Front Cover
 President's message
 Table of Contents
 Do growers mean what they say?
 Difficulties in industry refor...
 Let's look at the records
 Talk it over "con" and "pro"
 Aschersonia to control whitefl...
 Necessity for grower organizat...
 Cover crops and citrus insects
 With the editor
 Back Cover

Group Title: Citrus grower (Orlando, Fla.)
Title: The citrus grower
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086640/00016
 Material Information
Title: The citrus grower
Uniform Title: Citrus grower (Orlando, Fla.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30-44 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
Place of Publication: Orlando Fla
Publication Date: July 1, 1939
Frequency: weekly (semimonthly july-sept.)[<1939>]
semimonthly[ former 1938-]
normalized irregular
Subject: Fruit-culture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruit industry -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Nov. 15, 1938)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1942?
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 4, no. 9 (May 15, 1942).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086640
Volume ID: VID00016
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 03227648
lccn - sn 96027371

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    President's message
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Do growers mean what they say?
        Page 4
    Difficulties in industry reform
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Let's look at the records
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Talk it over "con" and "pro"
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Aschersonia to control whitefly
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Necessity for grower organization
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Cover crops and citrus insects
        Page 17
    With the editor
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Back Cover
        Page 20
Full Text


JUL13 1939

U.S. DLputIt of Agriwcat



July 1, 1939



Concrnin, In.-:u-i. \ Pi.nning


Propagace Now

Other Features Including
A D:scussion of the V'luie ot Organization bb Growers


AN INDUSTRY PLAN for the coming season is
necessary to restore the growers' income and pro-
tect his grove investment. The cooperation and
assistance of shippers and other interests are necessary
for working out this plan. As this is written the
leaders in the grower organization are bending every
effort to bring about this cooperation.
Ground Work Laid
The organization has laid the groundwork of whole-
some legislation, such as green fruit and frozen fruit
laws; and upon this foundation we hope to bring
about conditions in the industry that will guarantee
better prices for the grower.
As these plans take shape, however, my greatest con-
cern is strengthening the organization. This is the
way to push these plans ahead. The surest way to
give the organization this strength is to get member-
Clever Opposition
The most clever schemes of the opposition are di-
rected toward the objective of preventing growers from
taking an interest in this organization which leaders
in all branches of the industry have said is the surest
hope of putting the citrus business on a sound eco-
nomic footing. This clever opposition is working on
two main lines. One is that the organization is domi-
nated by big growers: the other is that it is part of and
only an arm of the Florida Citrus Exchange.
Both of these statements are absolutely untrue. It
is my sincere regret to see good, honest growers misled
by these tactics.
Of course, there are large growers in this organi-
zation. They have suffered as much from ruinous
citrus prices as any one else. Their losses have been
large. Many of them are wholly dependent upon grove
property for their income.
Small Grower Leaders
On the other hand, there are thousands of small
growers in our organization. Many of them have
taken the lead. The chairmen of some of the most im-
portant state committees and many of the most earnest

and self-sacrificing among our state directors are grow-
ers who own from 15 to 25 acres. I will be glad to
send you a list of such small growers upon request.
This opportunity-in fact, absolute necessity-for
growers of all sizes to work together for their mutual
benefit is the firm foundation upon which the strength
of our organization rests. Opponents of grower unity
recognize the value to growers of this foundation.
Consequently, they are striving to destroy it.
The opponents of growers' unity have been very
successful in the past in playing what they term the
"independent" growers against growers who ship thru
cooperatives. The growers themselves have had no
real interest in this split. The split has done them
harm. But those who have fought grower organiza-
tion in order that they themselves might dominate the
citrus industry for their own selfish purposes, have
found this a very useful field in which to sow preju-
Erases the Split
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., has effectively levelled
this wall between these two types of growers. In fact,
they are not two types at all. The differences between
them are artificial and have been built up through the
years by people handy with words for the purpose of
keeping the growers divided.
Many of the growers in the Florida Citrus Ex-
change have seen the value of our organization. Being
leaders in that organization they have created within
it a friendly attitude toward Florida Citrus Growers,
Inc. Just as it is very fortunate that large and small
growers can both find in our organization a place where
they can pool their resources and efforts to work for
their mutual benefit. So as between growers who ship
through cooperatives and growers who ship independ-
ently, these have also found in our organization a
similar instrument which they can use together for
their mutual benefit.
Let us take these splitting arguments apart and
show them in their true light and for what they are
worth and bring all types of growers together for the
work that lies ahead of us.
Yours very truly,

Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.

The Citrus Grower

Official Publication of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.


Our Organization

Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., is an agency through
which 21 county organizations work together for the
purpose of making citrus growing profitable. The
county organizations are made up of growers who have
no financial connection with or interest in the ship-
ment of fruit. In these units are growers who ship
through cooperative marketing associations as well as
growers who dispose of their fruit to cash buyers or
on consignment. So called "cooperative" growers and
so called "independent" growers are fighting side by
side in the ranks of the county units and, through the
county units, in the state organization for the benefit
of the citrus industry. The grower must work for a
stable market with a healthy demand for fruit at a
price that pays, in addition to distribution costs, the
cost of production and a reasonable profit to producers.
Grower Price Ideal-
Unless this price ideal of the grower is attained, the
grower eventually must go out of business and with
him will fall the whole super-structure of the industry.
Only through organization can the grower realize this
ideal. Consequently an effective grower organization
is of the greatest concern to every element within the
industry and to all of those business, professional and
other working people in the citrus area whose pros-
perity directly and indirectly depends upon the citrus
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., is the means through
which the grower works and expresses himself in striv-
ing for this ideal.
The state officers are:
L. H. Kramer, Lake Wales, President; J. J. Banks,
Jr., Orlando, 1st Vice-President; C. B. Van Sickler,
Ft. Pierce, 2nd Vice-President; W. L. Burton, Orlando,
Secretary; E. G. Todd, Avon Park, Treasurer, W. J.
Steed, Orlando, General Counsel.


President's Message ..---.... Inside Front

Do Growers Mean What They Say?-.-- 4

Difficulties in Industry Reform ..-___... 5

Let's Look at the Records ...- .---- 8"

Talk It Over "Con" and "Pro"..___ _- 10

Aschersonia to Control Whitefly__ ... 13

Necessity for Grower Organization -.. 15

Cover Crops and Citrus Insects ..-- --.. 17

W ith The Editor ..- ...... ........-- -- 18


Orange County Citrus Growers, Inc., will hold its
regular monthly meeting at Orlando Chamber of
Commerce building, 7:30 P. M., July 11.
After a review of the accomplishments of the or-
ganization the county cultural committee will sponsor
a program giving latest information about money
saving cultural practices.
Growers cannot help themselves unless they know
what to do. Through their organization they can
discuss and learn about market and consumption trends
and other vital information about how to handle their
These meetings will be held monthly, by growers
and for growers, small and large alike. Our organi-
zation will accomplish what we want it to do in pro-
portion to the attention, checking, and support we
give it by going to meetings and assisting in its work.
Come and bring some other growers.

Virgil H. Conner .__..- -------- Editor
Vernon Keith .------------- Advertising Manager
Kemp, Chairman; Carl D. Brorein, R.
J. Kepler, E. G. Thatcher. W. L. Burton.
C. A. Garrett, Karl Lehmann.
Printed by Chief Press, Apopka

Published the First and Fifteenth of each able. The publishers can accept no re-
month by The Florida Citrus Growers, sponsibility for return of unsolicited manu-
Inc., Orlando, Florida. scripts.
Entered as second-class matter Novem- Subscription Rates
ber 15, 1938, at the postoffice at Orlando, In United States, one year $1.00 to non-
Fla.. under the Act of March 3, 1879. members of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.,
Membership subscriptions, one year 50c.
Manuscripts submitted to this maga- rs trus Grower
zine should be accompanied by sufficient Address all mail to The Citrus Grower,
postage for their return if found unavail- P. 0. Box 2077, Orlando, Florida.


Page 4 THE CITRUS GROWER, July 1, 1939

Concerning Industry Planning---

Do Growers Mean What They Say?

1) what they say?" This is a
very timely and pertinent
question which has been asked since,
in the last issue of the magazine and
through the press and radio, the
growers issued a challenge to the
balance of the citrus industry to
gather around the conference table
and formulate a workable plan for
next season-a plan that would
start the citrus industry on the road
back to solvency.
The growers do mean what they
say. As was stated in that chal-
lenge, the distressing weight of the
present chaotic situation has fallen
most heavily upon the grower. He
is not getting cost of production.
Consequently, he is most earnestly
seeking a way out.
Will Cooperate
If any plan can be devised giving
promise of better prices, the growers
will most heartily cooperate in mak-
ing the plan work. They mean ex-
actly what they say in this.
Furthermore, the growers promise
to give the educational facilities of
their organization toward popular-
izing the plan. It will do its utmost
to make grower endorsement and
support unanimous.
Growers Have Cooperated
The growers here renew another
portion of that challenge:
Throughout the whole past his-
tory of the citrus industry and up
until the very recent past, growers
have been unorganized and have had
no organizational machinery thru
which to express their desires and
protect their collective interests. Dur-
ing this time numerous regulations
and restrictions have been thrown
around the industry. These regu-
lations and restrictions have been de-
signed and put into effect by citrus
handlers. The purpose of these reg-
ulations has been to take care of the
handlers' interests. The growers
have accepted these regulations and
have tried to live under them and

Some Facts About Citrus
United States Orange Production:
33,000,000 boxes
72,500,000 boxes
New plantings indicate a production by
1945 of
80,000,000 boxes
United States Grapefruit Production:
11,000,000 boxes
41,000,000 boxes
New plantings indicate a production by
1945 of
55,000,000 boxes
Effect of surplus and other factors on
price of FLORIDA fruit:

14,500,000 boxes
growers received average net return of $1.40
per box total
27,000,000 boxes
growers received average net return of 39
cents per box a total of

11,314,000 boxes
growers received an average net return of
$1.69 per box, a total of
22,000,000 boxes
growers received an average net return of
20 cents per box, a total of

have not questioned the desirability
of these regulations until driven by
necessity to do so.
Grower cooperation and acquies-
cence in the past, the growers believe,
now give them perfect right to ask
that the other factors in the industry
cooperate in designing a program un-
der which grower interests will be
protected and under which growers
can obtain cost of prdouction.
Beyond this urgent and justifiable
demand for cooperation the handlers
have other reasons for endeavoring
to put the citrus industry on a firm
financial footing. This point also
was emphasized in the challenge is-
sued some two weeks ago, namely-
a distressed condition of an increas-
ing number of growers is rapidly
bringing the crisis in the citrus in-
dustry to a climax. By no means
have we seen the worst of the storm
unless constructive efforts are made
to market our fruit more efficiently.
A continuation of present conditions
is bound to bring about an explos-
ion. Economic pressure will create
a revolutionary political atmosphere
under which all the regulatory ar-
rangements of the past will be
thrown overboard and the industry
will find itself controlled only by
the rule of the jungle-the survival
of the fittest.
Not only do the growers mean
what they say, but they feel every
one else in the industry should be-
come exercised about the situation
and mean what they say. Along
with this article we are publishing
some statistics gathered by the Uni-
versity of Florida and the United
States Agricultural Extension Serv-
ice showing the present trend. This
trend must be reversed, especially
as to prices.
The other factors in the industry
undoubtedly will agree with the
thinking of the growers to the effect
that unity of all interests behind one
single plan is necessary in order to
make any plan work, no matter how


Some have interpreted this grow-
ers' challenge as an invitation to all
elements to cast aside their individ-
ual interests and work together if
the industry is to be saved. We
firmly believe the situation is deserv-
ing of such heroic measures, but that
is not the exact light in which the
growers are asking this cooperation
in industry planning. The grow-
ers would not be foolish enough to
ask anyone to cast aside his own in-
dividual interests. That would be
against the usual workings of hu-
man nature, would be unworkable,
and would receive slight support.
What the growers actually propose
is that each of the various elements
in the industry, whose interests now
seem to conflict, come together on a
cooperative plan, which will guar-
antee the economic security and en-
large the hope of profit for all ele-
ments. That is, that the individual
find a way of merging his own inter-
ests with that of all other individ-
uals and elements in such a way
that the basis for security and pros-
perity for all may be broadened.
This is the approach the grower
makes to the problem.
The growers realize there are
many difficulties in the way of form-
ing a plan for the industry that will
be effective in raising prices. From
many sources they have heard of
three items regarded as essential in
any plan to raise prices. These are:
1. A sound elimination program
2. Orderly marketing
3. Concentration of sales in a
few agencies, so as to prevent the
ruinous competition of sellers here
in Florida against a few organized
buyers in the consuming markets.
The proposed constructive indus-
try plan is essentially a marketing
plan. Marketing is that factor in
the industry which has failed. That
is, we have not been able to dispose
of our fruit at a price which will
return a profit to the grower. Since
marketing is done largely by ship-
pers, the real problems which we
have before us, and any suggested
reforms to remedy them, necessarily
will involve shippers and all sorts
of handlers and dealers in citrus
fruits. If this were a production
problem the grower could look after
it himself because his business is
production. He has interested him-

self in marketing only since our
marketing system has failed to give
him that service which he can rea-
sonably demand.
In order that we may preserve
the value of constructive work done
in the past to protect the interests
of handlers, and in order that we
may further extend and broaden the
program to take care of the grower,
growers renew their demand that
handlers come together now at the
conference table with growers in an
effort to work out an industry plan.

This letter is written at the unan-
imous request of the board of direc-
tors of the Florida Citrus Growers,
Inc., to respectfully urge the Florida
Citrus Commission to make a thor-
ough study of the citrus legislation
passed at the last session of legisla-
ture. It is the wish of the growers'
organization that the Citrus Com-
mission take the necessary steps to
work out the supervision and en-
forcement of those laws which come
under their jurisdiction to the end
that the industry may profit to the
fullest extent by the word and in-
tent of these new regulations.
May we take this occasion to call
to the commission's attention the in-
valuable research work by Dr. Win-
ston's department in the belief that

you will wish to avail yourselves
fully of this information.
Outstanding men in the citrus in-
dustry have expressed the belief that
our new citrus laws offer a greater
possibility for bringing about im-
provement in the citrus industry
than any legislation which has been
passed heretofore. We feel sure that
the members of the citrus commis-
sion appreciate the fact that no laws
are better than their enforcement,
and as a consequence will consider
seriously the responsibility involved
in obtaining the maximum results
for the industry from these new reg-
The various committees of the
growers' organization stand ready
to cooperate with the commission,
and will consider it a privilege to
work shoulder to shoulder with your
members to obtain the greatest
amount of good from these new and
improved regulations.
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
W. L. Burton, Secy.
June 27, 1939
Editor's Note: Dr. Winston. referred to
in Mr. Burton's letter above, is Dr. J. R.
Winston, of the United States Bureau of
Entomology and Plant Quarantine, with of-
fices at 415 N. Parramore Street. Orlando.
Dr. Winston has made a special study of
causes of fruit deterioration and decay from
tree to consumer, and knows more about
this subject than any other man in Florida.
Thousands of tests of fruit treated in col-
oring rooms and in other processing opera-
tions have been examined by him over a
period of years.

Page 5

We Will Guarantee

on Standard Vent
Shipments if Our Processes are Used
Our processes give such complete control that we feel perfectly safe
in making this remarkable guarantee. Not only is the fruit sound
upon arrival but the straps are tight and a full weight box is de-
livered. Inspection shows a better polish and a more uniform color.
Our Coloring Room Process minimizes infection in the coloring
rooms. Our Color Added Process is applied at lower temperatures
than usual, a more uniform color is obtained and less breakdown re-
sults. Our Brogdex Process controls shrinkage and decay. These
three processes, in combination, make possible the delivery of your
fruit in the best possible condition for better prices.
The savings on refrigeration and in adjustments plus the better
prices realized will pay the service charge and leave a substantial
profit besides.
May we discuss the matter with you?

B. C. SKINNER, Distributor

Page 6 THE CITRUS GROWER, July 1, 1939

A Recognition of Some---

Difficulties In Industry Reform

T HE GROWER organization
fully recognizes the fact that
planning the citrus industry so
as to bring a profit to growers is no
easy matter. It recognizes there are
many hurdles to jump in arriving at
a solution. These difficulties may be
more clearly seen by analysis of
some of the proposed industry re-
Immediate Measure
Taking first the subject of surplus
elimination: To this we can expect
less objection than to either of the
other two main proposals, which
are, orderly marketing and concen-
tration of sales. It is easier to design
an elimination program which will
work without inconvenience or loss
to various interests. Furthermore,
elimination of the right kind affects
only the growers, and we do not be-
lieve we are egotistical in saying that
growers, as a class have shown a
much more healthy disposition to
work together for the interest of the
whole industry than have the other
elements. As the growers have so
often announced in their magazine
and by speakers, elimination is re-
garded only as a stop gap, and we
are striving to bring about a condi-
tion under which the market will
absorb all of our fruit at a price
which will return a profit to the
grower. However elimination seems
inevitable right now. It even ap-
pears that there is now a plan on pa-
per to make this elimination fair
and effective.
Percentage Elimination
The plan is that the elimination
be done on the basis of a percentage
of the grower's estimated crop and
this percentage of the crop be elim-
inated without reference to grades.
This percentage proposed to be elim-
inated must be removed completely
from both fresh and canned fruit
markets. It may be donated to re-
lief agencies or shipped to foreign
countries or removed from the
American markets in some other

Elimination programs in the past
have affected only the fresh fruit
shipper and have left unshippable
fruit on hand here in Florida which
has been sold to canners for a song,
and the grower has found the fruit
on the shelves of the dealers the next
season at low prices competing with
fresh fruit.
The proposition to eliminate fruit
according to a percentage of crop
seems to be fair and to avoid the
drawbacks experienced in other
Orderly Marketing
Orderly marketing, which is the
second main item in the grower pro-
gram and which is generally regard-
ed as giving promise of better prices,
meets much stronger opposition than
surplus elimination. Orderly mar-
keting means control of shippers.
bringing all of them to work with a
broad marketing plan. It affects the
handling of fruit.
The most serious efforts toward
orderly marketing that have been
made in the past have been in the
way of compulsory volume control
of shipments under Federal market-
ing agreements. Volume control is
probably an essential part of any or-
derly marketing program, and it is
most likely attainable either under a
marketing agreement or in a volun-
tary arrangement between shippers.
Constructive shippers gave much
thought to this last suggestion dur-
ing the past season.
Past Objections
Some objections to volume control
in the past have been justified if we
think of volume control as it is gen-
erally understood. That is, people
are justified in objecting to volume
control which would demand that
certain sections of the industry dis-
regard seasonal interests and previous
trade practices and that all areas and
all shippers adapt themselves to a
given hard and fast program applied
sternly and without flexibility to the
entire citrus industry. Fortunately,

this is an incorrect picture of volume
control. Volume control can be
adapted to take care of soil and
weather conditions in given locali-
ties and to take care of long estab-
lished previous trade practices.
Specific Cases
We find in one section of the cit-
rus belt that shippers have made the
practice in the past of holding all
their grapefruit until it is dead ripe.
then shipping it out very quickly to
a specific trade that has been pre-
viously established for this particular
kind of grapefruit. Those shippers
have been told that volume control
would force them to distribute their
shipments throughout the season.
This is a specific case in which the
prevailing and false notions about
volume control can be illustrated.
The allotment of these particular
shippers can be accelerated or retard-
ed to take care of their individual
needs and to take care of their es-
tablished trade practices.
Concentration of Sales
Some of the objections to volume
control apply equally to the third
major proposition of the growers,
which is, concentration of sales
sometimes referred to as organized
selling to combat organized buying.
In this we run squarely into the per-
sonal rights and interests of rugged
We know of many successful
shippers who have an established
trade, who sell their fruit by tele-
graph on the tracks at their pack-
ing houses. They ship only a small
part of their tonnage to the auctions
or on consignment. Such shippers
have developed a following among
dealers. They have established their
brands as reliable. This dealer good
will and the buying appeal of estab-
lished brands is just as definitely
personal property as is the packing
house where the fruit is packed.
Shippers naturally hesitate a long
time before they give their moral
support to anything that even hints


My association's production manager talked of in-
creasing my production and maybe raising the grade
of my crop. "Fine," I said, "but in these days of
too much fruit for the markets it seems foolish to
try to raise more."

Then he showed me what increased returns per acre
might mean.

Mine is a small grove of about 25 acres. I gave it
the usual fertilizer application and sprayed or dusted
whenever it seemed necessary. I didn't want a
larger crop-what I did want was a higher price
for my fruit.

I still want a higher price but I know I can depend
on getting just the market. If the market continues
low then I've got to lower my costs to make a profit.

And that is what he did for me. >-;_ "
Better grade fertilizers suited to:-
my soil and root stock, plus
a complete spraying, dusting
and cultivation program, has increased my average
yield per acre over 50 per cent and has doubled my
percentage of number one fruit.

My returns per acre went up-but my cost per
box went down. And this program, because of the
association's volume buying and large scale grove
service operations-savings which are passed along
to me because it is a cooperative at-cost deal-are
even less expensive than my former individual

That young fellow knew his stuff. As a result 1
show a profit even on today's markets.

. and that's not all!


In addition to maintaining its services to
grower-members at a maximum of efficiency
at low cost. the Exchange seeks these broad
improvements in handling the industry's
1. Uniform standards of grades and
2. Equalization of freight rates to
make possible a balanced distribu-
tion of fruit to all markets.
3. Equitable volume control to keep
volumes moved in line with ex-
isting demand at price levels profit-
able to producers.
4. Development and expansion of
trade channels for fresh fruit con-
5. Adequate research for additional
uses and more convincing sales and
advertising material so that de-
mand may be increased.
Help yourself by placing your fruit with an
organization which has only one interest-

Cooperative associations in the Exchange through mass cultivation methods have
built uniformity of quality, texture, juice content and flavor in their members'
groves which is gaining increased demand in all markets. Adequate house vol-
umes. permitting flexibility in filling orders to specifications from such consistent
quality, make and hold profitable customers for their growers.
Their members enjoy freedom from financial pressure in grove operations. Credit
extended for service is "without strings" other than ordinary membership obliga-
tions. Financial advantages, at rates ordinarily available only to the largest
growers, are now enjoyed by the small grower operating cooperatively through
these strong, well-managed associations.
And they have their choice of the markets of the world through the Florida Citrus
Exchange. This complete marketing service, represented in all important Florida
citrus markets on this continent and western Europe, again is a cooperative service
at a cost which volume and economy has made the lowest in the State.
You can COOPERATE and WIN.



Page 7



of danger to these valuable prop-
erties. For instance, a shipper may
have a technique of playing the pol-
icy of giving the auction price to
dealers just outside the economical
delivery range of the auctions. That
is, from Florida he can deliver fruit
net to the dealer at his outlying city
at the price given him in the auc-
tions. Through manipulation of
rates he can save the dealer cost of
transportation from the auction to
his place of business.
Some shippers have developed a
following of buyers in a given ter-
ritory, even in a single market, like
Philadelphia. Volume control as
practiced, recommended and publi-
cised in the past, and almost any
program of concentration of sales,
must be adjusted to take care of these
special situations.
Harmony of Interest
These are serious problems requir-
ing serious and sympathetic consid-
eration. The industry must ap-
proach them in a spirit of coopera-
tion. In looking with great scru-
tiny, even suspicion, upon such pro-
posed broad changes, the shippers
are thoroughly justified. Like the
growers they are in business, first,
to make a living, and, after that, as
much more than a living as possible.
In this they are not violating any of
the fundamentally sound human in-
stincts. All that they do can be
thoroughly justified by standards of
law and ethics. It is perfectly nat-
ural that they could not lightly sur-
render the positions that years of
effort have built up for them with
the trade and in the markets. They
will not and should not be asked to
surrender such values unless, by co-
operation, with the balance of the in-
dustry they can not only preserve
their present advantage but even
make themselves more secure.
Grower Position
On the same basis the grower can
demand that he also be permitted
to live. If the trade practices of
the marketing end of the citrus in-
dustry have brought about a condi-
tion in which the grower cannot get
cost of production, then the grower,
as a necessary part of the industry
can justly demand that his interests
be considered.
We believe that handlers of fruit

Let's Look At The Record

When it comes to "digging in" for
statistical information, the technical
experts of Uncle Sam have no peers.
During recent years the auctions have
been the subject of several exhaustive
surveys by Federal Departments. The
latest is called Bulletin No. 29 re-
cently issued by the Research Divis-
ion of the Farm Credit Administra-
tion. All growers and shippers of
perishables should secure a copy for
here is another unbiased study of
auction procedure in ten terminal
Federal Report Cited
The conclusions and recommenda-
tions resulting from such economic
research as the Agricultural Income
Inquiry conducted under the auspices
of the Federal Trade Commission
and the new Bulletin No. 29 have
confirmed many of the essential ad-
vantages of auction sales in metro-
politan markets.
For instance on page 5 of the sum-
mary and conclusions in Bulletin No.
29 will be found the following state-
"From the standpoint of the ship-
per, private or cooperative, it is ap-
parent that the auction outlet enables
him to reach a group of buyers which
could not be reached directly so long
as the unit was the car load."
Less Car Lot Sales
Compared to the small number of
dealers capable of buying car-lots,
there are literally thousands of mer-
chants in the ten metropolitan areas
who look to the auctions for their
daily supplies of the commodities we
sell. This statement is borne out
by the following sentence which will
also be found on page 5 of the bul-
letin summary. "The dominant por-

can give valuable suggestions in
working out this plan. In fact, the
independents, cooperatives, a n d
grower-shippers, are the only ones
who have that practical experience
in marketing which will enable the
industry to reconstruct itself on a
basis which will enable the grower to
The grower organization is ask-
ing for that cooperation.

tion of auction buyers consisted of
less-than-carload purchasers."
The auctions provide the ware-
house space for the huge task of un-
loading solid cars, sorting and mak-
ing deliveries after sale. By this
break-down of solid cars into small
units, the distribution process is fan-
ned out to reach the many and var-
ied types and kinds of buyers.
Need All Distributing Agencies
None will deny that all existing
agencies are needed to create a fully
rounded distribution. From the fancy
fruiterer supplying gift baskets to
the peddler or the smallest retailer,
all have a vital part in moving to-
day's crops. In addition to the var-
ious types of retailers who supply
commodities for home consumption,
the jobbers and brokers who supply
hotels, restaurants, institutions, etc.,
are also very important factors.
Again referring to Bulletin No.
29, we find this sentence on page
4: "Terminal auctions are impor-
tant sources of supply for out-of-
town buyers." It was found that
direct billings by five auction com-
panies to buyers located 25 miles or
more distant, averaged 13.3 percent
of total billings. It is part of their
economy of operation for this out-
of-town trade to come to one place
to secure regular supplies of numer-
ous commodities."
Markets Differ
Table 17 on page 49 of the bul-
letin sets forth some interesting fig-
ures and comparisons between the
ten major auction markets. The buy-
ing habits of the trade are not ex-
actly the same in any two markets.
In most of our markets, however,
many jobbers also act as brokers. The
(Continued on Page 12)

the value of the work his organi-
zation is doing for the good of the
citrus industry should pass this copy
of the magazine to some non-member
grower who does not know about us.
---- --

Sell to buyers who help our in-
dustry-Buy from concerns that
help our organization.

Page 8


Page 9

F.M. C. Junior Unit for Your Express Box Business
(Maximum Capacity 200 Packed Boxes per 10 Hour Day)
A complete packing house unit that will fit into a space 12'x22'. Offers all features found in the
commercial units, except capacity. The fruit is dumped directly into a soaking tank of adequate size for
the unit's capacity. A slat elevator lifts the fruit from the soaking tank to the transverse washer, which
is equipped with Tampico fibre brushes. The elevator is hinged at one end, for easy cleaning of the soak-
ing tank. All the brushes are standard diameters, and the width of the machine is 36 in. The fruit pro-
gresses from the washer to the eliminating section, where excess surface moisture is mechanically removed
by brushes. As the fruit continues its orderly progress, it enters the drying section, where soft hair brushes
constantly atomize the remaining surface moisture, while
an overhead fan forces a strong blast of air around the fruit
F. M. C. Junior Unit Specifications between the brushes, completing the drying operation.
F. M. C. Junior Unit, all steel constructed, con- The fruit next enters the polishing section, and as a
sisting of Dump Ledge attached to 12 gauge steel final touch, paraffin wax is applied by four of the pol-
soak tank, with overflow and drain pipes. Ele- isher brushes which spread the wax over the fruit to bring
vator to washer unit all steel frame with wooden
slats mounted on malleable chain. 36 in. trans- out a gloss and preserve freshness. The fruit discharges
verse brush unit, first six brushes fibre for washer from the polisher onto a 16 in. cross belt which serves as
section, six hair brushes elimination section with a grade table. The grade table delivers into the sizer
covers over brushes, drain pan under brushes, ten which makes eight size separations, and handles only one
hair brushes for dryer and polisher with i4HP 60-
1-110-1800 motor and two blade pan mounted grade. Additional sizers may be added if desired. The
over dryer section, four wax trays under brushes sizer supplied with the unit is of the belt and tapered roll
on polisher section. 16 in. canvas grader 10 ft. type. Quick change adjustments from oranges to tange-
6 in. long, from transverse brush unit to sizer. rines or grapefruit. So designed that it may be operated
Single steel frame sizer with bins one side, eight res grapefruit. designed
sizes. Complete unit driven by 12HP. 60-3- from a single gas engine. Where electricity is available, we
220-1800 motor with 2 vee belt, roller chain, furnish 1 % horse power motor to operate the unit and a
sprockets, gears and line shaft connection drives, separate motor for the drier fan.
Price upon application. Further information may be
obtained regarding this unit by writing to the Food An amazingly complete and compact unit, at an amaz-
Machinery Corporation, Dunedin, Florida, or call- ingly low price.
ing at our branch in Orlando and Winter Haven.
Typical of our many installations may be seen at F d M machinery Corporation
the E. W. Robinson Fruit Co., 455 N. Orange
Ave., Orlando, or Cypress Gardens, Winter Haven.

Page 10 THE CITRUS GROWER, July 1, 1939

Three Citrus Growers---

Talk It Over "Con" and "Pro"

"The Citrus Grower"
Orlando, Fla.
The writer attended the two ses-
sions held in DeLand June 16, 1939
by the Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
This is called the "Growers' Or-
ganization." However, although it
may be this in name, the writer
saw other hidden influences which
seemed to assert themselves in many
prominent ways. The meeting at-
tracted men whose general appearance
indicated they possessed knowledge
and experience far superior to the or-
dinary orange grower.
Appraises Market
With the proper application of the
talent shown at this meeting towards
the existing citrus troubles, these
troubles would soon be settled; the
grower would be receiving a fair
return for his fruit; and the busi-
ness of our state would be among the
most prosperous of any state in the
Union. With the same energy and
expense applied to the establishing
of a marketing system based upon
safe and sane business principles, we
would see the cloud of despair roll
away from the grower. With many
years of marketing experience, this
is not wholly assumption upon my
part. The ideas expressed with
energy and force will be lost upon
the desert air as in the past because
the results to be obtained have been
ignored or overlooked; namely, the
marketing of the citrus fruits grown
in Florida. The Auction Block mar-
keting of the North and the chain
store now dictate all organizations
and establish all prices paid for Flor-
ida fruit. With this power in their
hands they have the growers in these
various organizations running in cir-
cles with not even a thought that
there are other ways to market their
fruit that will bring the grower a
profit instead of a loss. They have
had you going in these circles for the
past five years, and each year more
and more wrecked growers are left
on the trail. Still the enthusiasm

The following letter to the editor was
written by Mr. Town to leaders in the
grower organization throughout the state.
Along with Mr. Town's letter we are print-
ing two representative replies.
Such discussions are stimulating and bene-

was great at this meeting along the
same old way.
Appears Hopeless
A very large percentage of our
fruit goes to the Auction Blocks, to
a few congested centers where the
price is made for the whole country.
In your annual report, Article 10,
front page, there is stated, "Growers
Demand Constructive Industry Pro-
gram." Similar organizations have
been working this "Constructive In-
dustry Program" for the past five
years. They have wasted their own
time and energy. They have spent
the growers' money, and still you
intend to continue the fight. To at-
tract the attention of the grower,
they have been given a "hobby" to
ride; namely, that if the Auction
Block could get full control of the
fruit industry through their control-
led organization by Pro-rating or
Volume Control, then high prices
would prevail. When all alibis fail,
they fall back upon this.
The writer predicts if this is ever
brought about it will end the career
of most of the 20,000 growers of
Florida, as well as the business in-
terests of the state.
What Others Do
In every other state products are
placed upon the market through a
well organized marketing system.
You, too, could distribute out fruit
among all the people instead of con-
signing it to a few congested centers
and using the alibis of over-produc-
tion and under-consumption, and
many other imaginary ill.
The "hobby horses"-Pro-rating

and Volume Control--will lead us
all to ruin. The writer has had con-
siderable experience with Auction
Blocks and has known others who
have, and does not know one who
did not lose his money. It is EASY
for the shipper to consign the grow-
ers' fruit as the GROWER STANDS
THE LOSS. All others win.
Study Markets
Why not turn your attention to a
distributing marketing system and as-
sist the grower instead of making
such an effort to assist the Auction
Block and Chain Store who will
work with the Auction Block?
Think it over. You can't serve two
masters. The road to the Auction
Block means ruin to the growers.
The road to a safe and sound market-
ing system means success to all. The
success of the industry rests with you


$ and

By paying cash for fertilizer,
spray materials, etc.
By borrowing from a grow-
ers' cooperative organization
-operated by and for the
growers who use it;
By paying interest only for
the time you have actual use
of the money;
By repaying your loan when
you sell your crop.
New low interest rate.

41/2% per annum

We will be glad to serve you.
Write us for further details.
Florida Citrus Production
Credit Association
P. O. Box 1592 Orlando, Fla.


and not in your trips to Washing-
ton, camping on the steps of Secre-
tary Wallace.
Pro-rating and Volume Control
are snares and delusions to mislead
the grower.
Yours very truly,
A Grower.
DeLand, Florida
June 19, 1939

Mr. F. P. Town,
DeLand, Florida.
Dear Mr. Town:
Your letter dated June 19, 1939.
was not received in my office until
June 23rd and for that reason there
has been an apparent delay in an-
swering your letter.
May I begin by taking good na-
tured exceptions to your second para-
graph referring to the ordinary or-
ange grower. Even though the
grower has done little to better his
position during the past 50 or more
years, I am still not willing to ad-
mit that we growers are a "dumb"
lot. I believe if you check the names
of those present at the meeting in
DeLand you will find them to be
in general representative of the aver-
age rank and file of growers from
the communities which they repre-
sented and I do not believe that you
will find these men to be men poses-
sing "knowledge and experience far
superior to the ordinary orange
grower." Perhaps they were a little
more dressed up on this occasion in
deference to the fact that they were
guests at your fair city.
Unlimited Faith
I am one of those who have un-
limited faith in the future of the
citrus industry, having grown up in
very close proximity to this industry.
I am taking the liberty of enclos-
ing in this letter information rela-
tive to the work of the growers' or-
ganization, the accomplishments of
this organization during the past
year, a brief which is entitled "The
Citrus Picture," also a brief headed
"The Job Ahead." I have read your
letter carefully and I ask of you the
same courtesy in reading the infor-
mation which I have sent to you.

Sell to buyers who help our in-
dustry Buy from concerns that
help our organization.

I fail to understand some of the
ideas which you seem to have of the
growers' organization. It is not
the policy of this organization to
promote the shipping of fruit to
auction, but on the contrary to at-
tempt in every possible way to widen
our markets for citrus fruit which
you will very readily see if you will
read "The Job Ahead." Proration
and volume control are at best tem-
porary expedients and I am sure that
it is the hope of every one of us that
we can build up a demand over the
country sufficient to not only take
all of the fruit which we now raise
in Florida at a price profitable to the
grower, but that we may continue to

increase the consumption and the de-
mand for Florida fruit, so that we
can market crops in the future which
will in all probability far exceed
those which we have grown in the
Need Organized Selling
Also contrary to the impression I
get from your letter, the growers'
organization is interested in central-
izing the sales on this end of the
line in order that we may compete
with the very thing you suggest,
which is the auction market and
chain stores who are, I am sure you
will agree, certainly organized buy-
ers. Today we have organized buying
in the North versus disorganized sell-

"Sell Fruit and Produce the Auction Way,
Where Supply and Demand Meet Every Day"

Treat Your Barometer Markets Right!
Orderly marketing and control of distribution go hand in hand.
Your treatment of the ten metropolitan markets measures the results
you obtain from them.
Auction buyers represent all manner of trade. Retailers, Jobbers,
Brokers. Supply Houses, Hotels, Restaurants, General Stores. Spec-
ialty Markets, Cafeterias, Hospitals and other types of Institutions,
Steamship Lines, Lunch Rooms. Refreshment Stands, Peddlers-
all have their place in well-rounded distribution.
Massed competition, by all units of distribution at one time and
place where numerous commodities can be obtained, constitutes a
definite part of the service offered at Auction.

Fruit & Produce Auction Association, Inc.
66 Harrison Street, New York, N. Y.
American Central Fruit Auction Co. H. Harris 8 Co.
St. Louis Boston
Baltimore Fruit Exchange New York Fruit Auction Corp.
Baltimore New York
Consolidated Fruit Exchange, Inc. Philadelphia Termina's Auction Co.
Cleveland Philadelphia
Detroit Fruit Auction Company Union Fruit Auction Company
Detroit Pittsburgh
Fruit Auction Sales Company United Fruit Auction Company
Chicago Cincinnati

Page 11


ing of our fruit on this end. We can
hardly expect those at the other end
to voluntarily increase the prices
which they will pay for our fruit
unless we on this end do something
to force them to do so. No one pays
more for any product than the price
which they are forced to pay.
I trust that you are a member of
your local county unit and that you
are taking an active part in the delib-
erations of your growers' organiza-
tion. Undoubtedly you have some
program in mind which you feel is
a better program than any outlined
by the growers' organization.
Growers Want Plan
I am sure that you will get a
sympathetic hearing from any grow-
er on any plan which you may care
to submit. I would very much ap-
preciate your letting me know what
you have to suggest, inasmuch as
you have pointed criticism at the
growers' organization.
Assuring you of my sincere inter-
est in a problem which seems to be
mutual, I am
Yours very truly,
C. W. REX.
Orlando, Fla.
June 23, 1939

Mr. F. P. Town,
DeLand, Florida.
Dear Mr. Town:
I have read your letter of June
19th with a great deal of interest
and agree with many of the state-
ments which are made therein. I
am not sure, however, that you are
entirely right.
Certainly the growers, including
myself, have been going around and
around in our thinking and in many
cases, in our actions.
I am entirely in accord with the
basic idea of putting into effect a
sound elimination program until
such time as we can learn to market
that portion of the crop which we
now term surplus. I also believe
that in order to market that volume
of fruit which will bring the greatest
net return to the grower, an orderly
movement of such volume to market
is essential, whether the fruit be sold
F.O.B., on consignmnet or at auc-
tion, and I know of no other means
than volume control to accomplish
this orderly movement.

Leaders Seek Solution
Let me assure you that the offi-
cers and committeemen of the grow-
ers' organization are honestly and
sincerely trying to find a satisfactory
solution to the many problems con-
fronting us. I do not believe that
you will find among these men who
have assumed position of leadership
a single one whose mind is not open
to the consideration of any plan
for the betterment of the conditions
of the Florida citrus grower.
Ready Listeners Promised
You hint in your letter that you
have such a plan in mind. If you
would prefer to discuss it across the
table, you will find a ready listener
among growers who are thoroughly
capable of discussing the industry
problems with you.
If you have a feasible plan de-
veloped or one which you think can
be developed into a workable plan,
I feel that you owe it to the growers
of Florida to permit them to discuss
its merits.
I appreciate very much your writ-
ing me, and trust that you will go
a step further and discuss your ideas
with some of the representative
growers who are taking the lead in
an earnest and sincere effort to solve
our problems.
Yours very truly,
Avon Park, Fla.,
June 23, 1939.

(Continued from Page 8)
figures were obtained on four widely
scattered weeks in all ten markets
and naturally included all sales
whether in town or out-of-town.
Sales Classified
Of total billings by the auction
companies in all ten markets 70.5
percent is listed as purchases made
by jobbers; 9:5 percent by chain
stores; 7.9 percent by buying brok-
ers. The remainder or 12.1 percent
is divided among specialty fruit and
vegetable stores (retailers), motor
truck jobbers, independent retailers,
peddlers and miscellaneous. The
trade classified as jobbers served the
great majority of small independent
retailers and includes the trade serv-

ing hotels, restaurants, institutions,
Quoting again from Bulletin No.
29, we find the following paragraph
on page five:
"Buyers of all types, desirous of
obtaining commodities of widely
differing quality, are patrons of the
auctions. Commodities of the high-
est quality and grade are available,
as many shippers recognize that high-
quality products well graded and
packed can be sold advantageously
at auction. Successful selling of a
commodity at auction requires uni-
form grades and packing in stand-
ardized containers, regularity of of-
ferings during the season, and ade-
quate quantities."
Auctions Helpful
All of the above should prove
conclusively that our member auction
companies in the ten terminal mar-
kets are providing the widest kind
of distribution in their service to the
grower and shipper. It also dove-
tails with the statement on page 897
of the Agricultural Income Inquiry
wherein the Federal Trade Commis-
sion stated as follows:
"The commission believes that
terminal market auctions properly
organized and conducted are a prac-
tical and efficient method by which
fresh fruits may be sold."
Norman C. Ives.
President, American Fruit and
Produce Auction Association.







Orlando, Fla. Phone 5791

Page 12

Page 13


The Use of Red---

Aschersonia To Control Whitefly

By E. W. BERGER, Entomologist
State Plant Board of Florida.

group of friendly fungi, as
growers call them, that destroy
certain injurious insects on citrus and
some other plants. There are at
least seven of these known to occur
in Florida. Two destroy whiteflies
on citrus, and some other trees, two
destroy soft scales on citrus and some
other trees, and three are known
to occur only on native whiteflies
found infesting certain trees in ham-
Types and Origin
Aside from the Aschersonias there
are other fungus parasites (so-called
friendly fungi) that destroy scale-
insects which infest citrus and some
other plants, but these will not be
further discussed today. Some in-
formation about these, as well as the
Aschersonias, however, can be found
in Extension Bulletin 88 issued by
the Extension Division of the Uni-
versity of Florida.
Whence came these friendly fun-
gus parasites, that to our knowledge
have controlled, or assisted in the
control, of insect pests for hundreds
of years, in fact, probably through-
out unknown thousands of years be-
fore man recognized them and their
usefulness? We can only answer, they
are part of nature and that nature
produced them in due time.
Pests Fungi Attack
A few words about the insects
that the Red Aschersonia (Red
Whitefly-Fungus) helps to control.
The two principal species of white-
flies infesting citrus in Florida are
the Common Citrus Whitefly and
the Cloudy-Winged Whitefly, and
the Red Aschersonia not infrequent-
ly controls these very effectively.
The Wooly Whitefly is a third
species that occasionally rather se-
verely infests citrus. The Red As-
chersonia, however, only slightly in-

fects (parasitizes) this species. and
were it not for a minute wasp-like
parasite (see Bulletin 88 previously
noted) would be a veritable pest.
Whiteflies on citrus were appar-
ently first observed in some green-
houses in Washington, D. C. in

1878, and later (early 90's) in Flor-
When Dr. H. J. Webber of the
United States Department of Agri-
culture came to Florida in the early
90's, to investigate the Sooty Mold
of the Orange, he soon discovered

Use V-C Fertilizers

and Grow Quantities

of Quality Fruit.

Orlando, Fla.


that this was a black fungus that
grew in honeydew (sweetish excre-
tion) voided by the whitefly larvae
(immature scale-like stages) on the
bottoms of the leaves of whitefly-
infested trees. The fact that this
honeydew comes from the whitefly
larvae living on the bottoms of
leaves results in its settling mainly
on the tops of leaves below, and ex-
plains why the Sooty Mold Fungus
is so much more abundant on Ihe
tops of the leaves of whitefly-in-
fested trees.
But following these few prelim-
inary explanations, let me get back
to the Red Aschersonia, the fungus
parasite found to be so useful in the
control of several species of white-
flies, especially two of the three pre-
viously listed generally found infest-
ing citrus.
Cause and Cure
Dr. Webber, aside from finding
the cause of the Sooty Mold Fungus,
found the red pustular growths of
the Red Aschersonia fungus infect-
ing the whitefly larvae on the bot-
toms of the leaves and transforming
them into fungus.
The brick-red growths of fungus,
called pustules, each one representing
a dead whitefly larva killed by the
fungus, can be seen by turning the
leaves of almost any citrus tree. The
fungus as well as whiteflies are now
of almost universal presence in Flor-
ida wherever citrus is grown.
I should explain here that there
are two other friendly fungi, para-
sites on whitefly larvae, that may be
seen when turning the leaves of
whitefly-infested trees. These are
the Yellow Aschersonia and the
Brown Whitefly-Fungus.
Yell-w Aschersonia
The latter was also discovered by
Dr. Webber when he began his stud-
ies in the early 90's of the last cen-
tury. This fungus is an exceeding-
ly effective parasite of both the
Common Citrus Whitefly and the
Cloudy-Winged species. But as it
does not lend itself to culturing in
the laboratory as the Red Ascher-
sonia does (and I am about to tell
you about this), growers are de-
pendent upon collecting seed mater-
ial for spreading or starting it in their
groves from whitefly-infested trees
having plenty.

The Yellow Aschersonia, as its
name implies, is yellow, sometimes
nearly lemon yellow, and not red
like the Red Aschersonia. It is a
very effective fungus parasite of the
Cloudy-Winged Whitefly, but only
slightly ever infects the Common
Citrus Whitefly. However, as the
Red Aschersonia is equally effective
against both of these species it real-
ly was not necessary to undertake
its artificial culture as we have done
for the Red Aschersonia. The Yel-
low Aschersonia was recognized as
a separate species by Dr. P. H. Rolfs
in 1906.
Naturally, after Dr. Webber had
discovered the usefulness of the Red
Aschersonia and the Brown White-
fly-Fungus, he cast about for ways
of spreading them into whitefly-in-
fested trees and groves as yet with-
out a friendly fungus. He finally
recommended setting small trees in-
fested with whitefly and in turn in-
fected with a friendly fungus among
grove trees, depending upon natural
forces to carry the fungus to the trees
of the grove. This worked but was
a slow process.
Propagating Methods
When citrus production was slow-
ly coming into its own again early
in this century, following recovery
.from the Big Freeze, and interest in
the control of whiteflies was becom-
ing keen again, work on spreading
the Red Aschersonia was taken up
by the writer (May, 1906). He
soon found that he could start
growths of the Red Aschersonia by
pinning leaves bearing this fungus
onto some of the leaves of white-
fly-infested trees. It was found best
to pin the leaves with bottoms down
like they grow thus better exposing
the fungus (practically always on
the bottom) to visiting insects that
presumably carry the fungus spores
on their bodies to the whitefly lar-
vae on other leaves. It may be
the mature whiteflies themselves,
swarming and crawling about, that
are largely responsible for this. The
probable effect of rain storms in dis-
seminating the fungus spores must
not be overlooked.
The writer also soon found that
by making mixtures of fungus spores

Sell to buyers who help our in-
dustry- Buy from concerns that
help our organization.

(obtained from infected whitefly
larvae) in water and spraying the
mixture against the bottoms of
whitefly-infested leaves that he could
easily obtain growths of the fungus
in question.
Fungus Culture
Things were thus rocking along,
when Dr. H. S. Fawcett, then with
the Florida Experiment Station, now
in California, discovered that the
Red Aschersonia could readily be
grown on sterilized plugs of sweet
potato. It was also found that these
cultures were as effective when used
for spreading fungus by the spore-
spraying method as fungus obtained
from leaves of whitefly-infested trees.
With a few minor improvements,
such as growing the fungus in pint
wide mouth bottles instead of the
smaller test tubes and the addition
of a gram of agar and about an ounce
of water, with the four or five plugs
of sweet potato in the bottles, and
the hot bottles laid on a slant for
the contents to harden against the
side as they are removed from the
steam sterilizer, we obtained what
bacteriologists and mycologists call a
slant, in this instance a sweet-potato-
agar-slant. These slants are planted
with spores of the fungus mixed in
sterilized water from a sterilized ato-
mizer. Excellent growths of fun-
gus, called cultures, are generally
produced over the entire surface of
the slant.
Necessity of Pure Cultures
During the Citrus Canker cam-
paign it became the feeling of cer-
tain members of the Plant Board or-
ganization, that citrus growers using
the Red Aschersonia in the control
of whitefly might inadvertently ob-
tain fungus material on canker-in-
fected leaves and be the means of
spreading canker. That this danger
could be obviated by the production
and distribution of pure cultures was
apparent. Since about 1916, there-
fore, the Entomological Department
of the Plant Board has been produc-
ing hundreds of cultures of this fun-
gus and distributing them to growers
requesting them at a cost of one dol-
lar for each culture. Directions are
always supplied.
A culture of this fungus, consist-
ing, as previously explained, of the
amount of fungus that can be grown
in a pint wide mouth bottle, is suf-

Page 14

THE CITRUS GROWER, July 1, 1939 Page 15

A Grower Outlines the---

Necessity For Grower Organization

rus I am outlining the reasons
why I think a grower organiza-
tion is necessary and what benefit
this organization will be to me.
Probably the greatest direct benefits
I may expect from a grower organi-
zation will be from my local unit.
Because of the existence of a local
unit, we small growers will have an
opportunity to come together from
time to time and discuss problems
of mutual importance to the local
community and study suggestions
for coping with these problems.
To Exchange Knowledge
Some of the problems that might
be discussed at these meetings have
to do with insect and disease con-
trol, latest recommendations on fer-
tilizer practices, taking into account
minor deficiencies which we as grow-
ers know so little about, and up-to-
date research on cultural practices.
In these discussions we can benefit
from the experiences of our neigh-
bor as well as obtain information
from representatives of the state and
federal experimental agencies on the
problems immediately confronting
us. The advantage of discussing
these things in forum meetings lies
in the fact that not only do we get
experience of other local growers and
information f r o m experimental
agencies but we have an opportunity
to ask questions which may not have
been answered in discussion or in
published form, Quite often new
and untried suggestions are brc-ghbz
to us as individuals and put to us
in such manner that we think they
ficient for getting it started in at least
an acre of trees.
That the cultures are useful and
appreciated by those who employ
them is evidenced by the repeat-re-
quests that we receive, and by the
fact that several large concerns have
requested three and four hundred cul-
tures in a season. One grower near
Wauchula has requested and rcmit-
ted his check for ten cultures each
year now as long as I can remember.

Editor's Note: The accompanying article
came into the state offices of Florida Citrus
Growers. Inc., and got lost off from any
accompanying letter. It is good material
and the magazine would like to know who
sent it in. The author is requested to write
and let us know.

might prove quite beneficial to us.
By having a local organization we
can bring these suggestions to the at-
tention of the group and of experi-
mental agencies that may investigate
them and give us information that
often will prove quite beneficial. As
a matter of fact, by following some
of these unproved suggestions we

may lose cash money and actually
harm our trees.
Study State Activities
In addition to the above problems
which we may discuss in local meet-
ings. we will be able to receive from
our state organization office informa-
tion concerning proposals of a state
nature. We can be represented in
problem; of state concern.
Other questions we may discuss
in our local meetings may have to
do with market and price conditions,
supply and demand, and by using
this information we know better
when and how to market our citrus

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fruits. By discussing with other
members of our community group
we may be able to work out more
economical practices both in produc-
tion and in marketing. Before this
can be done it will be necessary to
study very carefully the effects that
any new, proposed change might
have, not only on our local set-up
but on the industry as a whole. By
proper understanding of our local
problems and the local problems of
other units, our representatives will
be in better position to deal with
problems of state importance.
Growers Must Organize
Should my unit elect me as its
representative to the state organiza-
tion, I would feel it my duty to ob-
tain through conferences with other
representatives to the state organiza-
tion as much information as pos-
sible concerning the problems of oth-
er sections of the state and tell them
the problems of my community and,
as a result of open discussion at state
meetings, be able to instruct officers
of the state organization how best
to represent growers in problems
that arise from time to time. It
would seem to me probably, if for
no other reason than the fact that
practically every other part of the
citrus industry except the bona fide
growers is organized, it would be
necessary that I organize. The so-
called cash buyer is organized and is
represented in all meetings where
problems affecting the cash buyer
are discussed. So-called grower-
shippers and cooperatives represent
their groups at various meetings.
Unless the grower, whose primary
interest is the production of citrus
fruit, has representation at these
meetings it seems logical to expect,
not from dishonesty on the part of
other groups but from lack of infor-
mation, that the problems of the
grower may not receive due consider-
ation. It would seem that these oth-
er organizations would welcome a
grower organization that they might
have someone to whom they could
look for answers to questions affect-
ing that group.
To Confer With Others
From a citrus industry standpoint
it would seem that this grower or-
ganization might fit well into discus-
sions of other organized groups of
the state in their dealing with prob-

lems such as freight rates, chain store
merchandising drives, problems re-
lating to auctions, retailer and job-
ber margins, legislation both state
and national affecting the industry
in general, policies with reference to
competition with other states and
foreign countries, marketing agree-
ments and other problems of an in-
dustry nature.
Industry Needs Unity
How much more effective it would
be if the industry itself were in agree-
ment in its demands for national re-
search, which, in my opinion, is of
much importance. It seems probable
that as a result of industry confer-
ences it would be possible to work
with Texas, California and other
competing areas in outlining market-
ing and consumer research which may
be badly needed at this time.
The citrus problem, in my judg-
ment, is the major agricultural prob-
lem in the United States today. Un-
less the industry can work out a plan
which takes into consideration all
factors, it would seem that millions
of dollars may be lost before the old
"survival of the fittest" will finally
drive the industry to doing those
things which must be done if it is
to succeed.
Industry cooperation seems neces-
sary if we are to compete with coop-
eration in other lines: the railroads
have their national organization; la-
bor has its unions; manufacturers
have their representation; the chains
are organized; the independent stores
are organized; and auctions are or-
ganized. Therefore, in face of or-
ganization in other fields, it seems
for self-preservation, the citrus in-
dustry must organize.


Avon Park Motor Co., Avon
Central Florida Gas Corp., Win-
ter Haven.
Wilson 8 Toomer Fertilizer Co.,
Armour Fertilizer Co., Jackson-
Home Builders Supply Co., Dav-
Fred Linde, Auburndale.
Keenan Soil Laboratory, Lake


The Citrus Grower regrets to re-
count the death Monday afternoon,
June 19, after an illness of several
months, of Edward Postell Porcher,
78, of Cocoa. He was the father of
Arthur G. Porcher, of Cocoa, one
of the leaders in Florida Citrus
Growers, Inc., and an active mem-
ber of its marketing agreement com-
mittee which handled the confer-
ences in Washington last winter and
assisted in drafting the marketing
agreement upon which hearings were
held in Lakeland in January.
The elder Mr. Porcher was the
first citrus grower in Florida to wash
and stamp fruit and was the inventor
of many machines now in use in
the packing industry. He was one
of the largest independent growers
and packers of citrus in the State.
Mr. Porcher was born in Green-
ville, S. C., in 1861, and came to
Brevard County in 1884 where he
engaged in the citrus industry at
Courtenay on North Merritt Island.
For many years he was general agent
of the old Indian River and Lake
Worth Pineapple and Orange Grow-
ers Association and aided in the or-
ganization of the North American
Fruit Exchange, a national market-
ing organization.
Besides his son, Arthur G. Por-
cher, he is survived by two daugh-
ters, Mrs. James Lawrence Walsh,
Summit, N. J., and Mrs. L. S. An-
drews, Jr., Cocoa, and nine grand-

PORATION, Orlando, Florida.
PORATION. Phone 3842, 138 N. Or-
ange Ave., Orlando, Florida.
PARSON BROWN, Hamlin, Jaffa, Pine-
apple and Valencia late trees on rough
lemon roots for rainy season planting.
All sizes. Frank Haas, Jr., P. O. Box
584, Sorrento, Fla. 6-1-3t.
Reliable Varieties, Budded Trees. Bud-
Wood and Fruit. M. F. Goering, Rt. 1,
Box 259, Largo, Florida.
J. SCHNARR 8 CO., Orlando and Tampa,

Page 16


The Relation of--

Cover Crops and Citrus Insects

Page 17

MUCH HAS BEEN said about
the beneficial effects upon the
soil fertility of a cover crop.
Perhaps not as much has been said
about the effect of a good cover crop
upon the insect pests of citrus. Our
citrus growers are all well acquaint-
ed with the great help that they
receive from the entomogenous fun-
gi, those fungi which live upon and
destroy some of our most important
insect pests of citrus, especially scale
insects, whiteflies and rust mites. We
all know that these fungi flourish
best during the warm, moist, rainy
season. It is evident, therefore, that
anything that has a tendency to in-
crease the humidity in a citrus grove
will have a tendency to favor the
development of these fungi. This
effect has been particularly notice-
able in the case of rust mites. In
groves with a good cover crop rust
mites are uniformly less troublesome
than in groves otherwise similarly
situated, and handled, but without
a cover crop. Indeed, some groves
in Florida in low hammock regions
which are never plowed or cultivated
and with good moisture conditions
are never much troubled with rust
mites. The cover crop aids the de-
velopment of these fungi in two
ways. Probably most important is
that it prevents the reflection of the
sun's rays from the surface of the
soil. One needs only to get into a
clean cultivated field any sunshiny
day at this season of the year to ap-
preciate the glare of the light and
heat from a bare soil. Indeed, the
sand in such groves gets so hot as to
be uncomfortable to the hand. The
humidity of the air bears an inverse
ratio to the temperature, that is,
as you heat air it becomes drier since
warm air has a greater capacity for
absorbing moisture than cold air, so
a good cover crop by diminishing
the reflection of heat from the sur-
face of the ground, particularly
sandy soil on which so many of our
citrus groves are planted, raises the
relative humidity in the groves and
makes conditions more favorable for

Entomologist, Florida Experiment


entomogenous fungi to do their
work. Furthermore, the cover crop
gives off in the process of its growth
a considerable amount of water.
This also helps to raise the hu-
midity of the grove so that a good
cover crop is an important means
of controlling scale insects and
whiteflies and especially rust mites.
Mealybugs and aphids are liable to
be attacked by entomogenous fungi.
Now in regard to which cover
crop is best for this purpose, it is
evident that the one which covers
the ground most completely is most
beneficial. One which grows tall
and makes a dense shade such as the
crotalarias would be especially bene-
ficial in this regard. Of course on
soils where other cover crops make a
better growth than the crotalarias,
they would be more beneficial as en-
couragers of the entomogenous fungi.
A cover crop may also attract

enemies of our citrus insects. An
example would be aphids. Many
grasses, especially crab grass, in the
spring are apt to be attacked by aph-
ids. There are not the same aphids
which attack citrus, not the green
citrus aphid, the melon aphid, not
the brown citrus aphid, but these
aphids on grasses attract enemies of
all aphids, especially ladybeetles and
syrphus flies and these insects increas-
ing in large numbers in the grove
will help just that much in keeping
down an attack of the citrus aphid.
Unfortunately, to get much benefit
from the presence of these beetles in
a grove, it will be necessary to have
the cover crop growing in the grove
during the winter. In most citrus
groves this is not practical but in
very young groves, particularly Sat-
suma groves in the northern part of
the state, a cover crop of oats, vetch
or Austrian winter peas would be a
good insurance against damage from
the citrus aphid in the spring. All
these plants are apt to be attacked
by aphids. These in turn will at-
tract ladybeetles, syrphid flies and
other predators of aphids when they
(Continued Inside Back Cover)

---------------------- ------ .--- --- -------- ----"------" __

South Lake Apopka Citrus Growers Ass'n.


Has Grown from 50,000 Boxes to Last Year's Record of 643,356.

About 3,500 Acres Are Owned by About 150 Members.

Packing Profits Are Paid back to Growers and more than $300,000
has been repaid.

The Association offers a complete caretaking service, operating its
own Fertilizer Plant and grove equipment at actual cost to


A. W. Hurley, President
Phone 61, Winter Garden

G. S. Hall, Secy.-Manager
Postoffice, Oakland, Fla.


Page 18

Constructive Shipper and Grower

The growers are pleading for a planned citrus in-
People live together best and prosper most by living
according to a plan. If the planless rule of the jungle
had been the best way of living, civilization would
have preserved it.
The citrus industry is young and its problems are
even younger. Consequently, the necessity of plan-
ning has come to us only lately.
The cities of the United States today are handling
over their streets several times as many automobiles as
they once handled horse-drawn vehicles. The speed
is greater and the total volume of traffic can hardly
be compared with 40 years ago. If there is any dif-
ference between now and then, this high speed auto-
moble traffic operates much more smoothly and creates
less confusion than did the animal powered vehicles.
What has enabled city governments to handle this
traffic is a plan fitting the needs of the situation.
All concerned have agreed to certain rules, have
given up the cherished right of doing what they please
when they please, and the program works smoothly.
The grower believes that this planning principle
can be applied to the Florida citrus industry. His be-
lief is strengthened by the fact that plans and programs
have worked in other places for the benefit of the pro-
Since our troubles are largely marketing, the grower
has invited shippers and others best experienced in
marketing to suggest a proper plan of procedure. If
the other factors in the industry cannot see their way
clear to suggest a plan then the growers themselves must
do so. The grower is lost if he sits still. His dis-
bursements now exceed receipts. Consequently, he
must act.
The key to the situation is finding that construc-
tive program. It comes first. Thinking men must
decide what should be done. They must calculate its
probable effect. They must outline the plan, sub-
mit it to criticism of all interested parties, and when it
has come out in a workable form the industry must
accept it.
This magazine has discussed from time to time a
constructive shipper. When we get a constructive plan
devised, we can know a constructive shipper be-
cause a constructive shipper will be a shipper who co-
operates in working with a constructive program.
The ideal of the Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., is
that each one of its members be a constructive grower.
A constructive grower is that sort of grower who sells
his fruit to and gives his moral support to a construc-
tive shipper.
By this line of procedure the wholesome elements
of the industry will be brought together. Mutual

understanding will grow and become stronger with
time, and will be the means of restoring prosperity
to the Florida grower.
If we had told a traffic authority forty years ago
how many automobiles could be made to pass a given
point per hour, he would not have believed us. We
have just as much reason to believe that the brains of
the citrus industry, growers and handlers alike, can
devise means which will dispose of the staggering
surplus which we now have and those greater surpluses
which are promised in the immediate future.
The growers want this program and ask the help
of handlers in devising it and putting it into effect.


The Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., has three types
of memberships, two of which are open to growers
only, and the third, which is open to growers' friends
who are not connected with any of the branches of the
citrus handling industry.
First is the regular membership of $1.00 per year.
That is, signing an application accompanied by $1.00
a year makes any grower a member of this organiza-
tion in good standing. He is eligible to all the com-
mittees and any office of honor or trust within the
organization. This regular membership, of course, is
confined to bona-fide commercial growers.
Sustaining Members
The $1.00 membership fee, 50c of which pays for
the annual subscription to the magazine has not been
sufficient to pay the expenses of the organization. Many
growers who realize the value of the organization to
them have shown a willingness to contribute financial-
ly. Of course, much discussion arose as to how much
a given grower should contribute. The state directors
fell upon the plan of permitting a grower to pay 5c per
acre of producing grove in addition to his regular mem-
bership fees. Payment of this additional 5c per acre
entitles the grower to become an sustaining member.
The privileges and voting power of a sustaining mem-
ber are exactly the same as that of a regular member.
Associate Memberships
Associate memberships are not open to growers but
are confined to friends of the grower movement who
are not connected with packing, shipping and selling
Many far-sighted business and professional people
in the citrus belt have seen how their welfare is tied
up with that of the grower. They have seen that
the grower organization is the greatest hope of restor-
ing prosperity to the citrus belt and maintaining that
prosperity. Consequently, they have come into the or-
ganization as associate members. Associate members
have no voice in the conduct of the affairs of the or-





Continued from Page 17)
have cleaned up the aphids on the
cover crop will migrate to the trees
and feed upon the citrus aphid.
Crotalaria striata is the most im-
portant summer and fall food, and
often winter food as well, of the
Chinese ladybeetle, which is doing
such excellent work in controlling
aphids in three counties of Florida.
An important qualification tor
any cover crop is that it must not
breed insects which are liable to at-
tack citrus. The only insects which
are liable to breed on our common
cover crops which are dangerous to
citrus are the plant bugs, of which
there are several species. Most com-
mon and injurious in the round or-
ange belt is the southern stink bug,
often called "pumpkin bug," where-
as the most dangerous one in the
satsuma belt is the leaf-footed plant
bug, a brown insect with a yellow
band across its wings. These are
liable to breed in large numbers on
most of the legumes which are our
most valuable cover crops in citrus
groves. Most liable to breed them
are cowpeas, followed in order by
Crotalaria striata, beggarweed, and
velvet beans. Crotalaria spectabilis
when grown in a pure stand has
never produced a bad infestation.
The grasses, if not mixed with wild
legumes, are not apt to breed these
plant bugs. This does not mean
that we should avoid these very de-
sirable legumes as cover crops in our
groves, but does mean that we should
be on the lookout for these bugs and
take precautions against them. The
crotalarias do not breed these bugs
in large numbers until they begin
to produce pods. Crotalaria striata
is already producing pods in our
groves and will continue to produce
them in increasing numbers all
spring, summer and fall, thus giv-
ing the plant bugs a continual food
supply. The pods of Crotalaria
spectabilis are just as attractive as
those of striata but this plant does
not ordinarily produce large num-
ber of pods until early fall- Sep-
tember. It then sets a very large
crop which quickly ripens. In other
words, the pods are present on the
plants such a short time that plant
bugs do not have time to breed up
to large numbers. We have never

had any trouble with these bugs
where we have had a pure stand of
spectabilis, but spectabilis does not
grow well in some of the drier soils
of some of our citrus groves. In
such soils Crotalaria striata can be
grown but it should be watched. To
be perfectly safe, it should be mown
when it begins to blossom. If not
allowed to produce pods it will not
breed plant bugs in large numbers.
Of course, this would necessitate re-
seeding the grove each year. But of-
ten it will not be necessary to cut
this striata. Stink bugs, like other
insects, have their enemies which
often hold them in control, so that
a crop of Crotalaria striata, cowpeas,
or beggarweed does not necessarily
mean a heavy infestation of pump-
kin bugs; but it should be watched.
If by the middle of September
there is a considerable number of
these bugs on the cover crop, it
should be mown. In the case of a
tangerine grove, this mowing should
be not later than the first of Sep-
tember, and in the case of satsumas
the middle of August. These bugs
will breed on the stems of cowpeas
and beggarweeds as well as on the
It is very important that these
cover crops should not be mixed in
a grove. In other words, avoid hav-
ing a continued food supply for
these bugs throughout the summer.
What may happen if they are mixed
was demonstrated strikingly a few
years ago in a satsuma grove in West
Florida. The owner wanted to
compare cowpeas, Crotalaria striata
and beggarweed, so he planted a
third of his grove to each. The
plant bugs began to breed on the
cowpeas in early summer. As they
died down they migrated to the beg-
garweed in thousands. As this died
down in later summer they migrated
to the Crotalaria striata in hundreds
of thousands, where they again bred
in such large numbers that they took
all the pods off. The next migra-
tion was to the satsumas which were
a total loss. The owner unwitting-
ly provided a constant food supply
for the bugs all summer.
Avoid mixing cover crops which
will breed pumpkin bugs in the first
part of the summer with those which
will breed them in the latter part of
the summer. Herein lies the dan-
ger of Crotalaria striata. Beggar-
weed and cowpeas die down to a con-

siderable extent before the citrus is
attractive to the stink bugs, but Cro-
talaria striata is liable to carry over
the bugs up to the time the citrus
is attractive to them. As long as
the pods are on the crotalaria the
stink bugs will not leave them for
citrus. It is only when something
happens to the pods; they get ripe
or a drouth or hurricane strips them
from the plants, or when the bugs
themselves get so abundant as to
take the pods all off is there a mi-
gration to the citrus.
In conclusion, a good cover crop
in a grove is a great help in control-
ling insects, and especially rust mites.
The only danger is that some of the
legumes may breed plant bugs. These
should be watched and if they be-
come heavily infested should be
mown before the middle of Septem-
ber in the case of round oranges, the
first of September in the case of tan-
gerines and Parson Browns, and the
middle of August in the case of sat-
Sell to buyers who help our in-
dustry Buy from concerns that
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Growers Must Prepare to Protect Their

Interests Next Season. JOIN NOW!

Membership Application Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.


Through an industry program designed to obtain for the grower a fair net return on
his investment.
A. Elimination of uneconomic grove practices.
B. Elimination of all processing and distribution costs not vital to the maintaining of qual-
ity fruit or the broadening of markets.
A. Effective green fruit laws.
B. Improved cultural practices.
C. Quality grades.
D. Elimination of all processing practices adversely affecting quality.
E. Improved shipping and distribution practices.
Establishing Laws and Marketing Agreements to provide for orderly distribution.
A. Elimination of all inefficient, irresponsible shipping agencies, particularly those agencies
refusing to cooperate on a constructive program.
B. Coordinating all sales through a few centralized sales agencies.
C. Maintaining prices to net the Grower-a fair return on his investment.
Membership in __-- ____________ County Citrus Growers is limited to bona fide growers who do
not buy or sell citrus fruit-of others as a business for profit, or who do not derive a salary from Ship-
ping Agencies except as provided for in the By-Laws.
SUSTAINING MEMBERSHIP DUES $1.00 plus 5c per acre [
It is understood and agreed that 50 cents of above amount covers one year's subscription to THE CIT-
SIGNATURE -_..._.---- -- --------------- ADDRESS--------

Mail your Application to the President of your County's Unit, or to the Florida Citrus
Growers, Inc., Orlando, Florida.

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