• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Frontispiece
 Title Page
 Dedication
 Preface
 Chapter I
 Chapter II
 Chapter III
 Chapter IV
 Chapter V
 Chapter VI
 Chapter VII
 Chapter VIII
 Appendix
 Back Cover














Title: Down in Porto Rico with a kodak
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086644/00001
 Material Information
Title: Down in Porto Rico with a kodak
Physical Description: 102 p. : incl. front., illus., plates. fold. map. ; 21cm.
Language: English
Creator: Dewell, James D
Publisher: The Record publishing co.
Place of Publication: New Haven
Publication Date: 1898
 Subjects
Subject: Description and travel -- Puerto Rico   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by James D. Dewell.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086644
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000141213
oclc - 01867217
notis - AAQ7357
lccn - 98000575 //r

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Front Matter
        Page 3
    Frontispiece
        Page 4
    Title Page
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Dedication
        Page 7
    Preface
        Page 8
    Chapter I
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Chapter II
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Chapter III
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Chapter IV
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    Chapter V
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Chapter VI
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Chapter VII
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    Chapter VIII
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
    Appendix
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    Back Cover
        Back Cover 1
        Back Cover 2
Full Text























































S

















UNIVERSITY

OF FLORIDA

LIBRARIES








THIS VOLUMEE 7 "
REVIEWED
FOR PRESERVATION.

Date:


Il~u


I


-- -


-ur- --- -I--CL-PR~.~~E~~i~Vil~sTP----. i














With the compliments of the author.
i.. -. -








































Fort Morro, N. W. Angle, San Juan.










:EVown in


PDorto 1Rico with


a lkobah









BY JAMES D. LEWELL
c/ 6 ^- ''!;1








NEW HAVEN
THE RECORD PUBLISHING Co.
1898
































Copyright i898
by
JAMES D. DEWELL


































TO AMY FRIEND

Captain David Lloyd

OF THE STEAMSHIP ARKADIA
IN TOKEN OF HIS MANY ACTS OF KINDNESS
THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED















PREFACE


On a recent business trip to the smallest and most
easterly of the Greater Antilles, I took with me as a
companion my old friend of Greenland days, an
Eastman Kodak. A desire to conserve the views
taken at the time in a more pleasing and permanent
form than by photographic prints has induced the
publication of this brief illustrated narrative of the
Porto Rico of to-day. If the perusal of this little
souvenir volume proves half as enjoyable to my
friends as it has to me in its preparation, I shall feel

more than repaid for my efforts.
J. D. D.
June I, 1898.















CHAPTER I.


The sea is a jovial comrade,
He laughs wherever he goes;
His merriment shines in the dimpling lines
That wrinkle his hale repose;
He lays himself down at the foot of the sun,
And shakes all over with glee,
And the broad-backed billows fall faint on the shore,
In the mirth of the mighty sea.
-Bayard Taylor.

F OR me the ocean has charms. Once I
get well off shore, away from the smell
of the land, freed from business cares, divorced
from the perplexities of all the petty details
and trials of every-day life, I am happy. My
blood flows freer, appetite is keener, diges-
tion more perfect; everything is peaceful and
refreshing, and the music of the wind to my
ear far excels the best equipped orchestra.
The rush and surge of the mighty waters is
soul-satisfying. Too seldom do I find time
to indulge my passion. Such an opportunity
did present itself, however, in January last,









Down in Porto Rico


when a business engagement called me to the
little island of Porto Rico.
It was a cloudy afternoon followed by light
rain in early January, 1898, when I boarded
the steamship Arkadia, of the New York &
Porto Rico Steamship Line, en route for Porto
Rico. Our voyage was uneventful. We passed
out of the lower harbor after sundown. Our
pilot left us when abreast of the new steam
pilot-ship, which was patroling the outer har-
bor. This was my first experience of the
kind. As may be well known, the piloting
in the past has been done from regular pilot
sailboats, but they are passing away with the
march of improvement, and the steam pilot-
ship is taking their place.
The passenger list was light, which I
learned is the usual case on the outward
trip. The passage to Porto Rico is usually
made via Havana; as all of the Spanish mail
ships make Porto Rico to and from Havana,
and as these steamers have much better
accommodations, travel takes that route. Our
few passengers were interesting to a degree,
nevertheless. Four of them were young men,


















































On the Hurricane Deck at Sea, S. S. Arkadia.









Wilt a Kodak.


Spanish Porto Ricans, three of them returning
from a few months at school in the States,
principally to obtain a knowledge of the
English language.
My first snap shot was made on the voyage
and represents a scene on the hurricane deck.
I give it simply because it was my first, and
perhaps interesting to the posers.









City of San Juan.

The weather nearly all of the time was very
fine indeed; our passage was made in less than
six days.
The approach to the island was under the
most favorable conditions, it being in the
morning, with a gentle breeze, and the weather
all that could be desired. As we passed Fort
Morro quite a number of cameras were snapped









Down in Porto Rico


BL





c, ~


Battlement, San Juan, Ponce de Leon Palace in background.

.at that ancient fortress. My effort in this was
fairly successful.
The harbor of San Juan is the best one on
the island and is very commodious and safe,
being nearly land-locked. Before dropping
anchor a snap at the city at long range
developed a fairly good view, though not very
distinct, owing to the great distance.
We go through the usual formalities after
coming to anchor, to wit: the health officer








Wi/th a Kodak.


and custom officials put in their appearance;
we were also visited by the agents of the
steamship line and the United States Consul,
Hon. Philip C. Hanna.


r-- B ffi .-. R *""--^



!iLILE 11^-K^B^JB
r rr! iI


.... '" ". --


Governor General's Palace, San Juan.

The first business in order after going
ashore was to visit the money changers, where.
I received $85 Porto Rico money for $50
American. Also, it is quite necessary to
secure a change of clothing. Leaving the









16 Down in Porto Rico

States in the winter, naturally my clothing
was too warm and burdensome for a tropical
climate.
After getting the necessaries we must find
a good hostelry. The principal and only
fair hotel in San Juan is the Inglaterra," of
which it has been well said, There is noth-
ing English about it but its name." No one
in the house speaks English; not even the
clerk of the hotel can understand a w6rd, and
as I could talk no Spanish it was not very
easy getting on.
I





































City Wall and Fortifications, San Juan.














CHAPTER II.


North of the Sea of the Caribbee,
And laved in the tropical flood,
Floats a beautiful isle in Moorish style,,
But blighted, alas, by Spanish blood.

B EFORE proceeding with the account of
my sight-seeing, a brief description of
the island may be appropriate. Porto Rico,
one of the Spanish West India islands, lies
70 miles east of Hayti in about 18I north
latitude and 660 west longitude. It forms an
irregular parallelogram about one hundred
miles long and forty broad, and has an area of
something over 3,500 square miles, or about
three-quarters the size of Connecticut.
From east to west it is traversed by a range
of hills, so situated that the streams flowing
northward are much longer than those flowing
southward. The highest district and the
highest peak is El Yunque, 3,600 feet high,
situated in the Sierra d'Loquila range near the
northeast corner.









Down in Porto Rico


As the hills intercept the northeast trade
winds with their rain-clouds, there is some-
times almost a superabundance of moisture in
the northern lowlands, whereas in the south


I RII
U 1 HIIII 1111, 111. 1 111 1A V
-ap~ ''Ri"'Z I~I ~

1M


The Plaza, San Juan.


severe droughts occur and the land demands
artificial irrigation, which is carried out with
considerable enterprise in the vicinity of
Ponce among the sugar estates.
The island is, however, reasonably well
watered, many hundred streams being enumer-








Withi a Kodak.


ated, of which more than forty are consider-
able rivers, and its general appearance is very
beautiful. A description of the interior will
be given, following this, from observations
made while taking a carriage drive from San
Juan to Ponce (pronounced Ponsy).
Forests still cover all. the higher parts of
the hills, and the view to the traveler from
the higher eminences is very pleasing to the
eye. As one looks down into the valleys he
is reminded of some sections of our own New



I ,





I :. "" :---.-
i ,


Wharf scene, San Juan.









Down in Porto Rico


S. S. Arkadia in the harbor of San Juan.


England, so far as landscape is considered.
All else is quite different. The rude houses
in the distance are simply thatches on poles.
The better class of the inhabitants live in the
villages or cities.
The two great staples of the island are
sugar and coffee, though tobacco is fast becom-
ing prominent as an article of commerce.









H/ith a Kodak.


Besides the three articles named, there are
grown on the island cotton, rice, corn, bananas
and plantains, as well as oranges, cocoanuts
and other tropical fruits. The rice (which is
one of the chief foods of all classes) is a moun-
tain variety, grown without flooding. However,
so general is its use that much more is imported










Spanish War Ship Concha in harbor of San Juan.

than is home-grown. On the lowland pastures
large herds of excellent cattle are reared for
home use and for export to nearby islands.
During the insurrection in Cuba large num-
bers were sent to that island, hence the trou-
bles there have proved a benefit to Porto Rico.
In general, Porto Rico may be described as
extremely fertile and its exports more than









Down in PorTo Rico


double in value those of Jamaica, which island
is about the same size as Porto Rico.
Formerly the tobacco was largely sent to
Havana to be manufactured into cigars, as the
Porto Ricans have not yet developed the


Harbor of San Juan.
Group of boats alongside S. S. Arkadia.

proper knowledge of either the growing of
the best stock or of manufacturing the better
grade of cigars. However, at the time of my
visit the exportation to Havana had been pro-
hibited, for what reason the Porto Ricans
could not explain, but the -supposition was









With a Kodak.


A Street in San Juan. Ancient Chapel in background.

that Governor Blanco wished to hold up the
price of the Cuban product, which the importa-
tion from Porto Rico would lower.
The great need of the island is good roads
and bridges, although the Government has
done something in that line in recent years.
With the exception of the Government road
from the capital to Ponce (about o8 miles),
most of the roads can be used only by ox
teams or for horseback riding.









Down in Porto Rico


Gold, iron, copper, coal and salt are all
found in Porto Rico, but the last alone is
worked.
The island, which has been a possession of


Ancient Chapel, San Juan, side view.


Spain from its first discovery, was declared a
province in 1870. It is divided into seven
departments: Bayamon, near the northeast
end of the island (containing the capital, San
Juan Bautista and Toa-Alta, Toa-Baja, Naran-
jito, Vega-Alta, etc.); Arecibo (Arecibo, Hat-


















































A Street in San Juan.










Withl a Kodak.


illo Camuy, Quebradillas, etc.); Aguadilla
(Aguadilla, Moca, Aguada Lares or San
Sebastian); Mayaguez (Mayaguez, Anaico,
San German); Ponce (Ponce, Guayanilla,


U. S. Consul Hanna and Wife, San Juan.
On the balcony of the Consulate.


Pennelas, Coamo); Humacao (Humacao,
Naguabo, Luquillo); Guayama (Hat6-Grande,
Gurabo, etc.); and the island of Viequez (with'
the town of Isabel Sequnda) is attached as an









Down in Porto Rico


eighth department and used as a military
penal station.
The population at the present time is esti-
mated at one million, though probably not


Section of Park showing grass thirty days from seeding, San Juan.

more than 900,000. There is still plenty of
room for further expansion.
Among the people of European origin there
are Spaniards, Germans, Swedes, Danes, Rus-
sians, Frenchmen, Chuetas or descendants of











With a Kodak. 31

Moorish Jews from Majorca, and natives of
the Canary Islands. There are also a few
Chinese.
The Gibaros, or small land-holders and day-
laborers of the country districts, are a curious
old Spanish stock modified by Indian blood.


Cayey.


~~'~ ;
.r
~~car"












CHAPTER III.


SAN JUAN BAUTISTA, or St. John's,
the capital, lies in about 18 north lati-
tude on the north coast, on a small island,
connected with the main land by bridges.
Before the days of modern warships it was


C LA I


Cemetery, Cayey.


considered a place of great strength and was
one of the principal walled cities of the West
Indies.
The illustration, "A section of the city
wall," will give an impression of its defences









Wit / a Kodak. 33


















A Wayside Inn between San Juan and Ponce.

from the land side. At the time of my visit a
portion of this old wall was being torn down
and from the grading a small park was
created. To show the great fertility of the
soil a view is shown of the little park with the
grass thirty days from seeding.
In the old fort of Santa Catilina there is yet
standing a palace erected by Ponce de Leon in









Down in Porto Rico


the early part of the sixteenth century, a cut
of which is shown. The harbor, as previously
explained, is one of the best in the West
Indies, having a comparatively unobstructed
entrance and along the wharves a depth at low
water of ten to thirteen feet.


A halt in the Mountains between San Juan and Ponce.

Like most Spanish cities, the streets of San
Juan are narrow. The over-hanging balconies
from the houses on every side are prominent.
In many streets the paving is of brick.
Some of the buildings have modern plumb-
ing, furnished by water-works, but the system
of sewage is in its infancy.










IWith a Kodak.


As a part of the ancient city wall forti-
fication I succeeded in getting a good view
of the old chapel near the United States
Consulate. The chapel is yet used for its



/


Improved Highway.


original purpose. The building is quite small,
as the view will show. The communicants who
visit it for mass have to mass themselves in
the streets and take their turn as they may.









Down in Porto Rico


' / ':& -' .... .
.g .: .. .



-, . .: iaSS,
'#=,_ r' S.7 '-, 7@;


Average roadway not improved:

A second view of this edifice is a front view
showing the chapel in the background. It
also represents one of the principal streets.
It was my good fortune, and pleasure as
well, to meet United States Consul Hanna and
wife at the Consulate, which is a small build-
ing: at the end of the street adjoining the
chapel. In this building the British Consulate
have the ground floor and the United States
the floor above.









With a Kodak.


I succeeded in obtaining a good picture of
Mr. and Mrs. Hanna on the balcony of the
Consulate by gaining admission to the house


Tropical Scenery.


on the opposite side, the street being so nar-
row that a range could not be obtained from
the pavement.
Soon after my departure from the island
Consul Hanna was obliged to temporarily
vacate his post, and he with his wife and
clerk took passage for St. Thomas, where he









Down in Porto Rico


is at the present time awaiting orders from
the Government pending the solution of the
present war. A letter recently received from
Mrs. Hanna states that they expect to go
back very soon.
I was quite pleased with my brief visit to
this pleasant little city and took quite a
number of views, some of which will appear
later on in my diary.
One which is of interest at this time is the


A Coffee Field.









With a Kodak.


Spanish warship Concha. This ship was
doing patrol duty around the island. The
view was taken from the deck of the steamship
Arkadia, thereby giving another outline of the
city and the business front.


An Improved Highway.

While on shore I also got a view of our own
steamship Arkadia at anchor, showing as well
the harbor looking westward.
Like nearly all the ports in the West Indies,
the foreign shipping is despatched and re-


~I"~:
:i


i :









Down in Porto Rico


ceived from vessels lying in the stream at
anchor, but there is a good-wharf at San Juan
for smaller vessels, a view of which is shown.
The Governor General's palace of Ponce de
Leon is now used by the Government for other


An Improved Highway.


purposes and a newer and more modern build-
ing for that purpose is now in use, as shown
in the illustration.
At the time of my visit the office was
vacant, but a new Governor General was
momentarily expected and he arrived a few
days after my departure.









Withl a Kodak.


In a very pretty square there is a Columbus
monument, erected in 1892. Like all Spanish
cities, San Juan- has a plaza, but it is unin-
teresting, there being no fountain or flowers
-simply a square with conveniences for rest


Columbus Monument, San Juan.


in the way of settees and chairs. The plaza
is surrounded by prominent buildings, one of
which is shown herewith. It is used as a
post-office and for other Government purposes.
The streets, as before mentioned, are quite
neat and some of them unusually pretty. A
sample view is given.












CHAPTER IV.


T HE capital, San Juan, was the first prin-
cipal occupation of the island and has
been since the principal point of attack in all
of the wars and invasions of the past. In


Improved Highway winding through the Mountains.

1595 it was sacked by Drake, and in 1598
by the Duke of Cumberland.









With a Kodak.


In 1615 Hendrick, a Dutchman, lost his life
in an attack on the Castle Del Mono. The
attempt of the English in 1678 was equally
unsuccessful, and Abercrombie in 1797 made


Section of Improved Highway.

a landing east of the city and attempted to
subdue it from the land side.
He was defeated at the eastern extremity
of the old city wall and had to retire after a
three days' siege. Had he been successful


R'4 6 FA-~










44 Down in Porto Rico

and the island brought under the sway of the
Anglo-Saxon, what a garden it might be at
this time! In conversation with residents in


z' ,


Sw i.-
-.2
;r ., .%
.kL q j1


Landscape between Caguas and Cayey.


both San Juan and Ponce, many "seemed to
regret that Abercrombie had not succeeded.
One cannot view the vast system of fortifi-
cations and walls without thinking of the
human agony and misery which was forced to
create it all. All through the centuries that









VWifl a Kodak.


these fortifications were being erected it was
under Spanish rule and with slavery at its
worst.
Slavery was not abolished until 1873, and


A Roadside Dream.


most of the laboring classes, both negroes and
mixed blood, were slaves up to that time.
This island has always been the pet of the
home Government. It is free from debt, and,










Down in Porto Rico


being too small for an insurrection to gain
much force, it has usually been peaceful and
quiet.
The fertility of the soil is such that large


..-1i .g T

4r


Landscape between Cayey and Aibonito.


exports of their leading crops have enabled
the people to import what was necessary for
their comfort and happiness to a greater
degree than in Cuba.









With a Kodak.


On the day following our arrival I started
before daybreak in the rain to drive over that
great pride of the people, the improved high-
way from the capital to Ponce, a distance of
eighty miles. The road is macadam, built


River bed, Rio Portuguese, near Ponce.
with trap rock, and is a splendid feat of
engineering in the way it winds through
the mountains, passing through Rio Piedras
Guaynabo, Aguas Buenos, Caguas, Cayey,
Aibonito, Coamo and Juan Diaz. The scenery
is charming throughout the whole distance.









Down in Porto Rico


Mineral Spring Bathing Establishment in outskirts of Ponce.

Two landscape views were taken which will
give an idea of the lofty mountains and also
the tropical side of it. The entire distance is
made in thirteen hours.
There is a coach with the mails which can
be taken, but the more common method and
the one I adopted is to engage a driver with
a span of horses, which are of native breed
and about half the size of our ordinary horses
in the States. They are wonderful little









With a Kodak.


animals to climb the hills and also are fleet of
foot. The drivers, however, abuse them un-
mercifully and beat them nearly the whole
distance.
We changed five times on the trip, which
takes about two hours; hence the passage is
really but eleven hours, or an average speed
of something over seven miles an hour.
At frequent intervals along the way are
small stations, at each of which there is a


61

I.-. '
i~wi r


W, -1 k. r 4U'i


Market View, Ponce.









Down in Porto Rico


building which may be termed a combination
of grocery store and wayside inn. The usual
loungers are found at all such places, and
they are an uncouth, disagreeable set. Around
these stopping places the filth is beyond de-


I,, -.


The Market Place, Ponce.


scription. A fair type of this sort of highway
tavern is given.
There are exceptions here and there to such
miserable, dirty places, one of which was at a
halt in the mountains, where a woman dis-









With a Kodak.


pensed food and light drinks to travelers.
This place is reached after a weary ride up a
very long incline and is a convenient and
pleasant spot to rest the horses.


The Market, Ponce.


Cayey is a pretty inland city, about half way
between the capital and Ponce. Here we
stopped for dinner, and a good one it proved,
at a reasonable price, $I.oo Porto Rican, equal
to sixty cents American. Here a fellow-









Down in Porto Rico


IL

.4.

. 1....


A Street Corner, Ponce.

traveler, who was also a passenger with me
on the steamer and who had been studying
medicine in Philadelphia, bade me good-bye,
his route diverging to Arroyo, his old home.
The road from now on was through charming
scenery; the turns and winds through the
mountains were something wonderful. The
view from every point of observation disclosed
tobacco fields, coffee and banana groves, all
varieties of the palm, including the cocoanut,


'
"~ L;F.
~-,~
h',i
it
Iii









With a Kodak.


the lowlands covered with sugar cane or filled
with large herds of cattle, the road on either
side rich with all forms of tropical growth.
The slopes of the mountains remind one
somewhat of Switzerland in summer. At


Residence of the German Consul, Mr. Fritze, Ponce.

Aibonito we gave our little horses a needed
rest. At this place there is a beautiful cathe-
dral which I attempted to capture in my
camera, but without success. At Coamo
another change of horses. The raising of
tobacco in this locality is quite prominent.
While waiting here I found an old wizened-up








Down in Porto Rico


I
t. Am
i: ,
",..,~i


Fire Department, Ponce.


St. Croix man who could speak English. He
was greatly astonished to find that I was but
two years older than himself and talked in
Spanish much about it to bystanders. The
old rat, he certainly looked aged enough for
my grandfather. With fresh horses we fairly
fw down the mountain, the same beautiful
scenery all along the route. We changed
teams once more in the country and it was a
poor exchange, the horses being all fagged out










/


The Plaza, Ponce.









With a Kodak.


by the time we reached Juana Diaz. Our last
five miles was made under the whip. The
cruelty of these drivers is something terrible
and would not be permitted outside of Spanish


The Plaza, Ponce.


dominions. I arrived in Ponce at 7 P. M., and
put up at the Hotel Frangais, kept by one
Juan Bettolacci and wife. She speaks broken
English and was quite a help to me from my
first entrance. The distance driven that day










Down in Porto Rico


was eighty miles with five changes of horses.
How I wish the opponents of good highways
had been with me to see the wonderful pike


The Plaza, Ponce.


over which I came This highway is certainly
the best piece of road I have ever driven on
and is kept in perfect repair by a most
thorough system.














CHAPTER V.


PONCE lies about three miles inland from
the south coast. It is not as handsome
a city as the capital. Its public buildings are
frequently of brick, stone or stucco, but many
of the private houses are of wood. It is
lighted by gas, and at the time of my visit an
American company was about to erect .an
electric lighting plant.
The few days I spent in Ponce were
replete with enjoyment. The first to engage
my attention was La Playa (the bay), which is
about three miles from the city proper and is
a small city in itself. Notwithstanding a poor
harbor, the business done from this port is
large and increasing. The principal business
houses export sugar, molasses, coffee and
tobacco, and import flour, lumber, provisions,
coal, etc. The exports of coffee by one firm, in
the year 1897, were three millions of dollars.
The harbor is, as before remarked, a poor one,
without wharves. All vessels, steam and sail,









Down in Porto Rico


are obliged to take in and discharge cargo while
at anchor through lighters. I took in twice a
famous drive from Ponce northerly in the


Ji


Cathedral, Ponce.


direction of Adjuntas, where for nine miles the
road is improved and is fully equal to the
great highway from the capital to Ponce.
Along this highway one witnesses the same
charming scenery and tropical foliage as on









With a Kodak.


the longer drive from San Juan to Ponce, with
a better class of houses. The latter on the
long drive are not to be considered as houses
outside of the villages, but are simply thatch


Cemetery, Ponce.


roofs supported by poles and entirely open on
all sides.
While the city is small, yet I did not tire
in the days spent there going through its
quaint and narrow streets, visiting the market
early in the morning, riding the outskirts to a








Down in Porto Rico


famous mineral bath, where the bather utilizes
a quaint stone bath tub. The water is blood
warm and pumped by a windmill. (Had
Ponce de Leon known of this delicious spring


Opera House, Ponce.


he need not have gone to Florida in search of
the fountain of youth.)
Visiting plaza, cathedral, cemetery, making
business and social calls, etc.,--every day filled
with golden hours of blissful rest. As I pen
these fragments in re Porto Rico my thoughts









With a Kodak.


dwell lovingly on this fair daughter of the
Caribbee, and my optimistic nature is nursing
a hope that her future may be made radiant
and glorious under some new dispensation as


Commercial Street, Ponce.


a recompense for past sufferings under unjust
and cruel misrule.
My correspondent at Ponce, Mr. Hugo C.
Fritze, gave me a rare treat one day in a ride
to the well-known Mercedita sugar estate.
This plantation is one of the most promi-









Doze~vz in Porlo Rico


nent on the island, embracing about 4,000
acres, employing 1,800 persons, and entirely
devoted to the cultivation of sugar-cane. I
was fortunate in getting a few good views here,


M. ;
k Fr '


Centrifugal Sugar Factory, Mercedita Estate, near Ponce.

but could not get an interior of the sugar fac-
tory, which I hope someone later on will
attempt. The sugar turned out at the Mer-
cedita is of the highest grade of centrifugal.
The residuum, or low grade molasses, which









WiVi a Kodak.


comes from this process is, too poor to export,
in fact it would have no market value in the
States, but is utilized here by distilling it into
what is called nigger rum, being very low

















Dove House at Sugar Factory, near Ponce.

grade and sold at a correspondingly low price.
It might be said at this time that notwith-
standing the cheapness of rum and the fact
that those who sell it pay but a small license,
I did not see a drunken person in the ten









Down in Porlo Rico


days which I remained on the island. I was
told, however, that at the' holiday period
between Christmas and New Year's there was
much drunkenness among the common people.


Hauling Sugar Cane, Mercedita Estate, near Ponce.

I also visited the Laurel sugar factory, where
Muscovada sugar is made. The molasses.from
this sugar is the celebrated Fancy Ponce,
nearly all of which is shipped from this fac-
tory to New Haven. While the producing of
sugar and other products of the island is in









With a Kodak.


the hands of Spaniards, or Porto Ricans, yet
the large commercial transactions, such as the


Muscovada Sugar Factory, "The Laurel," near Ponce.

handling of the crops for export, is mostly done
by foreigners.
I took a most delightful ride with a Mr.
Santori, a Frenchman, but who speaks English









Down in Porlo Rico


fluently. His vehicle was a New Haven
phaeton, made by Demarest. He told me that
the duty on that carriage was over $2oo00. All


On the road, Ponce to La Playa.


articles imported from other countries other
than Spain, whether a necessity or a luxury,
are subject to heavy duties, and that a people
can show a comparative prosperity under such
a burden of taxation speaks volumes for the






























'I*W

















Improved Highway between Ponce and Adjuntas.









With a Kodak.


future possibilities of this snug little island
under another flag than Spain's. And if it ever
comes to pass that the Anglo-Saxon should


Street at the Bay, Ponce.


come into control it might become a veritable
paradise.
One thing very noticeable in the foliage of
nearly every tree is that there are no dead
leaves. When a leaf has reached its maturity
and done its full duty, it is simply pushed off








Down in Porto Rico


iJ1 I
It.
lI ['I


d


La Playa, Ponce, S. S. Arkadia in the background.

by the new bud, remaining green until it falls.
Nearly every vegetable known to civilization
can be raised here. I visited a small grist-
mill where native corn was being ground, and
a most excellent article of meal was the
product. Upland rice grows thriftily, Irish
potatoes, white beans and red are grown
without trouble. The fruit is most delicious,




















































Harbor of Ponce.


?';o~g~i~hT .,
r









Wit a Kodak.


Coopering Molasses for Shipment, La Playa, Ponce.

especially the banana and orange. The
former is one of the principal articles of food,
being cooked in the green state as well as
eaten ripe, and the quantity which can be
grown is beyond computation. I do not be-
lieve it to be possible, should this island be
cut off from all communication with the
outside world, that the inhabitants could be
starved out, as they have all the food at their
own doors necessary to sustain life. I at-


r; e';2.'-~' !~c~';y









76 Dawn in Porto Rico

tempted, without success, a view of a famous
tree in the outskirts of Ponce, of the variety
called Savior. This tree has probably fifty
small trunks surrounding the main body, all
formed by the branches growing downward
and catching hold of the soil, and thus form-
ing a new root. This tree is said to be older
than the discovery of the island by Columbus.
Its position by the roadside and on the banks
of the river Rio Portugues, which we forded,
makes it an attractive object. Though I
missed in my snap at this wonderful native at
short range, I caught it at another time when
taking the river-bed, and it will be noticed on
a small scale in that cut in the background.
























- I+p ,--~i .C _____ t
I' aiT~~~~ E
k-lam.F 21 ,


-. -
*,"- '** --"v /' 'l ^ ? '*
g2
-'I -.I- *; ~s*-*- '*-- w .-
*-. -a-




'p -
-iseisy 0 1 W-.-Bi*'- 15*"'



Loading Molasses into Lighters, Ponce.













CHAPTER VI.


SHE common people of Porto Rico, which
means the blacks and mixed races, are
as a rule docile and honest. They work faith-
fully though not rapidly. Their wants are
few, and it is well that they can live on a small
income, as the pay of the common laborer is
but about twenty to twenty-five dollars (Porto
Rico) per month and board themselves. Under
a better form of government they could enjoy
more privileges, especially one that is now
practically denied them, that is, education and
the benefits of religion. I was informed by a
gentleman on the island, who is a large
commission merchant, that the Church until
quite recently has paid but small attention to
the poor. Until a comparatively recent period
the marriage rite among this class has not
been regarded. The people have been too poor
to secure a priest, whether for marriage or
death, but following the abolition of slavery in
1873, the government at Madrid has sanc-









Down in Porto Rico


tioned marriage by an officer of the law. This
became necessary, as no matter how poor the
people are, occasionally there may be one in a
community who will accumulate property,
hence his children must be legitimatized for
legal inheritance. My informant and his
wife, whom I had the pleasure of meeting at a
Spanish breakfast, spoke with great regret of
the past and the present condition of the poor,
but they were optimistic in their views and
had great hopes that in the future more atten-
tion would be paid to this class. In the
interior of the island, that is to say, outside of
the cities, the illiteracy is claimed to be ninety-
seven per cent. It speaks well for a people
who for centuries have been degraded by
slavery and denied the ordinary privileges of
civilization, that they are as good as they are.
If the Anglo-Saxon could have sway for a
generation or two on this island, what a won-
derful change would come over it! In the
cities the better class follow in close imitation
the Spanish customs as regards social life,
religion and mode of living. Sunday afternoon
is the holiday of the week, as all business









With a Kodak.


houses keep open during Sunday forenoon.
Sunday evening the people gather in the
Plaza and exchange courtesies; the ladies flirt


A Boat Landing, Ponce.


their fans and gossip, while the government
band plays until ten o'clock.
The bicycle is there and many of the Span-
iards are enthusiastic riders, but the women
do not use the wheel. Spanish exclusion for
the fair sex holds sway here as in other Span-
ish countries. I suspect, however, that if the









Down in Porto Rico


female tourist should ever come into the island
in force, that the Spanish girls would be
attempting to ride on the sly. A few years
ago a French syndicate entered into a contract
to build a narrow-gauge railroad around the
island, touching at all of the various ports.
It was but partially built, a few sections only,
when the syndicate failed and in derision the
people call it the Petite Panama." I saw no
tourists during my stay and I understood that
very-few visit the island. Should they ever
invade it, new hotels with more modern appli-
ances than are now in existence would become
necessary. All this will come whenever an
improvement is made in the administration of
affairs.













CHAPTER VII.


SHE population of the island is quite
dense, there being probably 200,oo0 in
cities and 700,000 in the country. From
general information I believe there are fewer
paupers and criminals on the island than
in New Haven County alone, but I have
no statistics to prove it. I was informed by
all with whom I spoke on the subject that
the entire island was quite free from crime
and that one could ride by night or day all
over the island without fear of molestation.
I had supposed before my visit that the
majority of the people were black, but from
my observation I was led to the conclusion
that the proportion of blacks is not more
than one-fourth, with perhaps one-fourth
Spanish or direct descendants. The other
half are mixed, and such a mixture! There
yet remains the blood of the old original
Indian stock. Ponce de Leon and his succes-
sors did not exterminate all. This native









Down in Porto Rico


stock has largely become mixed with the
negroes and the Spanish and other nationali-
ties. Many that are called mulattoes or
mixed seem to be as white as those who pose
as Spaniards. The descendants of the Indian
stock are the better class of laborers. They
have thin lips and thin noses and are consid-
ered the best farmers, always seeming kind to
one another and making an effort to do the
best they know how in all things. The in-
telligent classes all seemed, proud of their
island home, but mourned over the injustice
of the mother country in her unjust laws for
the government of the people, excessive taxa-
tion and the unsettled state of the currency.
Considerable talk was indulged in as to auton-
omy, which was to be voted on the month fol-
lowing my visit. The people mostly were
favorable towards it, but were opposed to some
features, especially where Spain is to keep a
standing army and have the appointment of
all the higher officials.
The condition of the currency was most
deplorable. The fluctuations were constant
and always for the benefit of the wealthy or











TOm
oaf,


A Street in Mayaguez.


rt
6" r
.r*c~-


ra _1.
~;









With a Kodak.


the forehanded. The poor man's wages were
fixed. The advance in the gold premium
simply compelled him to pay more for the
necessaries of life without any corresponding
increase in his pay, which under like conditions
are the same the world over. The day I
arrived at the capital I sold my American gold
for 70 premium. A few days later it was at
73. I left Ponce via steamer on January 24th,
with regret, and arrived at Mayaguez on
Tuesday, January 25th.
Mayaguez on the west coast is also situated
several miles inland and is separated from its
port by a river. An iron bridge was con-
structed, however, about 1875. This town has
military barracks, clubs and gas works. The
harbor, accessible only to vessels drawing less
than sixteen feet, is silting up, as indeed
is the case with almost all the harbors of
Porto Rico. I here received many courtesies
from the hands of the United States Consular
Agent, Mr. Badreni, and his clerk, a young
man by the name of Drake, an American.
In company with others I rode from the city
far into the outskirts. I took some very inter-









Down in Porto Rico


testing snaps with my camera, one of which I
present under the title of "A Porto Rico
Cupid, not because it is unusual, but because
it is the custom of nearly all of the small boys
and of many girls, too, among the poor, not


A Street Scene, Mayaguez. Pig in the basket.


only in the country but in the outskirts of the
cities, to roam through the streets without
clothing. He was a noble little fellow and
seemed to have no black blood in him, his
hair being blonde and his form nt for a sculp-
tor's model. After making business calls I
cleared with the steamer once more for the


c

J









Witl a Kodak. 89

capital, where we arrived on the morning of
January 26th. We spent the day here, clearing
in the evening for New York. Our voyage on
the return was very tempestuous and we were
over nine days in making it, passing through
the' latter part of it in a gale with quite a
blizzard, and although the experience was
disagreeable in the extreme, yet I felt satisfied
withal, having all my life been desirous of
witnessing just what we passed through.













CHAPTER VIII.


SAVING commenced my narrative in a
somewhat rapturous mood, over love for
the ocean, I will close by extracts from my
diary, showing how the old monarch paid me
back in bad coin.
Jan. 29th. Three days after leaving San
Juan the weather became cooler, air and water
both 680. Heavy sea. Ship rolling. Ba-
rometer falling. It would seem that we are
on the edge of a gale. Captain Lloyd does
not like the look ahead. The ship's carpen-
ter, who is like many other sailors of the
superstitious sort, claims to have experienced
when at the island a bad dream in which he
saw a horse standing over him, by which sign
he feared the return voyage would be fraught
with trouble, as he never yet dreamed of a
horse but bad weather or disaster followed.
Ship making little headway and the passage
destined to be a long one unless better condi-
tions soon prevail.










With a Kodak.


Jan. 3oth. Rough sea. Ship rolling heav-
ily. A very bad day. According to the cap-


Street Scene, Mayaguez. Cupid.


tain's log we are in a gale. Air 60, water
680 temperature.









Down in Porto Rico


Jan. 3Ist. Monday. Rain and high wind,
from sou'east to nor'west. Very rough sea.
Air and water both 63' temperature. No
observation. By dead reckoning latitude
33.22, longitude 70.46. The captain has asked
*the carpenter to rope his horse and throw him
overboard, else we would be obliged to do as
was done with Jonah. He answered If I
were as good a man as Jonah I would be willing
to be thrown into the water. This day long
to be remembered, all through the hours from
sunrise to sunset a fearful gale. Old ocean
ran wild. As far as the eye could reach water
mountains rose higher and higher. When at
the limit the mighty wind would cut their
topmost crests and great sheets of water
scattered like chaff. Now and then the sun
would emerge from the clouds to witness the
great struggle and seemed to look with a
kindly pity on our little ship, a mere speck
amid the raging conflict. Following these
great and ever-increasing waves would come a
sudden rainfall, always preceded by a short
increased wind force, reminding one of the
land when a thunder storm comes up suddenly.









Witli a Kodak.


After the rain the waves are smoother but the
swell of the ocean increases, on which the ship
dances like a cork. This is followed by the
waves again breaking out, the wind increases


The Pilot leaves us, Mayaguez.


and if at first it whistled, now it roars and bel-
lows and shrieks. The waves answer back,
" You cannot blow down that little object, for
in vain have you tried, but we will engulf it."
Now comes a trial of Nature's forces with the
art of man. Over and over and again our








Down in Porto Rico


good ship is driven to the summit of the
highest peaks from which the eye can survey
other mountains, with great and awful canons
reaching between, on which apex she stalks
like a deer at bay, and with a mighty, almost
superhuman effort, crushes down the barrier,
the breaking waves vying for supremacy,
until with a shiver at every bolt she drops into
the valley below, rolling and writhing like a
wounded human soul, only to commence the
ascent of other heights more terrible and more
disheartening. All through the daylight this
conflict goes on. Will its termination be
witnessed by this little company, is a thought
which passes through my mind frequently.
Will the setting sun leave us his blessing and
the moon drive away the mighty disturbance
round about us ? We are not given time to
even hope for the best, for as night settles on
the angry giant he surged and raved like
unto the curses of hell's unnumbered fiends.
Owing to the continuance of the gale in early
night the captain changed the ship's course
four points east and put the engine to half
speed,-this in the hope that the gale might









With a Kodak.


subside by morning. What will that morning
be? Certain it will find us many miles from
our course.
Feb. Ist. The weather was cold and with
a continuance of the gale, somewhat lessened,


- -~- A..


New York Harbor after passing Quarantine Feb. 4, 1898.

but severe enough. By observation this day
we had made but ninety miles in the twenty-
four hours. We are all a bit discouraged, both
passengers and crew. The captain cheers us
up by saying that there is plenty of coal and
provisions. The carpenter reports that we are








Down in Porto Rico


clear of the fore-legs of the dream-horse but
the hind legs are yet in the path. This night
was bad enough. With the ship wave-washed
and gasping in her mighty struggle a fog set
in, necessitating blowing the whistle. The
blowing of a fog whistle for hours in the night
during a violent gale in winter on the North
Atlantic, four hundred miles from the nearest
coast, is a mighty nerve-disturber. I did not
sleep well.
Wednesday, Feb. 2d. The force of the gale
has spent its fury, but the water is far from
smooth.
Feb. 3d. A glorious day. Sun shines.
Wind moderating. Air and water very cold.
Captain informs us that we are but 102 miles
from Sandy Hook and expects to land us Fri-
day morning, at which there is great rejoicing
by the young Porto Rican passengers, and as
we gaily sail along, the vista of the carpenter's
horse floats silently down the dark blue waters
of the gulf stream. The captain resumes his
old-time smile, the two mates lose their tired
look, the purser, now that he finds a steady
table to complete his manifest, is happy, the









With a Kodak. 97

stewardess has given an extra smooth to my
stateroom and in fact, I may say, the goose
hangs high. At five p. M., last dinner aboard
ship, eating of which was a pleasure by reason
of the qniet sea. At eleven A. M. we drop
anchor at quarantine.
Feb. 4th. I take my last snap shots. The
proof of one represents the lower harbor of
New York after passing quarantine. Floating
ice was quite a wonderful sight to a young
Porto Rican bride, who had never been outside
of the tropics before.













APPENDIX.


A few days after my return from Porto
Rico the strained relations previously existing
between the United States and Spain became
more intense by reason of the blowing up of
the U. S. Man of War Maine, in the harbor
of Havana, Feb. I5th. April 2oth, President
McKinley sent his ultimatum to Spain; war
preparations now began with vigor. The first
great naval victory of Admiral Dewey at
Manila, May Ist, set the country ablaze with
excitement and then came short and success-
ful campaigns in Cuba and Porto Rico, fol-
lowed soon after by peace, Spain having
accepted the demands of President McKinley,
August ioth, by which she agrees to cede the
island of Porto Rico to the United States.
All praise and honor to President McKinley,
the Army and the Navy; felicitations to our
new-found sister of the Antilles. I predict a
great and glorious future for this southern
star. The little red school-house can now be









With a Kodak.


established all over the interior of the island,
with the Stars and Stripes floating from every
structure; political and religious freedom and


Landscape View Ten Miles from Mayaguez.


sound morality must be taught both old and
young; the English language will be at the
fore. New hotels built to accommodate the
thousands of Americans -who will sojourn
there for business and recreation; a complete









Down in Porto Rico


railway system; fast running steamers for
passengers and to supply the ever-increasing
demand in the States for tropical fruits; a
thorough system of sanitation; new industries
established adapted to the requirements of a
changed order of things; and most important
of all, the intelligent and extended develop-
ment of agriculture. Those who think of
visiting the island for business purposes
should not be in too great a hurry, as the fol-
lowing extra& from a business letter to the
writer from Porto Rico, under date of August
20th, will show: First of all, it will be neces-
sary to restore order and tranquility in the
country;a a&ually, the order is not perfect, as
the mob inside and outside the towns is trying
to take revenge on the Spaniards for past
griefs. Of course the Americans are taking
steps to prevent serious disturbances and riots,
but this is not always possible in the country,
as they cannot have their troops everywhere.
For the Spaniards times are bad in some parts
of the country. The war and the invasion
have not done us any harm in our lives or
properties. We are perfe&ly safe here in


I00




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