Global positioning systems in natural...
 Sweet fruit holds promise: Women...
 New approach to parks combines...
 DESFIL project news

Group Title: DESFIL newsletter
Title: The DESFIL newsletter
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086655/00002
 Material Information
Title: The DESFIL newsletter
Series Title: DESFIL newsletter
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Development Strategies for Fragile Lands (Project)
United States -- Agency for International Development
Publisher: Development Strategies for Fragile Lands Project.
Place of Publication: Washington, D.C.
Publication Date: Summer 1992
Frequency: quarterly
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: a publication of the Development Strategies for Fragile Lands Project.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Summer 1987)-
General Note: "Funded by the United States Agency for International Development."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086655
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 18806289

Table of Contents
    Global positioning systems in natural resource management
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Sweet fruit holds promise: Women are the key in Cupuacu production
        Page 3
        Page 4
    New approach to parks combines development, conservation
        Page 5
        Page 6
    DESFIL project news
        Page 7
        Page 8
Full Text

Development Strategies for Fragile Lands

-le1N I

Global Positioning Systems

in Natural Resource


In Sudan, GPS mapping technologies helped build a database on veg-
etation to combat desertification. In India and Nepal, GPS-based map-
ping systems are being used to test the theory that the Himalayas are
rising by almost two centimeters a year. In Thailand, GPS-based map-
ping software will be used to pinpoint locations of'hill tribe villages and
to collect census and environmental data in Chiang Mai, Mae Hong Son,
and Tok provinces to help solve problems such as deforestation.

G lobal Positioning Systems
(GPS) and associated mapping tech-
nologies using radio signals from or-
biting satellites could soon become a
vital tool in developing countries, es-
pecially for natural resource manage-
ment. Although use of the technolo-
gies has been expanding in the United
States for more than a decade, the
examples in Sudan, India, and Thai-
land are among the first applications
in the developing world.
Each GPS unit operates with an an-
tenna and receiver containing a com-
puter program that translates radio
signals received from a constellation
of satellites into precise determina-
tions of latitude, longitude, and alti-
tude. These positions are stored in
computer memory in the receiver or
in a computer used in conjunction

3 Sweet Fruit Holds Promise:
Women are Key in
Cupuaqu Production

5 New Approach to Parks
Combines Development,

6 In Nepal: Peasants Take
Part in Annapurna Project

7 Green Book Reveals Policy
Impacts on Environment

7 Tenure Workshop: First
Step in DESFIL Study

with the receiver. The GPS locational
data are generally used with geographic
information systems (GIS) software,
which converts the locational data to a
map. Mapping, however, is only one
of many GPS database uses.
Several trends have kindled recent in-
terest in GPS in the development com-
munity. First, the NAVSTAR satellite
system of the U.S. Department of De-
fense, on which GPS relies, now has 18
satellites in orbit, so that at least three
are visible above the horizon almost
anywhere at any time to ensure accu-
rate GPS measurements, according to
Donald Alford, a private sector hy-
drologist who works to apply GPS in
Second, as with most modern technol-
ogy, the size of the equipment shrinks
continued on page 2

Sudanese forester calculates position with handheld GPS unit.
I II _

Global Positioning Systems...irompage I

and its flexibility increases as the prod-
uct is refined. A GPS receiver is now
small enough to fit in the palm of a
hand. It can be transported on a variety
of moving objects.

Geologists measuring the Himalayas
found yaks to be their most reliable
transport. On city streets, an antenna
attached to the roof of a car can collect
enough data to produce an accurate
map by the end of the day.

Third, GPS equipment operators need
no advanced degrees. An intelligent
high school graduate can learn to oper-
ate a basic GPS mapping system with a
few hours of training. A group of such
technicians, supervised by a trained
professional and using the mapping soft-
ware now available, can map far greater
areas than has been possible to date, by
interacting with preprogrammed in-
structions placed in a laptop computer.

Finally, GPS technology has become
more available in recent years. A re-
ceiver costs one-tenth what it did sev-
eral years ago, and prices will probably
drop further if the demand continues to
grow. A GPS unit (receiver, plastic
radio antenna, and precise clock) is
often used with a laptop computer and
mapping software in the field. A fairly
precise six-channel receiver that could
be used in development projects costs
around $6,500, although receivers range
in cost from $1,000 up to $20,000.

GPS experts concede that price could
be a constraint in developing countries.
The fact that the expense is offset by a
reduction in the labor required for map-
ping may not always be an advantage.

A greater limitation at present may be
that the technology is still in the re-
search and development stage. It will
be another 18 months before the
NAVSTAR constellation of 21 satel-
lites is fully in place, and the software is
still being refined.
continued on page 3


The DESFIL Newsletrer is published quarterly by the Development
Strategies for Fragile Lands (DESFILI Project. Funded by the U.S. Agency
for International Development (AID) through a contract between AID's
Office of Research and De elopment and Chemonics International.
DESFIL provides analysis and technical assistance to AID missions and
bureaus. host-country agencies, and private voluntary organizations Its
goal is to promote the effective participation of local resource users in the
sustainable management of fragile lands. Its geographic scope is global and
its ecological scope inc ludes low land tropical forests, steep slopes, and arid
and semi-arid lands. Chemonics collaborates t ith Abt Associates Inc..
Datex Inc.. and Rodale Institute in implementing the DESFIL project.

For further information or to gain access to DESFIL services, please

Peter Frumhoff. PhD, DESFIL Technical Advisor
AID/R&D/EID/R -D. Room 622D, 5A-18,
Washington, DC 205123-1814
Tel: (703) 875-4532 Fax: (703) 875-4949


Albert "Scaff" Bro\wn
Senior Pir, grilm ,ih4tlager (Chemonics)
Valerie Estes, PhD
Sociocultural Analyst (Datle )
Nancy Forster, PhD iChemonics.)
Incentives and Pr, opeir' Rights Coordinator
George Johnston, PhD
Policy P ,miraum Ci, rdinatir (Abt).
Michael Sands, PhD
Tc IhnohliP\ Pi rgram Coordinaitr (Rodale)

In the interest of communicating ilh the community ot indi\ iduals and
institution, dedicated to irnprov ing fragile lands management. The DESFIL
Newsletter welcomes inquiries, comments and criticisms, and additions to
the mailing list.

The DESFIL Newsletter
2000 NI Street. N.\V.. Suite 200
Washington, DC 20036
Tel: (202) 466-5340
Fax: (202) 331-8202

Editor, lruter. Paula Hirschoff
Designer: J. Omar Serritella
Distribution: Ann Hamilton

The irirew etprested in this Is.iue are solely thoie f lthe authors and do not
n'i e eiarjilv repres'ni iith vi'ws 'f AID or thic i otiH i tin q insianiton s. Plea e
aU Anowiledce The DESFIL Newsletter as the sour e when repi odiie ing arnules
trmi fllhs pubhlu anion

Printed on recycled paper.

< ___ __________________ ___

I -I -

Sweet Fruit Holds Promise:

Women Are Key in Cupuaqu Production

In Araras, a community located in the
state of Pard, Brazil, and accessible via
the Transamazon Highway, 120 fami-
lies are exploring how to better process
and market the cupuaqu fruit. Similar
to cocoa, cupuaqu seeds yield a fat that
is made into a kind of chocolate. Its
pulp can be used fresh or frozen and is
sometimes processed into jellies and
candies. The fruit tree grows wild in the
surrounding rainforest, but the local
people have recently started cultivat-
ing it to increase their yield.

Recent attempts to promote cupuaqu in

the Amazon region, however, have
yet to adequately address a problem
common to development programs fo-
cused on the cultivation of agricul-
tural products-the lack of efficient,
effective processing and marketing.

To address that problem, programs
are paying closer attention to the vital
roles that women play in processing
and marketing, according to Judith
Lisansky, U.S. team leader of the
GENESYS Brazil activity. GENESYS
(Gender in Economic and Social Sys-
tems), an AID/Women in Develop-

ment project managed by The Futures
Group, is examining cupuaqu market-
ing at the local level and will be study-
ing the impact of cupuaqu production
and marketing on household incomes
in Araras.

GENESYS plans to use its work in
Araras as a case study to generate guide-
lines on market analysis and planning
for nongovernmental organizations
(NGOs) and local communities in Bra-
zil. At the May meeting of DESFIL's
Gender and Natural Resources Group,
Lisansky described GENESYS' Brazil

continued on page 4

Global Positioning Systems... fom page 2

Environmental Uses of GPS
Environmental problems must be ranked
by both their magnitude and the prob-
ability that remedial action will abate
the problem. Before they can be ranked,
however, the spatial relationships be-
tween sources of pollution and the pat-
terns of pollutant dispersal must be
mapped and analyzed. Traditionally,
these interactions have been depicted as
"snapshots" of a single instant in time
on paper maps,

However, the resources for surveying
and mapmaking, as well as the environ-
mental expertise needed to produce
paper maps of environmental interac-
tions, have often been beyond the reach
of developing countries.

"With integrated GPS/GIS mapping,
the data collection phase no longer re-
quires heavy commitments of time and
money. It becomes less of a controlling
factor. Governments can now virtually

build maps for any purpose, on de-
mand," Alford said. "It's a far better
way to handle environmental prob-
lems with large databases and com-
plex interrelationships."

In addition, GPS will allow countries
to access and update their databases
easily, to add or manipulate data, and
to monitor environmental changes oc-
curring during remedial activities.

Possible GPS uses include rapid
"ground-truthing" of aerial photos and
satellite images, creation of databases
in developing countries that lack data
for GIS applications, and rapid recon-
naissance surveys of urban and rural
infrastructures and environments, such
as fragile lands.

By accelerating surveying activities,
GPS technologies can provide devel-
oping countries with any or all of the
following: a means of improving land

management for assessment, cleanup,
and monitoring of areas suffering envi-
ronmental damage; a basis for delineat-
ing parcels of land being transferred
from state to private ownership; an op-
portunity to transfer technology to de-
veloping areas through cooperative sur-
veying efforts; and an opportunity to
infuse the local economy with currency
by employing local personnel and pur-
chasing local supplies.

The National Geodetic Survey of the
National Oceanic and Atmospheric
Administration is advising AID's Bu-
reau for Europe, Office of Develop-
ment Resources, on GPS applications.
The Survey, which makes available a
list of resources on GPS, can be reached
at(301)443-8171 (phone)or(301)881-
0117 (fax). '*

Sweet Fruit Holds Promise... frompage 3

activity, which is too new to have pro-
duced lessons for the development com-
munity as yet.

The Brazil activity, partially funded by
AID's Environment and Global Cli-
mate Change (E/GCC) Program, also
provides Araras with technical assis-
tance and training and supports the
services of a local gender specialist to
help integrate socioeconomic consid-
erations into the work in Araras. The
gender specialist is on the staff of
CEPASP (Centro de Educaqao,
Pesquisa e Assessoria Sindical e Popu-
lar), an NGO based in the town of
Marabi some 60 km from Araras.

Through this activity, GENESYS also
works with five other Brazilian NGOs,
including the Rubber Tappers Council
and the Institute for Amazonian Stud-
ies. Information sharing among the
NGOs and funders is an important as-
pect of GENESYS' work in Brazil.

Relying on Women
In the Brazilian Amazon, the use of
alternative forest products such as
cupuaqu relies heavily on women's
knowledge, skills, and labor, accord-
ing to Lisansky.

With CEPASP's help, Araras has es-
tablished acupuaqu work station where
women are involved in processing. The
processed fruit is stored in-three freez-
ers purchased with funds from the
World Wildlife Fund. A women's or-
ganization, with many members from
Araras, plans to produce and sell sweets
made from cupuaqu. Araras even held
a festival in Marabi to promote cupuaqu.

Development experts' growing recog-
nition of women's involvement in ex-
tractive and agroforestry systems, as
well as AID's commitment to include
women as participants and beneficia-
ries in the development process, under-
lie the GENESYS mission to integrate
gender issues into the work of Brazil-
ian NGOs and forest communities.

In the Amazon,

the use of


forest products

such as cupuagu

relies heavily
on women S



and labor.

In her presentation, Dr. Lisansky
identified two key aspects of
women's involvement in the environ-
ment. First, their roles differ accord-
ing to the type of forest community in
which they live. In extractive reserves,
for example, women are involved in
harvesting activities such as rubber
tapping and collecting medicinal
plants. In agroforestry-based commu-
nities, women tend seedlings and pro-
cess fruits. Second, in the Amazonian
communities, as in most of the world,
women's economic (production)
roles tend to be invisible to outsiders,
yet critical to family welfare.

As GENESYS examines cupuaqu
production and processing in Araras,
it will attempt to answer such gender-
related questions as how much is
being earned and by whom, who

shoulders the costs and risks in the
cupuaqu distributional system, and what
impact cupuaqu marketing activities
have on household welfare.

E/GCC is an AID initiative to reduce
greenhouse emissions in Latin America
and the Caribbean, primarily by
sustainably managing the forests. As a
means of accomplishing that goal, the
program is identifying promising forest
products and helping to develop them
as economic alternatives to slash-and-
burn agriculture and other practices,
according to an E/GCC representative.
The findings will be examined along
with other results in E/GCC's search for
sustainable solutions to destruction of
the forests, he said.

"We have to identify how to use forest
products both sustainably and profit-
ably; therefore, we need to address is-
sues such as product marketability and
risks," said Lee Martinez, GENESYS
activity manager. "After all, this effort
must provide the local populations with
an economically viable alternative to
cutting down the forest."

For more information about GENESYS'
Brazil activity, contact The Futures
Group, 1 Thomas Circle, Sixth Floor,
Washington, DC 20005. 4


Gender Issues in Agriculture and Natu-
ral Resource Management, a manual
produced by AID's Women in Develop-
ment (WID) division, contains methods,
guidelines, and examples to facilitate
the integration of women into develop-
ment projects. The authors are Sandra
Russo, Jennifer Bremer-Fox, Susan
Poats, and Laurene Graig. The publica-
tion is available free from Publications
Manager, AID/RD/WID, Room 714
SA18, Washington, DC 20523. Ask for
Document No. PN-ABC-450. 4*

New Approach to Parks Combines

Development, Conservation

Anew approach to national parks and
protected areas (PAs) that combines
conservation with development may
offer the best chance to protect threat-
ened wildlands and the very valuable
biological reserves they contain. The
approach, called integrated conserva-
tion/development projects (ICDPs), has
often been difficult to implement, how-
ever, and sometimes has had disappoint-
ing results.

The ICDP approach grew from the rec-
ognition that traditional methods of pre-
serving parks and PAs, such as fences
and fines, are frequently unsuccessful.
Conserving biological diversity is a fun-
damental goal of conservation groups
worldwide, and creating and soundly
managing parks and PAs is regarded as
the best way to achieve that goal. How-
ever, most of the 4,500 parks and PAs
that protect about 3.2 percent of the
earth's land surface are seriously threat-
ened. Threats come from several
sources, ranging from poor peasants
who have few alternatives but to prac-
tice slash-and-bum agriculture to large-
scale development projects promoted
by international lending institutions.

Conservationists now realize that suc-
cessful management of these areas de-
pends on the cooperation of the people
who live in communities near, or some-
times within, park and PA boundaries.
Management must reach beyond tradi-
tional conservation activities inside
parks and reserves to address the needs
of local communities on the outside,
and especially to provide local people
with alternative income sources that do
not threaten PAs.

Researchers from the World Bank,
World Wildlife Fund, and AID recently
selected 23 ICDP sites in 19 PAs in
Africa, Asia, and Latin America as case

studies. A report on their findings,
People and Parks: Linking Protected
Area Management with Local Com-
imunilic'. found that few of the cases
have met their conservation objec-
tives. The report, published in Febru-
ary 1992, was written by Michael
Wells and Katrina Brandon, with Lee

Managers must

reach beyond


activities to provide

local people with

alternative income

sources that

don't threaten

protected areas.

The problems ICDPs are addressing
are enormous, complicated, and var-
ied. Moreover, many factors that con-
tribute to degradation of PAs and
biodiversity loss originate far from
protected areas-for example, pow-
erful financial incentives that encour-
age the over-exploitation of timber,
wildlife, grazing lands, and cropfields;
and laws, policies, social changes,
and economic forces over which poor
people in remote rural areas have no

The ICDP case studies generally
adopted one or more of the following

(1) Improving park management and
creating buffer zones (areas on the pe-
riphery of parks or reserves designated
for limited resource exploitation by lo-
cal people, although their principal ob-
jective was to protect the park).

(2) Compensating or substituting for
the economic value of natural resources
in the PA to which local people have
been denied access. Compensation can
be provided in the form of cash pay-
ments, goods, or services. Substitutes
can be targeted on specific resource
uses, such as creating woodlots as a
substitute for fuelwood collection in-
side parks.

(3) Promoting local social and eco-
nomic development to mitigate pov-
erty and improve living standards,
based on the premise that pressure on
PAs diminishes when the poor have
alternatives other than to deplete the
environment. Efforts included increas-
ing product marketing opportunities,
promoting nature tourism, generating
local employment, and providing com-
munity social services.

The ICDPs reviewed in People and
Parks are varied, ranging from rela-
tively small biosphere reserves and
buffer zones, to regional land use plans
with PA components, and large-scale
development projects. Most are at an
early stage of development and have
too little funding to accomplish their
objectives. One ICDP that has been
relatively successful is the Annapuma
Conservation Area Project (page 6).

Lessons from the Case Studies
Two of the study's most significant
continued on page 6

New Approach... fom e 5

lessons on how to improve ICDPs are
that 1) local people must be involved at
all stages of project design, implemen-
tation, and evaluation as real partici-
pants, not passive beneficiaries; and 2)
conservation objectives and project ac-
tivities must be clearly and directly
linked. Without such links, ICDPs
may work as development projects, but
they will accomplish little for conser-

In addition, the study suggests that the
many groups that are designing and
implementing ICDPs should include
the following essential elements in
their projects:

* Political commitment to the project
by local authorities, influential local
leaders, and high-level government of-
ficials; passage of legislation condu-
cive to ICDP objectives.

* Simple institutional arrangements for
project management and orientation of
institutions toward an approach based
more on people's needs.

* Systematic attention to land owner-
ship and other resource access rights of
the projects' targeted beneficiaries.

* Project design based on specific sites
with a clear understanding of the local
threats, socioeconomy, ecology, and
appropriate scope, scale, timeframe,
and funding.

SApplication of lessons from rural de-
velopment experience: many projects,
unaware of the wealth of knowledge on
implementing development projects,
were effectively starting from scratch.

To order People and Parks, contact any
World Bank publications distributor or
World Bank Publications, P.O. Box
7247-8619, Philadelphia, PA 19170.
Telephone: (908) 225-2165 Fax: (908)
417-0482. The cost within the U.S. is
$14.45, which includes shipping and
handling. #*

In Nepal: Peasants Take

Part in Annapurna

Conservation Project

Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area, where the local community
has started to participate in natural resource management, represents
a rare case of successfully integrated development and consern action.
Some 40.000 people, mostly poor rural farmers, live in the 2.600
square kilometer conservation area. one of the most geographically
and culturally diverse in the world.

In addition, over 30.000 foreign trekkers visit each year. While tourism
provides needed income, it has led to forest clearing to provide fuel for
cooking and heat for visitors, water pollution and poor sanitation
throughout the area, and litter on the trekking routes.

A royal directive issuedin 1985 sought to improve tourist development
\ while safeguarding the environment. Lobby ing by the King Mahendra
Trust for Nature Conservation. Nepal's premiere nongovernmental
organization (NGO). yielded legislation creating the Annapurna area
the follow ing year. The law allows multiple uses including hunting and
collection of forest products. Visitor fees are used for local develop-
ment, and management is being delegated to the village level.

The NGO created an integrated conservation/development project
(ICDP) to help the inhabitants maintain control over their environ-
ment. Project activities include community development, forest man-
agement. conservation education, and research and training. The top
priorities are to reduce the environmental impact of visiting trekkers
and to increase the local economic benefits from tourism.

To provide for local participation, a committee of tourist-lodge man-
agers was established and a traditional forest management committee,
responsible for enforcing regulations, fining poachers, and controlling
timber cutting, was revived. The project has made significant progress
in motivating a skeptical local population to participate. although local
institutions are not expected to assume major responsibility for several

The spring 1992 issue of The DESFIL Newsletter omitted a name from the list
of team members who prepared a concept paper for a natural resources
management project for the Guatemalan highlands (DESFIL Project Briefs,
p. 7). Ron Strochlic of the University of Wisconsin Land Tenure Center
participated through the ACCESS II project of AID/R&D/EID/RAD. o

_ I I


DESFIL Project News

Green Book Gives Insight into Policy Impacts on Environment

National and local policies often have a powerful influ-
ence on patterns of natural resource management. Yet their
individual and aggregate effects are seldom examined,
particularly if the policies seem to have no direct link to
natural resources.

To encourage such examination, a new tool known as The
Green Book has been developed. The Green Book: An
Environmental Policy Source Book was reviewed at the
biannual conference of AID's Regional Environmental and
Natural Resource Management (RENARM) project, held
in Guatemala in May. Some 70 staff from AID, contracting
agencies, and development and environmental organiza-
tions attended the conference, sponsored by AID's Re-
gional Office of Central American Programs (ROCAP).

The Green Book was developed over the past year by
George Johnston and Hilary Lorraine (RENARM Policy
Research Advisor) under RENARM through the Agricul-
tural Policy Analysis Project II (APAP II) with support
from DESFIL.

The Green Book analyzes key policies in the following
areas: forest management, agriculture and livestock, land
tenure and colonization, protected and reserved areas, wild-
life protection and trade, coastal zone management, envi-
ronmental management, macroeconomics, and population.

In the area of timber concessions, for example, The Green
Book might help answer questions such as these: How do
longer-term timber concessions affect management of pub-
lic natural forests? Do they increase incentives for refores-
tation? What other tenure arrangements and economic
policies affect natural resource management policies?

Each policy analysis includes an explanation of the tradeoffs
among goals for growth, welfare, and conservation, as well
as a detailed review of what is known and not known about
the policy's impact on resource use. The analysis describes
implementation problems and tells who benefits and who
loses when the policy is implemented. The Green Book
also raises further research questions. The general analyses
incorporate a policy taxonomy designed to provide further
insights and a policy menu for resource management.

The Green Book also describes policies in Belize, Costa
Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras, based on
policy inventories APAP II conducted in those countries.

DESFIL will produce a supplemental publication examin-
ing the taxonomy's applications to fragile land issues later
in the year. It will be used to synthesize policy issues related
to fragile lands, to help define DESFIL's policy research
program, to demonstrate the role of policies in fragile lands
management, and for other purposes.

The Green Book will be refined based on feedback from the
RENARM meeting and subsequent reviews. Given the
dynamic nature of policy, it will undergo further develop-
ment as more information becomes available about how
policies intcracl to affect the environment.

Currently organized as a looseleaf notebook, it will be
available as a computer database. In its present form, it is
available from APAP II at Abt Associates Inc., (301) 913-
0500 or Hilary Lorraine, at ROCAP/RADO, Unit 3324,
APO AA 34024, Guatemala City, Guatemala.**

Tenure Workshop: First Step in DESFIL Study

The DESFIL Project and the Land Tenure Center of the
University of Wisconsin-Madison, through its AID-funded
ACCESS Project, are cosponsors of a workshop on Tenure
Issues in Forest Management in Latin America and the
Caribbean (July 30-31, Washington, DC).

The workshop is a first step in DESFIL's comparative
analysis of socioeconomic, cultural, and biological factors
affecting Resource Management Areas (RMAs). RMAs
include areas traditionally managed by Indian groups as

well as those populated by colonists. They are parks;
protected reserves; and lands managed by indigenous
people, forest protection projects, community organiza-
tions, government agencies, and/or private business for the
sustainable use of forest resources.

Some 25 workshop participants with project and/or re-
search experience in 11 forest management areas were to
examine the impact of tenure regimes on human use of
continued on page 8

Tenure Workshop: First Step in DESFIL Study...frompage 7

forest resources. The focus is on the effect of tenure
changes on resource user behavior.

RMAs representing four types of management were to be
examined: NGOs (BOSCOSA in Costa Rica and the
ProPet6n project in Guatemala); community groups (Plan
Piloto and UCEFO in Mexico, PUMAREN in Ecuador, the
Yanesha Forestry Cooperative in Peru, and extractive
reserves in Brazil); private firms with state concessions
(INTEMACA in Venezuela and concessions in the Beni,
Bolivia); and private firms with land ownership (Manuel
Durini Corporation in Ecuador).

The workshop was to answer these questions: What tenure
arrangements help maintain the biological resource base?

What arrangements promote enforcement of land access and
resource use rules? Which ones best build consensus among
local resource users on how to manage forests? Which
promote equitable distribution of benefits from forest activi-

Workshop participants were to develop a broad research
agenda, which will be refined and adapted through further
interaction with local RMA managers and AID mission
personnel. DESFIL and ACCESS will also produce a discus-
sion paper integrating workshop findings with recent re-
search. The projects are exploring innovative ways to ad-
vance this dialogue on tenure issues in order to improve
forest management. -*


Sept. 14-16 Beyond UNCED 1992: Global Forest Conference (Response to Agenda 21)
Bandung, West Java, Indonesia
Contact Dr. Nani Djuangsih, Institute of Ecology, Padjadjaran University, Bandung
Fax: 62-022-433208

Oct. 17-21 World Congress for Education & Communication on Environment & Development
Toronto, Canada
Contact the World Congress, 110 Eglington Avenue West, 3rd Floor, Toronto, Canada M4R 1A3
Tel: (416) 482-9212 Fax: (416) 482-9601

Nov. 5-8

The Natural Environment (seminar for leaders of corporations and
institutions who shape their organizations' policies on environmental matters)
Wye Center, Queenstown, Maryland. Contact Susan Crissinger
The Aspen Institute, P.O. Box 222, Queenstown, Maryland 21658
Tel: (410) 820 5343

Nov. 10-14 III International Congress of Ethnobiology
Culture and Nature: Directions in Conservation for Diversity
Mexico City, Mexico
Contact Organizing Committee of the Congress, Apartado postal 21-585, Coyocin 04000, D.F., Mexico
Tel: (52-5) 550-5057 Fax: (52-5) 548-9785

Dec. 1-3 nInternational Conference on Women and Environment
A Alexandria, Egypt, Contact Prof. Dr. Samia Galal Saad
Department of Environmental Health, High Institute of Public Health
165 El-Horriya Avenue, Alexandria, Egypt
Tel: (20-3) 421-5575/6 Fax: (20-3) 421-8436/422-8379

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