U.S Departuet o A g u .-c
OFFICIAL PUBLICATION OF THE
hhFLORIDA CITRUS GROWERS INC.
The Grower's Position in---
A Planned Citrus Industry
This issue contains a series of articles explain-
ing the necessity for grower control of the ad-
ministrative features of any plan of action look-
ing toward stability and better prices.
MARION COUNTY SHOWS THE WAY
By Art Levis
OUR GOAL IS BETTER prices for citrus fruit
the next season. Our organization, in the last
legislature, made some steps in this direction, by
sponsoring laws to prevent shipment of green and
frozen fruit and to prevent destructive packing house
practices. On this base we hope to construct a mar-
keting system that will insure a return to the grower
that is above cost of production.
How we are to go about the reorganization of our
marketing has not yet been determined. In our maga-
zine and by speakers before grower meetings we have
been discussing various phases of the question for in-
formation of the grower, and in order to provoke com-
ments that will enable the leadership of the grower or-
ganization to know what the growers favor. We are
also endeavoring, so far as we are able, to give the
growers a complete picture of the situation and to give
the "pro's" and "con's" of any proposed specific meas-
ures. Without a complete picture of the industry
and without a clear idea of how all factors will work,
the growers cannot intelligently decide upon what the
We want, by all means, to keep ourselves out of a
blind alley. We could readily get into one by taking
up any single provision and saying it is the key to all
our troubles. In the citrus industry there is a multiple
group of factors, all of them must be taken into ac-
count. We will find we have spent our efforts for noth-
ing if we depend on any one thing to get us out of
the woods. We need a complete marketing program.
I want to urge my fellow growers that they take
this broad view of the question.
The truck question in the last legislature is an ex-
ample of how dangerous it is to try the single track
to prosperity. We all admitted that restrictions upon
truck shipments prevented the movement of some fruit.
But suppose we had agreed with a great many in say-
ing that the trucks should be permitted to run free
and withuot regulation whatever?
There are a lot of growers honest enough that they
would not sell green fruit or frozen fruit to a truck.
But if there is unrestricted movement of fruit by trucks,
how is this honest grower going to protect his industry
against the growers who cannot turn down the money
offered them, who will sell bad fruit,. and thus give
Florida fruit a bad reputation? This would have been
as bad as permitting shippers to ship green and cooked
fruit to our customers. Still there were many grow-
ers, in our own organization, who seemed firmly to be-
lieve that letting the trucks loose in the groves would
restore the prices of prosperous years of the past.
The state board of directors has developed three
things that seem necessary for any good marketing
program for next season. One of these is an elimination
program to make the amount of fruit fit the market.
This is recommended as a temporary measure and may
not be necessary with smaller crops estimated for next
season. It is regarded as temporary because eventually
we hope to put markets on a healthy basis that will
enable us to sell all our fruit at prices that will return
a profit to the grower. The other two recommenda-
tions are (1) orderly marketing, and (2) putting the
selling authority into a few hands to prevent cut throat
We hope to get these propositions into a marketing
plan and get them in operation at once. We, of course,
intend to continue our efforts to reduce packinghouse
charges, and cut out all unnecessary costs between grow-
er and customer. We also are making efforts toward
broadening and intensifying our markets.
As these propositions are discussed in the maga-
zine, we are getting some helpful criticism. We are
also getting letters from growers saying you cannot
do this or that, you cannot eliminate, etc., and they
give as their reason that we must have a complete
marketing program. We agree with these objectors, but
in criticising suggestions offered, I want to ask growers,
to tell us where we shall make the first steps toward
that marketing program. We must begin on some sin-
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
The Citrus Grower
Official Publication of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
VOLUME 1 AUGUST 1, 1939 NUMBER 18
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., is an agency through
which 21 county organizations work together for the
purpose of making citrus growing profitable. The
county organizations are made up of growers who have
no financial connection with or interest in the ship-
ment of fruit. In these units are growers who ship
through cooperative marketing associations as well as
growers who dispose of their fruit to cash buyers or
on consignment. So called "cooperative" growers and
so called "independent" growers are fighting side by
side in the ranks of the county units and, through the
county units, in the state organization for the benefit
of the citrus industry. The grower must work for a
stable market with a healthy demand for fruit at a
price that pays, in addition to distribution costs, the
cost of production and reasonable profit to producers.
Unless this price ideal of the grower is attained, the
grower eventually must go out of business and with
him will fall the whole super-structure of the industry.
Only through organization can the grower realize this
ideal. Consequently an effective grower organization
is of the greatest concern to every element within the
industry and to all those business, professional and
other working people in the citrus area whose pros-
perity directly and indirectly depends upon the citrus
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., is the means through
which the grower works and expresses himself in striv-
ing for this ideal.
The state officers are:
L. H. Kramer, Lake Wales, President; J. J. Banks,
Jr., Orlando, 1st Vice-President; C. B. Van Sickler,
Ft. Pierce, 2nd Vice-President; W. L. Burton. Orlando,
Secretary; E. G. Todd, Avon Park. Treasurer, W. J.
Steed, Orlando, General Counsel.
FOR BETTER HEALTH
EAT FLA FRUIT
Virgil H. Conner-- -. .--------- Editor
Vernon Keith .._------ Advertising Manager
PUBLICATION COMMITTEE-W. E.
Kemp, Chairman; Carl D. Brorein, R.
J. Kepler, E. G. Thatcher. W. L. Burton,
C. A. Garrett, Karl Lehmann.
Printed by Chief Press, Apopka .
Varn to St. Lucie County
The Citrus Grower is pleased beyond measure at
the news that Myron M. Varn, now assistant Polk
County Agricultural Agent has been appointed
agricultural agent for St. Lucie County.
We believe this is a lucky strike both for Mr. Varn
and for the good people of the East Coast county.
Mr. Varn has made a good reputation in his present
position as assistant to Paul Hayman, Imperial Polk's
outstanding county agent.
On the other hand, Mr. Varn will be associated in
St. Lucie County with some fine ladies and gentlemen
and progressive agriculturists, always a delight to a
good county agent.
We congratulate both Mr. Varn and the good
people of St. Lucie County.
Mr. Varn also has served as assistant secretary of
the Polk County unit of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.,
since its organization.
Published the First and Fifteenth of each able. The publishers can accept no re-
month by The Florida Citrus Growers, responsibility for return of unsolicited manu-
Inc., Orlando, Florida. scripts.
Entered as second-class matter Novem- Subscription Rates
her 15, 1938, at the postoffice at Orlando, In United States, one year $1.00 to non-
Fla.. under the Act of March 3, 1879. members of Florida Citrus Growers. Inc.,
Membership subscriptions, one year 50c.
Manuscripts submitted to this maga-
zine should be accompanied by sufficient Address all mail to The Citrus Grower,
postage for their return if found unavail- P. 0. Box 2077, Orlando, Florida.
THE CITRUS GROWER, August 1, 1939
Prospect of Higher Prices in---
ANY GOOD INDUSTRY plan
would probably include the
control of fruit in some man-
ner so as to get the benefit of unified
and intelligently directed sales ef-
fort. It may be properly compared
to automobile traffic. When such traf-
fic is out in the open country and
not congested, a regulation of its
movement is unnecessary. When,
however, that traffic becomes a bur-
den upon the congested streets of
our cities it is necessary to have a
unified control, for the best interests
of all concerned, in order to main-
tain an even and satisfactory move-
ment of automobiles and pedestrians.
When too many cars try to occupy
the same space at the same time, and
regulation is not provided to stop
them. congestion and chaos results.
The Florida citrus industry is the
victim of unorganized selling here
which is up against organized buying
in the consuming markets. The buy-
er in the North waits until all the
sellers in Florida get through cut-
ting each other's throats and then
takes the lowest prices offered. This
has been distastrous to prices and has
been the means of wiping out prof-
its. And, of course, the losses are
passed back to the grower.
Chains Will Cooperate
Among the organized buyers are
the chain stores. They have held
out for the lowest price they could
get. But responsible officials of store
chains have repeatedly indicated a
willingness to pay higher prices. The
profits of these chain stores are fig-
ured on the basis of dollar volume.
If their goods sell for higher prices
they make more money. They hold
out for the lowest price now because
they cannot afford to take a chance
on a competitor across the street get-
ting a lower price and underselling
The auction markets have shown
every indication of willingness to co-
operate in plans to regulate volume
of fruit and encourage higher prices.
Likewise the constructive shippers
here in Florida readily see the need
of making some arrangement that
will prevent this ruinous competition.
There is no Federal law against such
agreements to regulate for better
prices, in fact the practice is encour-
aged by the government on farm
Consequently here are the forces
ready and willing to make this co-
ordination of sales workable and
they are awaiting only the hand of
the grower to get them together.
In this matter of coordination of
sales the same problems are met that
are found in other phases of industry
regulation. Plans for concentration
of sales effort have been worked out
in the past but they have been little
better than paper plans. They fail-
ed because voluntary agreements
could not be made to include a large
enough percentage of the total vol-
ume of fruit to make them work-
able. They failed also because the
The monthly meeting of the
state directors of Florida Citrus
Growers. Inc., will be held
Thursday, beginning at 10 a.
m., August 17th, in the Palm
Room of Tampa Terrace Hotel,
R. M. Clewis, president of
Hillsborough Citrus Producers,
Inc., who will be host at the
state meeting, writes as follows:
"There will be ample room
for our meeting and the hall
will be air conditioned." Other
conveniences for the comfort
and entertainment of the grow-
Sers have been amply taken care
shippers who were placed in the po-
sition of operating the agreements
could not subdue selfish interests
enough to make the working of the
It appears that if any plan of this
sort is devised, and it seems abso-
lutely necessary that it be devised.
the authority for administering the
plan must be placed in the hands of
growers, with shippers acting in an
Grower Must Agree
The grower is in exactly the po-
sition of the famous Lightnin' Bill
Jones who got his pension check
regularly from the United States gov-
ernment. Bill had a habit of show-
ing the check to his friends, and
pointing with pride to the fact that
it was signed by the Secretary of the
Treasury of the United States and
also by the Treasurer of the United
States, but, as Bill was pleased to
say "you can't get nary a nickel
out'n it 'til I sign it."
Source of Power
The grower must put his in-
fluence into the present situation.
What enables the grower to hope
for that control for which the in-
dustry stands so much in need?
The answer is, the grower owns
the fruit and can sell it to whom-
ever he pleases. In the past he
has sold it to the buyer who would
give him the last nickel. This cus-
tom has been very expensive. It
has sold out many good construc-
tive shippers and has contributed to
speculators. Many growers regard
themselves as smart traders and boast
that they received 5 to 10 cents more
per box than their neighbor. But by
this practice, that is the practice of
looking for price instead of a shipper
that will help us build a sound in-
dustry, both the boasting grower and
his neighbor are probably getting 25
to 50 cents less per box than a well
regulated industry could reasonably
secure for them. Developments
THE CITRUS GROWER, August 1, 1939
have brought us to that time when
necessity demands that we forget
this little manner of driving a hard
bargain and begin to work together
for our own and our neighbor's good.
"Help thou thy neighbor's boat
across the stream and lo thine own
has reached the other shore."
The grower organization has
spoken of "constructive shippers" on
many occasions, and growers have
come back with the question "What
is a constructive shipper?" No one
has yet determined who these con-
structive shippers are. We can, how-
ever, give the formula by which a
constructive shipper may be known.
He will be that shipper that is will-
ing to work with a planned indus-
try. He will be willing to help the
grower make a reasonable profit
while he himself is making a profit.
He will help build up an industry
that will give to his community as
large a purchasing power from citrus
returns as is consistent with fair busi-
ness practices. He shall not be con-
stantly trying to justify his place
in the industry on the grounds that
he is paying the market price for
fruit but will join with others dur-
ing these surplus and distressed times
to raise the general level of that
market price to the point where a
fair profit return can be given the
producer of that fruit, without
which he would have no business for
himself. The growers have asked
the shipping and canning fraternity
to draw a unified sales plan, to avoid
ruinous competition, and same ten-
tative suggestions have been made.
Growers Can Act
It may be that the shipping and
canning factors cannot, or will not
work together to furnish such a plan.
If there are not enough shippers
willing to cooperate to handle the
crop then growers must look to their
rights, face the issue and realize that
their future welfare will force them
into taking aggressive steps to form
their own packing and shipping fa-
The matter which the grower must
impress upon himself is the respon-
sibility resting upon him to bring
his industry back to a profitable basis.
He must study citrus questions. This
can be done through reading the
grower magazines, such as "The Cit-
rus Grower," by attending county,
community and state meetings, and
by discussing the questions with oth-
er growers and with shippers. At
all times he must insist that facts and
not prejudiced opinions be used as
the basis for planning. In these
sources of information lie the grow-
er's opportunity to realize his right
to live and hold his investment in
It is apparent that the forces are
available for organizing the citrus
industry in such a way that supplies
can be suited to demand: that vol-
umes, grades, sizes and other factors
can be regulated and that means can
be provided to keep Florida shippers
from cutting the throats of each oth-
er and of the growers. These forces
are awaiting the motive power of or-
ganized grower influence to bring
A meeting of the Seffner-Mango-
Valrico unit of the Hillsborough
Citrus Producers, Inc., was held Fri-
day evening, July 21, at the Seffner
schoolhouse, with an attendance of
growers which gave evidence of their
The meeting was opened by the
president of the unit, Mr. N. J.
Callan, urging all members to con-
tinue enthusiastic support, and to
enroll more growers as well as asso-
ciate members among merchants and
Mr. R. M. Clewis talked about
the work which has been accom-
plished for benefit of citrus growers
through the untiring and unselfish
efforts of the leaders of this move-
ment, and stressed the need for num-
bers as well as the dues of members
in order to advance the objects of
the organization, the first and fore-
most object of which is to secure
a fair price and profit for growers.
Mr. R. P. Thornton followed
with a discussion of the citrus laws
recently passed by the legislature, em-
phasizing the maturity law which
will now make control of green fruit
The chairman of the county mem-
bership committee, Mr. C. W. Cail-
louette, cited figures showing how
citrus values, in recent years. have
fallen with increased production, as
a chief reason why all growers
should be aroused to join this organ-
ization for united support to improve
the state of the industry.
Mr. L. A. Baker, secretary of the
unit, and Mr. Callouette received
new and renewed memberships be-
fore close of the meeting.
Sell to buyers who help our in-
dustry-Buy from concerns that
help our organization.
----------------- ------------ - - --- -
South Lake Apopka Citrus Growers Ass'n.
ESTABLISHED 28 YEARS AGO
Has Grown from 50,000 Boxes to Last Year's Record of 643,356.
About 3,500 Acres Are Owned by About 150 Members.
Packing Profits Are Paid back to Growers and more than $300,000
has been repaid.
The Association offers a complete caretaking service, operating its
own Fertilizer Plant and grove equipment at actual cost to
SOUTH LAKE APOPKA CITRUS GROWERS ASSOCIATION
A. W. Hurley, President
Phone 61, Winter Garden
G. S. Hall, Secy.-Manager
Postoffice, Oakland, Fla.
; ----------------------------- -- --- -- -
THE CITRUS GROWER, August 1, 1939
By ART LEVIS
Secretary Marion County Unit,
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
N A FEW WORDS, that tells
the story, "We just have it to do"
was Captain Douglas' reply when
the writer reported that Marion
County was not doing its full finan-
cial share toward the State organiza-
The writer received an urgent tele-
gram from President Lou Kramer to
attend an important meeting of coun-
ty presidents on Thursday, July
14th at Orlando. The meeting be-
gan at 10:30 A. M. and broke up
at 7:15 that evening with only an
hour out for lunch. It was over
seven full hours of earnest thought
about the world's greatest bug-a-boo
-finances-or rather lack of fi-
Is It Worth It?
Every county was represented at
the meeting and President Kramer
and Bill Burton went over in detail
all of the activities which we had
undertaken since the beginning of
our grower organization.
Then came the question-"has all
that we have done been worth
while?" Obviously the answer was
an enthusiastic "Yes." Then fol-
lowed a flood of suggestions as to
what we were to do in the future.
How Shall We Do It.
Mr. Kramer let the suggestions of
future activities pour forth for a few
minutes and then popped the all im-
portant questions. "How are you
going to carry on future activities?"
"Where is the money coming from?"
"Why haven't you county presidents
provided the funds from your coun-
ties so that we can carry on?" A
long minute of silence-and then the
ultimatum "Gentlemen we can't
go on unless the county units sup-
port the State organization with
funds-not words-not promises of
funds-nothing will help except
money. We must have money and
it is up to you presidents to see that
we get it-(another long minute of
silence to allow the words to sink in)
-and if you don't, we may as well
close up shop right now and call it
My Turn Came
From then on, every county presi-
dent, one by one, was put on the
griddle and quizzed. Our Treasurer,
Ed. Todd was on hand, with a tell-
tale black-board, showing a tabula-
tion of each county's total contribu-
tion to the State. No county, with
the possible exception of Orange,
liked the looks of the black-board.
All--eeryone-one by one-had to
face the music. And in due course
of time Marion County came along.
"Art, what is the matter with Mar-
ion County?" asked Bill Burton.
"Not a thing," was my reply.
"How much are we supposed to
have paid since the organization was
formed? What is the total amount
we owe in Marion County to fulfill
our 100 percent share of the bur-
Then Todd and Bill together ex-
plained about 50c a member for the
first year and $2.00 per member for
75 percent of our total potential
membership-and on and on around
red robin's barn. All of which
made sense to Todd and Bill, but
was just too much for my feeble
brain to comprehend.
"But how much more money must
Marion County contribute to be a
100 percent county?" I persisted.
"All you can," interrupted Mr.
What Is Our Task?
"But that doesn't answer my ques-
tion in simple language," I said.
"That's too vague and indefinite. I
want to know in dollars and cents
the exact figure you expect from Mar-
ion County so that I may know ex-
actly our duty. We'll take care of
'all we can' later on. Our first job
is to do our full obligation first and
then let 'all you can' come after
Then they got down to brass
tacks. Marion County's total duty
"WE JUST HAVE TO DO IT"
was $380.50 and we had paid in
"Ah, that's fine" I said. "Now
I know that Marion County owes
right now $194. I will go back
home, start something and report at
the Brooksville meeting next week.
Marion County will come through."
There-I had committed my
county and I didn't know a blessed
thing about the finances. I am not
the treasurer nor the president of
Marion County unit, and the coun-
ty financial matters had not been my
job. I was only the secretary of
That night all the way home to
Ocala from Orlando I kept worrying
just how I could raise $194 from
Marion County. As I drove through
Weirsdale I began to think of Cap
Douglas, Grant Morthland, Doc
Greeneisen, Frank Cawthorn and
others. And then there was good old
Mr. G. W. Brant, Sr., at Moss Bluff
and Frank Douglass and C. 0. Som-
mers at Citra, and Mr. J. K. Chris-
tian at McIntosh (the father of the
wash-shed idea), and J. F. Coco-
vitch, over at Dunnellon, and young
L. E. Futch and M. J. Timmons
and others at Ocala.
An Idea Helps
Then came an idea and I pressed
my foot on the accelerator for more
speed. I'll get those fellows to help
me. They're just as anxious to see
Marion County on the top of the
list as I am-why not all get busy
tomorrow and really work! Why not
organize little units to go into the
brush and contact every grower in
the county; then follow them up
every evening to check each unit and
sub-unit. We'll all work together-
Early Friday morning I was on
my way to Weirsdale. I dropped in
on Grant Morthland and told him
that I had "stuck my neck out" for
Good old Grant-he didn't raise
doubts or alibis. He was just the
good old quiet, unassuming stand-
by, whom we in Marion County
can count on to do things.
"Let's get Doc Grieneisen (our
THE CITRUS GROWER, August 1, 1939
7hat cd oels q '0 0/
That's why I work mighty close to my associa-
tion. We are a group of nearly 100 growers all
with the same objective-to make a dependable
profit year after year from our properties.
Together, we are a unit of about 3000 acres. We
own and operate the finest cultivation, spraying
and dusting equipment. We employ an expert
horticulturist who keeps his eye peeled on all of
our groves for disease, pests and anything else
which might lower our volume per acre or quality.
As a small grower with 40 acres, I couldn't use
such efficient equipment or employ such a man.
The costs would be way over my head. But to-
gether, we enjoy a production cost regarded by
IT MUST SHOW ME A
PROFIT OR I DON'T
PAY MY BILLS
even the largest grove operators as enviably low.
There's my answer to this situation. Through
cooperation I have lowered my costs per acre. That
expert grove service in turn has raised my produc-
tion per acre and increased my percentage of top
grade fruit. My cost per box is down and my
returns per acre are up.
Show me a better way to cope with today's mar-
keting conditions and I'll use it-I'm in this
deal for my grits and bacon.
There are added features to cooperation
HOW ELSE CAN IT BE DONE?
We all want better markets. To get them
for our vastly heavier production is a job
for an industry organized to provide
1. Uniform standards of grades and car-
2. Equalization of freight rates to make
possible a balanced distribution of
fruit to all markets.
3. Equitable volume control to keep vol-
umes moved in line with existing
demand at price levels profitable to
4. Development and expansion of trade
channels for fresh fruit consumption.
5. Adequate research for additional uses
and more convincing sales and ad-
vertising material so that demand
may be increased.
Help yourself by placing your fruit with
an organization which has only one in-
Volume buying of fertilizers and insecticides through cooperative
associations has given their members every discount advantage of
the largest operations. Picking, hauling and packing are handled
at cost under able men employed by the members because of their
ability to render efficient service.
Expert grove culture under a common direction is producing fruit
of uniform quality, texture, juice content and flavor. The adequate
volumes of such fruit loaded to trade specifications by these associa-
tions are commanding constant trade demand and frequent premiums
above the general market.
Associations employ and direct the marketing of their fruit through
the Florida Citrus Exchange, which offers the only complete mar-
keting service in the industry. With competent representatives in
every important Florida citrus market, this organization has obtained
the market for its members' fruit, plus a small premium, through
30 years of uninterrupted service.
FLORIDA CITRUS EXCHANGE Tampa
I I I -
THE CITRUS GROWER, August 1, 1939
treasurer) and go over to Cap Doug-
las and decide how we are going to
do it," was Morthland's suggestion.
Notice that spirit, dear reader. He
didn't tell me he was busy (although
he was); he didn't say let's start
next week; he didn't ask questions
why others hadn't paid; he didn't
look for an "out" for himself. He
was ready-right then and now-
no procrastination to suit his own
We found Doc Grieneisen prun-
ing in his grove-hard at it too.
Briefly we told him of my commit-
ment of $194 from Marion County.
"Boy, oh boy," said Doc, "you
sure undertook a job for us. That's
a lot of money to dig up by Thurs-
day next week." That was our
treasurer speaking. He knew how
slowly money was coming in, and
he spoke feelingly. But notice again,
he too did not sidestep. He merely
emphasized the fact that we had a
big job ahead of "us"-not ahead
He changed his clothes and was
out in a jiffy. "Come on, let's get
going over to Cap Douglas. I have
the membership list and all of the
Cap Douglas Listens
At Cap's house I reported in de-
tail, as much as I could recall, what
had happened at Orlando the day
before. Then I asked if it would
not be possible to spread out the
work among fifteen or twenty men,
each looking after four or five others.
"Well." said Cap in a very quiet
and pensive tone, "$194 is a lot of
money to collect in so short a time
from so many people." And then
came silence-another one of those
interminable minutes that seemed
Finally Cap Douglas spoke. This
time the pensive note was missing.
Instead I could hear a clear determina-
tion dominating his words. "$194
eh!! Let's start. We Just Have it to
Those were the words, "We just
have it to do." How to do it now
was a simple matter. Spread the
message "We just have it to do" to
every grower in Marion County. We
made out our list right then and
there. Doc took some. Grant took
his share. Cap picked out a number
of the toughest to reach. We made
a list for Mr. Brant to work on
around the Moss Bluff section; an-
other for Mr. J. K. Christian and
his son, Will, to take care of at
McIntosh; the growers in and around
Citra were listed for Fred Douglas
and Sommers to handle; Dunnel-
lon for Cocovitch; and Ocala for
young Futch, Timmons and me.
"One last idea," suggested Grant
Morthland. "Don't you think we
had better have a grower meeting
next Tuesday afternoon at Ocala so
that we can all check up how we
are getting along. If we haven't got-
ten all we need, we can compare
notes and healp each other."
A general meeting was held on
Tuesday. Several of us talked. It
looked as though we were not going
to reach our quota. Then I told
the meeting that Cap Douglas had
said Marion County could not fall
down and that the State organiza-
tion must receive at least 100 percent
support-and more. "We just have
it to do," I harangued.
They did. We raised more than
$194. On Thursday, at Brooks-
ville, Marion County delivered a
check to Mr. Todd for $266.50,
which with the $186 already paid,
totaled $452.50-almost 20 percent
in excess of our 100 percent quota.
The job took time. The job took
work, worry, self-sacrifice and
energy. It took concentrated coop-
eration of all.
But that's our way in Marion
County-WE JUST HAVE IT TO
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.,
I read your article on elimination
in your last issue with great interest
and am heartily in favor of it. I
believe at this time elimination would
do us more good than anything else.
While I am in favor of prorating, I
do not believe we would get near as
good results as we will from elimi-
nation, and I am willing to coop-
Yours for success,
July 24, 1939.
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.,
In reply to your request to write
in regard to elimination of citrus
fruits, I own a 10-acre grove and
am in favor of eliminating 10 or 15
percent of the crop. Have a crew
of men appointed by our unit in In-
dian River County, including a fore-
man who can stand by a tree and in
a minute be able to say it's a 10-box
tree, eliminate, one box of the infer-
ior grades, most of which can be
reached from the ground and pay the
men by the day, as there will be no
boxes in this arrangement. Fruit
will be dropped on the ground. Grad-
ing cannot be done at the packing
house, as we are trying to save ev-
This fruit should be picked in
September or not later than October.
P. S. Am a member of Indian
River County Citrus Growers, Inc.
Vero Beach, Fla.,
July 24, 1939.
We furnish cash to citrus growers for
production needs at 41/2% interest per
may be purchased with our loans, and
repaid on easy terms.
CONVENIENT to growers of Polk,
Hillsborough, Pinellas, Pasco, Hernan-
do, Citrus, Sumter Counties.
C R E D I T ASSOCIATION
Box 1090 Citrus Center Bldg.
A Cooperative Association
THE CITRUS GROWER, August 1, 1939
ARTHUR G. PORCHER
The citrus industry lost one of its
greatest champions, his state and
county lost one of its most useful
citizens, in the sudden death on July
18th of Arthur G. Porcher, 49, of
Cocoa. Carrying a heavy load of
personal affairs, Mr. Porcher, never-
theless, found time to do an unbe-
lievable amount of work for his in-
dustry and community.
As a member of the marketing
agreement committee of Florida Cit-
rus Growers, Inc., during the past
season, he spent several weeks in
Washington working out details of
the agreement that was submitted to
the industry for hearing in Lakeland
in January. He was also a member
of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly
Board of the U. S. Department of
Agriculture and assisted in the work
of arriving at the damage to growers
in the fruit fly campaign of over ten
years ago. He was one of the active
agents in working with men in
Congress to get the federal govern-
ment to reimburse growers for their
losses in that connection.
He worked with other Brevard
County officials in connection with
harbor improvements and in getting
the Banana River designated as a
patrol base for naval airplanes. He
led in work to get better roads for
his community, was a member of the
Cocoa city council, and other activi-
ties. He was a prominent member
of the American Legion and B. P.
Death occurred almost instantly
due to an automobile accident a few
miles north of Cocoa. Mr. Porcher
was driving alone at the time.
He was born at Courtenay, Mer-
ritt Island, the son of the late Mr.
and Mrs. E. P. Porcher. The elder
Mr. Porcher died June 19th of this
year, was a member of one of the
oldest families on the East Coast and
a pioneer grower and shipper in the
the famous Indian River section.
In 1914 Mr. Arthur G. Porcher
was married to Miss Katherine
Wakeman Callaway, of LaGrange,
Georgia, by whom he is survived.
Also surviving are three daughters:
Mrs. Frank Bowles, of New York
City; Misses Katherine and Nananne
Porcher, of Cocoa; one son. Arthur
G. Porcher, Jr., of Cocoa; and two
sisters, Mrs. L. S. Andrews, Jr., of
Cocoa; and Mrs. James Walsh. of
Summit, N. J.
We accept with an apology the
criticism of our good friend, Ernest
E. Whitacre, of Pinellas County,
who calls our attention to the small
list of associate members published
from time to time in The Citrus
These lists published from time
to time have included only the ad-
ditional associate members coming
into our organization in a given per-
iod. There have been hundreds of
these business men who have real-
ized that they are in the citrus busi-
ness too, and have subscribed to
these associate memberships. We
expect to gather up the whole list
before long and advise growers of
the business enterprises in their com-
munity who are actively in sym-
pathy with grower objectives.
PASS IT ON
A GROWER WHO REALIZES
the value of the work his organi-
zation is doing for the good of the
citrus industry should pass this copy
of the magazine to some non-member
grower who does not know about us.
.___ - ------
"Sell Fruit and Produce the Auction Way,
Where Supply and Demand Meet Every Day"
CONCENTRATE AT AUCTION
Supplies of various commodities are centralized and the full buying
power of each metropolitan area is concentrated.
Liberal buyer credit and cultivated buyer confidence creates stimu-
lated demand from all the various types and kinds of buyers.
The full routine from unloading and sorting to sales and delivery
gives all producers a well rounded service with positive economy.
THERE IS SATISFACTION IN COMPLETE
Fruit & Produce Auction Association, Inc.
66 Harrison Street, New York. N. Y.
CONSULT OUR MEMBERS
American Central Fruit Auction Co. H. Harris b Co.
St. Louis Boston
Baltimore Fruit Exchange New York Fruit Auction Corp.
Baltimore New York
Consolidated Fruit Exchange. Inc. Philadelphia Terminals Auction Co.
Detroit Fruit Auction Company Union Fruit Auction Company
Fruit Auction Sales Company United Fruit Auction Company
Page 10 THE CITRUS GROWER, August 1, 1939
Another Discussion of---
The Necessity For Grower Control
THE CITRUS INDUSTRY is
the victim of uneven develop-
ment. The packing and can-
ning branches of the industry which
render a service in preparing and mar-
keting the producer's goods to con-
sumer, have developed themselves to
a point that would indicate that pack-
ing, shipping and canning are ends
within themselves and not a means to
It is for the purpose of bringing
about a normal situation, a situation
in which the grower assumes the
healthy position of leadership, that
the Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.,
was formed. There is not, in the
least, any sort of hostility toward
others in this attitude of the grower,
nor is there a will to dominate with-
out regard to the proper interests of
other industry elements. Grower
control, we believe we can show, is
a matter of necessity in order that the
industry may be properly regulated
with impartiality and due regard to
the interests of all elements.
The actual need for grower con-
trol is accepted by constructive ship-
pers. The United States Department
of Agriculture recognizes this need.
The Department in the broad ex-
perience it has had with agricultural
problems in the past several years
has found that industry control by
producers is the most effective means
of bringing about a wholesome in-
A shipper who is purely a pack-
inghouse operator is primarily and
quite frequently interested only in
the profits to be made from his
packinghouse. That is, such a ship-
per wants all the volume he can get
and has only a secondary interest in
the price the fruit brings in the ter-
minal markets. He is primarily in-
terested in seeing that fruit brings
enough to pay for picking, hauling,
packing, shipping and selling plus
his profit. The return to the grower
is subordinate to that consideration.
That shipper who is concerned
only with putting a large volume
of fruit through his packing house,
whose profits come from so much per
box, takes an unhealthy view of the
market. Low prices help his busi-
ness. Larger quantities can be sold
when prices are lower and it takes
less money to handle a given number
of boxes of fruit when that price is
low. Consequently such a shipper
is not looking primarily to the way
the customer is pleased or displeased
with the fruit or what returns the
producer receives. So long as the
trade accepts the fruit at a price equal
or above tree to market costs, the
interests of the pure shipper are taken
Grower in Neutral Position
In the proportion that the ship-
per is also a grower, he gets away
from this pure shipper attitude and
becomes an ally of the grower. The
grower influence works for a sus-
tained and healthy demand. To the
extent that the shipper is a grower,
as well as a shipper, he takes the
constructive grower view, as opposed
to the destructive attitude of the
pure shipper who has lost sight of
a grower sympathy.
The grower influence has not been
the dominant note in the Florida
citrus industry for some time. In
spite of the fact that there are many
grower-shippers and that many such
shippers produce over half of the
fruit they pack, and that we have
purely grower controlled cooperative
shipping agencies, the shipper attitude
and psychology has almost complete-
ly dominated the citrus industry in
Florida up to very recent times.
Laws Favor Processors
This shipper influence was so
strongly felt that, up to the last ses-
sion of the Florida legislature, all
citrus legislation in the past had been
of a nature that protects packing-
house operations. It has been prac-
tically impossible to pass laws pri-
marily in the interests of the grower
and protecting the consumer. Laws
that would actually prohibit ship-
ment of green fruit, or the shipment
of frozen fruit, or that regulate de-
structive packinghouse practices, or
that provide for the quality of fruit
that goes into cans, were never pos-
sible of enactment until the grower
organization was formed and the
pressure of the united growers was
put upon the legislature. These
new grower laws will win friends
for Florida fruit and as that friend-
ship grows in our Northern mar-
kets it will increase the amount of
it that customers will buy at satis-
Handlers Cared For
Handlers have never seen the need
of such legislation. The fruit was
still bringing enough to pay hand-
ling costs and the shipper and can-
ner were assured profits on their
operations. The grower, who was
not getting satisfactory returns, was
given no consideration because he
was unorganized and had no way of
making himself heard.
While neglect of grower interests
DEEP WELL GROVE
CHAMPION AND MADE-
WELL PORTABLE PIPE
FARM AND HOME
Orlando, Fla. Phone 5791
THE CITRUS GROWER, August 1, 1939
Pasco County growers were strong-
ly represented at the state directors'
meeting in Brooksville July 20th.
Twenty-nine Pasco County people
attended the proceedings, as follows:
R. R. Denlinger, H. L. Sparkman,
J. S. Sparkman, Mrs. Kate Futch,
E. C. Futch, all of Dade City; R. D.
Stevenson, E. C. Blum, Mrs. Nita
Foskett, all of New Port Richey.
Dr. F. C. Wirt, president, Pasco
Citrus Growers, Inc., J. H. Dunne,
Philip Wirt, J. P. Lynch, B. H. Dur-
den, Mrs. B. H. Durden, all of San
A. Collura, C. T. Booten. D. E.
Blocker, Robt. Ansley, J. H. Han-
cock, W. J. Ellsworth, C. B. Ells-
worth, Mrs. C. B. Ellsworth, Flor-
ence Ellsworth. Otis Sickler. L. W.
and permitting him to go into bank-
ruptcy is hard on the grower, it is
also very bad for general business
conditions in the citrus belt. Grow-
er control will not take profits away
from shippers. The packing serv-
ices will always be required. In the
degree that the handler renders that
service for the lowest possible cost
he will be able to justify his exis-
tence and make himself secure in his
The benefit of grower influence
in citrus affairs is not confined to the
group of good laws passed by the
last legislature. This is only the
beginning. These laws only form
the foundation on which the grow-
er may begin work to restore normal
conditions. Many problems are yet
to be solved and many broaa reforms
are immediately to be made to se-
cure better marketing and better
prices. We have gone into some de-
tail about grower and shipper in-
fluences in order to prove that, to
handle these jobs ahead, the grower
must be placed in control of his in-
dustry. Also the grower must fit
himself to accept and handle intelli-
gently that responsibility.
The grower organization is set
up for the purpose of preparing the
grower to accept this responsibility,
to give him information through
meetings, and especially through its
official publication "The Citrus
Lipsey, Mrs. L. W. Lipsey, O. W.
Lipsey, Mrs. O. W. Lipsey, Herbert
Lipsey, all of Blanton.
The Pasco delegation was unique
in that there were with it three gen-
erations of two citrus families, the
Lipsey family and the Ellsworth
family: Mr. and Mrs. L. W. Lip-
sey, of Blanton, their son and daugh-
ter-in-law, Mr. and Mrs. O. W.
Lipsey, and their grandson, Herbert
Lipsey, of Blanton. Mr. L. W. Lip-
sey was one of the charter members
of Florida State Horticultural Asso-
ciation. The association has a bril-
liant history of over fifty years of
scientific investigation and service to
the citrus industry. Mr. O. W. Lip-
sey is a state director in Florida Cit-
rus Growers, Inc., and president of
The other three generations fam-
ily represented was W. J. Ellsworth,
his son and daughter-in-law, Mr. and
Mrs. C. B. Ellsworth and their
daughter, Florence. Mr. Ellsworth
has been in the citrus and nursery
business over 50 years and developed
one of the most celebrated and best
paying groves in Florida.
Use V-C Fertilizers
and Grow Quantities
of Quality Fruit.
Page 12 THE CITRUS GROWER, August 1, 1939
The Hope For Control of---
Orderly Marketing Rests on Grower
1W7 E KNOW THE conditions that
gave us the disastrous prices
of this last season will be with
us next season, barring catastrophes
Unless something is done to change
the trend of prices, conditions will
become, in the course of the years
ahead, worse instead of better. There
are a number of things that can be
done, but it will take grower work
and grower direction to bring them
about. We have mentioned some
features of a plan before, but will go
over them again for reference.
In the last issue of this magazine
we discussed the rapid increase of
citrus production. This production
has not been met by the shipping
and selling side of the industry as
rapidly as increased production re-
quires. The grower believes mar-
keting facilities should be expanded
and brought up to date. He believes
the people of the United States can
eventually use this seeming surplus.
The steps toward disposing of this
surplus are reduction of costs, both
in production and in packing and
selling to bring the price within
reach of many who cannot now buy
citrus fruit. In addition to this, and
of greater importance, there must be
a definite improvement in merchan-
Government agencies have given
much study to this problem and there
is a wealth of information to be had
on the subject. But only the grower
can be depended upon to put this
information into practical use. Only
the grower and the consumer stand
to profit by promoting such a healthy
But while this work of finding
and developing markets is in progress,
and while careful studies are made
for the reduction of production and
distribution costs (it will probably
take several seasons to do much ef-
fective work along these lines) some-
thing must be done with the excess
fruit that now depresses our mar-
kets. Consequently some form ot
elimination can hardly be avoided
Eliminate in Time
If one element of a successful plan
of marketing for the coming season
should be an elimination of surplus
-the plan for such elimination must
be fair to all and, in order to be
most effective, it should be put in
operation at the beginning of the
season. It will do no good to elim-
inate after the great surplus has al-
ready carried the markets down to
the lowest levels. The trade must
know that this excess fruit will not
be unloaded upon them. Need for
grower responsibility and grower
control is strongly shown in this
feature of industry planning.
Grower Coordinates Elements
The second widely proposed part
of an industry marketing plan is or-
derly marketing. In this the grower
alone is able to accept responsibility.
Volume control, under federal mar-
keting agreements or in some other
way acceptable to the industry, is a
necessary part of such plan. We
must be particularly careful to pre-
vent the flooding of certain individ-
ual markets which act as barometers
for all other markets. The grower
influence is the only force that can
c-ring together constructive shippers
and othcr factors in the industry on
some plan to provide for this needed
regulation. Speculative shinper in-
fluences have been ab!e to prevent
satisfactory working of such plans
in the past.
Volume Control Experience
Experience with volume control is
a good illustration of the necessity
for a grower organization and a
grower coordinating force. The final
control in any plan of regulation
must be exercised by growers. It
must be exercised by growers for the
protection of growers as well as for
the protection of the shippers. This
has been proven to the point that
further consideration of any other
plan is inadvisable.
Unsuccessful attempts at orderly
marketing illustrate the failure of
shipper efforts in this direction.
Voluntary Plans Unworkable
It was first thought possible to
regulate an industry by voluntary
agreements between shippers. This
was found impossible because there
was always a number of shippers
who would not come into the ar-
rangement and who had enough fruit
to make the plan unworkable. From
this experience arose the Federal law
under which marketing agreements
are made compulsory when a given
majority of producers and shippers
vote in favor of a given plan of reg-
ulation based upon the equitable re-
quirements of the law.
When compulsory marketing
agreements were made, it was first
presumed that shippers could operate
them. This idea was also an error.
It was found to be practically im-
possible to get a board of shippers
that could satisfy all the other ship-
pers in the enforcement of the regu-
lations. Conflicting interests proved
too strong for unbiased and fair ad-
ministration. Consequently it de-
veloped that this control must be
placed in the hands of a grower con-
trol committee. Such a committee
would be unprejudiced toward any
shipper or shipper group. It could
also act under the advices of a shipper
It was further discovered through
experience that the actual control of
the fruit must remain in the hands
of the grower. Upon this point
arose the long dispute about pro-
rate under current control basis, on
the one hand, and prorate under a
past performance basis, on the other.
If control allotments, which car-
ried the right to ship, were placed
(Continued Inside Back Cover)
THE CITRUS GROWER, August 1, 1939
An interested and representative
group of Highlands County growers
assembled Tuesday evening, July 18,
at the Winter Guest Club, Avon
Park, heard the citrus situation
brought up to date by W. L. Bur-
ton, secretary, Florida Citrus Grow-
The meeting was under the aus-
pices of the Avon Park unit. After
Mr. Burton's talk, proposed funda-
mental reforms in Florida citrus mar-
keting, with the view of raising prices
for the next season, were freely dis-
cussed from the floor.
Among those who participated in
the discussion were:
C. H. Walker, president, Florida
Citrus Exchange. Mr. Walker
brought the report that the largest
of the chain store interests had com-
municated to him their desire that
Florida citrus interests get together
in order to stabilize the price of
Florida citrus fruit on higher levels.
These chains have been among those
seeking lowest possible prices in the
past, but their profit is figured on a
dollar volume basis and they indicate
they would welcome higher prices
under any arrangement which would
guarantee that their competitors
across the street would not be able
to buy cheaper and under-sell them.
Among the prominent growers at
the meeting were: E. G. Todd, of
Avon Park, treasurer of Florida Cit-
rus Growers, Inc., and chairman of
its legislative committee; Guignard
(Guy) Maxcy, president of the
Highlands County Citrus Growers,
Inc.; C. L. Crawford, president of
the Lake Placid unit; Philip Correll,
president of the DeSoto City unit;
E. W. Hartt, president of the Avon
Park unit, and Parke Anderson, sec-
retary-treasurer of the Avon Park
Much has been said in this maga-
zine and in conversations among
growers throughout the state con-
cerning a woman's auxiliary to Flor-
ida Citrus Growers, Inc. Some-
thing in the nature of a woman's
auxiliary functioned beautifully at
the Avon Park meeting when lady
growers including Mrs. E. W. Hartt,
Mrs. Parke Anderson, Mrs. E. G.
Todd, Mrs. Harry Jackson, Mrs.
Daisy Ten Eyck, and others served
juice from some of the famous South
Ridge fruit and other refreshments.
Osceola C o u n t y Agricultural
Agent, June R. Gunn, labors under
a misunderstanding on the part of
people outside of his county Mr.
Gunn has given great service to the
cattle interests of Osceola County
and is thought of as a cattle special-
ist. He, however, also knows the
citrus business, is a friend of the
growers, and has shown outstanding
cooperation to the grower organiza-
tion, Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
Gunn Calls Meeting
Under Mr. Gunn's auspices a meet-
ing of growers was called at St.
Cloud, July 22nd, which was well
attended. The principal speaker was
John M. Criley, of Terra Ceia, an
evangelist of the grower cause and
an effective speaker.
Mr. Criley began his speech by
saying "Truth comes more easily
out of error than out of confusion,"
and proceeded to do some effective
work in clearing up both error and
According to Mr. Criley, the whole
situation is in the hands of the grow-
ers. Tfiey need only to equip them-
selves with the correct information
that will enable them to lead them-
selves and the balance of the citrus
industry out of the wilderness.
W. J. (Funie) Steed, general coun-
sel of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.,
(who, by the way, works almost un-
ceasingly for the organization and his
title is his sole reward) is a much-
loved grower of Osceola County, and
gave able assistance to Mr. Criley in
giving to his fellow growers a clear
picture of the great work which the
organization has already accomplish-
ed, and the greater things which may
be expected of it with proper grower
Ira O. Young, president, and R. E.
Thomas, vice-president of the Os-
ceola County unit of Florida Citrus
Growers, Inc., assisted Mr. Gunn in
the arrangements for the meeting.
Also present and contributing to
the success of the occasion were: M.
M. Overstreet, chairman of the board
of directors of Osceola County, A.
M. Jones, city commissioner; Steve
Sharp, alternate state director Flor-
ida Citrus Growers, Inc., and C. A.
(Uncle Charlie) Garrett. N. Ray
Carroll, an Osceola grower, contrib-
uted an abundance of ice cream for
the refreshment of growers and their
We Will Guarantee
on Standard Vent
Shipments if Our Processes are Used
Our processes give such complete control that we feel perfectly safe
in making this remarkable guarantee. Not only is the fruit sound
upon arrival but the straps are tight and a full weight box is de-
livered. Inspection shows a better polish and a more uniform color.
Our Coloring Room Process minimizes infection in the coloring
rooms. Our Color Added Process is applied at lower temperatures
than usual, a more uniform color is obtained and less breakdown re-
sults. Our Brogdex Process controls shrinkage and decay. These
three processes, in combination, make possible the delivery of your
fruit in the best possible condition for better prices.
The savings on refrigeration and in adjustments plus the better
prices realized will pay the service charge and leave a substantial
May we discuss the matter with you?
B. C. SKINNER, Distributor
THE CITRUS GROWER, August 1, 1939
Elimination And The Small Grower
The July 15th issue of our magazine devoted a lot
of space to the subject of elimination as one means of
getting prices for fruit that would return a profit to
the grower. We have had a number of letters com-
menting on the idea. Some of the letters show favor
and some have been very unfavorable. The unfavor-
able letters seem to come largely from small growers.
As clearly stated in the articles in our last maga-
zine we do not intend, if it is at all possible to prevent
it, to have any part of our good citrus crop destroyed
in order to keep it off the market. If a sound elimi-
nation plan is decided upon early enough, it is very
likely some arrangement can be made to have the United
States government use this fruit for relief purposes.
We hope some useful purpose can be found for it.
Less Money for More Fruit
Our chief objective is to prevent excess fruit from
destroying the price of that which the markets will
take at a profit to the grower.
Many of our comparisons of size of crop and of
prices have cited prices before the depression against
prices since the depression began, and some may think
size of crop may not be the determining factor that is
keeping prices down. But statistics from 1935
to 1939, when total citrus production has been in-
creasing year by year, show that we have gotten less
and less money for more and more fruit.
Another objection to elimination which a small
grower may justly have is that it may be unfair to him.
This is justifiable on the basis of past elimination pro-
Grade and size elimination works favorably to the
large grower who is well financed and can raise a high
quality of fruit. Under the grade and size elimination
the fruit of the small and under-financed grower, like-
ly running largely to No. 2's and 3's, may not get
But our discussion has been concerned only with
some elimination program that is fair to all growers.
We regard the percentage elimination as fitting this
measure. That is, if it were decided that a certain part
of the fruit would not be absorbed by the markets at
a price that would give the grower cost of production,
it would be determined how much could be shipped.
Then the balance would be eliminated, and a pro-
portionate part of each grower's crop, regardless of
grades and sizes, would be turned out of commercial
This elimination would mean that the quantity of
fruit had been reduced to what the market would take
at a fair price. In our last issue it was indicated this
could be determined quite accurately.
Buyers Will Seek Fruit
When the crop has been reduced to what the mar-
ket will take, that means all the fruit will be shipped,
the fruit of the large grower and of the small grower.
That is the small grower, under a sound elimination
program would have opportunity to sell his fruit.
When we have surplus conditions, such as the last
two seasons, we do not see buyers going back to
hunt out the small crops. They look for the larger
growers, with high quality fruit and easy to get at.
We Must Think
So much evidence has been given that we are begin-
ning to feel elimination is one of the things Florida
growers will have to do in order to get better prices.
This editorial, however, should not be construed as a
deliberate argument in its favor. It is written solely
to excite further thought and curiosity especially on the
part of small growers.
The opponents of any sound marketing program, of
course, will develop and enlarge upon every argument
against the growers taking any steps whatever to re-
form the citrus industry. Those who oppose the
growers are perfectly satisfied with things as they are.
We growers must offset this by thinking for ourselves.
Read The Citrus Grower!
The truth about the citrus industry is the only
weapon growers can use in reforming their industry
and putting it on a basis where there will be a profit-
able return to the grower.
The principal object of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.,
is to gather this information, put it in the hands of the
growers, and by organized effort to reconstruct the in-
The principal means of giving this information to
the grower is through this the official publication. Ev-
ery issue is crowded with discussions of the most
The greater part of the stories do not carry any
line indicating authorship. That is because nearly
everything printed in the magazine has been checked
and criticized by so many before it is printed it is dif-
ficult to say who the actual author is. This means
the information is well considered and shows the
thinking of grower-leaders at the time of publication.
A grower who hopes to make a profit out of his
business cannot well afford to miss the articles pub-
lished in his magazine.
on a past performance basis, the ship-
per would be assigned shipping al-
lotments on the basis of the past
season's operations, or on the oper-
ations of several seasons averaged to-
gether. That is, the shipper would
get the allotment himself and could
determine whose fruit was to be ship-
ped. It was a bargaining advantage
in the hands of the shipper. The
grower had the fruit but did not have
the authority to ship it. This was
a strong advantage in the hands of
the shipper, and one which the Fed-
eral government will not longer per-
mit. All marketing agreements that
now receiving the approval of the
Department of Agriculture are on a
current control basis. A current
control basis has been found to be
more workable and equitable for the
grower. In this case the control of
the fruit, or the right to ship it,
goes with the fruit. The one in pos-
session or in control of the fruit has
this right. Since the fruit starts
with the grower, the grower has this
control, and is in the bargaining po-
sition. This, of course, is the point
around which the controversy has
raged over "current control" and
"past performance" familiar to all
The current control basis of regu-
lation, however, puts a responsibility
upon the grower to handle it in such
a way that it will not drive the in-
dependent buyer out of business it
the grower wishes to do business
with the independent buyer. When
growers understand the necessity of
this and show a willingness to abide
by the necessary rules of conduct
which this responsibility places upon
them, the chief objections to volume
regulation will disappear. This is
a further indication of the need for
growers thoroughly to understand
their industry. This understanding
can come only through the facilities
for finding the facts and spreading
correct information furnished by the
The Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.,
I have before me The Citrus
Grower of July 15th, and notice
your invitation to growers to write
you as to their willingness or un-
willingness to join in an elimination
I am accepting your invitation and
sincerely hope you will regard the
criticisms I make as being made en-
tirely in a friendly way, and with the
best of intentions.
This entire issue of The Grower
is to me a disappointment. There
is not one single constructive feature
in it. It is entirely given over to
articles and arguments in favor of
elimination and nothing else-and
you do not define the word "elimina-
No one can tell just what is meant
by it except that the intention seems
to be to let some $250 a month gov-
ernment man who couldn't earn
$2.00 a day in regular grove work,
order us to destroy as much of our
crop as he sees fit to and we have
nothing to do with it.
I personally want nothing to do
with it and my candid opinion is
that if this growers' organization
doesn't do something to help them-
selves, no one else will-and the one
and only way is a marketing system
of our own to market our own fruit
and no one else's. It can be done and
done easily, but not by passing the
buck. The market is there if we
have the business ability to reach it
and as far as oranges are concerned
there is no over-production. The
fact of the matter is about four-
fifths of the country was not suffi-
ciently supplied with oranges, even
last year-that part of it that could
be reached by trucks was heavily sup-
plied with No. 3's, colored to look
like good fruit, and with the excep-
tions of a 'few retail stores set up
for the season only, by various Lake
County growers, the midwest and
north central parts of the country
was under supplied. All the No.
I's and No. 2's went to the auctions.
There is only one auction market
west of the Mississippi, at St. Louis
-then Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland
and Cincinnati. The balance in the
east. That is not distribution, it is
If this organization really wants
to help itself, then put in a marketing
system to reach that part of the coun-
try that is under-supplied with Flor-
The Umatilla Fruit Company ran
50 or 60 retail stores last winter
and I haven't heard anything yet
about their going bankrupt. One of
our growers, Mr. Babb, put in a re-
tail store in the north and one of his
sons operated it. They sold 3000
boxes from their grove and netted
$1.00 on the tree. Mr. W. A. Skin-
ner did the same thing. Went up
and ran the store himself and sold
his fruit at a profit without any
elimination: so did Mr. Whitney, my
next door neighbor.
If ordinary growers can do that
what could this large organization
do if it really tried?
Properly stocked, the state of
Iowa alone would eat every orange in
Lake County, and yell for more. We
now have a green fruit law if it can
be enforced, which will help some-
also some other good laws that will
Now if the officers of this organi-
zation have the guts to put in a mar-
keting system we can sell our fruit,
but if they hang back until the in-
dependent buyers and shippers hold
out the olive branch to them, and
turn us small growers over to them
to do the marketing, we might as
well fold up right now and have the
O. J. GRAHAM,
July 24, 1939.
Sell to buyers who help our in-
dustry Buy from concerns that
help our organization.
WHERE TO BUY
SOUTH ATLANTIC REDUCTION COR-
PORATION, Jennie Jewel Drive, Or-
lando, Tel. 6241.
GOERING'S AVOCADO NURSERIES-
Reliable Varieties, Budded Trees. Bud-
Wood and Fruit. M. F. Goering. Rt. 1.
Box 259, Largo, Florida.
B. C. SKINNER (Brogdex System), Dun-
Wi s, L K ,Chief
r .. 9' 'iv TJ S DeDt Agri.
Wajlung55" .. V 1
Growers Must Prepare to Protect Their
Interests Next Season. JOIN NOW!
Membership Application Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
OBJECTIVES OF THE FLORIDA CITRUS GROWERS, INC.
1. TO GIVE THE CITRUS GROWER CONTROL OF HIS INDUSTRY-
Through an industry program designed to obtain for the grower a fair net return on
2. TO REDUCE COSTS OF PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION BY-
A. Elimination of uneconomic grove practices.
B. Elimination of all processing and distribution costs not vital to the maintaining of qual-
ity fruit or the broadening of markets.
3. TO PERMIT ONLY QUALITY FRUIT TO REACH OUR CONSUMERS BY-
A. Effective green fruit laws.
B. Improved cultural practices.
C. Quality grades.
D. Elimination of all processing practices adversely affecting quality.
E. Improved shipping and distribution practices.
4. TO REGULATE THE QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF CITRUS FRUIT MOVED IN
ALL COMMERCIAL CHANNELS BY-
Establishing Laws and Marketing Agreements to provide for orderly distribution.
5. TO ORGANIZE OUR SELLING TO EFFECTIVELY COMPETE WITH ORGANIZED
A. Elimination of all inefficient, irresponsible shipping agencies, particularly those agencies
refusing to cooperate on a constructive program.
B. Coordinating all sales through a few centralized sales agencies.
C. Maintaining prices to net the Grower a fair return on his investment.
Membership.in .---------__ County Citrus Growers is limited to bona fide growers who do
not buy or sell citrus fruit of others as a business for profit, or who do not derive a salary from Ship-
ping Agencies except as provided for in the By-Laws.
REGULAR MEMBERSHIP DUES $1.00 D]
SUSTAINING MEMBERSHIP DUES $1.00 plus 5c per acre D
It is understood and agreed that 50 cents of above amount covers one year's subscription to THE CIT-
SIGNATURE -------------------------.ADDRESS ----- --
TOTAL CITRUS ACREAGE -------------------
MARKETING METHODS: COOPERATIVE -.-----------------
AMOUNT RECEIVED $ ________ BY MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEEMAN ----
Mail your Application to the President of your County's Unit, or to the Florida Cirrus
Growers, Inc., Orlando, Florida.