Front Cover
 President's message
 Table of Contents
 A challenge to the industry
 Grower legislative program
 Sales thru scientific merchand...
 U.S.D.A meets the producer
 A larger citrus surplus?
 Cultural expert views industry
 With the editor
 First year accomplishments
 Back Cover

Group Title: Citrus grower (Orlando, Fla.)
Title: The citrus grower
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086640/00015
 Material Information
Title: The citrus grower
Uniform Title: Citrus grower (Orlando, Fla.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30-44 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
Place of Publication: Orlando Fla
Publication Date: June 15, 1939
Frequency: weekly (semimonthly july-sept.)[<1939>]
semimonthly[ former 1938-]
normalized irregular
Subject: Fruit-culture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruit industry -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Nov. 15, 1938)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1942?
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 4, no. 9 (May 15, 1942).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086640
Volume ID: VID00015
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 03227648
lccn - sn 96027371

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    President's message
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    A challenge to the industry
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Grower legislative program
        Page 7
    Sales thru scientific merchandising
        Page 8
        Page 9
    U.S.D.A meets the producer
        Page 10
        Page 11
    A larger citrus surplus?
        Page 12
    Cultural expert views industry
        Page 13
    With the editor
        Page 14
    First year accomplishments
        Page 15
    Back Cover
        Page 16
Full Text


JUN 26 1939

0- Department of Agriculturo










A Challenge to the Industry

Growers start early to formulate plan acceptable to all
interests that will get maximum benefit to growers from
next season s crop.






June 15, 1939

INV. '60


HE GROWERS HAVE made several propositions
to the industry in the past years. These were
definite propositions calculated to bring a greater
return on our citrus crop. They sprung from the fact
that returns for the grower had almost reached the
vanishing point and a crisis had come where the grower
must do something to protect his interests.
Among these efforts we mention the growers' com-
mittee of eleven and a strong bid last season by Florida
Citrus Growers, Inc., for a marketing agreement which
would contain provisions for volume control.
Other improvements proposed by the growers have
met fierce opposition from some sections of the ship-
ping fraternity and only lukewarm support from other
Crisis Demands Action
The crisis in which the industry has found itself
during the last two seasons is sharpening and deepen-
ing. The necessity of finding effective remedies is
more pressing than ever before.
In view of the fact that the shipping side of the
citrus industry has never been able to get together on
a grower proposed remedy, the growers, through their
organization are now demanding that at least all con-
structive shippers get their house in order and work
with the growers in devising some workable industry
The challenge of the growers to the other branches
of the industry is published in this issue of the maga-
zine. It has also been published in the papers of the
state during the past week and has had radio publicity.
The temper of the meeting of the board of directors
at DeLand was to make definite representations to
other organizations stating a time within which the
growers would expect action. This view was not sus-
tained, but growers will not wait indefinitely for such
a meeting. The growers are in the position of leader-
ship and will aggressively pursue the idea of an indus-
try wide conference early this summer to make a plan
to fit the next season's operations.
Grower Responsibility
In this preparatory period we have much to think

about, particularly the paragraph in the challenge read-
ing as follows:
"In asking for a constructive industry program the
grower organization fully appreciates the fact that
the successful operation of such a program will require
the support and cooperation of growers themselves.
To obtain this support and cooperation the growers'
organization stands ready to assume the responsibil-
ity. * .
The grower organization has developed good men
in leading positions fully able to accept this responsi-
bility. The grower representatives are as well quali-
fied as those from any other section of the industry
to throw light upon its problems and work out prac-
tical, workable and fair plans. But large groups of us
as individual growers have not kept up with these
leaders in careful study of industry questions.
We must mend our ways, attend grower meetings,
read our magazine, and otherwise inform ourselves so
we can give proper and intelligent support to these
leaders in the struggle ahead of us.
It is not up to us to enter the industry wide dis-
cussions with definite propositions and with our minds
made up. We could be wrong. We must approach
it with an open mind, but we must also know about
all questions to steer the thinking into the right chan-
nels, otherwise mistakes will be made and the plan
will, when completed, be without value.
Our Interests Vital
We must not forget that our incomes and our busi-
ness as growers depend upon the paths to be followed
in the immediate future. The showdown is not far
away. We must prevent the washout and great losses
to ourselves if we can.
Our organization is the only organizing force and
rallying point in the industry for all constructive
forces. It needs our support and we need it much
worse than most of us realize it.
We must go enthusiastically into this matter of
building and strengthening the organization and fit-
ting ourselves as individuals properly to handle our
present responsibilities.
Yours very truly,

Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.

The Citrus Grower
Official Publication of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
VOLUME 1 JUNE 15, 1939 NUMBER 15

Our Organization

Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., is an agency through
which 21 county organizations work together for the
purpose of making citrus growing profitable. The
county organizations are made up of growers who have
no financial connection with or interest in the ship-
ment of fruit. In these units are growers who ship
through cooperative marketing associations as well as
growers who dispose of their fruit to cash buyers or
on consignment. So called "cooperative" growers and
so called "independent" growers are fighting side by
side in the ranks of the county units and, through the
county units, in the state organization for the benefit
of the citrus industry. The grower must work for a
stable market with a healthy demand for fruit at a
price that pays, in addition to distribution costs, the
cost of production and a reasonable profit to producers.
Grower Price Ideal-
Unless this price ideal of the grower is attained, the
grower eventually must go out of business and with
him will fall the whole super-structure of the industry.
Only through organization can the grower realize this
ideal. Consequently an effective grower organization
is of the greatest concern to every element within the
industry and to all of those business, professional and
other working people in the citrus area whose pros-
perity directly and indirectly depends upon the citrus
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., is the means through
which the grower works and expresses himself in striv-
ing for this ideal.
The state officers are:
L. H. Kramer, Lake Wales, President; J. J. Banks,
Jr., Orlando, 1st Vice-President; C. B. Van Sickler,
Ft. Pierce, 2nd Vice-President; W. L. Burton, Orlando,
Secretary; E. G. Todd, Avon Park, Treasurer, W. J.
Steed, Orlando, General Counsel.





President's Message. .- Inside Front

A Challenge to the Industry ......-- 4
Grower Legislative Program ....- 7

Sales Thru Scientific Merchandising 8
U. S. D. A. Meets the Producer .. ..-10
A Larger Citrus Surplus? .. ..-... .... 12

Cultural Expert Views Industry-....... 13

With The Editor-- ..---........- -.- ..14

First Yea.tAccomplishments ..-Inside Back

DeLand Meeting

The state board of governors met at the Elks Club
in DeLand last Friday (this issue running late permits
the mention of it).
It was that kind of meeting which caused one of
the most conservative but one of the most consistent
workers for the organization to say "After that meet-
ing I believe every grower in the state will be in this
organization within three months."
Inspiring discussions were held of past accomplish-
ments and the job ahead of the organization, and the
meeting closed with the adoption of a challenge to the
balance of the industry to join with growers now in
working out a plan to put the citrus business on a
sound basis next season.
R. J. Kepler, president of the Volusia County unit,
ably assisted by County Agent F. E. Baetzman and
others, was a genial and thoroughly satisfactory host
to the meeting.
The organization extends sincere thanks to all who
contributed to the successful meeting.

Virgil H. Conner -------------.- Editor Published the First and Fifteenth of each able. The publishers can accept no re-
month by The Florida Citrus Growers, responsibility for return of unsolicited manu-
Vernon Keith Advertising Manager Inc., Orlando, Florida. scripts.
PUBLICATION COMMITTEE-W. E. Entered as second-class matter Novem- Subscription Bates
Kemp, Chairman; Carl D. Brorein, R. ber 15, 1938, at the postoffice at Orlando, In United States, one year $1.00 to non-
J. Kepler, E. G. Thatcher. W. L. Burton, Fla., under the Act of March 3, 1879. members of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.,
<-' /^n'.. Gar iy, il T n. Membership ?-jb.icrirh-,ni, one year 50c.
C. A. Garrett, Karl Lehmann. Manuscripts submitted to this maga- Membership n one year c.
zine should be accompanied by sufficient Address all mail to The Citrus Grower,
Printed by Chief Press, Apopka L postage for their return if found unavail- P. 0. Box 2077, Orlando, Florida.

Page 4 THE CITRUS GROWER, June 15, 1939

Grower Organization Issues---

A Challenge to The Industry

ment to one which appeared in
the May 15th issue which dealt
with the progress of the growers'
legislative program through the state
legislature up to that time.
As our publication went to press
on May 15th grower sponsored laws
were just emerging from a victorious
march through the House of Repre-
At the outset, let me point out
that the growers' legislative program
has two major objectives: first, to
prevent the shipment of green or im-
mature fruit, and second, to regu-
late the flow of fruit to the market
in an orderly manner.
Senate Less Favorable
The House of Representatives put
through every one of our bills which
were presented to them. The Senate
was not so liberal. We failed to
get through the elimination bill and
the much publicized state marketing
agreement, which bills are considered
by many of the leaders of thought in
the grower organization to be the
most constructive and far-reaching
pieces of legislation attempted. In
other words, the laws designed to
attain the first of our objectives (pre-
vention of the shipment of green and
immature fruit) all passed both
houses of the legislature, whereas the
laws aimed toward the second ob-
jective (regulation of the flow of
fruit to the market in an orderly
manner) failed of passage.
The fight in the Senate brought
out more clearly than the fight in
the House, that nearly all of the op-
position to the growers' program
came from United Growers and Ship-
pers Association and the organized
canners. There were other shippers
also who opposed the program, and,
standing prominently with the oppo-
sition, were lobbyists for the Sea-
board Air Line Railway and Major
A. D. Tomasello, who for several
years has been supervising inspector
in Commissioner Mayo's department,
and who resigns during the time of

By E. G. TODD, Chairman
of the Legislative Committee,
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.

recent legislatures to lobby for one
thing and another.
Lists Friends
The detail of the Senate fight as
published in the newspapers is sub-
stantially correct and familiar to all
of you. I want to pause here, how-
ever, to give public recognition to
those people, members of the Senate,
who helped us substantially in put-
ting through our program. Out-
standing among them were the fol-
lowing Senators: Spessard L. Hol-
land, Bartow; Walter W. Rose, Or-
lando: Pat Whitaker, Tampa; R.
S. Adams, Jasper; David E. Ward,
Ft. Myers; Henry G. Murphy, Zolfo
Springs and Fred Parker, Mayo; all
of whom took the floor and made a
substantial contribution to the fight
particularly for the marketing agree-
ment bill.
Those Senators who bitterly op-
posed this legislation on the floor
were: Senators J. J. Parrish, Titus-
ville; George F. Westbrook, Cler-
mont: Dewey A. Dye, Bradenton;
Charles A. Savage, Ocala; R. Lucas
Black, Gainesville; J. Lock Kelley,
Clearwater. While Senator W. C.
Hodges, Tallahassee, did not take
the floor actively against the bill, the
small coterie of Senators who always
vote with him were solidly against
this bill, and the grower may draw
his own conclusions whether Sena-
tor Hodges had an influence upon
their thinking.
The Vote
The complete vote for and against
House Bill No. 340 (the marketing
agreement bill) is as follows:
For House Bill No. 340:
Mr. President (Butler), Coulter,
Gillis, Graham, Hinely, Holland,

Home, Kanner, Kelly (Fernandina),
McKenzie, Murphy, Parker, Price,
Sharit, Ward, Whitaker-16.
Against House Bill No. 340:
Black, Clarke, Dugger, Dye, Gid-
eons, Hodges, Johns, Kelly (Clear-
water), Kendrick. Lewis, Lindler,
Mapoles, Parrish. Savage, Rose,
Walker, Westbrook. Wilson-18.
Beal (present) voting "nay";
Adams (absent) voting "yea."
Adams, Dame, Bcu ch.im
A historic precedent was set the
next day in the vot l, for a motion
by Senator Rose to reconsider. That
is, the vote to reconsider, resulted in
another tie of 17 to 17, with only a
slight change in the voting person-
nel as follows:
Voting for the motion to recon-
Mr. President (Butler), Adams,
Beacham, Graham, Hinely, Holland,
Home, Kanner, Kelly (Fernandina),
Lewis, Murphy, Parker, Price, Rose,
Sharit, Ward, Whitaker-17.
Voting against the motion to re-
Beall, Black, Clarke, Coulter,
Dugger, Gideons, Hodges, Johns,
Kelly (Clearwater), Kendrick, Lind-
ler, Mapoles, Parrish, Savage, Walk-
er, Westbrook, Wilson--17.
Dye "Nay," Gillis, "Yea." Not
voting, McKenzie.
The voting of these Senators
should be firmly fixed in the minds
of each grower for his guidance on
next election day.
Hard Fight
The marketing agreement bill was
the center of one of the hardest fights
on the Senate floor during the whole
session. Francis R. Bridges, Jr.,
staff writer for the Florida Times-
Union at the legislature described the
voting as follows:
"Dramatically bringing to a close
one of the most heated contests of

THE CITRUS GROWER, June 15, 1939

the session, by what was in reality
a tie vote, with only two votes not
actually represented on the call. the
upper legislative branch late today
defeated the House-approved mar-
keting agreement measure. A tie
vote defeats a measure, under parlia-
mentary procedure.
"The official vote, however, was
18 to 16 against the proposal, writ-
ten in the House committee, substi-
tute for the House Bill 340. for
Senator Walter W. Rose, of Or-
lando, stalwart fighter for the meas-
ure, on the verification of the count
changed his vote from "Yea" to
"Nay" for purposes of making, he
announced, a reconsideration mo-
The Rose Vote
Some further explanation should
be given to the vote of Senator Rose.
He had fought valiantly for the bill.
In that few seconds between the time
the tie vote is announced and the
president of the Senate declares the
measure has been killed, which was
the situation in this case. Senator
Rose thought very rapidly and
changed his vote to a vote against
the measure. This action put him
on the majority side and put him in
position to move for re-considera-
tion. He would not have had a right
to move for re-consideration had he
been on the losing side. This was
a very creditable act on the part of
Senator Rose and showed his friend-
liness to the grower movement even
though it did not result in the final
passage of the bill.
Excuses given for voting against
this highly constructive measure
were very lame. The legislation
would have been very useful in the
following case. Federal laws can-
not control movement of fruit whol-
ly within the State.
If there is a Federal restriction of
grade and size, or in event volume
control does not permit shipment of
all of the crop, these efforts at Fed-
eral regulation have brought undesir-
able effects so far as canners are con-
cerned. That is, the fruit which
cannot be shipped in inter-state com-
merce under Federal regulation is left
here in the state and is easy picking
for the canners at low prices. This
cheap fruit, in cans the next year, is
on the shelves of northern merchants

in large quantities and at low prices
competing with our fresh fruit.
A state marketing agreement would
provide for regulation within the
state, which would permit the con-
trol committee to require that canners
be under the same restrictions as fresh
fruit shippers. In regard to this a
Florida news service dispatch had the
following to say:
"It was the only measure advo-
cated by the Florida Citrus Growers,
Inc., to meet defeat in the legislature.
Members of the Senate seemingly
felt that the measure would discrim-
inate against certain groups in the
citrus industry and particularly
against the canner. Individual ex-
pression by senators developed that
it was felt the canning industry
should not be put under regulation
by individuals or boards who know
nothing of the canning business."
As for the technicalities of operat-
ing the canning plant, the growers
readily admit that practical canners
are the men to do that. As for gen-
eral policies in the citrus industry,
the growers regard themselves just
as thoroughly capable of judging
between the good and the bad as are
the canners. It is possible even that
the grower is under less immediate
selfish pressure in this matter and
more capable of considering the broad
interests of the industry than are the

Matters of Policy
In this lame propaganda canners
are attempting to say that matters
of policy are not the same wherever
you find them. For instance, the
present general sales manager of the
Coca-Cola Company had no previous
experience before going to that lu-
crative position, except as a manu-
facturer of pianos. We also know
that Coca-Cola Company would like
very much for this same gentleman
to accept the position of general man-
ager of their business, which he re-
fuses to do on account of his health.
He is regarded by them as able to
shape correct policies. He has no
more to do with the operating of the
various plants than the growers or
state inspectors would have had to
do with the operation of the citrus
canning plants, if this wholesome
law had been passed.
But in addition to this sort of op-
position, we had the concealed op-
position of some Senators and others
who were afraid to face the issue and
ran away, as evidenced by the fol-
lowing exchange of letters:
Senator H. S. McKenzie,
Tallahassee, Fla.
Dear Sir:
Your absence from the Senate Chamber
yesterday when the vote was taken to tc-
consider the Senate's action on House Bill
340 places squarely upon your shoulder
the responsibility for the defeat of this
measure since it was the deciding vote.
The representatives of the Florida Citrus

* That old saying, "There's no

Substitute for QUALITY,

certainly applies when you buy

fertilizer. Crops always show the


For everything that

Use grows in Florida .



Page 5


THE CITRUS GROWER, June 15, 1939

Growers, Inc.. have worked hard to have
this constructive piece of legislation enacted
into law and needless to say we are very much
It will be my duty to report to the
Growers' Organization at its next meeting
the circumstances surrounding the defeat
of this bill. I do not want to be unfair
to any one in this report, and since I under-
stood from several persons whom we had
had discuss this bill with you that your in-
tention was to vote for it, I am according
you the courtesy of offering whatever ex-
planation you have for being absent at
the time the vote was taken.
Yours very truly.
Chairman Legislative Committee.
May 27, 1939

Mr. E. G. Todd.
Chairman Legislative Committee,
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.,
Avon Park, Florida.
My dear Mr. Todd:
Replying to your letter, in reference to
action taken on House Bill No. 340; I note
with interest your rather caustic comments.
Personally I did not approve the Bill, as
I believed it damaging to the small growers,
especially in our county and other counties
in the northern area of the citrus district.
However, when I received a wire signed by
a number of our good friends at Crescent
City, who are citrus fruit people, of long
experience, requesting me to vote for the
Bill, I disregarded my own feelings in the
matter, and voted for the Bill, at the re-
quest of these grower friends.
The vote on the passage of the Bill was
a tie. Senator Rose then changed his vote
for the purpose of reconsideration. When
the motion came up for reconsideration,
upon motion of Senator Rose, I had every
reason to believe that it would be long de-
bated, for both Senators Holland and Par-
rish were supposed to make extended argu-
ments. As the debate started I was called
down to the enrolling room, of the Senate,
(I being Chairman of the Enrolling Com-
mittee), to sign some bills and reports that
it was urgent to be placed before the Gov-
ernor for consideration and possible legisla-
tion. (this being in the late afternoon), be-
fore the session adjourned. I had counted
on Senators Parrish, Holland, Rose, West-
brook. Savage and others making long
speeches, whereas only brief talks were made
by Senators Parrish and Holland. Upon
my return to the Senate I was surprised to
learn that the vote for reconsideration had
been taken and had failed.
Had I known that the matter was coming
to a vote in such quick order, rest assured
that I would have acted differently, and
voted for reconsideration.
As a member of the House of Representa-
tives for eighteen years, and of the Senate
for six years, I have never yet endeavored to
evade a vote, and certainly at this late day,
I would not break a life time rule, especially
on a matter of such interest and importance
to my Constituents.
Yours very truly,
State Senator, 26th District.
May 29, 1939.

The reader may draw his own
conclusion as to whether or not this
was a "run out."

Experience Gained

The young grower organization
has received its baptism of fire and
somewhat unwillingly has learned a
lot about politics. We have learned
this much, that politics is highly im-
portant to every sort of public and
private business. It is a place where
good men can perhaps do more good
than in any other sort of endeavor.
Taken as a whole, the organiza-
tion came through with flying col-
We give below the long list of
constructive laws which were enacted
by the past session. Altogether, we
are much pleased with what it has
been possible to do through unity in
our ranks and loyal support of our

New Laws Listed

We list below all of the important
citrus laws which were passed and
the fate of those that failed to pass:
1. To insure that good fruit
only is packed and shipped:
a. Maturity law.
b. Embargo on shipping frozen


Maturity research bill.
Tree to car handling:
Processing law.
Soaps and materials license.
Color added law.

3. Regulation of flow of fruit
to markets:
c. Wash house bill.
(Note: "a" under this heading,
the state marketing agreement bill
and "b" the elimination law. failed
of passage.)
4. To regulate the canning in-
a. Canners maturity bill.
b. Canners unwholesome fruit
c. Canners embossing bill.
d. Canners importing bill.
5. General laws:
a. Field crate law.
b. Amendment to general appro-
priation bill for Lake Alfred Experi-
ment Station,$25,000.
c. Freight rate and maturity re-
search bill.
e. Changes in bond and license

(Note: Item "d" under this head-
ing, which was a bill specifically ex-
empting farm trailers and tractors
from the operation of the vehicle
license law while using the highways
incidentally, was vetoed by the Gov-
All the above laws shown as pass-
ed except the canners importing bill
became laws without approval of
the governor.

The Clearwater Sun continues its
campaign to popularize the use of
grapefruit bread as shown in the
following open letter from Colonel
To A. J. Grant, President Pinel-
las County Citrus Growers, Inc.:
We mull the ancient grapefruit
problems: green fruit, government
control, bonds for buyers, grading,
coloring, standard box, price to con-
sumer, auction collusion, etc.
Much time and money go info
the efforts to solve these problems,
yet most would vanish if we could
but solve the basic problem: under-
consumption. And we have the so-
lution in our hands: grapefruit
bread. A small part of the time and
money now scattered would solve
the major problem if centered on
creating consumer demand for bread
containing grapefruit juice and in
influencing commercial bakers to
adopt the grapefruit formula.
Colonel Clearwater.









Orlando, Fla. Phone 5791

Page 6

THE CITRUS GROWER. June 15. 1939

Grower Legislative Program---

Its Handling In The Senate

UPON THE GROWER has fallen
the full weight of this season's
and last season's ruinous citrus
prices. He, above all others in the
industry, is in most immediate dan-
ger of bankruptcy. He sees little
encouragement in the picture of the
future unless the citrus industry can
be organized on a basis that will
enable all of us to work together
to make extensive and fundamental
improvements in our present mar-
keting practices.
Under the urgent need of saving
himself he is trying to formulate a
program that gives promise of revers-
ing the present disastrous downward
trend. He realizes the impossibil-
ity of doing this big job alone. He
urgently asks the assistance of all
other branches of the industry.
To Prevent "Wash Out"
He insists that some program of
improvement is the only course left
open to use unless we turn to the
other alternative of a "survival of
the fittest."
It is his firm conviction that ship-
pers. canners and all others inter-
ested in the citrus picture should be
equally determined to avoid a "sur-
vival of the fittest" program. Cer-
tainly such a program would mean
the abandonment of all present laws,
regulations and restrictions, and a
return to free lance methods; it would
mean the sacrificing of all construc-
tive accomplishments of the past and
very probably would mean the elim-
ination of practically all of the
present processing and packaging
Evolution of Revolution
The grower feels the urgency of
time; that it is short. He feels sure
that unless some solution to present
distressing conditions in the citrus
industry is furnished, we may ex-
pect no later than two years from
now a general upheaval of justly
discontented elements; and that these
elements will be able to bring about
an abandonment of all regulations

and restrictions and this much feared
struggle for existence will be upon
us. What we will have left after the
struggle will be only the wreckage of
all our hard earned progress so far.
After the sweeping away of all past
accomplishments, it will require years
to rebuild a coordinated industry and
the owners at the end of the period
of adjustment will not be the same
people as were the owners at the be-
These considerations make the
grower prefer that the change should
be brought about by education and
evolution, instead of by ignorance.
lack of foresight and consequent and
inevitable revolution.
Who Will Survive
The answer to the question "who
will survive?" is entirely too uncer-
tain to justify the risk of permit-
ting the question to be settled on the
"survival of the fittest" basis. The
situation is no less dangerous for
those with sizable investments than
it is with the very smallest of grow-
ers. Some economists, who have
given serious thought to the proba-
bilities. are of the opinion that in
any washout which may come as a
consequence to upheaval in the citrus
industry the small grower perhaps
will fare as well as any one else.
The small grower most often is not
altogether dependent on his crop for
a living. but engages in other ac-
tivities that will enable him to
weather the storm.
Want Action Now
In any case, a sound industry pro-
gram designed to give a net return
to the grower above cost of produc-
tion and marketing, is a responsi-
bility of all interests engaged in cit-
rus. The leaders in the industry
will have wantonly failed in their
responsibility to the growers and to
themselves, if they do not immed-
iately attack this problem. The
growers demand that comprehensive
plans for that attack be made now.
During the first year of its exis-
tence the growers' organization has

been working along definitely con-
structive lines, as for example, the
legislative program. Its entire mem-
bership of over 6.000 growers rep-
resenting more than 60 percent of
the citrus of the State. is willing and
anxious to cooperate in formulating
and carrying out a constructive in-
dustry program.
Figures Show Increase
In addition to the sad experiences
of the past season, the following
facts show clearly the necessity of
a constructive plan. Since the 1928-
29 season orange production has in-
creased from thirty three million
boxes to seventy two and one half
million boxes. In the meantime.
the returns to Florida growers have
declined from approximately $20.-
000,000.00 to approximately $8.-
000,000.00 per season for their or-
anges. Returns per box of oranges
have declined from approximately
$1.40 net to the grower in 1928-
29 to approximately 31c per box
net to the grower in 1938-39.
Stated in another way. for approxi-
mately double the amount of or-
anges produced ten years ago Florida
growers this season have received ap-
proximately 40 percent as much
The grapefruit picture shows an
even more disastrous trend. United
States production has increased from
11 million boxes in the 1928-29
season to approximately 41 million
boxes in the 1938-39 season. Re-
turns to the grower on grapefruit
during these ten years have declined
from $19.000,000.00 to $4.000.-
000.00. Returns per hox have de-
clined from $1.69 to less than 20c
per box. For approximately double
the production of ten years ago, the
producer has received, during the past
season, one-fifth as much money.
A large part of the plantings of
oranges and grapefruit have not yet
come into bearing which indicates
further increase in production and
a continuation of a large surplus
and ruinous prices unless some fun-

Page 7

THE CITRUS GROWER, June 15, 1939

damental, helpful changes are made.
The plan must look ahead for some
years, but its benefits must begin
to help now.
Grower Wants Consideration
In assuming all the risks of pro-
duction and in accepting State and
industry regulations and restrictions,
the grower feels that he has contrib-
uted substantially toward achieving
industry stability.
The grower, by no means, has
seen how he profits immediately, or,
in some cases .at all, from some of
these regulations. But he has tried
to live under them. He also feels
that he is thoroughly entitled to a
more complete re-arrangement of the
industry that will give him a chance
to live.
Promises Cooperation
In asking for a constructive in-
dustry program the grower organi-
zation fully appreciates the fact that
the successful operation of such a
program will require the support
and cooperation of growers them-
selves. To obtain this support and
cooperation the growers' organiza-
tion stands ready to assume the re-
sponsibility and it will be pleased
to carry such a program to the grow-
er through press, radio and other
means as well as grower meetings
in every community in every county
in the citrus belt. The organization
will endeavor at these meetings also
through verbal expressions and by
referendum votes to give growers
the opportunity and to demand of
them as a duty that they express
their approval or disapproval, that
the grower assist in making the pro-
gram workable and that they get
squarely behind the plan when it is
in its finished state.
Start In Time
Last year the first industry meet-
ing was called in October-too late
to formulate and put a program into
effect. This year the growers want
an industry meeting in June in or-
der that the complete plan may be
made and ample time provided for
the industry to adjust themselves to
The growers' organization will at-
tend such a meeting with no de-
mands as to methods to be used.
They ask only that the program be
equitable and have as its objective

More Sales Through

Scientific Merchandising


HE GLARING ILL of the cit-
rus industry today is admitted
by both growers and shippers
alike to be over production or sur-
plus. The scene does not grow any
lighter when we look at the new
plantings in both Florida and Texas
which will soon come into bearing.
It is evident that something must
be done to preserve the groves and
homes of the present owners, for if
the present conditions persist the time
is not far off when the ownership of
these homes and groves will be con-
centrated in the hands of a few large
growers. Instead of the money stay-
ing here it will all go north and the
present owners will become either
share-croppers or relief clients. The
only relief at the present time seems
to be a sound elimination or diver-
sion policy, however this, at best, is
only temporary or a stop-gap.
There have been hundreds of
cures suggested for the ills of the
industry, but it seems that the most

prosperity for the grower and pros-
perity for Florida. They await in-
dication of willingness to cooperate
from other elements in the industry.
Seek Way Out
We feel sure many things can be
done; such as a sensible elimination
of surplus, orderly marketing; con-
solidation or coordination of selling
organizations so that price cutting
practices to induce volume are elimi-
nated. The grower demands only
that work on a well rounded plan
be started immediately.
This is by no means a threat. It
is merely to put the balance of the
industry on notice concerning the
urgency of the situation. If the
present time is used judiciously and
effectively the industry in its present
form and substantially under its
present ownership can be saved. If
the present opportunity is not used,
a situation will develop where no
organized power, not even that of
the grower organization can prevent
revolutionary and wasteful changes.

obvious remedy, which is active and
aggressive merchandising, has been
almost overlooked. Those of us
who have spent any time in states
other than Florida, know that there
are innumerable cities, towns and
communities that are literally starved
for citrus fruits and at best, are now
only Christmas markets. We also
know that there is a large number
of people in each of these communi-
ties who are both able and willing
to buy fruits the year round if it
were only available.
We often hear and use the phrase
"merchandise our fruit." What do
we mean when we say that? Is send-
ing fruit to a few auctions in con-
centrated areas merchandising? Are
"rollers" (cars dispatched with hope
of selling enroute) good merchan-
dising? What is merchandising?
Selling Fundamentals
It is very probable that any com-
pany that has a record of successful
merchandising will tell you that
there are at least 5 basic fundamen-
tals to good merchandising, namely:
1. An honest product
2. Economies in production and
3. Advertising
4. Dealer and consumer good-
5. Distribution (number of out-
Let's look at these fundamentals
and see what the citrus industry is
doing about them.
Honest Goods
1. The passage of the new ma-
turity law, the green fruit law, the
frozen fruit embargo, and the vest-
ing in the citrus commission the au-
thority to regulate processing, all
will result in making ours an honest
2. For many years great efforts
have been made by growers, and
these great efforts have been co-
operated in by Federal and State
agricultural agencies, to reduce
cost of producing citrus. Some suc-
cess has been achieved. Some growers

Page 8

THE CITRUS GROWER, June 15, 1939

have records showing astonishingly
low production costs. But there is
a very wide difference between the
lowest and highest cost. The dif-
ferences cannot be accounted for by
weather and soil conditions. The
state average must be further driven
downward toward the present lowest
authentic figures. Packing house
charges show a variation between a
low of 43 cents per box to over
$1.00 per box. There is enough
spread in this item to make or break
an industry.
3. Our advertising has been said
to be only 20 percent effective.
Why? Some of the reasons are: We
advertise in so many national pub-
lications which cover such a huge
portion of the country's population
which is either too far away to be a
market or where there is no regular
flow of citrus fruits. We use too
little space advertising uses of citrus
other than juice.
Good Will
4. Up until the present time we
have not had either dealer or con-
sumer good-will. How could we
expect to have it when we shipped
green, frozen, and cooked fruit or
when in numerous communities there
is not a regular supply or prices are
exorbitant due to too much handling
and shipping costs?
5. In the art of merchandising
the word "distribution" means
"number of outlets." In this the cit-
rus industry is badly lacking. There is
a very definite relation between the
amount of sales and the convenience
with which a customer can buy.
Records show that, all other things
being equal, two stores in the same
block handling the same article will
sell more than twice as much as one
store in the block alone will sell.
The volume of sales is out of pro-
portion and greater than the num-
ber of outlets. Articles offered in
neighboring cities show the same
tendency to increase sales in both
places out of proportion to the num-
ber of outlets. The writer has seen
many citrus starved markets in the
eastern part of the United States,
which is normal Florida territory.
The Instrument

What can the industry do? The
industry is not likely to do anything
about it. Nothing was done all
these years, until the grower recent-
ly stepped into the picture and be-
gan to make fundamental changes,
such as the recently enacted green
fruit and frozen fruit laws. And
the grower has not been able to do
anything about it except as an or-
ganization. He can do nothing
whatever alone. Acting with all oth-
er growers through consistent and
enthusiastic support of his organiza-
tion, the grower can re-organize his
The Remedies
What are the necessary changes?
In the recent successful fight in the
legislature the growers have been
able to enact laws that will stop
shipment of green fruit and fruit
otherwise unfit to eat. That is we
will now have an honest product.
The next efforts should be made
in the direction of reducing produc-
tion, sales and distribution costs, so
that our fruit may be bought by the
millions who are now unable to buy
it due to high prices to the final con-
sumer. Next. by more logical and
careful planning of advertising we
can fit the advertising to the prod-
uct and to the taste and needs of the
consumer. Good advertising and
products that make the advertising
tell the truth will win back for Flor-
ida the dealer and consumer good
will that our fruit needs.
Study Markets
But it is most necessary, appar-
ently, that the citrus commission
check carefully the effectiveness of
present advertising programs. It
seems absolutely unavoidable, if we

hope to sell our increased production,
that a part of the present advertising
funds, or additional advertising funds
be spent in studying new markets
and the better supplying of old mar-
kets. Most careful attention must
be paid to increasing the number of
outlets. All successful merchandisers
spend freely in doing this.
Reduced costs and scientific mer-
chandising hold out the greatest hope
to the grower of disposing of his
fruit at a profit.
The success of the grower organi-
zation in designing good legislation
and its demonstrated political pow-
er in getting this legislation passed,
show the grower can gain the other
advantages for himself which will
mean a profit.

630 W. Church St. Orlando, Fla.

"Soil Heartburn'affect the
digestive systems and general health of
citrus trees and truck crops exactly the
same way that an acid stomach affects your
digestion and health.

Dolomite Products, Inc.
Department C
Ocala Florida

Page 9


1939 Grove Sprayer Combinations

Engine & Tractor Driven Duster
Ask for current Price List, Spray t Dust Schedules, etc.


Page 10 THE CITRUS GROWER, June 15, 1939

Through the County Agents---

U. S. D. A. Meets The Producer

County Agent, Orange County.

4/ W 7E CALLED YOU County
and Home Demonstration
Agents here primarily that
the Department might get first-hand
information from 'the firing line,'
and also that you might meet and
confer with the staff, that you might
exchange experiences and might see
the Capitol."
This was part of the introductory
remarks made by Dr. C. W. War-
burton, Extension Service Director
of the United States Department of
Agriculture on the morning of May
3rd to fifty county workers from
the forty-eight states and two terri-
Unrehearsed Discussions
Under Secretary of Agriculture
M. L. Wilson also spoke briefly of
"the importance the Department at-
tached to this conference as its ac-
complishments should be of great aid
to the Washington staff."
This was to be a ten-day session.
There were to be no set speeches.
Topics had been outlined to develop
discussions. No one of the agents
knew what these topics were until
the programs were distributed there.
The discussion leader asked that
the discussions be cast in terms of na-
tional needs or aspects. To define
or clarify or broaden the intent of
the questions, at times they were
The following are the topics:
Producer's Expectation
1. "What kind of life should be
made possible for farm families thru
efficient agricultural production in
America?" Reworded, "What do
farmers want?" "What do they seek
in farming as an occupation?"
It may be well to give as briefly
as possible here a few of the answers
to this question, though one must
realize that such condensed answers
cannot possibly convey the many
sided points of view or reasons given
for the points made in the answers,

A very unusual meeting was held in
Washington a few days ago. One county
agent from each state and one from each of
the two territories were called there for a
ten days' conference.
K. C. Moore, county agent for Orange
County, one of the most popular and ca-
pable county agents in the State and an
outstanding man in the citrus belt. was ap-
pointed to represent Florida. We have ask-
ed Mr. Moore to give us a report of the
The purpose of the meeting was that the
Department might get first-hand information
from "the firing line." This is a highly
commendable spirit on the part of the De-
partment of Agriculture. The detail into
which they went in order to better under-
stand the problems of the dirt farmer
("grower" in our case) can be judged by
reading Mr. Moore's interesting article.
As an answer to this effort of Federal
officials better to understand the problems
of the agricultural producer, we as agricul-
tural producers should redouble our efforts
to reach a thorough understanding with the
Federal Department.
Many leaders in our organization have
lately come to the conclusion that a better
understanding on our part of the aims and
possibilities of the Federal Surplus Com-
modities Citrus Purchase program last sea-
son would have enabled Florida to get con-
siderable benefit from that program, as was
obtained in the Texas and California pro-
ducing areas.
Mutual understanding is always a source
of profit to everybody.

because this first question alone con-
sumed much of two days' time. Then
it was referred, as were the other
questions to follow, to a committee
which delved deeper into the
thoughts advanced and reported at a
later time. I will also sketch thru
this first discussion that you may
see how the conference proceeded.
Here are a few of the answers:
"They want security." "They
want to be independent managers of
their own enterprises." "To live in
the country." "Children want not to
be different from other children."
"Women want more leisure."
Plenty Beside Want
In the course of these discussions
this question was developed: "How
does it happen that in a country ca-

pable of producing abundance, so
many people, both in the country
and in the cities, are in need-what
obstacles are in the way of abundant
I think some of the answers to
this question should be of interest:
Multiplicity of services; restriction
of distribution because of high dis-
tribution costs; state barriers; syn-
thetic products; monopolistic con-
I happened to be on the commit-
tee to summarize and report on this
first question. We had three meet-
ings and each committee member
was assigned one of the "answers"
to present in detail, or to champion.
Producer Independence
My assignment was "Farmers
should be able to enjoy independence
in the sense of being the owners and
operators of their farm enterprises."
Points made in discussing this topic
first dealt with present day obstacles
to be overcome, such as competition
from absentee farm owners and cor-
poration farming, low prices, in-
creased production expenses such as
the necessity to combat new pests,
the use of motor driven implements
and conveyances which produce no
manures, etc. Practices advocated
which might help to this desired in-
dependence were: Use of government
supervised credit agencies if needed;
carefully planned soil building and
conservation practices in cooperation
with the agricultural conservation
programs; the production of as much
food, feed, lumber, etc., as is eco-
nomically possible on the farm;
study of economic conditions as they
affect surpluses and consumption and
supporting wisely planned control
Public's Expectations
Topic 2. "What does the general
public want from farming or the
farmers?" Discussions developed this
reciprocal question: "What does a
farmer have a right to expect from
the general public?"

THE CITRUS GROWER, June 15, 1939

Two answers to this are thought
provoking: that they stay out of the
farming game and that the public
as consumers should join with farm-
ers in removing distribution ob-
Economist O. E. Baker of the
U. S. D. A. here made a statement
that there are now in the U. S. twice
as many farmers as are actually need-
ed to produce the food and other
farm supplies for all the people.
Education's Part
Topic 3. "What benefits do
farmers and the public expect from
research and educational institutions
they have set up in the common in-
terest of agriculture?" This question
brought out a very lively and in-
structive debate. Much of this per-
tained to the development of lead-
ership. The County Agent from
Massachusetts remarked "People-
farmers do not do things because of
possessing information."
Farm Legislation
Topic 4. "What do farmers and
the general public hope to accom-
plish through legislative action pro-
grams?" The discussion was begun
on this phase of the idea back of
this topic: "What factors are re-
sponsible for the beginning of these
Mr. R. M. Evans of A. A. A.
(Agricultural Adjustment Adminis-
tration) reviewed the reasons for the
AAA acts and some of the exper-
iences under these acts. He stated that
surpluses were about to be made nil
when the 1936 Supreme Court de-
cisions released all control and they
piled up again. Since the 1938 law
began to operate surpluses of staple
commodities are being rapidly re-
Control or Poverty
A Mr. Darrow of U. S. D. A
stated in effect that America must
decide to accept low prices and low
living standards or work out some
satisfactory system of surplus con-
trol. No one thought the present
laws and regulations yet approached
Topic. 5. "What part can the
Extension Service play in serving the
best interests of farm people and the
general welfare in relation to the
foregoing problems?"

What Is the Problem
Prof. J. Wm. Firor of the Uni-
versity of Georgia, as discussion lead-
er of this day asked that we first
list and tally the problems facing
each state as the representative saw
them. Twenty-two said Land Use.
13 said Marketing, 13 said Low In-
come, others various problems such
as lack of erosion, insects.
Assistant Secretary of Agriculture
Harry Brown briefly addressed the
conference beginning with: "This
sort of thing that you are discuss-
ing this morning has gotten a strong
hold on me." Experiences and ideas
as to the best method of approach to
the problems were freely given.
Monday, May 8th, was the twen-
ty-fifth anniversary date of the Ex-
tension Service under supervision of
the U. S. Department of Agricul-
ture. Fitting addresses were given by
Dr. C. W. Warburton, Extension
Director. Secretary Henry Wallace
and others.
Farm and Nation
Secretary Wallace's theme was our
creed or faith. Some points made in
this address should be outlined. He
said in brief: "We believe in the
family size farm, not only as an ef-
ficient operating unit, but as the
source of man power and woman
power for our cities.
"We want the soils to be im-
proved on these farms.
"We want genuine efficiency of
production and of marketing. We
haven't lost interest in this . I
have a feeling that there is in the
wind a growing interest in the effi-
ciency of marketing. Pressure is go-
ing to be there. We will see what
can be done about the spread be-
tween producer and consumer for the
benefit of both.
Producer's Share

"We are interested in getting a
fair share of the national income for
farmers, and getting this by stabiliz-
ing supplies of farm products.
"Three factors are involved in any
successful accomplishment. Facts
must be found out, insight must be
possessed, and enthusiasm must be
sustained. Beyond the facts one
must have an intuition-a flair-a
sensing of those things for which

there are no words. It is a kind of
thing that an Irishman has-a plant
breeder has-a County Agent has. I
think this ingredient is overlooked
by the Department men here in
"We must never disregard facts
but we must have enthusiasm. A
man with enthusiasm who disre-
gards facts is a disagreeable person
to have around. On the other hand,
facts alone dry and curl up the soul.
Take the facts of the present into
the future with utmost enthusiasm."
Agriculture and Others
I may not have these quotations
exact, but they are nearly so. The
Secretary further spoke of the inter-
dependence of agriculture, labor and
industry, and also the likelihood of
the continuance of AAA programs
in view of present conditions. He
stressed that it is important to farm
people to consider remedies and al-
ternatives to government expendi-
One day was devoted to a tour
of the Federal Experiment Farms at
Beltsville, Md. It was the usual
kind of tour through this kind of
institution, full of facts of extreme
practical interest: vegetables and
flowers breeding work for improve-
ment of desirable characteristics, dis-
ease resistance, etc.; dairy cattle
breeding and production records;
dual purpose and beef type Short-
horns; swine; poultry: sheep: pas-
tures-a crowded day.
The highlight of the conference
was a summariztaion with comments
by Mr. Rueben Brigham, Assistant
Extension Service Director.
First of Kind
This was the first time that a
county or home demonstration agent
from each state and from Hawaii and
Porto Rico has been called to head-
quarters. It was the first time we
were ever consulted. There was no
precedents to help or to hamper us.
Naturally we who were fortunate
enough to be selected to represent
our several states were very proud
and happy to do this.
I have just read over this article.
It is entirely inadequate in its attempt
to report this conference. Many
practical thoughts and plans were
developed. This was especially so

Page 11

THE CITRUS GROWER, June 15, 1939

Do We Face A Larger

Citrus Surplus Season ?

export trade may contribute to
a larger citrus surplus next sea-
son. In the first place, the com-
mercial apple crop in 1938 in the
United States was lower than 1937,
while exports were much heavier.
A bulletin prepared by M. A.
Wulfert, fresh fruit and vegetable
specialist in the bureau of foreign
and domestic commerce, indicates
that there was a failure of the ap-
ple crop in Germany and France
and other European producing coun-
tries causing those countries to im-
port apples instead of exporting
The same authority indicates that
there was a low production of pears
in Europe which made an export
outlet for pears from the United
States and other exporting countries.
Argentina is said to be expanding
its pear industry, now ranking third
among pear exporting countries and
shipping large quantities to France,
England, Brazil, Sweden, etc. Pears
will come more in competition with
In 1938 the United States rose to
be the largest exporter of grapes.
The above are some comments on
competitors of citrus fruits bearing
directly on the citrus fruit situation.
Mr. Wulfert calls attention to the
fact that reduced shipments of cit-
rus fruits from Spain contributed to
an increase of exports of citrus fruits
from the United States to some of
Spain's European customers. He
says: "The production of citrus
fruits in practically every exporting
country was larger in 1938 than in
the previous year and this upward

in the consideration given to the Ex-
tension Service's part to be played in
relation to the problems facing agri-
culture. However it will reveal the
fact that a lot of thought is being
devoted to present conditions and
future planning.
The theme of the conference was:
We Go Forward
By New Paths
To Old Goals.

trend will continue as the number
of groves come into bearing. The
most significant increase in produc-
tion is in Palestine. While the quan-
tity is not so large it is increas-
ing and the season in Palestine is ex-
actly the same as in Florida." We
quote in full the paragraph about
"The most rapid expansion in the
production and export of citrus fruits
probably has taken place in Pales-
tine. Palestine exports have grown
from 5,897,311 boxes in the 1935-
36 season to 11,386,000 boxes in
the 1937-38 season. The season in
that country for oranges extends
from the middle of November thru
April, and that for grapefruit from
early September thro:'gh April or
into May. The United Kingdom
takes about 60 percent of the ex-
ports, but shipments are increasing
to continental Europe. Exports dur-
ing the 1937-38 season consisted of
9,566,000 boxes of oranges, 1,-
578,000 boxes of grapefruit, and
80,000 boxes of other citrus fruits.
The expansion of the Palestine trade
in citrus fruits may be attributed
to some extent to extensive adver-
tising in foreign markets."
Refrigerated steamship lines are
overcoming difficulties of some of the
exporting citrus producing countries.
In the British West Indies both or-
anges and grapefruit have increased
in recent years. South Africa has a
surplus production of citrus fruits
and when the difficulties in transpor-
tation are better adjusted exports
from that producing area are expect-
ed to increase rapidly. Brazil is in-
creasing its exports. We have heard
from other authorities that there is
much new planting in Brazil and the
fruit is of excellent quality.
All of these considerations help
to give the grower a sharper out-
lined picture of his principal problem
which is more fruit than the market
will take at profitable prices unless
the industry is more sanely organ-
ized and regulated.

Sell to buyers who help our in-
dustry-Buy from concerns that
help our organization.


Holly Hill Fruit Products, Inc.,
Home Owners Mortgage Co.,
Maurice B. Thayer, Clearwater.
Guy McMullen, Clearwater.
-- *------

to make

We furnish cash to citrus growers for
production needs at 41/2% interest per
may be purchased with our loans, and
repaid on easy terms.
CONVENIENT to growers of Polk,
Hillsborough, Pinellas, Pasco, Hernan-
do, Citrus, Sumter Counties.
Box 1090 Citrus Center Bldg.
A Cooperative Association

B. C. SKINNER (Brogdex System), Dun-
edin, Florida.
PORATION, Orlando, Florida.
PORATION, Phone 3842, 138 N. Or-
ange Ave., Orlando, Florida.
Jaffa, Pineapple, Hamlin buds on Sour
Stock. Sour Orange Seedlings. R. P.
Thornton and H. S. Pollard, Copothorn
Nurseries, Box 2880, Tampa, Florida.
PARSON BROWN, Hamlin, Jaffa, Pine-
apple and Valencia late trees on rough
lemon roots for rainy season planting.
All sizes. Frank Haas, Jr., P. O. Box
584, Sorrento, Fla. 6-1-3t.
Reliable Varieties, Budded Trees. Bud-
Wood and Fruit. M. F. Goering, Rt. 1,
Box 259, Largo, Florida.


Dunedin, Florida.

Page 12

THE CITRUS GROWER, June 15, 1939

Cultural Expert
Views Industry

The Citrus Grower,
Orlando, Florida.
Dear Sir:
Your magazine comes to my desk
twice a month and I read it with a
great deal of interest. The prob-
lems which your organization are
attacking are vital to our State wel-
fare and I wish you success in your
The Florida citrus grower must
however, realize that he is faced with
difficulties for years to come, only
one of which is the problem he is so
often reminded of. So, will you per-
mit me to add my words-words of
Job Ahead
So far, as I see it, your efforts
have been largely spent upon com-
pleting your organization and pro-
mulgating legislation in Tallahas-
see. You have progressed. Con-
gratulations! But, let the grower be-
ware. The greatest of all his prob-
lems are ahead of him.
First, each grower must do HIS
share in keeping the organization
alive; not for next year, or the next
after next, but for years and years
and years. There must be no let up.
It must not be expected that any ef-
fort, no matter how well organized,
how well fought, or how well gov-
erned, can succeed unless the fight is
continued. Hence, I feel that the
very greatest of the problems before
the growers is to keep the organiza-
tion going.
Support Leaders
So far in your life, you have been
fortunate in selecting your officers.
However, competent successors to the
present officers are to be had only
if it is shown that they may expect,
judging from past experience, to al-
so receive enthusiastic backing. In
this way only, may others be encour-
aged to take up the cross of office
and carry on.
Encouraging the present incum-
bent is little enough to ask of the
individual grower and it is the surest
insurance for the successful future of
the organization. Let every grower
do his part.
Let it be realized that the real

problem is not the present-it is
the future. Let us not be fooled
into believing that this year (1938-
1939) is an abnormal year and if
we get over this hurdle we are safe.
This may be a normal year. The
future maye be abnormal in that it
may be worse.
If times, as a whole, in the citrus
industry get better, they may be
worse for the Florida grower, un-
less the grower properly guards him-
self. Remember that the citrus in-
dustry in the lower Rio Grande Val-
ley was started when and because
Florida was meeting success with
little effort. Easy success invites
Production Compared
In Arizona are vast areas better
suited to the growing of citrus than
is Texas. Mature Grapefruit Trees
in Arizona Produce About One-half
More per Acre than in Florida.*
This apparently puts us Floridians
at a terrible handicap, but we need
not be discouraged for we here are
much better situated to commercial-
ly produce more and better citrus
than any other area in the world.
Our sandy soil will permit us to ac-
complish what neither Texas nor
Arizona can ever hope to equal. But
it fs up to us to deliver.
Two Dangers
To sum it up, I see at least two
dangers facing the industry, one of
which is the danger of permitting
the organization to go the way of
others; that is, allowing history to
repeat itself. The other is the pos-
sible reluctance to discard traditions
and to accept advanced but proven
production methods. In this re-
gard, the grower is faced with a
problem of weeding out theorists

and enticing but unproven produc-
tion schemes.
With confidence that Florida will
win out, I am
Sincerely yours
Edward T. Keenan.
Lake Wales, Florida,
May 17, 1939.
*Arizona-306 boxes per acre.
Florida--212 boxes per acre.
Texas-120 boxes per acre.

The following editorial by the
growers' friend, Sam Farrabee, edi-
tor and publisher of the Lakeland
Ledger and Star Telegram, (April
27), was copied in several papers:
"Although Lou H. Kramer pro-
tested against another term, he was
unanimously reelected president of
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.-an
endorsement of vigorous leadership
that was to have been expected.
Other officers, all cooperative, were
chosen for another term.
The Ledger and Star-Telegram is
convinced that many of the worries
of the citrus grower may be written
in the past tense during the next two
years. Intelligent and virulent lead-
ership and cooperation with other
groups in a continuation of construc-
tive programs will bring good re-
Members of this Florida grower
organization know "what it is all
about," and they will help to make
orange-growing profitable for the
state. And the public generally, rec-
ognizing this fact, should give Presi-
dent Kramer and his associates the
fullest measure of support.
Sell to buyers who help our In-
dustry Buy from concerns that
help our organization.

Page 13

SAVE $and
Progressive growers are anxious to have a dependable source of credit from which
they can be sure to obtain money in the right amounts and at the right times. This
is why so many have joined this Association. They like the idea of planning their
financing for a whole year.
Our members arrange their loans just as early as they wish and are assured that
as long as they maintain their credit standing their Association will advance them
money as they need it to grow their crop. Then, too, their loans do not come due
until their crop is ready to harvest.
Perhaps we can serve you too. Write us today.

P. 0. Box 1592 Orlando, Florida

THE CITRUS GROWER, June 15, 1939


Long Range Program

The air is now full of discussion of a long range
citrus program. This means a plan stretching ahead
over several seasons and involving a consistent effort
to improve conditions in the industry year by year until
prosperity has been reestablished on the level enjoyed
in the past.
The principal problem admitted by all, is that of
a surplus. The immediate answer to the solution of
the surplus question is elimination (diverting some
portion of the crop away from fresh fruit and canned
fruit used).
Should Be Temporary
But elimination should be only a stop gap and cer-
tainly ought not to be adopted as a permanent policy.
It is dangerous, uneconomic, and un-American that
some portions of the population should be without
citrus fruits when the fruit is spoiling on the growers'
There was a time when men had not learned enough
about production and famines came unavoidably. But
the creation of want in the midst of plenty, of course,
is ridiculous and should not be thought of as a perma-
nent policy, however valuable elimination may be at
the moment.
It is hoped that a sane and broader advertising pro-
gram will sell to the public the great food value of
citrus fruits. When this is done, of course, some of
our surplus will be absorbed.
AAA Will Help
Also well informed observers believe the major ef-
fort of the United States Department of Agriculture
will be directed toward reducing the spread between
the price paid to the producer and that paid by the
ultimate consumer. This, of course, will be helpful
and deserves our enthusiastic cooperation.
The two working together, advertising of sufficient
size to create further demand, coupled with a reduc-
tion in cost of producing and selling, will be of the
greatest benefit in enabling the public to use greater
and greater quantities of citrus as time goes on.
Measure of Program
The industry as a whole should measure its progress
in proportion to its ability to reduce these charges.
Unless we accept this as our principle of procedure,
we will continue to have larger and larger surpluses
with larger and larger percentages of crop elimination
with higher and higher prices and less and less con-
The industry should never hesitate to adopt any
plan promising a broader market for citrus at a price
which will bring a profit to the grower.

Organization Handbook

In the office of the secretary of the state organiza-
tion in the past few weeks numerous leaders of the
industry have called and conferred. They are think-
ing men from the grower organization, from the state-
federal agencies and from shipping interests.
The gist of these conferences has been written out,
carefully sifted for its most important data, and edited
to make it clear and readable. The result of the work
is a fairly complete handbook of the past performance
of the growers' organization, of the job that lies ahead
of it, and of suggested means of handling the job.
There are also suggestions very useful in intensifying
the interest of growers in their own problems through
county organizational meetings.
Copies of the material were distributed to all who
attended the meeting of the state board of directors at
DeLand Friday. A few extra copies are still available
upon application to the secretary.
This highly informative material will be of interest
to any grower, large or small, and regardless of whether
or not he has previously been active in the organiza-
Applications from any interested parties will be
promptly filled.


Concentration of Sales

One of the most important suggestions now being
considered by the citrus industry to raise prices and
keep them at a satisfactory level is concentration of
Prices in the past have been needlessly cut. On ac-
count of the great number of selling agencies in Florida
each cutting the price 5c a box, a bidder in the north-
ern market can play a few of these sellers against each
other and play havoc with prices.
The grower believes that some method of control-
ling this unlimited price cutting should be a part of
any plan looking toward better conditions.
Offer Cooperation
It may strike some as odd that the chain stores
have indicated a willingness to cooperate in some con-
centration of sales plan. It is not odd, however, when
we remember that growers in Florida form a large part
of that buying public upon which chain stores must
depend for their business and profits.
Anything that helps the grower economically helps
business for the chain stores and for all other busi-
ness in the citrus belt.

Page 14


First Year Accomplishments

of Florida Citrus Growers

(From the Organization Hand Book)
Our organization set out "to give
the citrus growers of Florida identity
in the citrus industry." In the past
the grower has not been consulted
and his interests have not been given
consideration. The first objective of
the organization was to give the
grower right to express his opinions
in his industry.
The organization has accomplish-
ed this in a big way in its first year
of existence. The organization has
not only given the grower recogni-
tion in his industry but the grower
has become the center of all progres-
sive activity. Most of the other
groups in the industry consult the
grower organization in all matters of
policy and no interest in the indus-
try fails to take the orgainzation in-
to account.
The organizing of County Units
in every major citrus producing
county and the joining together of
these County Units into a dynamic
state organization represents in itself
a tremendous accomplishment. The
work involved in bringing together
more than 6,000 growers in the
largest bona fide growers organiza-
tion ever formed in Florida, repre-
sents an accomplishment that just a
year ago was prophesied by many
as being an impossible task.
Through the activities of his or-
ganization the grower has been thrust
into a position of leadership. This
leadership has put the grower in an
excellent position to reach his goal
of obtaining control of his industry.
and thereby regaining prosperity.
This leadership has been gained
largely through the activity and ac-
complishments of the various com-
Our Marketing Agreement Com-
mittee led the fight and fought val-
iantly for a Federal Agreement which
would control the volume, grade and
size going into inter-state commerce.
Although this effort did not secure
volume regulation, we did get a grade
and size agreement, which is now in
operation and which can be amended
to include volume regulation.
A bulletin has been issued in the

last few days by W. E. Leigh of the
AAA Department, which gives grade
and size agreement credit for an in-
creased return of $64,834.77 during
two weeks under the agreement as
compared with two weeks before the
agreement went into effect. Mr.
Leigh estimates that the returns to
the citrus industry of Florida this
season "will be about $400,000.00
greater than they would have been
had grade and size regulation not
been in effect."
Our Traffic Committee has been
active during the year and has rep-
resented growers in two major prop-
1. On a proposed increase of
freight rates on fertilizer materials,
grower representation is said to have
been a large factor in preventing an
increase of rates on fertilizer mater-
ials of 33 1-3 percent. This cut the
fertilizer bill in the citrus belt dur-
ing the current year by an amount
variously estimated between $125,-
000.00 and $250,000.00.
2. The Traffic Committee rep-
resented the growers in a hearing
before the Inter-State Commerce
Commission where the railroads at-
tempted to get an increase of 11.1
percent in freight rates through an
increase in estimated weights of
If the railroads had been success-
ful in securing this increase of rates,
and they undoubtedly would have
been had not organized opposition
stood in their way, the freight bill
of the industry on outgoing ship-
ments would have been increased no
less than $100,000.00.
If all fruit moved by rail this sav-
ing would approximate $330,000.-
00 and since all transportation
charges tend to seek the level of av-
erage freight rates, the industry even-
tually will be paying additional
freight charges of $330,000.00 on a
season's crop.
It is raids of this sort upon indus-
try income and the weight of these
rates falling principally upon the
back of the grower, that have con-
tributed much to the growers' pres-
ent unhappy state.
The growers also obtained addi-

tional advantages by reason of the
able representation they had at this
hearing, namely as follows:
1. The effort of the railroads to
make adjustments which would re-
sult in higher charges has been un-
2. The proposition has been es-
tablished that the grower shall reap
the benefit if it is found practical to
use a lighter package.
The organization's banner accom-
plishment of this first year has been
that of its Legislative Committee.
Impartial, trained observers say the
Growers' Legislative Program is the
most constructive and complete pro-
gram ever presented to the legis-
lature. The organization brought
together capable, unselfish men who
are responsible for the vast amount
of study necessary to prepare the

One of the principal agencies thru
which the growers have expressed
their decisions and plans and by
which the deliberations of the com-
mittees have been taken to the grow-
ers is The Citrus Grower, official
publication of our young organiza-
tion. The establishment of this
periodical is among the great accom-
plishments of this first year of our
organization. It is carefully read
by thousands of people, not only
growers, but shippers, terminal mar-
ket managers, auctioneers, Federal
and State officials and all others inter-
ested in the industry. Even though
it is youngest among them, the grow-
ers' magazine can justly claim to
command the greatest reader interest
in its fields. If offers the grower not
only the opportunity of learning
more about his organization and his
industry but also the opportunity of
using its pages to voice his personal
opinions on current issues.
We are not producing citrus solely
because we like to. We are in the
business to make a profit, consequent-
ly there is a tendency among us to
wish to put a money value upon the
work of our organization. It is prac-
tically impossible to do this with
most of the organization's accom-
plishments but it could hardly be re-
garded as exaggeration to say that
the citrus industry will be benefited
by the work already done in an
amount measured in millions of dol-
lars yearly.

Wilkins, L K ,Chief
Perioi ca' D)iv U S Dept Agri.
Washington ,D C

Growers Must Prepare to Protect Their

Interests Next Season. JOIN NOW!

Membership Application-Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.


Through an industry program designed to obtain for the grower a fair net return on
his investment.
A. Elimination of uneconomic grove practices.
B. Elimination of all processing and distribution costs not vital to the maintaining of qual-
ity fruit or the broadening of markets.
A. Effective green fruit laws.
B. Improved cultural practices.
C. Quality grades.
D. Elimination of all processing practices adversely affecting quality.
E. Improved shipping and distribution practices.
Establishing Laws and Marketing Agreements to provide for orderly distribution.
A. Elimination of all inefficient, irresponsible shipping agencies, particularly those agencies
refusing to cooperate on a constructive program.
B. Coordinating all sales through a few centralized sales agencies.
C. Maintaining prices to net the Grower a fair return on his investment.
Membership in __-----_ County Citrus Growers is limited to bona fide growers who do
not buy or sell citrus fruit of others as a business for profit, or who do not derive a salary from Ship-
ping Agencies except as provided for in the By-Laws.
SUSTAINING MEMBERSHIP DUES $1.00 plus 5c per acre D
It is understood and agreed that 50 cents of above amount covers one year's subscription to THE CIT-
SIGNATURE ------------------ ADDRESS ---------------
INDEPENDENT -------------------

Mail your Application to the President of your County's Unit, or to the Florida Citrus
Growers, Inc., Orlando, Florida.

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