Front Cover
 President's message
 Table of Contents
 Business methods in marketing
 Beneficial use of purchase...
 Elimination plans are compared
 The feather-legged fly
 More about competing fruits
 With the editor
 New affiliate about complete
 Back Cover

Group Title: Citrus grower (Orlando, Fla.)
Title: The citrus grower
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086640/00017
 Material Information
Title: The citrus grower
Uniform Title: Citrus grower (Orlando, Fla.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30-44 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
Place of Publication: Orlando Fla
Publication Date: July 15, 1939
Frequency: weekly (semimonthly july-sept.)[<1939>]
semimonthly[ former 1938-]
normalized irregular
Subject: Fruit-culture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruit industry -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Nov. 15, 1938)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1942?
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 4, no. 9 (May 15, 1942).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086640
Volume ID: VID00017
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 03227648
lccn - sn 96027371

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    President's message
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Business methods in marketing
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Beneficial use of purchase program
        Page 6
    Elimination plans are compared
        Page 7
    The feather-legged fly
        Page 8
    More about competing fruits
        Page 9
    With the editor
        Page 10
    New affiliate about complete
        Page 11
    Back Cover
        Page 12
Full Text

JUL 2 41939
* I tD rtiw t Of Agriculture




This is the General Subject of a Series of
Articles in This Issue. Manufacturers Have
Recognized the Necessity of Fitting Offerings
of Goods to the Demand, in Order to Main-
tain a Satisfactory Price. Shall Citrus
Growers Do It?

INV. '60



. a





WTE ARE LEARNIING a lot about the citrus in-
W dustry, as we go along. The grower is having
growing pains a plenty. The work we grow-
ers have done so far through our organization has
opened broad new opportunities and we are trying to
devise a plan for handling next season's crop, in the
hope that the plan will enable us to get at least cost
of production for our fruit.
We have tried to get cost of production through
legislative act. The more promising way to approach
this goal, it seems to me, is to know our industry and
organize it on a businesslike basis. This idea seems
to be shared by the grower leadership and the balance
of the industry. Hence the present study and efforts
to analyze.
This study has had a peculiar effect upon me in the
last few days. We are thinking about surpluses, more
and better markets, elimination, orderly shipping,
concentration of sales and many other devices.
When we try to calculate in advance what effect
these provisions will have, we are astonished by the
realization of how little we know about our business.
In almost any other business except citrus, a sur-
vey is made of what the market will take. If it is
proposed to manufacture a line of radios, careful
study is made in advance to know what kind of
radio the customer wants and the number of a given
kind of radio that can be sold within given price
ranges. This kind of research work has not been
done altogether by manufacturers. Producers of ag-
ricultural products have also made such investigations.
I heard a few days ago about the time the Scanda-
navian hog raisers were thinking of entering the pork
markets of the British Isles. Before doing this they
made a careful study of the British market. They
found exactly how many streaks of lean and of fat
the English gentlemen in London wanted in their
bacon at breakfast, and with this information they
went back home and told their fellow growers what
kind of hogs to raise. The deal was and is a grand
When I consider how little study we have given our
business, I am tempted to believe we have been raising

citrus fruit just for fun and not to sell to somebody
else and make a profit out of it.
Little or no effort has been made to determine ex-
actly what our customer wants and how much he will
buy under given circumstances. We have dressed up
our fruit as a temperamental artist paints a picture,
that is, in a way that appeals to us. We have also
engaged with other citrus producing areas in an un-
even battle, competing for appearance, whereas the
principal value of Florida fruit is the juice and flavor.
Our system of grading is only one evidence of the
haphazard basis on which the industry has grown up.
The principal appeal of Florida fruit to the customer
is its internal qualifications, how it appeals to the taste
and how much juice it has. Our system of grading
which has been up for revision the past few days
misses every one of these strong appeals.
Whether this present campaign to evolve an in-
dustry program succeeds or not, we will gain much
benefit from the study and thinking the proposal of
it has forced us to do. The statisticians have known
for a long time that 5 1-3 million families in the
United States spend only 75c per year for citrus
fruits. These are families who have an income of
$1250.00 or less. per year. Statistics gathered over
the years indicate that if there is an increase in this
income of 20 percent with citrus prices remaining the
same, or if there is a decrease in the price of 20 per-
cent with the incomes remaining the same, these fam-
ilies will consume $2.86 worth of citrus fruit per
year, which is an increase of 350 percent and would
amount in the course of a year to $11,000,000.00
more money coming to citrus growers.
Work on our part to reduce the price of fruit in the
hands of the consumer and the possibility purchasing
power will rise, is the basis on which we hope even-
tually to dispose of our surpus fruit and free us from
the necessity of elimination.
Such avenues must be explored; the details of
taking advantage of such conditions must be worked
out. There are many ways of improving our condi-
tions. We need most a strong grower organization
within which these ideas may be discovered and de-
veloped and we need the power of the organization
to put the ideas into effect.

Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.

The Citrus Grower
Official Publication of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
VOLUME 1 JULY 15, 1939 NUMBER 17

Our Organization

Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., is an agency through
which 21 county organizations work together for the
purpose of making citrus growing profitable. The
county organizations are made up of growers who have
no financial connection with or interest in the ship-
ment of fruit. In these units are growers who ship
through cooperative marketing associations as well as
growers who dispose of their fruit to cash buyers or
on consignment. So called "cooperative" growers and
so called "independent" growers are fighting side by
side in the ranks of the county units and, through the
county units, in the state organization for the benefit
of the citrus industry. The grower must work for a
stable market with a healthy demand for fruit at a
price that pays, in addition to distribution costs, the
cost of production and a reasonable profit to producers.
Grower Price Ideal-
Unless this price ideal of the grower is attained, the
grower eventually must go out of business and with
him will fall the whole super-structure of the industry.
Only through organization can the grower realize this
ideal. Consequently an effective grower organization
is of the greatest concern to every element within the
industry and to all of those business, professional and
other working people in the citrus area whose pros-
perity directly and indirectly depends upon the citrus
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., is the means through
which the grower works and expresses himself in striv-
ing for this ideal.
The state officers are:
L. H. Kramer, Lake Wales, President; J. J. Banks,
Jr., Orlando, 1st Vice-President: C. B. Van Sickler,
Ft. Pierce, 2nd Vice-President; W. L. Burton, Orlando,
Secretary; E. G. Todd, Avon Park, Treasurer, W. J.
Steed, Orlando, General Counsel.




Standard grades are necessary in order that a buyer
in New York may know what kind of oranges he is
buying in a car at the packing house in Florida.
This important subject was taken up by the Citrus
Commission in several meetings lately. These meet-
ings were attended by R. R. Pailthorp, specialist in
fruit and vegetable standards, of the United States De-
partment of Agriculture; William E. Lewis, Agricul-
tural Economist, U. S. D. A., J. Harold Hoover and
H. S. Flynt, of the State Inspection Service.
Some changes in grades are expected. These changes
are very probably useful in the trade.
They miss, however, the point on which Florida
interests should emphasize, which is juice and flavor.
Florida grading, advertising and marketing should
be pushed in the direction of juice and flavor standards
as rapidly as possible. Florida is and has been com-
peting with other producing areas on the point of ex-
ternal appearance and, unfortunately, grades still hang
on this point.

Virgil H. Conner---- ----.Editor Published the First and Fifteenth of each able. The publishers can accept no re-
month by The Florida Citrus Growers, responsibility for return of unsolicited manu-
Vernon Keith ..-- Advertising Manager Inc., Orlando, Florida. scripts.
PUBLICATION COMMITTEE-W. E. Entered as second-class matter Novem- Subscription Rates
Kemp, Chairman; Carl D. Brorein, R. ber 15, 1938, at the postoffice at Orlando, In United States, one year $1.00 to non-
J. Kepler, E. G. Thatcher, W. L. Burton, Fla.. under the Act of March 3, 1879. members of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.,
Membership subscriptions, one year 50c.
C. A. Garrett, Karl Lehmann. Manuscripts submitted to this maga- Membershisubscripti e r
zine should be accompanied by sufficient Address all mail to The Citrus Grower,
Printed by Chief Press, Apopka .i postage for their return if found unavail- P. 0. Box 2077, Orlando, Florida.

THE CITRUS GROWER, July 15, 1939


THERE ARE MANY differences
of course between manufactur-
ing and farming. Economic-
ally the most outstanding difference
is that the success of manufacutring
is largely the result of an adjustment
to the fundamental laws of supply
and demand while the farmers, act-
ing collectively, have suffered from
a woeful disregard of those laws.
The manufacturer has adjusted
himself to these natural and un-
alterable laws by controlling sur-
plus, creating orderly distribution of
his goods and finding a practical way
of more or less unifying his sales
through trade associations.
Demand Has Exceeded Supply
During those years when demand
kept just a little ahead of supply the
citrus grower was not conscious
of the necessity for him, individual-
ly, to understand marketing prob-
lems. Marketing was largely a mat-
ter of distribution and not merchan-
dising. The grower was primarily
a producer and he left the problem
of distributing his fruit to others.
His supply was not in excess of de-
mand, the price on the tree was sat-
isfactory and he could dispose of his
entire crop. But, due to accelerated
increased plantings, a surplus does
now actually exist. Under such
conditions the disposition of citrus
becomes a matter of intelligent mer-
chandising and not merely a ques-
tion of distribution only. Under
such conditions the rules which have
made manufacturing successfif are
equally necessary to the citrus grow-
er if he is to be successful.

It Is a Group Problem
And so long as a surplus problem
exists the grower is powerless work-
ing as an individual to cope with the
problem. We can not as individuals
control surplus-that is of necessity
the problem of the group working
under a unit plan and not the prob-
lem of the individual working at
cross-purposes with all other individ-
uals, In such a condition it matters

not what we want to do or whether
we just want to do nothing. We
can not alter a natural law of life.
In this case we work with the law
of supply and demand and all pros-
per, or we individually ignore it and
individually do not prosper.
"I" and "We"
It is a case of whether we shall
take the "I" or "We" attitude. Cer-
tainly "I" would be better off if
"I" could sell all my fruit at a satis-
factory price and, if no one else was
selling fruit, "I" could do that. But
under present conditions if "we" all
try to do that "we" glut the mar-
kets with our surplus. When that
is done "we" do not make a profit.
So it becomes necessary that "I" give
up my individual attitude so that
"we" working together in recogni-
tion of the fundamental rules of the
game can all prosper.
Only Suggestion
I said a few moments ago that
it was now necessary under present
conditions in the citrus industry to
balance supply with satisfactory-
price-level-demand, to have orderly
distribution and some form of unity
of sales effort. I want to limit
the discussion to the considera-
tion of surplus elimination as a
means of meeting the first require-
ment-namely the balancing of sup-
ply with demand at reasonable and
proper price levels. It is a fixed
policy of the Florida Citrus Grow-
ers, Inc., not to advocate the adop-
tion of a policy until its grower
members have been furnished the
facts and themselves have determined
what that policy is to be. This
discussion is one relating to facts
and is not to be taken as an expres-
sion of policy. As these and other
facts will be taken up by approxi-
mately 6,000 growers and a policy
deeply affecting the citrus industry
will be formed by them it is urged
that all growers take an active in-
terest in discussions the county units
of the grower organization.

Method Not Popular
"Elimination" is not a popular
word. It is, however, one of the
proposed remedies suggested to take
care of what appears to be over
production. It should be understood
also that in these broadcasts the
growers are not recommending any
specific remedy or suggesting any
specific plan to bring back prosper-
ous conditions, but we are merely
discussing some of the angles that
have received considerable thought.
To propose elimination means
that we recognize the existence of
a surplus of citrus fruit which the
markets will not absorb under pres-
ent conditions at a price which will
return a profit to the grower. We
know, of course, that growers and
others will never consent to a pro-
gram of elimination unless the ne-
cessity of it is thoroughly proved.
This brings up the question, do we
have a surplus? Or, what is a sur-
plus, so far as the citrus growers
are concerned?
Surplus Not Absolute
No one would say that we are
producing more fruit than the coun-
try needs. There are millions in the
low income groups who subsist on a
diet inadequate to maintain proper
growth and health. These need our
fruit but cannot get it on account
of price to the consumer. This need
puts upon the grower the social ob-
ligation of trying to make his prod-
uct useful to as great a proportion of
the human family as possible. Uses
of citrus, undoubtedly, can be ex-
panded far beyond the present con-
suming groups. This can be done by
reducing cost of production and cost
of distribution.
Other Ways Out
In addition, more fruit, undoubt-
edly, could be disposed of even at
present price levels if a well organ-
ized industry-wide effort were made
to study new markets or markets
that do not get all the citrus they
can consume, and means were de-

Page 4

THE CITRUS GROWER, July 15, 1939

vised of reaching these markets.
These plans, however, require much
more study and a much better or-
ganized industry than we have now,
and it may take years to bring them
The grower organization is not
side-stepping for a minute its obli-
gation to press for these fundamental
long time improvements. It has com-
mittees set up to study packing house
and other distribution costs and as
soon as any constructive propositions
are worked out in this direction the
organization will endeavor to have
them adopted and put in operation
by the industry.
Improvement Expected
The laws passed by the recent
legislature, which gave us an ade-
quate green fruit law and a law pro-
hibiting the shipment of frozen fruit
and a law regulating packing house
processes, will guarantee a better eat-
ing quality of fruit in the hands of
our customers and will cause cus-
tomers to buy more Florida fruit
and, consequently, will have the ef-
fect of using up some of our sur-
All of these benefits, however,
both those now in effect and those
yet to be achieved will not enable
us to sell all of the fruit which
can reasonably be expected from
next season's crop at a price which
will show a profit to the grower.
What Is Surplus?
We believe a proper definition of
a surplus condition is that condition
wherein there is so much fruit that
all of it can not be sold at a reason-
able and justified profit to the grow-
er. If an attempt is made to sell
all of it, the grower will receive a
greatly reduced price even for that
which the market will absorb.
The fruit will not benefit any-
body by hanging on the tree all sea-
son as a threat to the market. It
is believed by many in the industry
that disposition of that surplus
should be made at the beginning of
the season in order to remove that
Can Calculate Demand
We hear of great progress in re-
search, and, in this connection, no
greater progress has been made than
that of taking the guess-work out of

many business and political prob-
lems. Our statisticians now keep
us advised almost up to the minute
as to the popularity of the New
Deal and the President and on any
other national problems.
Practically all business concerns
now conduct national surveys to
learn just what type of product the
consumer wants. Studies further
have been developed to the point
where not only does the manufac-
turer know exactly what his po-
tential consumers want but he
knows the price at which they will
purchase it.
Can Apply to Citrus
We mention this business like ap-
proach to the problem as it is han-
dled in other lines of business be-
cause it should undoubtedly play an
equally important role in citrus pro-
duction and distribution.
Through accurate government
crop estimates, it is possible to know
at the beginning of a shipping sea-
son the amount of fruit available
for shipment, and government, state
and independent authorities have
plenty of statistics upon which to
base accurate calculations of the buy-
ing power of our consumers and the
amount of fruit which they will
consume at various price levels. That
is the information available upon
which scientific elimination can be
What Shall We Do?
Now the question is. do the citrus
growers of Florida want to recog-
nize the relation between the vol-
ume of fruit offered and the price
which consumers will pay? Or do
they wish to continue the practice
of shipping all of the fruit regardless
of the price it may bring? Do we
want to continue to ship fruit that
returns to the grower no profit, or
in some cases red ink, with a realiza-
tion that this fruit goes into com-
petition and in many cases is sub-
stituted for fruit which could be
sold at a higher price?
The growers organization has
made the statement repeatedly, and
makes it again, that for a long range
program we should find it possible
through economies in production, in
processing and in distribution to sell
all of our fruit at fair net return to

the grower and thus avoid any ne-
cessity for elimination.
The true progress of the Florida
citrus industry should be measured
by its ability during the coming
years to reduce all production costs
and tree-to-market expense to the
point where the millions of Amer-
ican families in the low income
brackets may purchase our fruit on
a basis that would still net the grow-
ers a profit.
Twenty years ago it would have
been considered an impossible task
to manufacture automobiles at the
prices they are being manufactured
today and yet it has been consistent
reduction in costs over a period of
years which has made it possible to
sell such a tremendous yearly volume
of automobiles.
Should an industry agree that an
elimination program is essential such
a program must have, before it be-
comes effective, the approval of a
large majority of growers.
It will be a great help to the
industry committee if every grower
will write to the Florida Citrus
Growers, Inc., Orlando, his willing-
ness or unwillingness to cooperate
on such a program, bearing in mind
that such an elimination would be
based on accurate crop estimates, de-
tailed information on consumers'
buying power, production in com-
peting areas, and that it apply to
all growers, large and small alike.
and to fresh fruit and canned fruit
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., do
not wish to have it understood that
it is making any specific recommen-
dations to the industry meeting
which will convene shortly to
work out a plan for handling next
season's crop. This discussion is
purely a recounting of some think-
ing which has been done by numerous
growers and industry leaders in the
past few weeks.
Sell to buyers who help our In-
dustry-Buy from concerns that
help our organization.

630 W. Church St. Orlando, Fla.

Page 5

Page 6 THE CITRUS GROWER, July 15, 1939


Beneficial Use of Purchase Programs

F OR THE LAST few weeks can-
ners have been working night
and day canning grapefruit for
relief purposes. This grapefruit is
being bought under the surplus
commodities purchase program. The
program requires that for each box
of fruit purchased another box must
be diverted from fresh and canned
fruit channels. Consequently, a
large quantity of grapefruit is being
eliminated now at the very end of
the season, and this elimination has
had no effect whatever upon the mar-
ket during the season which has
passed. It is a case of growers in
distress attempting to salvage some-
thing out of their crops.
The Federal Surplus Commodi-
ties Purchase Program has been
available to the growers since Feb-
ruary. It was offered solely as an
elimination program. There was
no pretense on the part of the gov-
ernment that it would pay cost of
Purpose of Program
The program was based on this
reasoning: Calculations by experts as
to the size of the nation's citrus crop
and as to probable purchasing pow-
er had determined that a certain
quantity of fruit could not be sold
in fresh or canned fruit markets at
a price that would bring cost of pro-
In order that the nation's crop
could be brought down to a volume
which would raise the price of the
remainder to a satisfactory level, it
was calculated that a certain number
of boxes of oranges and a certain
number of boxes of grapefruit must
be eliminated from commercial fruit
merchandising channels.
The Department of Agriculture
did not have funds available to buy
all of the fruit that it was thought
necessary to eliminate, but calculated
it did have funds to purchase half
of the necessary elimination. Con-
sequently, the department proposed
to buy half of the quantity to be

eliminated and that the citrus indus-
try eliminate the other half.
Accepted Half of Load
The machinery for carrying out
this proposition was that Federal
Surplus Commodities Corporation
would buy a certain number of boxes
of oranges and a certain number of
boxes of grapefruit each week at
the market price with the under-
standing that for each box purchased
the grower would divert a second
box to some purpose other than
fresh or canned fruit products.
The objective of the government
purchase program was not under-
stood in the season now closing and
growers refused to sell their fruit
for the prices offered until within
the last few weeks when it has be-
come apparent to every one that this
would be the only means for the
grower to obtain anything whatever
for a large part of his crop. The
government is now buying and the
elimination is going on, but the ef-
fect of the elimination upon the
market has been lost completely.
Voluntary Basis Unsatisfactory
Another fault of the Surplus"
Commodities Corporation elimina-
tion program is that it was on a
voluntary basis. A grower could
accept or refuse to accept its terms
as he saw fit. That element in the
makeup of all of us which causes
us to hold on too long, hoping for a
better break, caused growers to fail
to accept the program at a time when
its effect would have been far more
beneficial to raise prices.
The weight of the surplus of
fruit upon the market last season is
so clearly seen now that hundreds of
growers realize it would have been
better to have given away a certain
percentage of the crop last year
rather than to have had it hang on
the trees as a threat to the consum-
ing markets throughout the season.
Competitive Buying
It is thought that a sound elimi-
nation program upon a percentage

basis adopted and accepted by the
growers before the season begins
would correct many, if not all, of
the above outlined mistakes of last
season. It will not put the burden
of elimination more heavily upon
one type of grower than upon an-
other. Elimination bringing the
crop down to a quantity that the
market will readily absorb will have
the effect of bringing buyers out
even to the most remote groves by
putting elimination upon a percen-
tage (and compulsory) basis. At the
beginning of the season it will have
the beneficial effect of bringing gov-
ernment purchases in competition
with the regular market throughout
the season and we will not be in
that position we are this year, of
locking the barn door after the horse
has been stolen.
Hope for Greater Share
The fact that only a small per-
centage of the government's funds
have come to Florida during the
past seasons offers most convincing
proof of the necessity of the Florida
industry as a whole cooperating in
an industry program, and is proof
of the old statement that "no one
can help those who are unwilling to
help themselves."
Of couj.se, everybody is not sold
on an elimination program. How-
ever, many of the leaders in the grow-
ers' organization are firmly convinced
that sound business practice demands
that we balance our production with
our demand, and, that this demand
to be judged by its ability to pay
the producers a fair net return; the
balance of the crop to be diverted
into channels other than the fresh
and canned fruit market, and that
such plan will for the first time make
possible a workable arrangement
with the government in its pur-
chase programs as well as balance
supply and demand.

Sell to buyers who help our in-
dustry- Buy from concerns that
help our organization.

THE CITRUS GROWER, July 15, 1939

Elimination Plans Are Compared

BY THEIR VOTE last January
to accept the Department of
Agriculture's grade and size
agreement, the growers accepted elim-
ination in principle. Grade and size
restrictions constitute a sort of elim-
ination. However, as practiced at
present it has two distinct faults.
One of these is that the fruit which
is prevented from moving in inter-
state commerce by the control com-
mittee is left here in Florida. These
grades and size are held here because
the control committee acts on statis-
tics which show that during the pre-
vious two weeks period these par-
ticular grades and sizes did not bring
enough in the terminal markets to
cover tree to market costs and, con-
sequently, would bring the grower
red ink.
These unpopular grades and sizes
also, of course, added their weight
to the markets, came in competition
with and brought prices down on
the popular grades and sizes.
Useful to Canner
But these unpopular grades and
sizes left here in Florida were just
as useful for purposes of the can-
ner as the choicest grades and sizes
would be. For this reason, the
canners were able to purchase off
grades and sizes at destructively low
When this fruit is put into cans,
it goes to the shelves of food mer-
chants in the consumer markets and
is there to compete with fresh fruit
the next season.
Desire Canner Control
Without exception, all growers
have demanded that an elimination
program be made to include the
canning industry, which our pres-
ent grade and size restrictions do
not include. An amnedment to the
present AAA law designed to include
canners in marketing agreement reg-
ulations will be submitted to the
present congress, and it is hoped
that it will become effective before
our next shipping season.
An elimination program which
limits only the shipment to fresh
fruit markets and permits this fruit
to go into cans, which ultimately
come into competition with our

fresh fruit, does nothing more than
create distressed offerings for the
canning industry.
Percentage Method
A meeting was held this past
Spring where all factors in the in-
dustry were represented, including
the canners. It seemed then to be
the consensus of opinion that a
sound elimination program be one
which demanded that each and ev-
ery producer eliminate a set percen-
tage of his estimated crop. For ex-
ample, if at the beginning of next
season the crop estimate indicated
that only 90 percent of our grape-
fruit could be marketed on a basis
that would net the grower a fair
return, then each producer would be
required to eliminate 10 percent of
his crop before he was permitted to
ship the balance in inter-state com-
Grade and size method of elim-
ination has this second fault. Grow-
ers with sufficient capital have found
it possible to produce fruit with a
much higher percentage of the bright
higher grades. This kind of grower
has been permitted to ship his crop
almost in its entirety. Another
grower not financially able to carry
out necessary spray schedules to in-
sure a high percentage of high grade
fruit has found the grade restrictions
very burdensome. In a surplus year
a small grower with a low grade
fruit finds it very difficult to dis-
pose of his crop when grade and
size restrictions are in effect.
Elimination vs. Destruction
It is barely possible that this pro-
posed percentage elimination could
take place at the grove or packing
plant. It is further possible that
this elimination program could be
handled in such a way that it would
not mean the destruction of this
entire 10 percent. It may go for
export. It may be donated to re-
lief purposes. It may go to some of
the uses of citrus fruit now being
developed outside of fresh fruit and
canned products merchandising.
However that may be, the elimi-
nation will strike every grower in
the same proportion. Elimination
would be made without reference to
grades or sizes, which would have

the wholesome characteristic of lev-
elling off the effect of the elimina-
tion to have it equally applicable to
every type of grower.
It has been suggested that a grow-
er who has a high percentage of
bright fruit might hesitate about
eliminating part of his crop and that
he, under this sort of an arrange-
ment, would have the privilege of
buying a crop of lower grade fruit
to be eliminated instead of the bet-
ter fruit. This sort of operation,
of course, would create no hardship
upon the less favored grower who
has the lower grade fruit, since it
would stimulate a market for the
lower grades and the less favored
producer would get his money out
of his proportion of the crop the
same as if he had sold it in regular
commercial channels.
Another value of predetermined
percentage elimination is that when
applied from the beginning of the
season the amount of fruit which
will be taken off the market is def-
initely known from the start and
the reduced quantity will have a
healthy effect on the market through-
out the season.


$ and

By paying cash for fertilizer,
spray materials, etc.
By borrowing from a grow-
ers' cooperative organization
-operated by and for the
growers who use it;
By paying interest only for
the time you have actual use
of the money;
By repaying your loan when
you sell your crop.
New low interest rate.

41/2% per annum

We will be glad to serve you.
Write us for further details.
Florida Citrus Production
Credit Association
P. O. Box 1592 Orlando, Fla.

Page 7

THE CITRUS GROWER, July 15, 1939

The Feather-Legged Fly---

A Friend of Farmer-Grower

Assistant Entomologist, Florida
Experiment Station

House flies and some others are
very troublesome pests to human
beings. Exceptions to this rule are
feather-legged flies and some of the
tachinid flies. Florida growers do
not generally appreciate or realize
the good these feather-legged flies
do in destroying various species of
plant bugs.
In order to fully appreciate these
flies, we should know something of
their life history. When an adult
fly lays its eggs, it cements them to
the back of one of several species of
the plant bug family. The grubs
hatching out from these eggs gnaw
their way through the heard outer
shell of the plant bug and feed on
the soft body tissue within. For the
first few days this feeding is con-
fined to the fatty tissue but as the
grub grows larger it works its way
into the more vital organs of the
host. When ready to pupate, the
grub gnaws a large hole in the bug's
armor and crawls out. It then en-
ters the ground where it passes into
the pupal or resting stage. The grub
spends nearly three weeks in the plant
bug host and about twelve days in
the pupal or resting stage in the
ground before it emerges an adult
At first glance, these feather-leg-
ged flies might be mistaken for some
member of the wasp or bee family.
Their body color is light amber,
shading to almost black at the head
and tip of the abdomen. The wings
are darker and a few have some
amber on the front margins. The
adult fly is about 5-8 to 1-2 inch
in length from the head to the tip
of the abdomen. With wings ex-
panded they are about 3-4 of an
inch wide. They lack the narrow
waist of a hymenoptera, which dis-
tinguishes them from bees and wasps.
When at rest, the wings are not held
close to the body, or folded over the
back, as are the wings of the wasp.
A number of years ago the south-

ern green stink bug, or "pumpkin
bug" as it is commonly called by
our growers, was imported into Aus-
tralia. As sometimes happens when
an insect is introduced into a habitat
other than its native home, it left
its natural enemies behind. With
no natural checks on their multipli-
cation, pumpkin bugs became so
numerous in Australia that they were
a serious menace to agriculture. Sev-
eral attempts were made to estab-
lish these feather-legged flies in Aus-
tralia with the Entomology Depart-
ment of the Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station co-operating in
collecting and starting on their jour-
ney specimens of the southern green
stink bug bearing the eggs of this
parasite. Because of the length of
time required for the journey, so far
we have been unable to successfully
introduce this parasite into Aus-
Comstock tells us the feather-leg-
ged fly is one of five species of ta-
china flies that parasitize members
of the plant bug order. I have ob-
served at least one other tachina fly
emerging from plant bugs that ap-
parently bore eggs of the feather-leg-
ged fly. The eggs of each of those
tachina flies are white and appear to
be about the size of the blunt point
of a common pin. These eggs are
deposited usually on the back of the
bug host, but there does not seem
to be any set rule about their place-
ment. This cousin of the feather-
legged fly resembles a house fly mag-
nified about six times in color and
The condition of the food supply
for both the plant bugs and the
adult parasitic flies in the late sum-
mer and fall determines largely their
population the following spring.

The adult flies feed upon the nectar of
flowers. So, if dry weather exists
and plants fail to bloom, these flies
suffer more than their hosts, the
plant bugs. There are usually large
numbers of both bugs and flies in
the late summer and early fall. Since
the flies are less able than plant bugs
to endure adverse conditions, if
weather conditions are unfavorable
there is a smaller percentage of para-
sitization by these flies. On the
other hand, low temperatures affect
the plant bugs to a greater degree
than they do the parasitic flies.
The fact that these flies are para-
sitic to plant bugs makes them an
important ally to the farmer and
fruit grower. Sixty to 75 per cent
of parasitization is considered good
among green stink bugs. For the
past several years, an ever increasing
number of other plant bugs have
shown parasitization. Parasitization
on the southern green stink bug grad-
ually increased until 1937. Last fall
there was a great decrease in the num-
ber of bugs bearing the eggs of these
parasites. Last winter and spring,
-- - -' -" -' -" -' -' - -




Orlando, Fla. Phone 5791

Page 8

SFor 25 years National-Riverside
Heaters have saved millions of
dollars to citrus, deciduous and
truck growers. Low in Cost and
High in Efficiency... Write to
9 Gallon Junior National- Riverside Co. 3 and 9 Gallon
Louvre Heater P.O.Box 925, Tampa,Florida Smudge Pot

THE CITRUS GROWER, July 15, 1939

there was a decrease in plant bug
population as well.
A grower who finds plant bugs
numerous and does not note the eggs
of these parasitic flies on them
should go to some locality where
parasitized bugs are numerous and
collect them and take them back to
his place. In this way the parasites
are introduced to assist in controlling
the plant bugs and the spread of this
beneficial fly is effected. However,
do not expect a rapid reduction in
plant bug population because it takes
two or more weeks before the para-
sites can complete their life cycle and
choose a new victim.
If plant bugs should be causing
severe damage to a crop, it is best to
collect the bugs in kerosene and wa-
ter early in the morning or late in
the evening when the pests are slug-
gish. After this collection, the im-
portation of bugs with the eggs of
parasite on them may be used to
handle those that escape.
Parasites are the best control for
plant bugs-their natural enemies.
These flies work silently and effi-
ciently with a minimum of cost and
labor to the grower.
More About
Competing Fruits

First Hand Information From
The Argentine

The Citrus Grower,
Apropos of the article "Do We
Face a Large Citrus Surplus" in
your issue of June 15th, you men-
tion the Argentine's position in the
pear market.
Having lived the past 18 years
in Buenos Aires, Argentine, though
not connected with fruit in any way,
I can add to that statement, that the
pears they are raising are as fine as
any I have ever eaten, either here
at home in the States, or Europe.
And not only is the quality of the
highest, but the manner of present-
ing them on the market is equally
I'm not familiar with details of
the industry, but I believe the first
major impetus was given the pear
industry, located in the territory of
Rio Negro, south central portion
of the country, by a few Englishmen.

executives of the Great Southern Ry.
(British). At present a number of
Americans living in Buenos Aires are
absentee owners of orchards. The
Englishmen and Argentines began
the major plantings, American brains
was responsible for attending the
orchards, installing packing houses,
educating native labor to classify,
pack, etc.
The pear industry has made a
very creditable showing during the
past few years.
Another factor not cited in the
above mentioned article, is Argen-
tine's place in the apple market. I first
went to the Argentine in 1919 and
at that time almost every steamer
came well loaded with American ap-
ples. The country imported almost
entirely its requirements of apples.
Today, importation has practically
ceased and apples are raised from
north to south. The quality is good,
but not on a par with the pears.
Directly pertaining to our own
problem is Argentine's citrus grow-
ing. I have no details, as it's only
since I came to Florida about a year
and a half ago that I interested my-
self in citrus. I do know, however,
that their own production plus im-
ports from Paraguay, they are en-
tirely self-supporting. Indirectly it
has its effect on us because that
eliminates Brazil's exporting to the
Argentine, and as a consequence,
forces Brazil to seek markets else-
where. European markets could be
easily developed in view of the fact
that refrigerated steamer service is
just as good from Brazil to Europe as
from New York, except that it re-
quires a few days longer.
And so far the Argentine citrus

industry is not hampered with a
lot of red tape, as a consequence of
which everybody consumes oranges.
Fine juicy oranges at prices as low
as 6c per dozen and 15c is on the
high side. And these oranges are
transported from the northern prov-
inces of Corrientes and Posadas and
from Paraguay, distances of from
800 to 1100 miles. Transportation
as far as I ever observed was in bulk,
by rail and water.
The Argentine is highly progres-
sive and if they continue to be self-
supporting in apples, pears and citrus,
that has and will continue to have
its effect on American fruit growers.
Yours very truly,
H. D. Cranmer.
Sell to buyers who help our in.
dustry Buy from concerns that
help our organization.

to make

We furnish cash to citrus growers for
production needs at 4%% interest per
may be purchased with our loans, and
repaid on easy terms.
CONVENIENT to growers of Polk,
Hillsborough, Pinellas, Pasco, Hernan-
do, Citrus, Sumter Counties.
Box 1090 Citrus Center Bldg.
A Cooperative Association

Page 9

1939 Grove Sprayer Combinations

Engine & Tractor Driven Duster
Ask for current Price List, Spray 8 Dust Schedules, etc.


THE CITRUS GROWER, July 15, 1939

DURING THE PAST ten years we have seen the
production of oranges practically doubled. But,
for this doubled amount of fruit the grower, dur-
ing the past season, received slightly more than one-
half the total amount of money which he received for
half as much fruit ten years ago. During the same
period grapefruit production likewise doubled and the
grower for this increased production received approx-
imately one-fifth as much money as ten years ago.
Quantities and Prices
Reducing our view to the past two seasons, and
comparing this season with last, shows shipments of or-
anges through June 3rd this season as 63,093 cars, as
compared with 50,770 cars last season. This sea-
son's returns to the grower totaled $9,596,445.00 as
compared with the smaller shipments of last year, re-
turning $12,672,192.00. Grapefruit this season, 25,-
504 cars, last season, 19,532 cars, returns to the grow-
ers this year $2,387,174.00, last year $5,256,061.00.
In discussing the effect of elimination upon the
price received for California fruit Mr. Teague made
this very practical discussion. I quote an article by
him appearing in Citrograph.
Unlimited Shipments
"Faced with an estimated record tree crop of 58,000
cars for the state compared to the past five-year aver-
age of 42,000 cars, our sales department figured that
diversion of 20 percent of this crop to other than fresh
fruit trade channels would be required in order to main-
tain a market of $3.00 per box delivered. This price
is about as low as we can go and make any kind of
a return to the fairly efficient producer.
"An attempt to ship a weekly volume at the start
of the season last May that would market the entire
crop resulted in prices of $2.50 per box and less, and
it was our best judgment that the season average would
not be above that figure if everything was shipped.
$650.00 or more.
"Now the difference in price to the consumer be-
tween $2.50 per box and $3.00 per box delivered is
less than 3c per dozen or 1-4 cent per orange on an
average of 216 oranges or 18 dozen to the box. The
trade margins are practically the same at either price.
"But let us see what difference this price makes to
the grower with 1,000 boxes of oranges. At the
$2.50 price he received a net of 22c per box or $220
for 1,000 boxes. At the $3.00 price for 80 percent
of his crop, he receives 72c per box on 800 boxes of
$576.00 plus the payment from the government for
200 boxes diverted, in addition to the price received
from the processor for this 200 boxes, a total of
$650.00 or more.
"The grower receives nearly three times as much
money by regulating his supply to what the market

will take at only 50c more per box or 1-4 cents more
per orange to the consumer."
It is hardly conceivable Florida citrus growers would
wish to continue as one grower recently expressed it,
to ship every box of their fruit even though it didn't
bring them a nickel. Or do they wish to adopt the
sound business principles of manufacturers who take
every precaution to see that their output balances de-
mand and to hold demand at a price which will net
the manufacturer profit?
Manufacturers Regulate
Practically every manufacturer in business today
could by running his plant to capacity, produce suffi-
cient quantities of merchandise to glut the markets and
drive them into bankruptcy. If we are honest in our
statements about citrus production in Florida, this is
just about the program the producers have been fol-

United, They Stand

Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., the organization strict-
ly of and for the growers, recently celebrated its first
birthday. Born in the face of worry and despair, it
has grown during the first year of its existence be-
cause of its constructive accomplishments.
It is now the largest organization of growers ever
formed in Florida and through its united leadership
is in a powerful position to accomplish what every
person interested in the citrus industry believes is only
right-providing the grower a fair net return for his
Briefly, Florida Citrus Growers was instrumental
in placing in effect the federal marketing agreement to
regulate the size and grade of fruit handled in inter-
state commerce; it was successful in obtaining legis-
lative approval to needed regulations for the indus-
try, and, best of all, it has provided the key which can
give the grower the control of his industry.
The organization has not been over-confiident of
its power, but has shown willingness to cooperate
with all interests of the industry. It has recently is-
sued a challenge for all these divided interests to get
together around the conference table to iron out any
differences and formulate a plan for handling neit
season's crop. Surely now is the opportune time to
work out a plan which will be most suitable for the
vast majority of interests.
To some the citrus problem is a question of over-
production; others hold it is a question of proper
distribution. In either case, the orderly marketing
of next year's crop is of a paramount interest. Co-
operation now can easily prevent a disastrous season
next year. At least it's worth a try.-Tampa

Page 10

A New Affiliate
About Complete

Mr. W. L. Burton, Secretary,
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
Orlando, Fla.
Dear Mr. Burton:
I am pleased to report that due
to the effort of Mr. Criley in giving
two excellent talks, and of Mr. Heuck
in securing the presence of interested
audiences, we secured 13 new mem-
bers of our Lee-Hendry Citrus Cit-
rus Growers association in the course
of two meetings held yesterday. The
first of these meetings was held in
the afternoon at Ft. Denaud, and
the second at night in the Raymond
packing house at Alva.
Both meetings were well attended,
and I feel that we shall not have
any difficulty in securing our mini-
mum membership of 40 members,
which will entitle us to representation
in the State body.
Mr. Criley suggested that we
write to you and ask that you fur-
nish us with a copy of the standard
charter form used by other county
associations. On receipt of this form,
we shall have our attorney file appli-
cation for a charter, and form a tem-
porary organization pending its is-
We are planning to have an or-
ganization meeting at Alva on
Thursday evening, July 13th, at
which time we shall elect temporary
officers and transact such other busi-
ness as is necessary for the filing of a
charter application. I should appre-
ciate it if you could get the charter
form to me by July llth, in order
that our attorney may make himself
familiar with its provisions before
this meeting.
Kindly advise me also the date of
the next State meeting at Tampa,
as we should like to plan to have a
number of our members attend. We
realize that we are not entitled to
official recognition until our charter
is issued, but we wish to evidence
our interest, and feel sure that we
shall have over 40 members by the
time of our meeting. We now have
36 members.
With kindest personal regards,
Sincerely yours,
Geo. E. Judd.
Fort Myers, Florida,
July 7, 1939.


All St. Lucie county growers who
plan to attend the monthly meet-
ing of the board of directors of the
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., to be
held Friday morning at DeLand,
were reminded Thursday by Presi-
dent C. B. VanSickler of the local
organization that they are to meet
at the city hall at 6:30 a. m.
At least two carloads of grow-
ers will make the trip, it was stated,
and others are invited. Transpor-
tation will be available for as many
as may wish to go.-Ft. Pierce
Weekly Star.
Parasite to Control
Mealybugs Is Being
Tested By Station

Gainesville.-Whether a wasplike
parasite originally from Australia
will be effective in controlling mealy-
bugs in Florida is to be determined
by tests recently begun by entomol-
ogists of the Florida Experiment
Station, it was announced here re-
The insect, Leptomastix dacty-
lopii, has been in California for sev-
eral years and the Florida station ob-
tained live specimens of it from the
California Citrus Experiment Station,
Riverside, California.
The specimens are kept in a cage
at the station here for observation
and experiment. The first mealy-
bugs to be parasitized by them were
sent in from Sarasota County by
County Agent W. E. Evans. After
the mealybugs were parasitized they
were returned to Sarasota County
and placed in citrus groves near No-
komis and Sarasota, according to J.
R. Watson, head of the Experiment
Station entomology department.
It is hoped that the new parasite
will become established in Sarasota
and other counties in the future and
that it will prove an effective con-
trol for mealybugs, a persistently
serious pest of citrus and other crops.
As the Experiment Station has
only a small number of the parasites
for its tests, it has none available for
distribution, Mr. Watson explained.
Sell to buyers who help our in-
dustry Buy from concerns that
help our organization.


Some people are talking about or-
ganizing a Woman's Auxiliary to
the Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
We have many lady members in the
Fort Meade unit and we do not fa-
vor this plan. But we do think ev-
ery grower's wife should join the
grower's organization. I am a
member of this unit and have it-
tended many meetings with my hus-
band, State, County and other lo-
cal units, including the hearing held
in Lakeland by government officials
from Washington on the marketing
agreement, and the mass meeting in
Winter Haven, when the grapefruit
price was pegged at 32 cents. (We
know somebody pulled up that peg,
but we must have a better plan next
I believe the women can do some
wonderful work in improving the
citrus situation, but we must have
only one organization with one head,
all working together. In that way
we will all hear the same discussions,
all know the final decisions on all
matters and in that way we will
move in a body with a powerful
(Mrs.) Sadie J. Loadholtes.
Fort Meade, Florida.

B. C. SKINNER (Brogdex System), Dun-
edin, Florida.
PORATION, Orlando, Florida.
PORATION, Jennie Jewel Drive, Or-
lando, Tel. 6241.
PARSON BROWN, Hamlin, Jaffa, Pine-
apple and Valencia late trees on rough
lemon roots for rainy season planting.
All sizes. Frank Haas, Jr., P. 0. Box
584, Sorrento, Fla. 6-1-3t.
Reliable Varieties, Budded Trees. Bud-
Wood and Fruit. M. F. Goering, Rt. 1,
Box 259, Largo, Florida.
LUE GIM GONG Nursery Trees 21/2 yrs.
old on sour orange root. Write R. S. Far-
well. Gardner. Fla.
Dunedin, Florida.

Washington L D ept gr

During those years when demand kept just a little ahead
of supply the citrus grower was not conscious of the necessity
for him, individually, to understand marketing problems.
Marketing was largely a matter of distribution and not of
The grower was primarily a producer and he left the
problem of distributing his fruit to others. His supply was
not in excess of demand, the price on the tree was satisfactory
and he could dispose of his entire crop.
But, due to increased plantings, a surplus does now
actually exist. Under such conditions the disposition of citrus
becomes a matter of intelligent merchandising and not merely
a question of distribution only.
And so long as the surplus problem exists, the grower is
powerless working as an individual to cope with the problem.
We cannot, as individuals, control surplus; that is, of necessity,
the problem of the group working under a unit plan and not
the problem of the individual working at cross-purposes with
all other individuals. In this case we work with law of supply
and demand and all prosper, or we individually ignore it and
individually do not prosper.
(From article on page 4 this issue, adapted from radio talk by J. J. Banks, Jr., chair-
man of Marketing Agreement Committee, Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.)

Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.

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