colony his wisdom had saved,


[1607.







1607.] DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH COLONIES. 47

trained the tender gentlemen till they learned how to swing
the ax in the forest. He declared that "hie who would not
work, might not eat." He taught them that industry and
self-reliance are the surest guarantees to fortune.
Smith's Adventures were of the most romantic character.
In one of his expeditions up the (<_'I .. I a hm'i ny* he was




-.*...A-v *










use of his pocket compass, and the motions of the oo and
_- -....'.: :- .





town. When they found that this informed his friends of



















Oie Pacific Ocean, and thus to India. Captain Newport, before his return to England,
-" -- .... A'.."
ai .-












made a prisoner byup the I ndians. With singular coolness, he





immcluded that the way to India did not lie in that direction. These attempts show
uswhat inadequate ideas then pr ailed concerning the motionsize of this continent and
star. As aothe edee o the s lty o te I it i sad tatr hag seie



This was undertaken by the express order of the company, to seek a passage to
the Pacific Ocean, and thus to India. Captain Newport, before his return to England,











t As another evidence of the simplicity of the Indians, it is said that having seized
I, '" .,.
t;.- .- '. .: .o ,- ( : .5 _. .
rl. - : .: f > : ,' : : -- -
L [._.= -= -.. ., -..' r < -: l i --- _
S ITH TRAIN WIT TH I D AI% S
















t hs another evidence of the simplicity of the Indians, it is said that having seized








could not understand by what magical art he made a few
marks on paper express his thoughts. They considered him
a being of a superior order and treated him with the utmost
respect. He was carried from one tribe to another* and at
last brought to the great chief, Pow ha tan', by whom he was
condemned to die. His head was laid on a stone, and the
huge war-club of the Indian executioner was raised to strike
the fatal blow. Suddenly, Po ca h6n' tas, the young daughter
of the chief, who had already become attached to the pris-
oner, threw herself upon his neck and pleaded for his pardon.t
The favorite of the tribe was given her desire. Smith was
released, and soon sent home with promises of friendship.
His little protector was often thereafter to be seen going to
Jamestown with baskets of corn for the white men.
A Second Charter (1609) was now obtained by the com-
pany. This vested the authority in a governor instead of
a local council. The colonists were not consulted with re-
gard to the change, nor did the charter guarantee to them
any rights.
The "Starving Time."-Unfortunately, Smith was dis-
abled by a severe wound and compelled to return to England.
His influence being removed, the settlers became a prey to
disease and famine. Some were killed by the Indians. Some,
in their despair, seized a boat and became pirates. The winter
of 1609-10 was long known as the Starving Time. In six
months, the colonists were reduced from 490 to 60. At last,
they determined to flee from the wretched place. "None
dropped a tear, for none had enjoyed one day of happiness."

a quantity of gunpowder belonging to the colonists, they planted it for seed, expect-
ing to reap a full harvest of ammunition for the next contest.
His route was over the peninsula, since made famous by McClellan's campaign.
t This incident has been discredited because Smith did not mention it in his first
account (1608) of his adventures, but describes it in the second one, published 16
years later. It should be remembered, however, that this conduct of Pocahontas


EPOCH II.


[1607.







1610.] DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH COLONIES. 49

The next morning, as they slowly moved down with the tide,
to their great joy they met their new governor, Lord Dela-
ware, with abundant supplies and a company of immigrants.
All returned to the homes they had just deserted, and James-
town colony was once more rescued from ruin.
The Third Charter.-Up to this time, the colony had
proved a failure and was publicly ridiculed in London. To
quiet the outcry, the charter was changed (1 612). The coun-
cil in London was abolished, and the stockholders were given
power to regulate the affairs of the company themselves.
The Marriage of Pocahontas (1613).-The little Indian
girl had now grown to womanhood. John Rolfe, a young
English planter, had won her love and wished to marry her.
In the little church at Jamestown, rough almost as an
Indian's wigwam, she received Christian baptism, and, in
broken English, stammered the marriage vows according to
the service of the Church of England.
Three years after, with her husband, she visited London.
The child-like simplicity and winning grace of Lady Rebecca,
as she was called, attracted universal admiration. She was
introduced at court and received every mark of attention.
As she was about to return to her native land with her hus-
band and infant son,* she suddenly died.
First Colonial Assembly.-Governor Yeardley (yeerd II)
believed that the colonists should have "a hande in the gov-
erning of themselves ". He accordingly called at Jamestown,
July 30, 1619, THE FIRST LEGISLATIVE BODY THAT EVER ASSEM-
BLED IN AMERICA. It consisted of the governor, council, and
deputies, or "- I .u, -.-- ", as they were called, chosen from
the various plantations, or "boroughs ". Its laws had to be
was entirely in accord with Indian usage, while it does not seem wise to drop out of
our early history such a characteristic and beautiful legend.
This son became a man of distinction. Many of the leading families of Virginia
have been proud to say that the blood of Pocahontas coursed through their veins.








EPOCH II.


ratified by the company in England but, in turn, the orders
from London were not binding unless ratified by the colonial
assembly. These privileges were afterward (1621) embodied
in a WRITTEN CONSTITUTION-the first of the kind in America.
A measure of freedom was thus granted the young colony,
and Jamestown became a nursery of liberty.
Prosperity of the Colony.-The old famine troubles had
now all passed. The attempt to work in common had been
given up, and each man tilled his own land and received the
avails. Tobacco was an article of export. The colonists
were so eager in its cultivation that, at one time, they planted
it even in the streets of Jamestown. Gold-hunting had
ceased,* and many of the former servants of the company
owned plantations. Settlements lined both banks of the
James for 140 miles. Best of all, young women of good
character were brought over by the company. These sold
readily as wives to the settlers. The price, at first, was fixed
at the cost of the passage-100 pounds of tobacco-but
wives were in such demand that it soon went up to 150
pounds. Domestic ties were formed. The colonists, having
homes, now became Virginians. All : i. ir had the right
to vote. Religious toleration was enjoyed. Virginia be-
came almost an independent republic.
Slavery Introduced.-In 1619, the captain of a Dutch
trading vessel sold to the colonists twenty negroesf They
were employed in cultivating tobacco. As their labor was
found profitable, large numbers were afterward imported.
Indian Troubles.-After the death of Powhatan, the firm
In the early life of this colony, particles of mica glittering in the brook were
mistaken for gold dust. "There was no talk, no hope, but dig gold, wash gold, refine
gold, load gold." Newport carried to England a ship-load of the worthless stuff.
Smith remonstrated in vain against this folly.
t From this circumstance, small as it seemed at the time, the most momentous
consequences ensued,-consequences that, long after, rent the republic with strife,
and moistened its soil with blood.


[1619.







1622.] DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH COLONIES. 01

friend of the English, the Indians formed a plan for the ex-
termination of the colony. So secretly was this managed
that on the very morning of the massacre (March 22, 1622),
they visited the houses and sat at the tables of those whose
murder they were plotting. At a preconcerted moment, they
attacked the colonists on all their widely-scattered planta-
tions. Over three hundred men, women, and children fell in
one day. Fortunately, a converted Indian had informed a
friend whom he wished to save, and thus Jamestown and
the settlements near by were prepared. A merciless war
ensued, during which the colony was reduced from 4,000 to
2,500 ; but the Indians were so severely punished that they
remained quiet for twenty years. Then came a fearful mas-
sacre of five hundred settlers (1.. 1 ), which ended in the
natives being expelled from the region.
Virginia a Royal Province.-The majority of the stock-
holders gladly granted to the infant colony those rights for
which they were struggling at home. King James, becoming
jealous of the company, because of its republican sentiments,
took away the charter (1624), and made Virginia a royal
province. Henceforth, the king appointed the governor and
council, though the colony still retained its assembly.
A Period of Oppression.-The British Parliament en-
forced the Navigation Act (1660), which ordered that the
commerce of the colony should be carried on in Ei i1; -1l ves-
sels, and that their tobacco should be shipped to England.
Besides this, their own assembly was composed mainly of
royalists, who levied exorbitant taxes, refused to go out of
office when their term had expired, fixed their salary at
about $9 per day (equal to $ 3 6 at the present time), restricted
the right of voting to "freeholders and housekeepers", and
imposed on Quakers a monthly fine of one hundred dollars
for absence from worship in the English Church. Two parties







EPOCH II.


gradually sprung up in their midst: one, the aristocratic
party, was composed of the rich planters and the office-hold-
ers; the other comprised the liberty-loving portion of the
people, who felt themselves deprived of their rights.*
Bacon's Rebellion.-These difficulties came to a crisis in
1 67 6-a century before Independence Day-when Governor
Berkeley failed to provide for the defense of the settlements
against the Indians. At this juncture, Nathaniel Bacon, a
patriotic young lawyer, rallied a company, defeated the
Indians, and then turned to meet the governor, who had
denounced him as a traitor. During the contest which fol-
lowed, Berkeley was driven out of Jamestown and the village
itself burned.t In the midst of this success, Bacon died. No
leader could be found worthy to take his place, and the people

It is a curious fact that the royalists who fled from England in Cromwell's time
took refuge in Virginia, and were
hospitably entertained, while the
"regicides" (the judges who con-
I demned Charles I.) fled to Massa-
'--- chusetts and were concealed from
their pursuers.
... Going up the James River,
.-i .. just before reaching City Point,
.:one sees on the right-hand bank
I '-- s the ruins of an old church. The
crumbling tower, with its arched
Doorways, is almost hidden by the
''" --' profusion of shrubbery which sur-
rounds it. Its moss-covered walls,
entwined with ivy planted by
S~loving hands which have since
i crumbled into dust, look desolately
out upon the old church-yard at
,Ils .- its back. i-ere, pushing aside the
rank vines and tangled bushes
,i-i. --1.-.. _'- .- which conceal them, one finds a
.-_- ---_ _- -- few weather-beaten tombstones. A
THE RUINS AT JAMESTOWN. huge button-wood-tree, taking root
below, has burst apart one of these
old slabs, and now, with its many fellows, spreads its lofty branches high over the
solitary dead. And this is all that remains of that Jamestown whose struggles we
have here recorded.


[1676.







1620.] DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH COLONIES. 53

dispersed. Berkeley revenged himself with terrible severity.
On hearing of the facts, Charles II. impatiently declared,
"He has taken more lives in that naked country than I did
for the murder of my father."


II.-MASSACHUSETTS.

The Plymouth Company made several attempts to
explore North Virginia. Captain John Smith, already so
famous in South Virginia, examined the coast from Penob-
scot to Cape Cod, drew a map of it, and called the country
NEW ENGLAND. The company, stirred to action by his
glowing accounts, obtained a new patent (1620) under the
name of the Council for New England. This authorized
them to make settlements and laws, and to carry on trade
through a region reaching from the Atlantic to the Pacific
and comprising over a million square miles. New England,
however, was settled with no consent of king or council.

1. PLYMOUTH COLONY.
Settlement.-Landcli of the Pilgrims.*-One stormy
day in the autumn of 1620, the Mayflower, with a band of

They were called Pilgrims because of their wanderings. About seventy years
before this time the state religion of England had been changed from Catholic to
Protestant; but a large number of the clergy and people were dissatisfied with what
they thought to be a half-way policy on the part of the new church, and called for a
more complete purification from old observances and doctrines. For this, they were
called Puritans. They still believed in a state church, i. e., that the nation of England
was the church of England; and that the queen, as the head of both, could appoint
church officers and prescribe the form of religious worship. They, however, wanted
a change, and desired the government to make it to suit them. The government not
only refused, but punished the Puritan clergy for not using the prescribed form of
worship. This led some of them to question the authority of the government in
religious matters. They came to believe that any body of Christians might declare
itself a church, choose its own officers, and be independent of all external authority.
When they began to form these local churches, they separated themselves from the
Church of England, and for this reason are called Separatists and Independents. One
of these churches of SEPARATISTS was at Scrooby, in the east of England. Not being
allowed to worship in peace, they fled to Holland (1608), where they lived twelve










a hundred pilgrims, came to anchor in Cape Cod harbor.
The little company,* gathering in the cabin, drew up a
compact, in which they agreed to enact just and equal laws,
which all should obey. One of their exploring parties landed
at Plymouth, as it was called on Smith's chart, December
21.1 Finding the location suitable for a settlement, they all
came ashore and, amid a storm of snow and sleet, com-
menced building their rude huts.
The Character of the Pilgrim settlers was well suited to
the rugged, stormy land which they sought to subdue. They
had come into the wilderness with their families in search
of a home where they could educate their children and wor-
ship God as they pleased. They were earnest, sober-minded
men, actuated in all things by deep religious principle, and
never disloyal to their convictions of duty.
Their Sufferings during the winter were severe. At one
time, there were only seven well persons to take care of the
sick. Half of the little band died. Yet when spring came,
not one of the company thought of returning to England.
The Indians, fortunately, did not disturb them. A pesti-
lence had destroyed the tribe inhabiting tb e place where they
landed. They were startled, however, one day in early spring
years. But evil influences surrounded their children, and they longed for a land
where they might worship God in their own way, and save their families from
worldly follies. America offered such a home. They came, resolved to brave every
danger, trusting to God to shape their destinies.
The exact number of the pilgrims was 102.
t The little shallop sent out to reconnoiter before landing, lost, in a furious storm,
its rudder, mast, and sail. Late at night, the party sought shelter under the lee of a
small island. They spent the next day in cleaning their rusty weapons and drying
their wet garments. Every hour was precious, as the season was late and their com-
panions in the Mayflower were waiting their return; but "being ye last day of y,
week, they prepared there to keepe yC Sabbath". No wonder that the influence of
such a people has been felt throughout the country, and that "Forefathers' Rock",
on which they first stepped, is yet held in grateful remembrance.
$ This was Dec. 11, Old Style. In 1752, eleven days were added to correct an error
in the calendar, thus making this date the 22d. Only 10 days should be allowed for
1620, and the correct date is the 21st, New Style. (Steele's New Astronomy, p. 269.)


EPOCH II.


[1620.






























































.. .. .J
,-.***

' '


Puritans Going to Church.

"Thanks be to God for winter time That bore the Mayflower up,
To pour amid New England snows the treasures of its cup,
To fold them in its icy arms, those sturdy Pilgrim sires,
And weld an iron brotherhood around their Christmas fires."-B. F. TAYLOR.


'







1621.] DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH COLONIES. 55

by a voice in their village crying in broken English, Wel-
come I" It was the salutation of Sam'o set, an Indian,
whose chief, Mas'sa soit, soon after visited them. The
treaty then made lasted for fifty years. Ca non'i cus, a
Narragansett chief, once sent a bundle of arrows, wrapped in
a rattlesnake skin, as a token of defiance. Governor Brad-


CANONICUS RECEIVING THE POWDER AND SHOT SENT BY GOVERNOR BRADFORD.

ford returned the skin filled with powder and shot. This
significant hint was effectual.
The Progress of the Colony was slow. Their harvests
were insufficient to feed themselves and the new-comers.
During the "famine of 1623," the best dish they could set
before their friends was a bit of fish and a cup of water.*
After four years they numbered only 184. The plan of
working in common having failed here as at Jamestown,
As an illustration of their pious content, itis said that Elder Brewster was wont,
over a meal consisting only of clams, to return thanks to God, who "had given them
to suck the abundance of the seas, and of the treasures hid in the sands."







EPOCH II.


land was assigned to each settler. Abundance ensued. The
colony was never organized by royal charter; therefore they
elected their own governor and made their own laws. In
16 92, Plymouth was united with Massachusetts Bay Colony,
under the name of Massachusetts.

2. MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY.
Settlement.-John Endicott and five associates obtained
a grant of land about Massachusetts Bay (1628). Having
secured from King Charles I. a charter giving authority to
make laws and govern the territory, the company afterward
transferred all its rights to the colony. This was a popular
measure, and many prominent Puritan families flocked to
the land of liberty. Some gathered around Governor Endi-
cott, who had already started Salem and Charlestown, some
established colonies at Dorchester and Watertown, and some,
under the new governor, Winthrop, founded Boston (1630).
Religious Disturbances.-The people of Massachusetts
Bay, while in England, were Puritans, but not Separatists.
Having come to America to establish a Puritan Church, they.
were unwilling to receive persons holding opinions differing
from their own, lest their purpose should be defeated. They
accordingly sent back to England those who persisted in
using the forms of the Established Church, and allowed
only members of their own church to vote in civil affairs.
Roger TVillinms, an eloquent and pious young minister,
taught that each person should think for himself in all
religious matters, and be responsible to his own conscience
alone. He declared that the magistrates had, therefore, no
right to punish blasphemy, perjury, or Sabbath-breaking.
The clergy and magistrates were alarmed at what they con-
sidered a doctrine dangerous to the peace of the colony, and
he was ordered (16 36) to be sent to England. It was in the


[1627.






1636.] DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH COLONIES. 01

depth of winter, yet he fled to the forest where he found
refuge among the Indians. Canonicus, the Narragansett
sachem, gave him land to found a settlement, which he
gratefully named PROVIDENCE.
Mrs. Annie Huftciinsoit, during the same year, aroused a
violent and bitter controversy. She claimed to be favored
with special revelations of God's will. These she expounded
to crowded congregations of women, greatly to the scandal
of the clergy and people. Finally she, also, was banished.
The Quakcers, about twenty years after these summary
measures, created fresh trouble by their peculiar views. They
were fined, whipped, imprisoned, and sent out of the colony;
yet they as constantly returned, glorying in their sufferings.
At last, four were executed. The people beginning to con-
sider them as martyrs, the persecution gradually relaxed.
A Union of the Colonies of Massachusetts Bay, Plym-
outh, New Haven, and Connecticut, was formed (1643)
under the title of THE UNITED COLONIES OF NEW ENGLAND.
This was a famous league in colonial times. The object
was a common protection against the Indians, and the en-
croachments of the Dutch and French settlers.
King Philip's War.-During the life of Massasoit, Plym-
outh enjoyed peace with the Indians, as did Jamestown
during that of Powhatan. After Massasoit's death, his son,
Philip, brooded with a jealous eye over the encroachments of
the whites. With profound sagacity, he planned a confed-
eration of the Indian tribes against the intruders. The first
blow fell on the people of Swansea, as they were quietly going
home from church on Sunday (July 4, 1675). The settlers
flew to arms, but Philip escaped, and soon excited the savages
to fall upon the settlements high up the Connecticut valley.*
At Hadley, the Indians surprised the people during a religious service. Seizing
their muskets at the sound of the savage war-whoop, the men rushed out of the








EPOCH II.


The colonists fortified their houses with palisades, carried
their arms with them into the fields when at work, and


EARLY MORNING ATTACK BY INDIANS.


stacked them at the door when at church. The Narragansett
Indians favored Philip, and seemed on the point of joining

meeting-house to fall into line. But the foe was on every side. Confused and be-
wildered, the settlers seemed about to give way, when suddenly a strange old man
with long white beard and ancient garb appeared among them. Ringing out a quick,
sharp word of command, he recalled them to their senses. Following their myste-
rious leader, they drove the enemy headlong before them. The danger passed, they
looked around for their deliverer. But he had disappeared as mysteriously as he had
come. The good people believed that God had sent an angel to their rescue. But
history reveals the secret. It was the regicide, Colonel Gofic. Fleeing from the
vengeance of Charles II., with a price set upon his head, he had for years wandered
about, living in mills, clefts of rocks, and forest caves. At last, he had found an asy-
lum with the Hadley minister. From his window he had seen the stealthy Indians
coming down the hill. Fired with desire to do one more good deed for God's people,
he rushed from his hiding-place, led them on to victory, and then returned to his
retreat, never more to reappear.-One learns with regret that recent research throws
doubt over the truth of this thrilling story. It is curious to notice, also, that there
is no proof that Philip possessed any eloquence or was even present in any fight,
though all these statements have hitherto been made by reliable historians.


[1675.







1676.] DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH COLONIES. 59

his alliance. They had gathered their winter's provisions,
and fortified themselves in the midst of an almost inacces-
sible swamp. Fifteen hundred of the colonists accordingly
attacked them in this stronghold. The Indian wigwams and
supplies were burned, and one thousand warriors perished.
In the spring, the war broke out anew along a frontier of
three hundred miles, and to within twenty miles of Boston.
Nowhere fighting in the open field, but by ambuscade and
:.1.:;_1_, the Indians kept the whole country in terror.
Driven to desperation by their atrocities, the settlers hunted
down the savages like wild beasts. Philip was chased from
one hiding-place to another. His family being captured at
last, he fled, broken-hearted, to his old home on Mt. Hope,
near Bristol, R. I., where he was shot by a faithless Indian.
New England a Royal Province.-The Navigation Act
(p. 51), which we have seen so unpopular in Virginia, was
exceedingly oppressive in Massachusetts, which possessed
a thriving commerce. In spite of the decree, the colony
opened a trade with the West Indies. The royalists in
England determined that this bold republican spirit should
be quelled. The colony, stoutly insisting upon its rights
under the charter, resisted the officer sent over to enforce the
Navigation Act and the authority of the king; whereupon,
the charter was annulled, and Massachusetts made a ROYAL
PROVINCE (1684). Charles II. died ..: 1... his plan was com-
pleted, but James II. sent over Sir Edmund Andros, as first
royal governor of New England (1686). He carried things
with a high hand. The colonies endured his oppression for
three years, when, learning that his royal master was de-
throned,* they rose against their petty tyrant and put him
in jail. With true Puritan sobriety, they then quietly re-
sumed their old form of government. This, also, lasted for
The "English Revolution of 1688." iSee Barnes' General Histcry, p. 5104







EPOCH II.


three years, when Sir William Phipps came as royal gov-
ernor over a province embracing Massachusetts, Maine, and
Nova Scotia. From this time till the Revolution, Massa-
chusetts remained a royal province.
Salem Witchcraft (1692).-A strange delusion known
as the Salem witchcraft,* produced an intense excitement.
The children of Mr. Parris, a minister near Salem, per-
formed pranks which could be explained only by supposing
that they were under Satanic influence. Every effort was
made to discover who had bewitched them. An Indian
servant was flogged until she admitted herself to be guilty.
Soon, others were affected, and the terrible mania spread
rapidly. Committees of examination were appointed and
courts of trial convened. The most improbable stories were
credited. To express a doubt of witchcraft, was to indicate
one's own'alliance with the evil spirit. Persons of the high-
est respectability, clergymen, magistrates, and even the gov-
ernor's wife, were implicated. At last, after fifty-five persons
had been tortured and twenty hanged, the people awoke to
their folly.


III.-- AINE AND NEW HAMPSHIRE.

These Colonies were so intimately associated with Mas-
sachusetts that they have almost a common history. Gorges
(g6r' jaz) and Mason, about two years after the landing of the

A belief in witchcraft was at that time universal. Sir Matthew Hale, one of the
most enlightened judges of England, repeatedly tried and condemned persons
accused of witchcraft. Blackstone himself, at a later day, declared that to deny
witchcraft was to deny Revelation. Cotton Mather, the most prominent minister of
the colony, was active in the rooting out of this supposed crime. He published a
book full of the most ridiculous witch stories. One judge, who engaged in this per-
secution, was afterward so deeply penitent that he observed a day of fasting in each
year, and on the day of general fast rose in his place in the Old South Church at
Boston, and in the presence of the congregation handed to the pulpit a written con-
fession acknowledging his error and praying for forgiveness.


[1692.






1622.] DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH COLONIES. 61

Pilgrims, obtained from the Council for New England the
grant of a large tract of land which lay between the Merri-
mac and Kennebec rivers. They established some small
fishing stations near Portsmouth and at Dover. This patent
being afterward dissolved, Mason took the country lying
west of the Piscataqua, and named it New Hampshire;
Gorges took that lying east, and called it the province of
Maine.* Massachusetts, however, claimed this territory, and,
to secure it, paid about six thousand dollars to the heirs of
Gorges. Maine was not separated from Massachusetts till
1820. The f.. .-LI- settlements of New Hampshire also placed
themselves under the protection of Massachusetts. Three
times, either by their own consent or by royal authority,
they were joined in one colony and as often separated,"
until 1741, when New Hampshire finally became a distinct
royal province and so remained until the Revolution.


IV.-CONNECTICUT.

Settlement.-About eleven years after the Pilgrims
landed, Lord Say-and-Seal, Lord Brooke, and others, obtained
from the Earl of Warwick a transfer of the grant of the Con-
necticut t valley, which he had secured from the Council for
New Eil: i: 1:. The Dutch claimed the territory, and, before
the English could take possession, built a fort at Hartford,
and commenced-. ii... with the Indians. Some traders from
Plymouth sailing up the river were stopped by the Dutch,
who threatened to fire upon them. But they kept on and

To distinguish it from the islands along the coast, this country had been called
the Mayne (main) land, which perhaps gave rise to its present name. New Hamp-
shire was so called from Hampshire in England, Mason's home. The settlers of
New Hampshire were long vexed with suits brought by the men into whose hands
Mason's grant had fallen.
t This State is named from its principal river-Connecticut being the Indian
word for Long River.







EPOCH II.


established a post at Windsor (win' zer). Many people from
Boston, allured by the rich meadow lands, settled near. In
the autumn of 1635, John Steele, one of the proprietors of
Cambridge, led a pioneer company "out west," as it was then
called, and laid the foundations of Hartford. The next year,
the main band, with their pastor-Thomas Hooker, an elo-
quent and estimable man-came, driving their flocks before
them through the wilderness. In the meantime, John Win-
throp* established a fort at the mouth of the river, and thus
shut out the Dutch. Here he planted a colony, named
Saybrook, in honor of the proprietors.
The Pequod War.-The colonists had no sooner become
settled in their new home than the Pequod Indians endeav-
ored to persuade the Narragansetts to join them in a general
attack upon the whites. Roger Williams hearing of this
and forgetting all the injuries he had received, on a stormy
night set out in his canoe for the Indian village. Though
the Pequod messengers were present, he prevailed upon the
old NTarragansett chief to remain at home. So the Pequods
lost their ally and were forced to fight alone. They com-
menced by murdering thirty colonists. Captain Mason,
therefore, resolved to attack their stronghold on the Mystic
River. His party approached the fort at day-break (June 5,
1637). Aroused by the barking of a dog, the sleepy sentinel
shouted Owanux Owanux !" (the Englishmen !) but it was
too late. The troops were already within the palisades. The
Indians, rallying, made a fierce resistance, when Captain Ma-
son, seizing a fire-brand, hurled it among the wigwams. The
John Winthrop appears in history without blemish. Highly educated and
accomplished, he was no less upright and generous. In the bloom of life, he left his
brilliant prospects in the old world to follow the fortunes of the new. When his
father had made himself poor in nurturing the Massachusetts colony, this noble son
gave up voluntarily his own large inheritance to further the good work". It was
through his personal influence and popularity at court that the liberal charter was
procured from Charles II. which guaranteed freedom to Connecticut.


[1633.






1637.] DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH COLONIES. 63

flames quickly swept through the encampment. The
English themselves barely escaped. The few Indians who
fled to the swamps were hunted down. The tribe perished
in a day.
The Three Colonies.-1. The NEW HAVEN COLONY was
founded (1638) by a number of wealthy London families.
They took the Bible for law, and only church members could
vote. 2. The CONNECTICUT COLONY, proper, comprising Hart-
ford, Wethersfield, and Windsor, adopted a written constitu-
tion in which it was agreed to give to all freemen the right
to vote. This was TIE FIRST INSTANCE IN HISTORY OF A WRIT-
TEN CONSTITUTION FRAMED BY TIE PEOPLE FOR TIE PEOPLE.
S. The SAYBROOK COLONY was at first governed by the pro-
prietors, but was afterward sold to the Connecticut Colony.
This reduced the three colonies to two.
A Royal Charter was obtained (1 6 2) which united both
these colonies and guaranteed to all the rights upon which


the Connecticut colonists
had agreed. This was a
precious document, since it
gave them almost independ-
ence, and was the most fa-
vorable yet granted to any
colony. Twenty-five years
after, Governor Andros
marching from Boston over
the route where the pious


'4-






THE CHARTER OAK.


Hooker had led his little flock fifty years before, came
"glittering with scarlet and lace" into the assembly at
Hartford, and demanded the charter. A protracted debate
ensued. Tradition loves to relate that, as the people
crowded around to take a last look at this guarantee of
their liberties, suddenly the lights were extinguished; on








EPOCH II.


their being relighted, the charter was gone; Captain
Wadsworth had seized it, escaped through the crowd and
hidden it in the hollow of a tree, famous ever after as the
Charter Oak. However, Andros pronounced the charter
government at an end. "Finis" was written at the close
of the minutes of their last meeting.
When the governor was so summarily deposed in Boston,
the people brought the charter from its hiding-place, the
general court reassembled, and the "finis" disappeared.*



V.-RHODE ISLAND.

Settlement.-Roger Williams t settled Providence Planta-
tion in 16 36, the year in which Hooker came to Hartford.
Other exiles from Massachusetts followed,t among them the
celebrated Mrs. Hutchinson. A party of these purchased
the island of Aquiday and established the Rhode Island Plan-
tation. Roger Williams stamped upon these colonies his

Another attempt to infringe upon charter rights occurred in 1693. Governor
Fletcher ordered the militia placed under his own command. Having called them
out to listen to his royal commission, he began to read. Immediately, Captain Wads-
worth ordered the drums to be beaten. Fletcher commanded silence, and began again.
"Drum, drum I" cried Wadsworth. "Silence 1" shouted the governor. "Drum,
drum, I say I" repeated the captain; and then turning to Fletcher, with a meaning
look, he added: "If I am interrupted again, I will make the sun shine through you."
The governor did not press the matter.-The story of the Charter Oak is denied by
some, who claim that contemporary history does not mention it, and that probably
Andros seized the charter, while the colonists had previously made a copy.
t William Blackstone, being as dissatisfied with the yoke of the "lords brethren"
in Boston as with that of the "lords bishops" in England, some time before this
removed to the banks of what is now called the Blackstone, near Providence. He,
however, acknowledged the jurisdiction of Massachusetts.
$ Persecuted refugees from every quarter flocked to Providence; and Williams
shared equally with all, the lands he had obtained, reserving to himself only two
small fields which, on his first arrival, he had planted with his own hands.
An island of a reddish appearance was observed lying in the bay. This was
known to the Dutch as Rood or Red Island. Hence the name of the island and
State of Rhode Island. (Brodhead.) The price paid was 40 fathoms of white wam-
pum, 20 hoes, and 10 coats.


[1687.







1643.] DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH COLONIES. 65

favorite idea of religious toleration, i. e., that the civil
power has no right to interfere with the religious opinions
of men.
A Charter.-The colonists wished to join the New En-
gland Union, but were refused on the ostensible plea that
they had no charter.* Williams accordingly visited England
and obtained a charter uniting the two plantations. On his
return, the people met, elected their officers, and (1647)
agreed on a set of laws guaranteeing freedom of faith and
worship to all,-" the first legal declaration of liberty of con-
science ever adopted in Europe or America."



VI.-NEW YORK.

Settlement.-Soon after the discovery of the Hudson,
Dutch ships began to visit the river to traffic in furs with the
Indians. Afterward, the West India Company obtained a
grant of New Netherland, and under its patronage perma-
nent settlements were made at New Amsterdam t and at
Fort Orange (Albany). The company allowed persons who
should plant a colony of fifty settlers to select and buy land
of the Indians, which it was agreed should descend to their
heirs forever. These persons were called patrons (patrons)
of the manor.1
The Four Dutch Governors (1626-'64).-The early his-

Plymouth, in virtue of its charter, claimed to have jurisdiction over the Rhode
Island territory ".
t Some huts were built by Dutch traders on Manhattan Island in 1613, and a
trading-post was established in 1615. In the latter year, Fort Nassau was completed,
south of the present site of Albany. In 1624, a party of Walloons (Belgian Protest-
ants) was brought over by the company. About the same time, Fort Orange was
erected, and eighteen families built their bark huts under its protection. In 1626,
Minuit, the first governor, arrived in New Amsterdam, and purchased Manhattan
Island of the Indians for about $24, nearly 1 mill per acre.
t Some of the old Dutch manors remain to this day The famous anti-rent diffi-
gulties (p. 182) grew out of such titles.







EPOCH II


tory of New York is only an account of Indian butcheries,
varied by difficulties with the Swedes on the Delaware, and
the English on the Connecticut.* These disturbances are
monotonous enough in the recital, but doubtless thrilled the
blood of the early Knickerbockers. Peter Stuyvesant was the
last and ablest of the four Dutch governors. He agreed with
Connecticut upon the boundary line (1650), and,taking an


A
., I


THE DUTCH TRADING WITH THE INDIANS AT NEW YORK.


armed force, marched upon the Swedes, who at once sub-
mitted to him. But the old governor hated democratic in-
stitutions, and was terribly vexed in this wise. There were
some English in the colony, and they longed for the rights
of self-government which the Connecticut people enjoyed.
They kept demanding these privileges and talking of them
to their Dutch neighbors. At this juncture, an English fleet

These disputes arose from the fact that the Dutch claimed the territory lying
between the Delaware and the Connecticut.


[1866.






1664.] DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH COLONIES. 67

came to anchor in the harbor and demanded the surrender
of the town in the name of the Duke of York. Stout-hearted
old Peter pleaded with his council to fight. But in vain. They
rather liked the idea of English rule. The surrender was
signed, and at last the reluctant governor attached his name.
In September, 1664, the English flag floated over Manhat-
tan Island. The colony was named New York in honor of
the proprietor.
The English Governors disappointed the people by not
granting them their coveted rights. A remonstrance against
being taxed without representation was burned by the hang-
man. So that when, after nine years of English rule, a Dutch
fleet appeared in the harbor, the people went back quietly
under their old rulers. But the next year, peace being re-
stored between England and Holland, New Amsterdam be-
came New York again. Thus ended the Dutch rule in the
colonies. Andros, who twelve years after played the tyrant
in New England, was the next governor; but he- ruled so
arbitrarily that he was called home. Under his successor,
Dongan, an assembly of the representatives of the people
was called, by permission of the Duke of York (1683). This
was but a transient gleam of civil freedom, for two years
after, when the Duke of York became James II., King of En-
gland, he forgot all his promises, forbade legislative assem-
blies, prohibited printing-presses, and annexed the colony to
New England. When, however, Andros was driven from
Boston, Nicholson, his lieutenant and apt tool of tyranny in
New York, fled at once. Captain Leisler (lis'ler), supported
by the democracy but bitterly opposed by the aristocracy,
thereupon administered I ,i -, until the arrival of Governor
Sloughter (slaw' ter), who arrested him on the absurd charge
of treason. Sloughter was unwilling to execute him, but
Leisler's enemies, at a dinner party, made the governor








EPOCH II.


drunk, obtained his signature, and before he became sober
enough to repent, Leisler was no more.*
From this time till the Revolution, the struggles of the
people with the royal governors for their rights, developed
the spirit of liberty and paved the way for that eventful
crisis.



VII.-NEW JERSEY.

Settlement.-The present State of New Jersey was em-
braced in the territory of New Netherland, and the Dutch
seem to have had a trading-post at Bergen as early as 1618.
Soon after New Netherland passed into the hands of the Duke
of York, he gave the land t between the Hudson and the Dela-
ware to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret. In 1664, a
company from Long Island and New England settled at
Elizabethtown, which they named after Carteret's wife. This
was the first permanent English settlement in the State.
East and West Jersey.-Lord Berkeley sold his share to
some English Quakers. This part was called WEST JERSEY.
A company of Quakers soon settled at Burlington. Others
followed, and thus West Jersey became a Quaker colony. Sir
George Carteret's portion was called EAST JERSEY. After

For many years, the Atlantic Ocean was infested by pirates. A little after the
events narrated above, William Kidd, a New York ship-master, was sent out to cruise
against these sea-robbers. He turned pirate himself and became the most noted of
them all. Returning from his cruise, he was at length captured while boldly walking
in the streets of Boston. He was carried to England, tried, and hanged. His name
and deeds have been woven into popular romance, and the song My name is Cap-
tain Kidd, as I sailed, as I sailed", is well known. He is believed to have buried his
ill-gotten riches on the coast of Long Island or the banks of the Hudson, and these
localities have been oftentimes searched by credulous persons seeking for Kidd's
treasure.
t This tract was called New Jersey in honor of Carteret, who had been governor
of Jersey Island in the English Channel.


[1691.







1682.] DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH COLONIES. 69

his death, it was sold to William Penn and eleven other
Quakers.*
New Jersey United. -Constant disputes arose out of
the land titles. Among so many proprietors, the tenants
hardly knew from whom to obtain their titles for land. The
proprietors finally (1702) surrendered their rights of govern-
ment to the English crown, and the whole of New Jersey
was united with New York under one governor, but with a
separate assembly. Thirty-six years after, at the earnest
request of the people, New Jersey was set apart as a distinct
royal province.


VIII., IX.-PENNSYLVANIA AND DELAWARE.

Settlement.-The first permanent settlement in Dela-
ware was made near Wilmington (1638), by the Swedes,
on a tract which they called New Sweden. They also estab-
lished the first settlement in Pennsylvania, a few miles
below Philadelphia. The Dutch subsequently conquered
these settlements, but they continued to prosper long after
the Swedish and the Dutch rule had yielded to the con-
stantly-growing English power.
Williain77 Peznn, the founder of Pennsylvania, was a cele-
brated English Quaker.f He obtained from Charles II. a
grant of the land lying west of the Delaware. This tract,

It was settled, however, largely by Puritans and Scotch Presbyterians. The
latter, having refused to accept the English form of religion, had been bitterly perse-
cuted. Fleeing their native country, they found an asylum in this favored land.
+ The Quakers, avoiding unmeaning forms, aim to lead purely spiritual lives.
Their usual worship is conducted in solemn silence, each soul for itself. They take
no oath, make no compliments, remove not the hat to king or ruler, and "thee and
"thou" both friend and foe. Every day is to them a holy day, and the Sabbath
simply a day of rest. We can readily see how this must have scandalized the
Puritans.
William Penn became a Quaker while in college at Oxford. Refusing to wear the
customary student's surplice, he with others violently assaulted some fellow-students







EPOCH II.


Penn named Sylvania, but the king insisted upon calling it
Pennsylvania* (Penn's woods). The Duke of York added
to this grant the present State of Delaware, which soon
came to be termed the "Three lower counties on the Dela-
ware ". Penn wished to form a refuge for his Quaker
brethren, who were bitterly persecuted in England. He at
once sent over large numbers, as many as two thousand in
a single year. In 1682, he came himself, and was received
by the settlers with the greatest cordiality and respect.
Philadelphia Founded.-The year following (1683), Penn
purchased land of the Swedes and laid out a city which he
named Philadelphia, signifying BROTHERLY LOVE. It was in
the midst of the forest, and the startled deer bounded past
the settler who came to survey his new home Yet within a
year, it contained one hundred houses; in two years, it num-
bered over two thousand inhabitants; and in three years, it
gained more than New York had in half a century.
The Great Law was a code agreed upon by the legisla-
tive body which Penn called from among the settlers soon
after his arrival. It made faith in Christ a necessary quali-
fication for voting and office-holding; but also provided that
no one believing in "Almighty God" should be molested in
his religious views. The Quakers, having been persecuted
themselves, did not celebrate their liberty by persecuting

and stripped them of their robes. For this he was expelled. His father would not
allow him to return home. Afterward relenting, he sent him to Paris, Cork, and
other cities, to soften his Quaker peculiarities. After several unhappy quarrels, his
father proposed to overlook all else if he would only consent to doff his hat to the
king, the Duke of York, and himself. Penn still refusing, he was again turned out
of doors. He was several times imprisoned for his religious extremes. On the death
of his father, to whom he had once more been reconciled, he became heir to quite a
fortune. He took the territory which forms Pennsylvania in payment of a debt of
16,000 due his father from the crown.
Penn offered the secretary who drew up the charter twenty guineas to leave off
the prefix "Penn ". This request being denied, the king was appealed to, who com-
manded the tract to be called Pennsylvania, in honor of William Penn's father.


[1682.






1683.] DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH COLONIES. ( .

others. Penn, himself, surrendered the most of his power
to the people. His highest ambition seemed to be to
advance their interests. He often declared that if he knew
any thing more that could make them happier, he would
freely grant it.
Penn's Treaty with the Indians* possesses a romantic
interest. He met them un-
der a large elm-tree t near
Philadelphia. The savages
were touched by his gentle
words and kindly bearing.
"We will live in love with
William Penn and his chil-
dren," said they, "as long
as the sun and moon shall
shine."
Penn's Return. Penn
returned to England (16 8 4),
leaving the colony fairly pA f ; ,,
established. His benevo-
WILLIAM PFENN.
lent spirit shone forth in
his parting words, "Dear friends, my love salutes you
all."
Delaware.-" The three lower counties on the Delaware"

"We meet", said Penn, "on the broad pathway of good faith and good will; no
advantage shall be taken on either side, but all shall be openness and love. The
friendship between you and me I will not compare to a chain; for that the rains
might rust or the falling tree might break. We are the same as if one man's body
were to be divided into two parts; we are all one flesh and blood."
t This tree was carefully preserved until 1810, when it was blown down. A mon-
ument now marks the spot.
$ The simple-minded natives kept the history of this treaty by means of strings
of wampum, and they would often count over the shells on a clean piece of bark and
rehearse its provisions. "It was the only treaty never sworn to, and the only one
never broken." On every hand the Indians waged relentless war with the colonies,
but they never shed a drop of Quaker blood.







EPOCH II.


being greatly offended by the action of the council which
Penn had left to govern in his absence, set up for themselves.
Penn "sorrowfully" consented to their action, appointed a
deputy governor over them and afterward granted them an
assembly. Pennsylvania and Delaware, however, remained
under one governor until the Revolution.
Penn's Heirs, after his death (1718), became proprietors
of the flourishing colony he had established. It was ruled
by deputies whom they appointed; but, in 1779, the State
of Pennsylvania bought out their claims by the payment of
about half a million of dollars.*


X.-MARYLAND.

Settlement.-Lord Baltimore t (Cecil Calvert), a Catholic,
was anxious to secure for the friends of his church a refuge
from the persecutions which they were then suffering in
England. He accordingly obtained from King Charles a
grant of land lying north of the Potomac. The first settle-
ment was made (1634) by his brother, at an Indian village
which he called St. Mary's, near the mouth of the Potomac.
The Charter was very different from that granted to Vir-

A difficulty having arisen with Maryland about boundaries, it was settled by
two surveyors named Mason and Dixon, who ran the line in 1763-'67. This Mason
and Dixon's Line afterward became famous as the division between the slave and
the free States.
t His father, George Calvert, the first Lord Baltimore, with this same design had
attempted to plant a colony in Newfoundland. But having failed on account of the
severity of the climate, he visited Virginia. When he found that the Catholics were
there treated with great harshness, he returned to England, took out a grant of land,
and bestowed upon it, in honor of the queen, the name Mary's land (Terra Marix).
Before the patent had received the great seal of the king, Lord Baltimore died. His
son, inheriting the father's noble and benevolent views, secured the grant himself,
and carried out the philanthropic scheme.
$ It is curious to observe how largely this country was peopled in its earlier days
by refugees for religious faith. The Huguenots, the Puritans, the Walloons, the
Quakers, the Presbyterians, the Catholics, the persecuted of every sect and creed,
all flocked to this "home of the free".


[1691.







1684.] DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH COLONIES. 73

ginia, since it gave to all freemen a voice in making the laws.
An Assembly,called in accordance with this provision, passed
(1649) the celebrated TOLERATION ACT, which secured to all
Christians liberty to worship God according to the dictates
of their own conscience. Maryland, like Rhode Island,* be-
came an asylum for the persecuted.
Civil Wars.-l. Clayborne's Rebellion (1635).-The Vir-
ginia colony claimed that Lord Baltimore's grant covered
territory belonging to them. Clayborne, a member of the
Jamestown council, was especially obstinate in the matter.
He had already established two trading-posts in Maryland,
which he prepared to defend by force of arms. A bloody
skirmish ensued, in which his party was beaten. ('i i...t
however, fled to Virginia, and, going to England, appealed
to King Charles I. for redress. But the final decision fully
sustained the rights of Lord Baltimore under the charter.
In 1645, however, Clayborne came back to Maryland, raised
a rebellion and drove Governor Calvert, in his turn, out of
the colony. The governor, at last, raised a strong force,
and Clayborne fled. This ended the contest.
2. The Protestants and the, Catholics.-The Protestants,
having obtained a majority in the Assembly, made a most
ungrateful use of their power. They refused to acknowledge
the hereditary rights of the proprietor, assailed his religion,
excluded Catholics from the Assembly, and even declared
them outside the protection of the law. Civil war ensued.
For years, the victory alternated. At one time, two govern-
ments, one Protestant, the other Catholic, were sustained.
In 1691, Lord Baltimore was entirely deprived of his rights
as proprietor, and Maryland became a royal province. The

Two years before, Rhode Island had passed an act protecting every kind of
religious faith and worship. Maryland extended protection to all forms of Chris-
tianity alone,







EPOCH II.


Church of England was established, and the Catholics were
again disfranchised in the very province they had planted.
In 1715, the fourth Lord Baltimore recovered the govern-
ment, and religious toleration was restored. Maryland re-
mained under this administration until the Revolution.



XI., XII.-THE CAROLINAS.

Settlement.-Lord Clarendon and several other noble-
men obtained (16 63) from Charles II.* a grant of a vast tract
south of Virginia, which was called in honor of the king,
Carolina. Two permanent settlements were soon made.
1. The ALBEMARLE t COLONY. This was a name given to
a plantation already settled by people who had pushed
through the wilderness from Virginia. A governor from their
own number was appointed over them. They were then left
in quiet to enjoy their liberties and forget the world. 2. The
CARTERET COLONY was established (1670) by English immi-
grants. They first sailed into the well-known waters where
Ribaut anchored and the fort of Carolina was erected so long
before. Landing, they began a settlement on the banks of the
Ashley, but afterward removed to the "ancient groves cov-
ered with yellow jessamine", which marked the site of the
present city of Charleston. The growth of this colony was
rapid from the first. Thither came ship-loads of Dutch from
New York, dissatisfied with the English rule and attracted
by the genial climate. The Huguenots (French Protest-

This in Latin is Carolus II.; hence the name Carolina. It was the same that
Ribaut (p. 31) gave his fort, in honor of Charles IX. of France.
t Both colonies were named after prominent proprietors of the grant.
Except when rent day came. Then they were called upon to pay to the English
proprietors a half-penny per acre.


[1691.







1685.] DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH COLONIES. 75

ants), hunted from their homes, here found a southern
welcome.*
The Grand Model was a form of government for the
colonies prepared by Lord Shaftesbury and the celebrated
philosopher, John Locke. It was a magnificent scheme. The
wilderness was to be divided into vast estates, with which
hereditary titles were to be granted. But the model was
aristocratic, while the people were democratic. It granted no
rights of self-government, while the settlers came into the
wilderness for the love of liberty. This was not the soil
on which vain titles and empty pomp could flourish. To
make the Grand Model a success, it would have been neces-
sary to transform the log-cabin into a baronial castle, and
the independent settlers into armed retainers. The attempt
to introduce the scheme arousing violent opposition, it was
at length abandoned. (See page 96.)
North and South Carolina Separated.-The two colonies,
-the northern, or ALBEMARLE, and the southern, or CAP>-
TERET,-being so remote from each other, had from the begin-
ning separate governors, though they remained one province.
There was constant friction between the settlers and the
proprietors. The people were jealous. The proprietors were
arbitrary. Rents, taxes, and rights were plentiful sources of
irritation. Things kept on in this unsettled way until (172 9)
the discouraged proprietors ceded to the crown their right
of government and seven eighths of the soil. The two col-

In Charleston alone there were at one time as many as 16,000 Huguenots. They
added whole streets to the city. Their severe morality, marked charity, elegant
manners, and thrifty habits made them a most desirable acquisition. They brought
the mulberry and olive, and established magnificent plantations on the banks of the
Cooper. They also introduced many choice varieties of pears, which still bear illus-
trious Huguenot names. Their descendants are eminently honorable, and have
borne a proud part in the establishment of our Republic. Of seven presidents who
were at the head of the Congress of Philadelphia during the Revolution, three were
of Huguenot parentage."







EPOCH 1I.


onies were separated, and they remained royal provinces
until the Revolution.



XIII.-GEORGIA.

Settlement.-The same year in which Washington was
born (1732), this last colony of the famous thirteen which
were to fight for independence under him, was planned.
James O'gle thorpe, a warm-hearted English officer, having
conceived the idea of founding a refuge for debtors burdened
by the severe laws of that time, naturally turned to America,
even then the home of the oppressed. George II. granted
him "in trust for the poor ", a tract of land which, in honor
of the king, was called Georgia. Oglethorpe settled at Savan-
nah in 1733.*
A general interest was excited in England, and many
charitable people gave liberally to promote the enterprise.
More emigrants followed, including, as in the other colonies,
many who sought religious or civil liberty.t The trustees
limited the size of a man's farm, did not allow women to

He made peace with the Indians, conciliating them by presents and by his
kindly disposition. One of the chiefs gave him in return a buffalo's skin with the
head and feathers of an eagle painted on the inside of it. "The eagle," said the
chief, "signifies swiftness; and the buffalo, strength. The English are swift as a
bird to fly over the vast seas, and as strong as a beast before their enemies. The
eagle's feathers are soft and signify love; the buffalo's skin is warm and means pro-
tection; therefore love and protect our families."
t The gentle Moravians and sturdy Scotch Highlanders were among the number,
and proved a valuable acquisition to the colony. The former had fled hither from
Austria, for "conscience sake." Lutheran Salzburgers founded a colony in the
pine forests and named it Ebenezer, -taking as their motto "Hitherto hath
the Lord helped us." When John Wesley, the founder of Methodism, came to
America as a missionary with his brother Charles, he was greatly charmed with
the fervent piety of this simple people. The celebrated George Whitefield afterward
founded at Savannah an orphan asylum, which he supported by contributions from
the immense audiences which his wonderful eloquence attracted. On one occasion
sixty thousand were gathered to hear him, and his open-air meetings were often
attended by from twenty thousand to forty thousand people.


[1732.







1752.] DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH COLONIES. 77

inherit land, and forbade the importation of rum,* or of
slaves. These restrictions were irksome, and great discon-
tent prevailed. At last, the trustees, wearied by the fre-
quent complaints of the colonists, surrendered their charter
to the crown. Georgia remained a royal province until
the Revolution.


XIV.-INTER-COLONIAL WARS.

1. KING WILLIAM'S WAR (1689-'97).

Cause. War having broken out in Europe between
England and France, their colonies in America took up the
quarrel. The Indians of Canada and Maine aided the
French, and the Iroquois assisted the English.
Attacks upon the Colonists.-In the depth of winter,
war parties of the French and Indians, coming down on their
snow-shoes from Canada flt !..,, the forest, fell upon the
exposed settlements Df New York and New England, and
committed horrible barbarities. Schenectady, unsuspect-
ing t and defenseless, was attacked at midnight. Men,
women, and children were dragged from their beds and
tomahawked. The few who escaped, half-naked, made
their way through the snow of that fearful night to
Albany. t

Rum was obtained in exchange for lumber in the West Indies. Hence this law
prevented that trade and cut off a valuable source of profit.
t The garrison felt so secure that it is said they had placed at the gate two snow
images for sentinels.
$ The histories of the time abound in thrilling stories of Indian adventure. One
day in March, 1697, Haverhill, Mass., was attacked. Mr. Dustin was at work in the
field. Hurrying to his house, he brought out his seven children, and bidding them
"run ahead", slowly retreated, keeping the Indians back with his gun. He thus
brought off his little flock in safety. His wife, who was unable to escape with him,
was dragged into captivity. The party who had captured Mrs. Dustin marched many
days through the forest, and at length reached an island in the Merrimac. Here she
resolved to escape. A white boy, who had been taken prisoner before, found out
from his master, at Mrs. Dustin's request, how to strike a blow that would produce









Attacks by the Colonists.-Aroused by these scenes of
savage ferocity, the colonists organized two expeditions;
one under Phipps (soon after, Governor of Massachusetts,
p. 5 9), against Port Royal, Acadia; and the other, a combined
land and naval attack on Canada. The former was successful,


MR. DUSTIN DEFENDING HIS CHILDREN FROM THE SAVAGES.


and secured, it is said, plunder enough to pay the expenses
of the expedition. The latter was a disastrous failure.
Peace.-The war lasted eight years. It was ended by
the treaty of Ryswick (riz'wik), according to which, each
party held the territory it had at the beginning of the
struggle.

instant death, and how to take off a scalp. Having learned these facts, in the night
she awoke the boy and her nurse, and arranged their parts. The task was soon done.
Seizing each a tomahawk, they killed ten of the sleeping Indians; only one escaped.
She then scalped the dead bodies, in order to prove her story when she should reach
home, and hastened to the bank, where, finding a canoe, they descended the river
and soon rejoined her family,


EPOCH 1I.


[1689.







1702.] DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH COLONIES. 79



2. QUEEN ANNE'S WAR (1702-'13).

Cause.-E li ilni having declared war against France
and Spain, hostilities broke out between their colonies. The
Five Nations had made a treaty with the French, and so
took no part in the contest. Their neutrality protected
New York from invasion. Consequently, the brunt of the
war fell on New England.
Attacks upon the Colonists. -The N.. England
frontier was again desolated.* Remote settlements were
abandoned. The people betook themselves to palisaded
houses, and worked their farms with their guns always at
hand.
Attacks by the Colonists.-1. At the South.-South
Carolina made a I1- -., expedition against her old enemies
at St. Augustine (1702).t
2. At the ,Aorth.-Port Royal was again wrested from the
French by a combined force of English and colonial troops.

On the last night of February, 1704, a party of about three hundred and fifty
French and Indians reached a pine forest near Deerfield, Mass. The snow lay four
feet deep on the level, but it was covered by a thick crust, while the drifts reached
nearly to the top of the palisades of the town. The stealthy invaders, watching an
opportunity, skulked about till the unfaithful sentinels deserted the morning
watch, when they rushed upon the defenseless slumberers, who awoke from their
dreams to death or captivity. Leaving the blazing village with forty-seven dead
bodies to be consumed amid the wreck, they then started back with their train of one
hundred and twelve captives. The horrors of that march through the wilderness can
never be told. The groan of helpless exhaustion, or the wail of suffering childhood,
was instantly stilled by the pitiless tomahawk. Mrs. Williams, the feeble wife of the
minister, had remembered her Bible in the midst of surprise and comforted herself
with its promises, till, her strength failing, she commended her five captive children
to God, and bent to the savage blow of the war-ax. One of her daughters grew up
in captivity, embraced the Catholic faith, and became the wife of a chief. Years
after, she visited her friends in Deerfield. The whole village joined in a fast for her
deliverance, but her heart loved best her own Mohawk children, and she went back
to the fires of her Indian wigwam.
t Four years after, the French and Spanish in Havana sent a fleet against
Charleston. The people, however, valiantly defended themselves, and soon drove
off their assailants.







80 EPOCH II. [1710.

In honor of the queen, its name was changed to Annapolis.
Another expedition sailed against Quebec, but many of the
ships were dashed upon the rocks in the St. Lawrence, and
nearly one thousand men perished. Thus ended the second
attempt to conquer Canada.
Peace.-The war lasted eleven years. It was ended by
the treaty of Utrecht (.'tr6kt), according to which, Acadia
was ceded to England.



3. KING GEORGE'S WAR* (1744-'48).

Capture of Louisburg.-War having again broken out
between England and France, the flame was soon kindled in
the new world. The only event of importance was the capt-
ure of Louisburg t on the island of Cape Breton, by a com-
bined force of English and colonial troops. The latter did
most of the fighting, but the former took the glory and the

This war was preceded by what is known as the SPANISH WAR ", which grew
out of difficulties then existing between England and Spain. It was marked by no
important event in the colonies. Governor Oglethorpe invested (1740) St. Augus-
tine with a force of two thousand men, but the strength of the Spanish garrison, and
the loss by sickness, caused the attempt to be abandoned. The Spaniards, in their
turn, sent (1742) an expedition against Georgia. By means of a letter which Gov-
ernor Oglethorpe caused to fall into the hands of the Spaniards, they were made to
believe that he expected large reinforcements. Being frightened, they burned the
fort they had captured, and fled in haste. The colonies, also, furnished about four
thousand men for an expedition against the Spanish settlements in the West Indies;
but only a few hundred returned from this disastrous enterprise.
t Louisburg was called the Gibraltar (gi bral'tdr) of America ". Its fortifications
were extensive, and cost upward of $5,000,000. The siege was conducted in the most
unscientific way, the colonial troops laughing at military terms and discipline. When
the place was captured, they were themselves astonished at what they had done. The
achievement called forth great rejoicing over the country, especially in New En-
gland, and had an influence on the Revolutionary War, thirty years after. Colonel
Gridley, who planned General Pepperell's batteries in the siege, laid out the Amer-
ican intrenchments on Bunker Hill. The same old drums that beat the triumphal
entrance of the New Englanders into Louisburg, June 17, 1745, beat at Bunker Hill,
June 17, 1775. When General Gage was erecting intrenchments on Boston Neck,
the provincials sneeringly remarked that his mud walls were nothing compared to
the stone walls of old Louisburg."







1748.] DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH COLONIES. 81

booty. Peace being made in 1748 by the treaty of Aix-la-
Chapelle (aks la sh& pel'), England gave back Louisburg to
the French. The boundaries between the French and the
English colonies were left undecided, and so the germ of a
new war remained.

4. FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR (1754-'63).

Cause.-The English occupied at this time a narrow strip
along the coast, one thousand miles in length. It was like a
string to the great bow of the French territory which reached
around from Quebec to New Orleans. Both nations claimed
the region west of the Alleghany Mountains, along the Ohio
River. The three previous inter-colonial wars had engen-
dered bitter hatred, and occasions of quarrel were abundant.
The French had over sixty military posts guarding the long
line of their possessions. They seized the English surveyors
along the Ohio.* They broke up a. British post on the Miami
(me a' me).f They built a fort at Presque Isle (presk e1'), near
the present town of Erie, Penn.; another, Fort le Boeuf
(l1h bfif), at the present town of Waterford; and a third,
Fort Venango (ve nang' g5), about forty miles south, at the
mouth of French Creek. These encroachments awakened
the liveliest solicitude on the part of the colonists.
Washington's Journey.--Dinwiddie, Lieutenant-Gov-
ernor of Virginia, accordingly sent a message by George
Washington, then a young man of twenty-one, to the French
commander of these forts, asking their removal. Washing-
ton, the very day he received his credentials, set out on his

The claims of the real proprietors, the Indians, were overlooked by both the En-
glish and the French. The Indians, feeling this, sent to the agent of the Ohio Com-
pany the pertinent query, "Where is the Indian's land? The English claim all on
one side of the river, the French all on the other. Where does our land lie? "
t The Indian allies of the French having captured the Miami chief who defended
his English friends, killed and ate him, in true savage style,







82 EPOCH II. [1753.

perilous journey through the wilderness from Williamsburg
to Lake Erie. He found the French officer at Fort Venango
loud and boastful. At Fort le Bceuf, the commandant,
St. Pierre (san pe 6r'), treated him with great respect; but,
like a true soldier, refused to discuss theories, and declared


























of the fort was even then lined with canoes ready for an
-4I

















intended expedition down the river. Washington's return
through the wilderness, a distance of four hundred miles,





was full of peril. order At last, which he should home unharmed, and
delivered St. Pierre's reply.

The streams were swollen. The snow was falling and freezing as i fronell. The
horses gave out, and he was forced to proceed on foot. With only one companion,
he quitted the usual path, and, with the compass as his guide, struck boldly out
through the forest. An Indian, lying in wait, fired at him only a few paces off, but







1754.] DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH COLONIES. 83

War Opens.-Early the next spring, the French, at the
fork of the Monongahela and the Alleghany, drove off a
party of English traders and erected a fort, which was called
Duquesne (du kan'). Soon, among the blackened stumps,
corn and barley were growing on the present site of Pitts-
burgh. In the meantime, a regiment of Virginia troops,
under Colonel Frye, Washington being second in com-
mand, had been sent to occupy this important point. Learn-
ing that the French had anticipated them, Washington
hastened forward with a reconnoitering party. Jumonville
(zhoo m6n vel'), who was hiding among the rocks with a
detachment of French troops, waiting an opportunity to
attack him, was himself surprised and slain.* On the death
of Colonel Frye, soon after, Washington assumed command
and collected the troops at the Great Meadows, behind a
rude stockade, aptly named FORT NECESSITY. Here he was
attacked by a large force of French and Indians, and, after
a severe conflict, was compelled to capitulate.
The Five Objective Points of the War.-1. FonT Du-
QUESNE was the key to the region west of the Alleghanies,
and so long as the French held it, Virginia and Pennsyl-
vania were exposed to Indian attacks. 2. The possession of
LOUISBURG and ACADIA threatened New El:,iiA1,. while it
gave control over the N,--,f ... .1!. 11 i. fisheries. French
privateers harbored there, darted out and captured English
ships, and then returned where they were safe from pursuit.
3. CROWN POINT and TICONDEROGA controlled the route to

missing, was captured. Attempting to cross the Alleghany on a rude raft, they
were caught between large masses of ice floating down the rapid current of the mid-
channel. Washington thrust out his pole to check the speed, but was jerked into
the foaming water. Swimming to an island, he barely saved his life. Fortunately,
in the morning the river was frozen over, and he escaped on the ice.
Washington's word of command to "fire!" upon that skulking foe (May 28,
1754), was the opening of the campaign. Washington himself, it is said, fired the
first gun of that long and bloody war.







EPOCH II.


Canada by the way of Lake George and Lake Champlain,
and also offered a safe starting-point for French expeditions
against New York and New England. 4. NIAGARA lay on the
portage between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, and thus pro-
tected the great fur trade of the upper lakes and the West.
5. QUEBEC being the strongest fortification in Canada, gave
control of the St. Lawrence, and largely decided the posses-
sion of that province.
We thus see why these points were so persistently at-
tacked by the English, and so obstinately defended by the
French. We shall speak of them in order.
I. Fort Duquesne.-The First Expeditioi (1755) was
commanded by General Braddock, Washington acting as an
aid-de-camp (ad'de kong). The general was a British officer,
proud and conceited. Washington warned him of the dan-
gers of savage warfare, but his suggestions were received
with contempt.* The column arrived within ten miles of the
fort, marching along the Monongahela in regular array,
drums beating and colors flying. Suddenly, in ascending a
little slope, with a deep ravine and thick underbrush on each
side, they came upon the Indians lying in ambush. The terri-
ble war-whoop resounded on every hand. The British regu-
lars huddled together, and, frightened, fired by platoons, at
random, against rocks and trees. The Virginia troops alone
sprung into the forest and fought the savages in Indian
style. Washington seemed every-where present. An Indian
chief with his braves specially singled him out. Four balls
passed through his clothes. Two horses were shot under
him. Braddock was mortally wounded and borne from the

"The Indians," said Braddock, "may frighten continental troops, but they can
make no impression on the king's regulars!"
t Fifteen years after, this old Indian chief came a long way" to see the Virginia
officer at whom he fired a rifle fifteen times without hitting him, during the Monon-
gahela fight. Washington never received a wound in battle.


[1755.







1755.] DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH COLONIES. 85

field. At last, when the colonial troops were nearly all
killed, the regulars turned and fled disgracefully, abandon-
ing every thing to the foe. Washington covered their flight
and saved the wreck of the army from pursuit.
Second Expedition (17 5 8).-General Forbes led the second
expedition, Washington commanding the Virginia troops.
The general lost so much time in building roads that, in
November, he was fifty miles from the fort. A council of
war decided to give up the attempt. But Washington re-
ceiving news of the weakness of the French garrison, urged
a forward movement. He himself led the advance guard,
and by his vigilance dispelled all danger of Indian surprise.
The French fired the fort, and fled at his approach. As the
flag of England floated out over the ruined ramparts, this
gateway of the West was named Pittsburgh.*
2. Acadia and Louisburg.--1. .cadia.-Scarcely had
the war commenced, when an attack was made on the
A ca'di an boundary. The French forts at the head of the
Bay of Fundy were quickly taken, and the entire region
east of the Penobscot fellinto the hands of the English.t
2. Loztsbzur, (1757).-General Loudoun (lOw'don) col-
lected an army at Halifax for an attack on Louisburg. After
spending all summer in drilling his troops, he gave up the

This was in honor of William Pitt, prime minister of England, whose true friend-
ship for the colonies was warmly appreciated in America. He came into power in
1758, and from that time the war took on a different aspect. (Barnes' Gen. I-ist.
p. 534.)
+ This victory was disgraced by an act of heartless cruelty. The Acadians were a
simple-minded, rural people. They readily gave up their arms and meekly submitted
to their conquerors. But the English authorities, knowing their sympathy with the
French, drove old and young on board the ships at the point of the bayonet, and dis-
tributed them among the colonies. Families were broken up, their homes burned,
and the broken-hearted Acadians met every-where only insult and abuse. Longfel-
low pathetically describes the misfortunes of these exiles, in his world-famous poem ,
"Evangeline." Parkman, in Hlarper's Magazine, Nov., 1884, gives another version,
and claims that the expulsion was justified on the part of the English and the
colonists,







EPOCH II.


[1758.


attempt on learning that the French fleet contained one
more ship than his own The next year, Generals Amherst
(am'erst) and Wolfe captured the city after a severe bom-
bardment, and took possession of the entire island.*
3. Crown Point and Ticonderoga.-1. Battle of Lake
George.-About the time of Braddock's expedition, another
was made against Crown Point. The French under Dies-
kaut (des'kow) were met near the head of Lake George.t
Fortunately, General Johnson, being slightly wounded, early
in the action retired to his tent, whereupon, General Lyman,
with his provincial troops, regained the battle then nearly
lost. This victory following closely on the heels of Brad-
dock's disaster, excited great joy. Johnson was given a
baronetcy and $25,000; Lyman, the real victor, received
nothing. This battle ended the attempt to take Crown
Point. Johnson built Fort William Henry near the battle-
field; and, when winter set in, dismissing the New England
militia, went to his fortified stone mansion on the Mohawk.
2. Attack on Ticonderoga.-On a calm Sunday morning,
about four months before the fall of Fort Duquesne, a thou-
sand boats full of soldiers, with waving flags and strains

Abandoning Louisburg, the English made Halifax, as it is to-day, their rendez-
vous (ren'de vo-o) in that region.
t The brave Dieskau was severely wounded. In the pursuit, a soldier found him
leaning against a stump. As he fumbled for his watch to propitiate his enemy, the
soldier, thinking him to be searching for his pistol, shot him.
$ Johnson, the English commander, received word of the approach of the enemy,
and sent out Colonel Williams with twelve hundred men to stop them. In the skir-
mish, Williams was killed. He was the real founder of Williams College, having by
his will, made while on his way to battle, bequeathed a sum to found a free school
for Western Massachusetts.
Two years after, Montcalm (m6nt khm), the new French general, swept down
from Canada and captured this fort with its garrison, although Webb was at Fort
Edward, fourteen miles below, with six thousand men lying idly in camp. The vic-
tory is noted for an illustration of savage treachery. The English had been guaran-
teed a safe escort to Fort Edward. But they had scarcely left the fort when the Indians
fell upon them to plunder and to slaughter. In vain did the French officers peril their
lives to save their captives from the lawless tomahawk. Kill me," cried Montcalm,







1758.] DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH COLONIES. 87

of martial music, swept down Lake George to attack Ticon-
deroga. General Abercrombie (ab'er krum bi) ordered an
assault before his artillery came up, and while the battle raged
lay hid away in the rear. A disastrous repulse was the result.*
3. Capture of both Forts.-The next year (1759), at the
approach of General Amherst with a large army, both Ti-
conderoga and Crown Point were evacuated.
4. Niagara.-1. About the time of Braddock's expedition,
General Shirley marched to capture Niagara. But reaching
Oswego and learning of that disastrous defeat, he was dis-
couraged. He simply built a fort and came home.t
2. Nothing further was done toward the capture of this
important post for four years, when it was invested by Gen-
eral Prideaux (prid'o).1 In spite of desperate attempts made
to relieve the garrison, it was at last compelled to surrender
(1759). New York was thus extended to Niagara River,
and the West was secured to the English.
5. Quebec (1759).-The same summer in which Niagara,
Crown Point, and Ticonderoga were occupied by the En-
glish, General Wolfe anchored with a large fleet and eight
thousand land troops in front of Quebec. Opposed to him
was the vigilant French general, Montcalm, with a command

in desperation, "but spare the English, who are under my protection." The Indian
fury, however, was implacable, and the march of the prisoners to Fort Edward be-
came a flight for life.
While the main army was delaying after this failure, Colonel Bradstreet obtained
permission to go against Fort Frontenac, on the present site of Iingston. Crossing
the lake, he captured the fort and a large quantity of stores intended for Fort Du-
quesne. The loss disheartened the garrison of the latter place, frightened off their
Indian allies, and did much to cause its evacuation on the approach of the English.
+ The next year, that indefatigable general, Montcalm, crossed the lake from
Canada and captured this fort with its garrison and a large amount of public stores.
$ Prideaux was accidentally killed during the siege, but his successor, Johnson,
satisfactorily carried out his plans.
It was expected that the two armies engaged in the capture of these forts would
join Wolfe in the attack on Quebec; but, for various reasons, they made no attempt
to do so, and Wolfe was left to perform his task alone.







88 EPOCH II, [1759.

equal to his own. The English cannon easily destroyed the
lower city next the river, but the citadel being on higher
ground, was far out of their reach. The bank of the river.




















QUEBEC IN EARLY TIMES.

for miles a high craggy wall, bristled with cannon at every
landing-place. For months, Wolfe lingered before the city,
-vainly seeking some feasible point of attack. Carefully re-
connoitering the precipitous bluff above the city, his sharp
eyes at length discovered a narrow path winding among the
rocks to the top, and he determined to lead his army up this
ascent.* To distract the enemy's attention, he took his men
several miles up the river. Thence dropping down silently

General Wolfe was a great admirer of the poet Gray. As he went the rounds for
final inspection on the beautiful starlight evening before the attack, he remarked to
those in the boat with him, "I would rather be the author of The Elegy in a Coun-
try Church-yard', than to have the glory of beating the French to-morrow"; and
amid the rippling of the water and the dashing of the oars, he repeated:
The boast of heraldry, the pomp of power,
And all that beauty, all that wealth o'er gave,
Await alike the inevitable hour;
The paths of glory lead but to the grave."







1759.] DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH COLONIES. 89

by night with the ebb-tide, they landed, clambered up the
steep cliff,* quickly dispersed the guard, and, at day-break,
stood arrayed in order of battle on the Plains of Abraham.
Montcalm, astonished at the audacity of the attempt, could
scarcely believe it possible. When convinced of its truth, he
at once made an impetuous attack. Wolfe's veterans held
their fire until the French were close at hand, then poured
upon them rapid, steady volleys. The enemy soon wavered.
Wolfe, placing himself at the head, now ordered a bayonet
charge. Already twice wounded, he still pushed forward.
A third ball struck him. He was carried to the rear. "They
run! They run !" exclaimed the officer on whom he leaned.
"Who run?" he faintly gasped. "The French," was the
reply. "Now God be praised, I die happy," murmured the
expiring hero. Montcalm, too, was fatally wounded as he
was vainly trying to rally the fugitives. On being told by
the surgeon that he could not live more than twelve hours,
he answered, "So much the better. I shall not see the sur-
render of Quebec."
Five days afterward (September 18, 1759), the city and
garrison capitulated.
Close of the War.t Peace.-The next year, an attempt
was made to re-capture Quebec. But a powerful fleet arrived
from England in time to raise the siege. A large army
marched upon Montreal, and Canada soon submitted. The
English flag now waved over the continent, from the Arctic
Ocean to the Mississippi. Peace was made at Paris in 1 763.
Spain ceded Florida to England. France gave up to En-
Although Wolfe rose from a sick-bed to lead his troops, he was the first man to
land. The shore was lined with French sentinels. A captain who understood
French and had been assigned this duty, answered the challenge of the sentinel
near the landing, and thus warded off the first danger of alarm.
t The five points which were especially sought by the English were now all capt-
ured. Canada itself, worn out, impoverished, and almost in famine, because of the
long war, was ready for peace.







EPOCH II.


gland all her territory east of the Mississippi, except two
small islands south of Newfoundland, retained as fishing
stations; while, to Spain she ceded New Orleans, and all
her territory west of the Mississippi.
Pontiac's War.-The French traders and missionaries
had won the hearts of the Indians. When the more haughty
English came to take possession of the western forts, great
discontent was aroused. Pon'ti ac, a chief of the Ottawas,
Philip-like, formed a confederation of the tribes against the
common foe. It was secretly agreed to fall upon all the
British posts at once. Eight forts were thus surprised and
captured.* Thousands of persons fled from their homes to
avoid the scalping-knife. At last, the Indians, disagreeing
among themselves, deserted the alliance, and a treaty was
signed. Pontiac, still revengeful, fled to the hunting-grounds
of the Illinois. He was killed (1769), at Cahokia, by an
Indian, for the bribe of a barrel of liquor.
Effects of the French and Indian War.-During this war,
the colonists spent $16,000,000, and England repaid only
$5,000,000. The Americans lost thirty thousand men, and
suffered the untold horrors of Indian barbarity. The taxes
sometimes equaled two thirds the income of the tax-payer;
Various stratagems were employed to accomplish their designs. At Maumee, a
squaw lured forth the commander by imploring aid for an Indian woman dying out-
side the fort. Once without, he was at the mercy of the ambushed savages. At
Mackinaw, hundreds of Indians had gathered. Commencing a game at ball, one
party drove the other, as if by accident, toward the fort. The soldiers were attracted
to watch the game. At length, the ball was thrown over the pickets, and the Indians
jumping after it, began the terrible butchery. The commander, Major Henry, writ-
ing in his room, heard the war-cry and the shrieks of the victims, and, rushing to his
window, beheld the savage work of the tomahawk and the scalping-knife. Amid un-
told perils, he himself escaped. At Detroit, the plot was betrayed by a squaw, and
when the chiefs were admitted to their proposed council for "brightening the chain
of friendship ", they found themselves surrounded by an armed garrison. Pontiac
was allowed to escape. Two days after, he commenced a siege which lasted several
months. In payment of the supplies for his army, he issued birch-bark notes signed
with the figure of an otter. These primitive "government bonds" were promptly
paid when due.


[1763.







1763.] DEVELOPMENT OF ENGLISH COLONIES. 91

but were paid without murmur, because levied by the colo-
nists themselves. The men of different colonies and diverse
ideas fought shoulder to shoulder, and many sectional jeal-
ousies were allayed. They learned to think and act independ-
ently of the mother country, and thus came to know their
strength. Democratic ideas had taken root, legislative bodies
had been called, troops raised, and supplies voted, not by En-
gland, but by themselves. They had become fond of liberty.
They knew their rights and dared maintain them. When
they voted money, they kept the purse in their own hands.
The treatment of the British officers also helped to unite
the colonists. They made sport of the awkward provincial
soldiers. The best American officers were often thrust aside
to make place for young British subalterns. But, in spite of
sneers, Washington, Gates, Montgomery, Stark, Arnold,
Morgan, Putnam, all received their training, and learned
how, when the time came, to fight even British regulars.



15. COLONIAL CIVILIZATION.

There were now thirteen colonies. They numbered nearly 2,000,000 people. The
largest city was Philadelphia, which contained about twenty-five thousand inhab-
itants. There were slaves in all the colonies, those at the North being chiefly house
servants. Three forms of government existed-charter, proprietary, and royal.
Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut had charter governments. Mary-
land and Pennsylvania (with Delaware) were proprietary-that is, their proprietors
governed them. Georgia, Virginia, New Hampshire, New York, New Jersey, and
the Carolinas were directly subject to the crown. The colonies were all Protestant.
The intolerant religious spirit of early days had moderated, and there had been a
gradual assimilation of manners and customs. The people of all the colonies had
become Americans.
In accordance with the customs of the age, the laws were severe. Thus in
New England, at one time, there were twelve, and in Virginia seventeen, offenses
punishable by death. The affairs of private life were regulated by law in a manner
that would not now be endured. At Hartford, for example, the ringing of the
watchman's bell in the morning was the signal for every one to rise; and in Massa-
chusetts a scold was sometimes gagged and placed near her door (see the picture on
the next page), while for other minor offenses the offender was confined in the
stocks or the pillory.




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