Front Cover
 President's message
 Table of Contents
 To develop grower objectives
 Terminal market research resum...
 Country units and officers
 They're in the citrus business
 Experiencing growing pains
 Auction principles and distrib...
 Legislature passes grower's...
 With the editor
 Back Cover

Group Title: Citrus grower (Orlando, Fla.)
Title: The citrus grower
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086640/00012
 Material Information
Title: The citrus grower
Uniform Title: Citrus grower (Orlando, Fla.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30-44 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
Place of Publication: Orlando Fla
Publication Date: May 1, 1939
Frequency: weekly (semimonthly july-sept.)[<1939>]
semimonthly[ former 1938-]
normalized irregular
Subject: Fruit-culture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruit industry -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Nov. 15, 1938)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1942?
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 4, no. 9 (May 15, 1942).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086640
Volume ID: VID00012
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 03227648
lccn - sn 96027371

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    President's message
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    To develop grower objectives
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Terminal market research resume
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Country units and officers
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    They're in the citrus business
        Page 15
    Experiencing growing pains
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Auction principles and distribution
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Legislature passes grower's bills
        Page 21
    With the editor
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Back Cover
        Page 24
Full Text



MIA 10 1939
*n s of Agiuiltun


Lake Wales, Unanimously Re-elected
State President
"Getting Our Ducks in a Row"
(See Contents Page.)





SINCERELY RESISTED the proposition at Bra-
Sdenton to re-elect me as president of your state or-
ganization. I believed new men and new thinking
in leading positions would be good for the growers.
The directors in complimenting me and the other of-
ficials with a unanimous vote to return us to our of-
fices for another year, conferred upon us a great com-
pliment, which is appreciated. The speakers for our
re-election said there is much work in process now that
makes it inadvisable to change officers at this time.
This word "work" reminds us we should not pause
too long here with these details, but proceed to the task
we have set for ourselves. In a year we have made
only a beginning. What we have done has only un-
covered the need for organization.
Need Organization More
The experiences of the past year, especially the past
few weeks in the legislature, show that we need more
membership, greater understanding on the part of grow-
ers of their own problems, and greater unity of thought
and action among ourselves. We must strive for all
these things in the coming year. This is what will
keep up interest in the grower movement and help the
pocket books of the growers.
The only way to get this membership, to achieve
better understanding and unity among ourselves, is for
each grower, large and small, to study the grower's
questions. Those that have to do with producing
better fruit at lower cost, are important, but we must
put particular emphasis on the study of ways and means
of getting a profitable price for the fruit after it is pro-
duced. Our main difficulties are those of marketing.
Knowledge Arouses Interest
A brief outline of the vast field of study before all
of us is given in an article in this issue by A. V. Saur-
mann. Speakers for large and small groups meeting
throughout the state should be provided to discuss
these questions. Articles will appear in our magazine
discussing them. Growers must be made to understand

that the solution of these questions means profits to
them. Once they realize the opportunity for profit
in united action on these questions, it will not be hard
to get them out to meetings to hear them discussed.
With this sort of education working for another
year in our ranks the grower representatives will come
to the state directors meetings with more definite in-
structions, with instructions well thought out and based
on a broad knowledge of the whole citrus industry.
Understanding Promotes Unity
With this general understanding among growers, we
can know far better than we do, that a vote taken
represents the thinking of the growers. The leader-
ship can then know that the whole grower organiza-
tion is solidly and firmly behind a decision of the di-
rectors. The organization can act with greater speed
and effectiveness.
So we expect another year of effort to broaden our
membership, to intensify educational programs to
achieve greater and more solid unity, and it will get us
so far ahead of what we are now that we will seem
like a different organization. And, a strong grower
organization will mean a different and more profitable
citrus industry.
County Units' Job
Let me emphasize that the possibility of realizing
this progress lies almost solely on the individual grow-
er and the county units. This first year has developed
fair leadership for us, but that leadership must be
checked, refined, supported and encouraged by the in-
dividuals in the county units.
Drives for membership, frequent discussion meetings,
and all methods of educating and interesting the grower
for his own benefit must be intensified.
Herein lies our chance of going ahead.

Yours very truly,

Florida Citrus Growers. Inc.



The Citrus Grower

Official Publication of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.

VOLUME 1 MAY 1, 1939 NUMBER 12

Our Organization

Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., is an agency through
which 21 county organizations work together for the
purpose of making citrus growing profitable. The
county organizations are made up of growers who have
no financial connection with or interest in the ship-
ment of fruit. In these units are growers who ship
through cooperative marketing associations as well as
growers who dispose of their fruit to cash buyers or
on consignment. So called "cooperative" growers and
so called "independent" growers are fighting side by
side in the ranks of the county units and, through the
county units, in the state organization for the benefit
of the citrus industry. The grower must work for a
stable market with a healthy demand for fruit at a
price that pays, in addition to distribution costs, the
cost of production and a reasonable profit to producers.
Grower Price Ideal-
Unless this price ideal of the grower is attained, the
grower eventually must go out of business and with
him will fall the whole super-structure of the industry.
Only through organization can the grower realize this
ideal. Consequently, an effective grower organization
is of the greatest concern to every element within the
industry and to all of those business, professional and
other working people in the citrus area whose pros-
perity directly and indirectly depends upon the citrus
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., is the means through
which the grower works and expresses himself in striv-
ing for this ideal.
The state officers are:
L. H. Kramer, Lake Wales, President; J. J. Banks,
Jr.. Orlando, 1st Vice-President: C. B. Van Sickler,
Ft. Pierce, 2nd Vice-President; W. L. Burton, Orlando,
Secretary; E. G. Todd, Avon Park. Treasurer: W. J.
Steed, Orlando, General Counsel.



Virgil H. Conner. ..... ..Editor
Vernon Keith Advertising Manager
Kemp, Chairman; Carl D. Brorein. R.
J. Kepler, E. G. Thatcher. W. L. Burton,
C. A. Garrett, Karl Lehmann.
Printed by The Chief Press, Apopka

His Ducks In A Row

Ducks get in a row when they line up to go places.
This is what citrus growers have nursed a desire to
do for many years. They made a long forward step
in that direction when they perfected the organization
of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
"Getting our Ducks in a Row" is an extremely
expressive phrase for the revival of which we are in-
debted to recently re-elected state president, L. H.
Kramer. He and the phrase are closely associated. It
is a good organizational slogan.
Ducks in a row do not travel so fast, but so directly.
They proceed with smoothness and collective rhythm
that results from a complete and general understanding
and agreement within the group. This is the safe and
sure sort of progress the grower organization wants to
Florida Citrus Growers. Inc., will be going places
when all of its members and officers understand each
other and fall in with the general program as effec-
tively as do a drove of "ducks in a row."

Published the First and Fifteenth of each able. The publishers can accept no re-
month by The Florida Citrus Growers. responsibility for return of unsolicited manu-
Inc., Orlando, Florida. scripts.
Entered as second-class matter Novem- Subscription Rates
ber 15. 1938, at the postoffice at Orlando, In United States, one year $1.00 to non-
Fla.. under the Act of March 3, 1879. members of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.,
Membership subscriptions, one year 50c.
Manuscripts submitted to this maga-
zine should be accompanied by suiicient Address all mail to The Citrus Grower,
postage for their return if found unavail- I'. O. Box 2077, Orlando, Florida.




The Growers Must Think--

W7 E ARE NOW beginning the
second year of the Grower's
organization, with a much
keener realization than we had a
year ago of our place in, and re-
sponsibility to the industry. Our
accomplishments and progress are
matters of record and we are justly
proud of our development. How-
ever, most of us realize we have but
begun the process of reclaiming a
crippled industry and guiding it back
to a condition of prosperity for the
Grower Help Needed
Our objectives for the coming year
have been thoroughly discussed and
we know they are sound and prac-
tical. (See pages 4 to 7 inclusive
April 1 issue of The Citrus Grower.)
The machinery has been designed for
effectively carrying out the mechanics
of developing these objectives. Now
what is needed is the "motive pow-
er" to work the machinery and
enough of such power to carry thru.
This "motive power" must come
from the growers themselves and our
success will be in direct proportion
to the amount of thinking ability all
growers exercise and apply to our
problems. Exceptional grower lead-
ership has developed, but more is
needed; and more knowledge on the
part of the rank and file of the grow-
ers is needed actively to support and
encourage the leadership.
What to Do
The purpose of this article is to
mention some of the specific funda-
mental problems that growers can
and should study to enable them to
contribute intelligently to the ideas
necessary to find the ultimate solu-
tions. First of all, it should be
pointed out that many of our prob-
lems are due to economic conditions
brought on both by natural causes
and by ill advised practices of the
past: but they are facts that exist.
and as such must be faced. What
can we do about them?
Production and Supply: What can
we expect for the future?

* out? If so, how can we determine
what to destroy and where would

By A. V. Saurmann

Demand and Consumption: Has
citrus reached its peak of consump-
tion? Have really constructive efforts
been developed to improve consump-
tion? Can citrus be distributed at
low enough cost to reach the low in-
come mass consumption group? The
need for ideas and continuous ef-
forts to create the demand to con-
sume our entire production is vital.
The thinking on these problems must
of necessity be long range. But to
take fullest advantage of existing
conditions and to profit most from
constructive developments, requires
that every effort be made to seek a
favorable balance between produc-
t!on or available supplies and cur-
rent demand. The use of indus-
try agreements by federal or state
laws to achieve regulatory control
find their usefulness in bringing cur-
rent supply in line with current de-
Market Control
Marketing Agreements: W i 11
grade, size, and volume prorate on
current control effectively help? Can
volume control be equitably applied
to present Florida conditions? Can a
certificate plan be worked out to meet
the situation?
Price Fixing
Price Fixing Plans: Can a cost of
production law be equitably design-
ed and administered? Could canners
and all shippers be brought under
any price fixing scheme? What effect
would such actions have on other
producing areas?
Elimination Laws: Have we reach-
ed a point of consuming saturation
that justifies elimination, which sug-
gests destruction as the only way

Sell to buyers who help our in-
dustry Buy from concerns that
help our organization.

such a precedent carry us?
Processing: Are present methods
of handling justified? Can these
methods be carried out at lower costs.
and how? What shall we do about
coloring, grading, and packaging?
What changes will improve the prod-
uct and lower cost to the consumer?
Can canners be regulated? How?
Marketing: This is the widest and
most comprehensive problem of all,
and ties in with all of our objectives.
What can we do about it? Is our
present system antiquated? What
changes should be made? What about
the auctions-FOB sales-Price on
arrival sales-Truck shipments-
Bulk shipments? Would fewer sales
organizations help? Would the old
clearing house idea work better now?
What about advertising?
Freight Rates: Why can California
fruit be delivered to eastern markets,
3200 miles away, at less cost per box
mile than Florida fruit. 1200 miles
away? How can discrimination
against the South in thl freight rate
structure be overcome?
The foregoing brief resume of
some of the questions we must think
about are only a part of our prob-
lems. We live with our production
problems day by day and recognize
their vital significance: but the time
is now here when we must devote
just as much of our mental effort to
the other side of oui business if we
are to stay in it. We must realize
that disposing of what we grow, at
returns commensurate with our pro-
duction effort and investment, is as
important as growing our fruit.
We must study, we must learn, we
must think, and above all we must
contribute our ideas to the general
good. Our narrow back-woods
viewpoint must go. and a wider en-

Page 4





On Standard Vent Shipments



The Advantages---
No Decay
A Better Polish
Better Keeping Qualities
A Better Color and at Lower Temperature
Less Shrinkage in Coloring Rooms
More Weight per Box upon Arrival
Tight Straps and a Full Box upon Arrival

The Cost---
The savings on refrigeration and decay and on adjustments on F. 0.
B Sales will more than pay for the service charge on these processes.
The savings on refrigeration and the higher prices received on auc-
tion sales will leave a profit above the cost of the processes.
The satisfaction your fruit will give due to superior keeping qual-
ities will mean more F. 0. B. orders.
May we discuss the matter with you?





Page 5



The editor looked in on the April
18th meeting of the Blanton Unit
in Pasco County. We have not had
the pleasure of visiting many com-
munity meetings, but after this ex-
perience will never miss another op-
If there are units like this scat-
tered through the rural communi-
ties in all the citrus producing coun-
ties, Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
is a force in public affairs that has
not yet begun to discover its strength.
The Blanton Unit has increased its
membership 35 percent over last
year. This now includes approxi-
mately 95 percent of the growers
in its territory.
It was a rainy and disagreeable
night, the roads in that section are
not the best, still over 20 people at-
tended the meeting at the Blanton
school house.
More important than the attend-
ance was the great interest all the
growers are showing in every ques-
tion that affects the growers' profits.
An interesting and instructive
discussion of some of Dr. Peech's
work on soil characteristics was led
by the unit's vice-president and pro-
gram chairman, J. A. Berrian. There
were many questions from the floor
indicating that the group was fol-
lowing the discussion closely. Then
came some discussion of the legis-
lative program and the pros and cons
of truck shipments, etc.
The absence of this inquisitive-
ness and interest on the part of the
grower in the past is the greatest and
almost only reason the citrus indus-
try of Florida has come so close to
Self Education
Nothing is so certain to cure eco-
nomic and social ills as a thoroughly

tire industry attitude must be de-
veloped. Our organization can and
must keep its feet on the ground.
The combined efforts of 7500 grow-
ers considering and contributing to
the solution of our problems will
solve them, and solve them in direct
proportion to the effort and coopera-
tion put forth by each individual

informed public opinion. These
growers are informing themselves.
They may make some mistakes to be-
gin with but such errors will be
mistakes of judgment and informa-
tion and will be quickly corrected
as soon as the right way is realized.
Units like this are the hope of
the citrus industry. It is the writer's
understanding that very few of them
are large growers. Practically all of
them are the plain, wholesome, ev-
eryday people who depend largely
on their groves for a living.
Much of the credit for the success
of this unit is given to its president,
0. W. Lipsey, and its vice-president,
J. A. Berrian, but these two men
could not have accomplished so much
by themselves.
Refreshments were served by Mrs.
E. S. Blocker, Mrs. J. H. Hancock,
Mrs. Bruce Heacock, assisted by
Kennith Ansley.
The editor is indebted to Mrs. O.
W. Lipsey for a good supper.


State Legislator Burks, of Pasco
County, came home for the April
22nd weekend and conferred with
citrus leaders in that section includ-
ing Dr. F. C. Wirt, of Dade City,
president of the county organiza-
tion of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.,
Mr. J. H. Dunne. president of the
San Antonio local, O. W. Lipsey,
president of the Blanton local, E.
S. Slough, George B. Wells, L. W.
Lipsey and others.
The group deplored the lowering
of buyer's bond requirements from
$5000 to $2000, and there was con-
siderable discussions of the truck
shipment question.
Legislator Burks is to be com-
mended for consulting such good au-
thorities on the most important in-
dustry in the citrus belt. Such ac-
tion appears to us as the exercise of
good common sense on the part of
a lawmaker.

Mr. Francis H. Corrigan, president
Manatee County Unit, Florida Cit-
rus Growers, Inc., has done a great
lot of collective work in legislative
and other more serious branches of

the state organization's activities. He
has been chairman of the growers'
canner committee.
We wish to record here, however,
that he is also a genial host. For
the annual meeting of the state or-
ganization he secured the airy, pleas-
ant auditorium of the Bradenton
Chamber of Commerce building and
also had available all day to all
comers what seemed to be an inex-
haustible supply of juice from the
justly famous West Coast grape-
To prove his hospitality beyond
question, he did not feel that he had
done his duty in making this delight-
ful refreshment merely available, but
to all the ladies present at the ses-
sion he filled glasses and served them
personally at their seats. Undoubted-
ly, his tact led him to suspicion that
members of the more modest wing
of the grower organization would
not crowd up and help themselves
as readily as would the men.

Mr. E. T. Taylor, Rt. 1, Dade
City, suggests Florida Citrus Grow-
ers, Inc., have stickers printed car-
rying the slogan "For better health
eat more Florida oranges, tangerines
and grapefruit." These should be
of neat and attractive design and
small enough for growers to stick
upon their envelopes and letters.
The organization could furnish
these to growers wishing to use them
at cost. No doubt, business houses
in the citrus belt would also like
to use them.
It would be a constant reminder
of the value of Florida fruits.

On account of the extremely heavy
duties as secretary of the state organi-
zation, W. L. Burton, who was also
recently reelected as secretary of the
Orange County Citrus Growers, Inc.,
has been released at his request from
the duties of the latter office and in
his stead has been elected Orange
County's popular agricultural agent,
K. C. Moore.

Sell to buyers who help our in-
dustry Buy from concerns that
help our organization.

Page 6



Research Studies on Citrus Problems


A section of the Food Machinery Corpora-
tion's modern, well-equipped laboratories at
Dunedin. The highly trained research staff is
constantly conducting studies to assist the Citrus
Industry in the many problems with which
they are confronted. The research work is
under the supervision of Dr. R. D. Gerwe, who
was formerly in charge of the research and de-
velopment work of the Kroger Food Founda-
tion of Cincinnati, Ohio. The experimental
results are always available to the Industry, and
any information desired may be obtained by
writing to Dr. Gerwe, Director of Research.
Food Machinery Corporation, Dunedin.


A section of the Food Machinery Corpora-
tion Engineering Department where packing
SI house machinery is designed and plant layouts
are made. This department is responsible for
the development of present day modern and
improved packing house machinery.


Food Machinery Corporation miniature
packing house having a capacity of about 75
boxes per day, showing soak tank, washer,
color applicator, color rinse, wax tank, elimina-
tor, transverse brush dryer, polisher, and spray
wax applicator. In the background is a minia-
ture ethylene coloring room.
This equipment is built to scale from the
commercial machinery and is the only minia-
ture of its kind in existence.
This unit serves as a means for research
studies by the Laboratories and Engineering
Departments in effecting improvements in ma-
chinery and processes before placing them in
commercial operation.

Page 7

Page 8 THE CITRUS GROWER, May 1, 1939

Extension Economist Gives--

Terminal Market Research Resume

PROBABLY MORE attention has
been given terminal markets
from the point of view of re-
search during the last few years than
ever before. There has been set up a
research department in the Bureau of
Agricultural Economics for the study
of the distribution of fruits and
vegetables. Two publications have
already been put out by this depart-
ment which should be of considerable
interest to Florida producers. One is
a detailed study of the Philadelphia
market and the other a study of the
wholesale markets of fruits and
vegetables in 40 cities. A resume of
the findings of the study of the Phila-
delphia market indicates that facili-
ties used at present in Philadelphia
are antiquated and were not built to
take care of motor truck receipts of
fruits and vegetables. The market
is terribly congested and because of
inadequate facilities, poor arrange-
ments, poor location and other fac-
tors, it makes distribution costs in
Philadelphia very high.
Reorganization Recommended
Almost the same conclusions were
drawn in the study of the markets of
40 cities. These studies show that
the wholesaler-jobbing markets for
perishable agricultural commodities
in many of the large cities need to be
reorganized. In many of the cities
there are too many markets. It is
also true that there have been mar-
kets built in cities and villages where
not needed. A lot of the markets
are poorly coordinated with one an-
other and only in a few cities is there
anything like adequate facilities for
the handling of motor truck receipts.
If changes were made to correct this
situation, the cost for city wholesal-
ing and distribution would be sub-
stantially reduced and better service
could be given to the farmer, retailer
and to the consumer.
Need Lower Costs
There has been a rapid increase
in the total production of fruits and
vegetables during the last few years
and, in my judgment, if these in-
creased quantities are to be market-


Extension Economist in Marketing.


ed there must be a reduction in the
cost of distribution, transportation,
assembling and packaging and in
production. This does not mean
that there will not continue to be
a market for quality products. How-
ever, it is questionable whether the
greatly increased volume of fruits
and vegetables can be marketed if
these extra costs of processing and
making beautiful in appearance are
added. There is too large a propor-
tion of the population having an in-
come inadequate to purchase these
larger and larger crops at what is now
considered fair prices.
Kinds of Customers.
Another important study that has
been made has to do with the fruit
and produce auction market by Kel-
sey B. Gardner, Farm Credit Admin-
istration. Mr. Gardner spent con-
siderable time in the study of auction
markets. Mr. Gardner found that
70 1-2 percent of purchases made on
the auction were by jobbers, 9 1-2
percent by chain stores; buying brok-
ers 8 percent; motor truck jobbers,
3 percent, and speciality fruit and
vegetable stores 2 percent, the other
sales being by independent retailers,
peddlers and push carts, wholesale
grocers, hotels and restaurants, etc.
Diverse Views
Mr. Gardner's report indicates
that not all auction buyers are single
commodity purchasers. Some buyers
purchase several different commodi-
ties during the same auction. He says
that it seems evident from his study
that auctions meet the requirements
of a large number of buyers of dif-
ferent types. These requirements in-
clude purchase of rather limited quan-

Sell to buyers who help our in-
dustry Buy from concerns that
help our organization.

titles and specific sizes of individual
commodities, selection from ample
supplies and a variety of offerings of
different commodities. He admits
that the attitude of important trade
factors toward the auction method of
selling shows quite diverse view-
points: 52 percent of the jobbers
indicated a favorable attitude, 36 per-
cent neutral and 12 percent unfavor-
able. As a contrast, only 35 per-
cent of the chain store buyers in-
dicated a favorable attitude, 4 per-
cent a neutral position and 61 per-
cent an unfavorable attitude. Among
the favorable factors stressed were:
"all purchase prices known," "Size
and quality inspections made read-
ily," "Required sizes available,"
"Quality products available at pre-
vailing price levels." Among the un-
favorable points of view were: "Spec-
ulative profits available through car-
lot purchasing," "Purchase price
known to competitors," "Savings
can be effected in handling expense
or lower prices."
Agricultural Study
Probably the most comprehensive
study that has been made recently
of interest to fruit and vegetable
growers is one made by the Federal
Trade Commission. Part 2 of their
Agricultural Income Inquiry is de-
voted to fruits, vegetables and grapes.
There have been previous investiga-
tions made of agricultural conditions,
by the Federal Trade Commission.
Part 2 of their Agricultural Income
Inquiry is devoted to fruits, vege-
tables and grapes. There have been
previous investigations made of ag-
ricultural conditions, by the Federal
Trade Commission, but they did not
include fruits and vegetables. The
report referred to in this paper in-
cludes fruits and vegetables and in
all of our discussion where reference
is made to producers, we are speaking
of producers of fruits and vegetables.
Fruit Auctions
As for auctions, the commission
report gives certain additional infor-
mation concerning auction selling


that might be of interest. One auc-
tion company has been in existence
for over 100 year. During 1935 the
auction sales amounted to 119 mil-
lion dollars. According to the com-
mission report, "It appears that the
auction method of selling is more
favorable for well-known brands of
fruits. Several reasons have been
given why vegetables are not sold to
any considerable extent at auction.
Lack of standardization of pack and
brand, and the shortness of the vege-
table seasons are the reasons usually
Income Trends
With reference to trend of agricul-
tural income, they used the years
1929-35. As a matter of fact they
used these years throughout the study
where figures were available. They
show that the gross and cash incomes
of farmers decreased more rapidly
than any other group of the principal
manufacturers and processors of
fruits and vegetables. With the ex-
ception of auctions, all recovered
a higher percent of their 1929 level
by 1935 than did the producers.
Farm income was lowest in 1932.
1933 was lowest for the chain stores
and auction companies and fruit and
vegetable distributors. The follow-
ing table gives index numbers show-
ing low point reached by each of
these groups during the period 1929-
Fruit Control
Almost throughout the study
large organizations incurred fewer
losses than small organizations. Ap-
parently, small canners, wholesalers.
jobbers and chain stores all have
the same difficulties as small farmers.
In reference to control, the com-
mission brings out the fact that a
few corporations and cooperatives
control a large proportion of some
fruits and vegetable crops. This is
especially true of citrus crops where
three cooperatives almost control
two-thirds of the oranges produced
in the United States. Three coopera-
tives handled approximately one-
third of the grapefruit produced in
the United States in 1935. I imagine
the percent of grapefruit handled by
cooperatives during the 1937-38 sea-
son would be much higher than this.

Sell to buyers who help our in-
dustry-Buy from concerns that
help our organization.



>0 -
00 o
cl> -~ C u


00 P.

Farmers 70 52 18
Canners 80 55 25 80 56 24
Wineries 342 55 287 342 55 287
Wholesaler .. ---83 66 17 77 65 12
Chainstore --- -- -- 89 81 8 85 77 8
Auctions 66 58 8 66 58 8
Distributors 79 70 9 78 67 11

since there was a considerably larger owned by the receivers in the auc-
volume handled by the Texas Citrus tion markets. However, according
Exchange during the last year. to this report, Mr. DiGiorgio has a
Auction Traders controlling interest in the New York
Fruit Auction Company and has
The commission made a fairly de- considerable interest in four other
tailed study of the auction markets, auction cities. It may be of interest
There are 14 auctions in the United to state, too, at this time that Di-
States, two in New York and two Giorgio has a contract with the
in Boston, making auctions in 12 California Fruit Exchange whereby
cities and only 10 of these cities the Exchange agrees to sell their
sell citrus fruit at auction. Thirty- fruit through auctions in which he
seven percent of the grapefruit sold
in these markets is sold at auction: -"---""" ""-------------
77 percent of the oranges and 59 per- IRRIGATION
cent of the grapes. Some of these COMPLETE SERVICE
cities sold as low as 55 percent by
S11Genuine Ames Lockscam
auction, while others sold as high Slipjoint Pipe
as 96 percent. On the whole, the
commission speaks favorably of the ENGINEERING SERVICE FREE
auction method of selling but indi-
cated that it was possible to manipu- THE CAMERON &
late auctions, if too large a control
was allowed to get in the hands of BARKLEY CO.
a few individuals. As a rule, the TAMPA. FLORIDA.
stocks of the auction company are ___-- -- ----___
---------------------------- ----- ------------------

South Lake Apopka Citrus Growers Ass'n.


Has Grown from 50.000 Boxes to Last Year's Record of 643,356.

About 3,500 Acres Are Owned by About 150 Members.

Packing Profits Are Paid back to Growers and more than $300.000
has been repaid.

The Association offers a complete caretaking service, operating its
own Fertilizer Plant and grove equipment at actual cost to


A. W. Hurley. President
Phone 61. Winter Garden

G. S. Hall, Secy.-Manager
Postoffice. Oakland. Fla.

Page 9

- - - - - - - - - - - -------------------------


has interest. The California Fruit
Exchange handles fruit of the Di-
Giorgio interests. It is also brought
out in the report that the California
Fruit Exchange is the only organi-
zation that gets a lower rate at auc-
tions than other sellers on the auc-
They also admit that auctions are
objected to, to some extent, by cer-
tain growers and shippers.
The commission brings out the
fact that there are private companies
in certain cities that have practically
a monopoly of the distribution of
certain commodities. For instance,
they indicate that three companies in
Baltimore handle 55 percent of the
grapefruit sold on that market and
69 percent of the lettuce. They give
similar examples for other cities.
Terminal Costs
Probably, the commission goes in-
to more detail on the question of
distribution of the consumers costs
than any other of the specific ap-
proaches. In my judgment, it isn't
a question necessarily of the distri-
bution of the consumer's dollar as it
is the efficiency of the groups com-
prising the marketing chain. The
commission tried to bring out the
fact that distribution costs were out
of proportion to other costs. How-
ever, unless you had comparative
costs with other years and some com-
parison of the efficiency of the dif-
ferent factors, it would seem that it
is not in position to determine
whether or not any percent is a fair
cost for distribution or not. The
commission does go into some detail
of the cost that makes up these dif-
ferent items and also inadequacies of
the facilities of terminal markets and
I more or less less concur in the con-
clusions drawn by the bureau con-
cerning the needs for more efficient
facilities and other changes in our
terminal markets.
Producer Financing
The question of production credit
was discussed in the commission's
report and its conclusions indicate
that the production credit organiza-
tions have helped considerably in
the doing away of some of the evils
of financing by commission mer-
chants, etc. They indicate that there
continues to be. what is in the'r
opinion, unfair practices and inef-

ficient practices in connection with
the financing by dealers, namely the
over-concentration of products to
certain markets and the charging of
exorbitant interest rates and the re-
quiring of users of money to sell thru
receivers who did the financing. The
dealers claims that is necessary for
him to finance because in that way
he is assured of an adequate volume
and can make future contracts on the
basis of this known volume of re-
In reference to transportation, the
commission indicates the motor truck
is becoming an important factor in
the transportation of fruits and
vegetables. They show that 36 per-
cent of the unloads in 11 large cities
is brought in by trucks. Recent fig-
ures indicate that more fruit and
vegetables are delivered by truck to
the Philadelphia market than by rail
and boat.
Drayage Practices
The commission found a number
of unfair practices with reference to
drayage and cartage in the terminal
markets. We quote what the com-
mission had to say concerning the
situation in New York. They went
into details with other terminal mar-
kets, but this sample will give some
idea of what exists in some of our
markets: "In New York the existing
cartage monopoly applies generally to
the movement of fruits and vegetables
from the principal railroad piers and
steamship docks in lower Manhat-
tan. As early as July 1, 1924, a
fixed schedule of cartage rates for de-
liveries from the piers and docks was
established by agreement between
the truckers and the receivers. In
September, 1927, a further agree-
ment, which is still in effect, was
reached giving the truckers the priv-

Sell to buyers who help our in-
dustry-Buy from concerns that
help our organization.

ilege of carting all produce from the
piers and docks.
"O. C. Charge"
"With respect to vegetables, buy-
ers' trucks are under no circumstances
permitted to enter any of the piers
or docks to take delivery, but are
required to wait outside. In the case
of fruits sold at auction, buyers
are permitted to cart the fruit in their
own trucks, but are subjected to a
charge known as an '0. C. charge,'
collected by the truckman. Where
fruits are carted from the piers in the
buyers' trucks, in most cases the buy-
ers load the trucks themselves, be-
cause the services of the loaders can-
not be obtained. As a result, the '0.
C. charge' exacted is a charge for
which no service is performed. The
cartage charges made for delivery of
vegetables to the buyers' trucks out-
side the piers are likewise a form of
In Chicago, where similar monop-
oly exists, the commission states that
the system has been enforced princi-
pally by agents of the Union.
Threats and intimidations being
used where necessary to exclude oth-
er trucks. "These agents have also
interferred with outside trucks de-
livering produce from nearby areas
to the dealers' stores. In some cases
such trucks are forced to stop be-
yond the market district and trans-
fer their loads to trucks operated by
members of the union. In other
cases agents of the union wait until
an outside truck is partly unloaded
and then demand that the driver
either join the union or pay for the
privilege of unloading. These prac-
tices have created a monopoly in the
carting of produce in Chicago simi-
lar to that existing in New York."
Similar rackets may spring up in
other cities if not checked.
Terminal market inspection. The

Page 10


commission reports indicate that there
are three different types of market-
ing inspection: 1. by the U. S. De-
partment of Agriculture. which in-
spects for grade and condition at a
rate of about $4.00 per car: the rail-
road through the Railroad Perishable
Inspection Agency which operates in
the territory east of Chicago and the
Western Weighing and Inspection
Bureau operating in Chicago and the
territory west of Chicago: and pri-
vate agencies about 15 in number
who represent receivers and it is
claimed that they are as biased against
the railroad as the railroad inspectors
are for the railroads. "Beyond the
question of bias and irregularities in
the terminal inspection service, the
multiplicity of inspection results in
duplication and unnecessary expense
which is paid ultimately by the
grower or consumer. On a large
percentage of the rail unloads in the
principal terminal markets there are
two separate inspections, and in some
cases, three."
Claims Vary
Loss and Damage Claims. From
reading the commission's reports you
would conclude that loss and dam-
age claims are probably one of the
outstanding evils in the marketing of
fruits and vegetables. They claim
that during the last five years the
railroads have paid an average of six
million dollars per year. This repre-
sents almost three percent of the
freight charges and if considered on
the basis of net revenue, the percent
is considerably higher. In 1935 the
average claims paid per car of fruits
and vegetables is $6.83 per car. On
tomatoes, claims were paid amount-
ing to $18.47 per car. Not onl5
do claims vary between commodi-
ties but the commission reports show
that claims paid to certain cities were
much higher than other cities and to
certain receivers much higher than
to other receivers. It would be well
worth one's time to read the com-
plete report on the loss and damage
claims. I will quote as a sample of
some of the things that the commis-
sion found: "It was found in Chi-
cago an organized group of team-
track jobbers have succeeded in mo-
nopolizing the sale of watermelons
there. Most of the cars of water-
melons delivered in that city contain

Sell to buyers who help our in-
dustry-Buy from concerns that
help our organization.

a considerable portion of more or less
damaged melons and these watermel-
ons are unloaded and sold from cars
"as is" on certain team tracks used
exclusively for that purpose. Owing
to the monopoly maintained by this
group of team-track jobbers, they
have been able to demand and obtain
from shippers the right to file and
collect loss and damage claims per-
taining to the shipments of water-
melons handled by them."
Chain Stores
As indicated before, the commis-
sion went into the records of sev-
eral chain stores. The Atlantic Com-
mission Company during 1936 han-
dled over 100.000 cars of produce:
73 percent of which went directly
to the A. 8 P. stores. They also
give the figures on other large chains
which show that 75 percent of these
subsidiaries buying organizations de-
liver their produce to the chain stores.
At one time, what amounts to two
brokerage fees were charged for com-
modities sold through those subsid-
iary companies. The Robinson-
Patman Bill put a stop to this prac-
tice. However, since then there have
been considerable manipulations in
the form of rebates which amount to
practically the same thing. One con-
cludes from the report of the com-
mission that the commission believes
that these large chain organizations
are guilty of unfair trade practices.
The commission investigated the
the question of misbranding and mis-
representation and found that there

are not as many offenders as one
might believe. However, they did
give example of cases, for instance.
"A group of manufacturers of cit-
rus crates, berry boxes, hampers, and
other wooden or veneer containers
for shipping fruits and vegetables,
located in Southern Georgia, and in
Florida. were found to be engaged,
apparently, in a conspiracy to main-
tain prices of such containers in some
cases by threats and intimidations."
Control vs. Minority Groups
I will not take time to give the
commission's comments concerning
marketing control other than to say
that the commission's reports that
early attempts at marketing control
were unsuccessful because of the lack
of authority to keep minority groups
in line. They indicate that because
of this fact there was a demand for
the Agricultural Adjustment Act and
the provision in the beginning for
marketing agreements and licenses,
the latter having been replaced by or-
ders. There was an act passed in
1930 known as the Perishable Agri-
cultural Commodities Act which the
commission refers to as having been
responsible for the elimination of

(Continued on Page 20)

100% Actual Oil Internally
Emulsified without water
Saves You Money
66 W. Robinson Ave. Orlando

Page 11

Congratulations To


for a year of

Unprecedented Service to the Citrus Industry

Plymouth Citrus Growers Association

R. T. (Bob) Carleton. Sec.-Mgr.

___ M

Plymouth. Florida

Page 12 THE CITRUS GROWER, May 1, 1939

County Units and Officers Citrus Growers Association


President, D. C. Williams, Cocoa.
1st Vice-President, B. 1. Garvey, Mel-
2nd Vice-President, G. A. Draa, Mims.
Secretary, Thomas L. Cain, Cocoa.
Treasurer, Mrs. A. B. O'Hara, Cocoa.
G. A. Draa, Mims.
B. I. Garvey, Melbourne.
Mrs. A. B. O'Hara, Cocoa.
Thomas D. A. Peta, Titusville.
A. G. Porcher, Cocoa.
D. C. Williams, Rt. 2, Cocoa.
Frank E. Clark, Cocoa.
Dr. T. A. Rhoads, Titusville.
A. S. Butler, Cocoa.


President, A. B. Endsley, Brooksville.
1st Vice-President, James Mountain,
2nd Vice-President, W. H. Van Ness,
A. B. Endsley, Brooksville.
James Mountain, Brooksville.
James M. Weeks, Brooksville.
W. P. Murphy, Brooksville.
J. T. Daniel, Brooksville.
R. T. Hancock, Brooksville.
W. H. Van Ness, Inverness.
W. L. Spivey, Floral City.
Frank H. Leslie. Inverness.


President, W. C. King, Zolfo Springs.
Vice-President, A. Z. Olliff, Wauchula.
Secretary, H. L. Miller, Wauchula.
Treasurer, H. L. Miller, Wauchula.
Wilbur C. King, Zolfo Springs.
Walter Altman, Wauchula.
R. S. Farwell, Gardner.
R. M. Coile, Bowling Green.
C. C. Skipper, Avon Park.
D. F. Smith, Jr., Zolfo Springs.
A. H. Carleton, Wauchula.
A. Z. Olliff, Wauchula.
V. S. Polk, Bowling Green.
F. G. Janes, Sr., Wauchula.
L. M. Shackleford, Wauchula.
Senior Director, Wilbur C. King, Zolfo.
Junior, A. Z. Olliff, Wauchula.
Alternate, F. G. Janes, Sr., Wauchula.


President. T. M. Johns, Arcadia.
Vice-President, B. F. Stewart, Ft. Ogden.
Secretary-Treasurer, W. M. Noland, Ar-
D. W. Brown, R. F. D., Arcadia.
C. Roy Buchan, Arcadia.
Joseph Burtscher. R. F. D.. Arcadia.
M. H. Harrison, R. F. D., Arcadia.
T. M. Johns, Arcadia.
H. G. Jones, Arcadia.
W. M. Noland. Arcadia.

B. F. Stewart, Fort Ogden.
A. D. Turner, R. F. D., Arcadia.
Committee Chairmen
Citrus Culture, D. W. Brown. R. F. D.,
Credentials, A. D. Turner, R. F. D., Ar-
Crop Insurance, M. H. Harrison, R. F.
D., Arcadia.
Legislative, H. G. Jones, Arcadia.
Marketing Agreement, Joseph Burtscher,
R. F. D., Arcadia.
Finance, B. F. Stewart, Ft. Ogden.
Selling by Weight, Roy Buchan, R. F.
D.. Arcadia.
Traffic, D. W. Brown, R. F. D., Arcadia.
Uniform Contract, H. G. Jones, Arcadia.


President, Guignard (Guy) Maxcy, Se-
1st Vice-President, W. W. Masters, De-
Soto City.
2nd Vice-President. C. H. Shackleford,
Secretary-Treasurer, A. M. Wolfe, Sebring.
Senior Director, E. G. Todd, Avon Park.
Junior Director, Guignard Maxcy, Sebring.
Alternate. Philip Correll, DeSoto City.
Avon Park Unit
E. W. Hartt, President.
E. G. Todd, Vice-President.
Parke Anderson, Secretary-Treasurer.
(All of Avon Park.)
DeSoto City Unit
Philip Correll, President.
W. W. Masters, Vice-President.
Mrs. Clara Pearce, Secretary-Treasurer.
(All of DeSoto City.)
Sebring Unit
Guignard Maxcy, President.
V. G. Watters, Vice-President.
A. M. Wolfe, Secretary-Treasurer.
(All of Sebring.)
Lake Placid Unit
C. L. Crawford, President, Sebring.
G. A. DeVane. Vice-President, Lake
C. H. Shackleford, Secretary-Treasurer.


President, R. M. Clewis.
1st Vice-President and Treasurer, R. V.
2nd Vice-President, A. B. Carlton.
Secretary, Mrs. C. O. Brown.
C. W. Caillouette, Thonotosassa.
Roscoe DeHaven, Lutz.
A. B. Carlton, 2829 Morgan Street
Milton H. Mabry, Box 1320, Tampa.
L. G. Taylor, Rt. 1, Box 304, Tampa.
H. F. Lewis Rt. 2, Box 316K, Tampa.
H. M. Pancoast, Seffner.
H. C. Carlton, Dover.
C. C. Wiggins, Hopewell.
R. G. Wood, Lithia.
S. D. Sweat. Balm.

R. M. Clewis, Sr., 405 Madison Street,
Doyle E. Carlton, First National Bank
Bldg.. Tampa.
Mrs. C. O. Brown, Rt. 1, Odessa.
R. V. Wayne, Tampa Gas Co., Tampa.
E. F. Edwards, Valrico.


President, Senator A. W. Young, Vero
Vice-President, H. S. Jones, Vero Beach.
Secretary, E. G. Thatcher, Vero Beach.
Treasurer. A. O. Helseth. Vero Beach.
Senator, A. W. Young, Vero Beach.
H. S. Jones, Vero Beach.
A. O. Helseth, Vero Beach.
E. G. Thatcher, Vero Beach.
R. D. Carter, Wabasso.
A. M. Hill, Sr.. Vero Beach.
R. L. Kinney, Fellsmere.
S. B. Taylor, Vero Beach.
M. T. Baird, Vero Beach.
W. T. Zeuch, Vero Beach.
State Directors
Senior, W. T. Zeuch.
Junior, M. T. Baird.
Alternate, S. B. Taylor.


President, C. R. Short, Clermont.
Vice-President, A. Hugh Bourlay, Jr.,
Secretary-Treasurer, Karl Lehmann, T -
C. R. Hiatt, Tavares.
A. S. Clark, Eustis.
H. C. Brown, Clermont.
H. L. Pringle, Leesburg.
Frank. Laird, Groveland.
J. P. Lynch, Groveland.
C. E. Lester, Grand Island.
Karl Lehmann, Tavares.
C. R. Short. Clermont.
John N. Mowery, Eustis.
E. S. Choate, Eustis.
W. L'E. Barnett, Mt. Dora.
H. H. Meincke, Howey.
O. B. Smith, Leesburg.
Hugh Bourlay, Leesburg.
Clark Kauffman, Leesburg.
William Fletcher, Leesburg.
T. J. Smart, Minneola.
A. A. Kurfiss, Groveland.
Zera Giles, Eustis.
John Irvin, Umatilla.
Committee Chairmen
Citrus Culture, C. R. Hiatt, Tavares.
Credentials. C. E. Lester, Grand Island.
Crop Insurance, William Fletcher Lees-
Legislative, Clark Kauffman, Leesburg.
Marketing Agreement, W. Hal Adkinson,
Membership, C. E. Lester, Grand Island.
Research. W. L'E. Barnett, Mt. Dora.
Packing House, H. H. Meincke, Howey.
Selling by Weight, J. N. Mowery, Eustis.
Advertising, Karl Lehmann, Tavares.

Page 13


Traffic, H. L. Pringle, Leesburg.
Education, R. E. Norris and Wilmer Bas-
sett, Tavares.
Uniform Contract, Zera Giles, Eustis.


President, Francis H. Corrigan.
1st Vice-President, William R. Pollard.
2nd Vice-President, John M. Criley.
Secretary, Henry J. Edsall.
Treasurer, S. F. Peters.
Francis H. Corrigan, Bradenton.
William R. Pollard. Terra Ceia.
John M. Criley. Terra Ceia.
S. F. Peters, Palmetto.
William M. Burnett, Bradenton.
Samuel B. Williams, Rt. 1, Palmetto.
Charles Sanford. Indian Beach, Sarastoa.
A. S. Harvey, Palmetto.
Ralph H. Higgins, Rt. 1, Bradenton.
Charles T. Council, Rt. 2, Palmetto.
John N. McClure, Palmetto.
W. A. Gillett, Parrish.
William P. Mixon, Bradenton.
Heiry J. Edsall, Bradenton.
State Directors
Senior, John M. Criley.
Junior, William R. Pollard.
Alternate, Charles Sanford.


President, W. A. Boyer, Ocala.
Vice-President, J. M. Douglas, Weirsdale.
Secretary, A. B. Levis, Ocala.
Treasurer, L. Gierneisen. Weirsdale.
Henry Billings, Lowell.
Geo. W. Brant, Moss Bluff.
W. A. Boyer, Ocala.
F. R. Douglas. Citra.
J. M. Douglas, Weirsdale.
Frank Cawthon, Weirsdale.
J. F. Cocowitch, Dunnellon.
J. K. Christian, McIntosh.
L. Gierneisen, Weirsdale.
L. E. Futch, Ocala.
A. B. Levis, Ocala.
W. W. Levis, Ocala.
Grant Morthland, Weirsdale.
State Directors
Senior, J. M. Douglas, Weirsdale.
Junior, Frank Cawthon, Weirsdale.
Alternate, W. A. Boyer, Ocala.


President, Walton Rex.
First Vice-President, W. E. Kemp, Pine
Second Vice-President, J. C. Haley, Or-
Secretary, K. C. Moore, Orlando.
Treasurer, M. H. McNutt, Orlando.
J. J. Banks, Jr., Orlando.
Ben Carpenter, Turkey Lake.
J. C. Haley, Orlando.
Walton Rex, Orlando.
George Marsh. Orlando.
Emil Karst, Orlando.
Arthur Clark, Ocoee.
Dr. Charles E. Coffin, Winter Park.
T. C. Hawthorne, Ocoee.
W. E. Kemp, Pine Castle.

W. L'E. Barnett, Tangerine.
Gus Seidel, Gotha.
J. C. Palmer, Windermere.
A. W. Hurley, Winter Garden.
M. H. McNutt. Woodsmere.
State Directors
Senior. J. J. Banks, Jr., Orlando.
Junior, T. C. Hawthorne, Ocoee.
Alternate, Ben Carpenter, Turkey Lake.

President, Ira O. Young, St. Cloud.
Vice-President, R. E. Thomas, St. Cloud,
Rt. 1.
Vice-President, Cecil Whaley, St. Cloud.
Treasurer. H. M. Johnston, Kissimmee.
Rt. 1.
Secretary, J. R. Gunn, Kissimmee.
Senior Director, W. J. Steed, Kissimmee.
Junior Director, R. E. Thomas, St. Cloud.
Rt. 1.
Alternate Director, S. E. Sharpe, St.
Cloud, Rt. 1.
Committee Chairmen
Citrus Culture, S. E. Sharpe, St. Cloud.
Rt. 1.
Crop Insurance, J. J. Johnston, St. Cloud.
Legislative, W. J. Steed, Kissimmee.
Marketing Agreement, I. O. Young, St.
Membership, R. E. Thomas, St. Cloud.
Rt. 1.
Research, H. M. Johnston. Kissimmee.
Rt. 1.
Selling by Weight, W. I. Barber. Kissim-
mee, Rt. 1.
Traffic, B. L. Steen, St. Cloud.
Uniform Contract. H. M. Johnston. Kis.
simmee, Rt. 1.

President, E. H. Williams, Crescent City.
Vice-President, Ralph Crosby, San Mateo.
Secretary and Treasurer, E. M. Pickens.
Crescent City.
Ralph Crosby. San Mateo.
A. E. Kepler. East Palatka.
Ralph Atkinson, Rt. 1, East Palatka.
W. C. Cartledge, Crescent City.
Rufus West. Crescent City.
R. B. Hill. Crescent City.
W. F. Glynn, Crescent City.
E. H. Williams, Crescent City.
E. M. Pickens, Criscent City.
Senior Director, Sen. W. F. Glynn.
Junior Director, Ralph Crosby, San Mateo.
Alternate Director, Rufus West, Crescent
Committee Chairmen
Citrus Culture, E. M. Pickens, Crescent
Credentials, E. M. Pickens. Crescent City.
Crop Insurance, E. H. Williams, Crescent
Legislative, W. F. Glynn, Crescent City.
Marketing Agreement, E. H. Williams,
Crescent City.
Membership, Rufus West, Crescent City.
Research, Ralph Crosby, San Mateo.
Selling by Weight, R. B. Hill, Crescent
Traffic, W. C. Cartledge, Crescent City.
Uniform Contract, A. E. Kepler, East


President, Dr. F. C. Wirt. Dade City.
Secretary, Eustis Futch, Dade City.
J. P. Lynch, San Antonio.
R. D. Stevenson, Elfers.
O. W. Lipsey, Blanton.
Geo. B. Wells, Dade City.
Eustis Futch, Dade City.
Miss S. E. Coleman, Dade City.
Dr. F. C. Wirt, Dade City.
E. C. Blum, New Port Richey.
Chairmen for the following Committees:
Program and County Problems, J. P.
Lynch, San Antonio.
Selling by Weight. R. D. Stevenson,
Legislative and Membership, O. W. Lip-
sey, Blanton.
Uniform Contracts and Finance, Geo. B.
Wells, Dade City.
Citrus Culture, Eustis Futch, Dade City.
Credentials and Publicity, Miss E. S.
Coleman, Dade City.
Marketing and Traffic, E. C. Blum, New
Port Richey.


President, A. J. Grant.
Vice-President, A. V. Saurman.
Secretary-Treasurer, Ernest E. Whitacre.
Senior, S. A. Whitsell.
Junior, Stephen Chase.
Alternate, C. W. Whittle
District No. 1:
Stephen Chase, Palm Harbor.
L. E. Sutton, Palm Harbor.
Hugh B. Hutch, Palm Harbor.
District No. 2:
A. J. Grant, Dunedin.
J. A. Boyd, Dunedin.
S. T. Beebles, Dunedin.
District No. 3:
Ernest E. Whitacre, Clearwater.
E. W. McMullen, Clearwater.
I. C. Nelson, Clearwater.
District No. 4:
A. V. Saurman, Largo.
S. A. Whitesell, Largo.
C. W. Whittle, Largo.
District No. 5:
F. L. Campbell, Seminole.
F. R. Watkins. St. Petersburg.
Geo. Clinger, St. Petersburg.


Fred T. Henderson, President, Winter
Paul Hayman, Secretary, Bartow.
1939 presidents and secretaries of the
local units of Polk County Citrus Growers,
President, J. Victor Hodnett, Auburndale.
Secretary, Mrs. C. E. Edmiston, Auburn-
President, W. G. Frankenburger, Bartow.
Secretary, B. Lucian Durrance, Bartow.
President, V. J. Martin, Davenpcrt.
Secretary, V. E. Woods, Davenport.


President, W. W. Owens, Frostproof.
Secretary, B. H. Griffin, Jr., Frostproof.
Haines City
President, J. W. Sample, Haines City.
Secretary, Mrs. Elsie Horton, Haines City.
Ft. Meade
President, M. M. Loadholtes. Ft. Meade.
Secretary, D. L. Palmer, Ft. Meade.
Lake Hamilton-Dundee
President. Carl Nystrom, Lake Hamilton.
Lake Wales
President, L. H. Kramer, Lake Wales.
Secretary, E. T. Hickman, Lake Wales.

President, J. A. Crosswy, Lakeland.
Secretary, H. N. Donoho, Highland City.
President, W. L. Pederson, Winter Haven.
Secretary, W. J. Casey, Lake Wales.
Winter Haven
President. Fred T. Henderson. Winter


Geo. E. Chambliss, Winter

President, Fred Forward, Maitland.
Ist Vice-President, W. H. Pope. Maitland.
2nd Vice-President. C. Endor Curlett.
Secretary-Treasurer. W. B. Richards,
Fred Forward, Maitland.
W. H. Pope, Maitland.
H. H. Pattishall, Geneva.
E. Curlett, Geneva.
W. J. Wells, Jr., Longwood.
J. F. McClelland, Sanford.
Amos Tingley, Oviedo.
Mrs. Emma A. Lyman. Altamonte
V. E. Douglass, Chuluota.
John Leonardy, Sanford.
W. B. Richards, Maitland.
B. F. Haines, Altamonte Springs.
P. D. Anderson, Lake Mary.
Geo. Bridge, Longwood.
Committee Chairmen
Marketing Agreement. E. Curlett. Geneva.
Traffic, W. H. Pope, Maitland.
Quality Standard, Miss Nona Wylly. Lake
Processing, Mrs. Emma A. Lyman. Alta-
monte Springs.
Marketing. V. E. Douglass. Chuluota.
Legislative and Legal. B. F. Haines. Alta-
monte Springs.
Industry, Finance. H. H. Pattishall. Ge-
Resolutions, P. D. Anderson. Lake Mary.
Educational, W. B. Richards. Maitland.
Membership, W. J. Wells. Jr., Longwood.
Citrus Culture. C. R. Dawson, Oviedo.
Budget. Amos Tingley, Oviedo.

President, C. B. Van Sickler, Ft. Pierce.
Vice-President. James A. Martell. Ft.
Secretary. C. Van der Lugt. Ft. Pierce,
care Chamber of Commerce.

Treasurer, Geo. M. Russos. Ft. Pierce.
J. T. Archambault, Ft. Pierce.
Anton Beerhalter, Ft. Pierce.
G. E. Hoofnagle, Ft. Pierce.
Jas. A. Martell, Ft. Pierce.
E. R. Enns, Ft. Pierce.
H. W. Lament, Ft. Pierce.
Mrs. Margaret Quesse, Ft. Pierce.
George M. Russos, Ft. Pierce.
C. B. Van Sickler. Ft. Pierce.
State Directors
Senior, C. B. Van Sickler. Ft. Pierce.
Junior, Jas. A. Martell. Ft. Pierce.
Alternate, Mrs. Margaret Quesse. Ft.

President, R. J. Kepler.
Vice-President, E. R. Conrad.
Secretary, J. V. Doyle.
J. A. Scarlett, DeLand.
B. J. Nordmann, DeLand.
M. S. McGregor, DeLand.
W. F. Ronald, Daytona Beach.
Geo. I. Fullerton, New Smyrna.
Rudolph D. Peterson, Pierson.
J. H. Graham, Seville.
State Directors
Senior Delegate, Geo. I. Fullerton.
Junior Delegate, B. J. Nordmann.
Alternate, M. S. McGregor.

The University of Florida and
Agricultural Extension Service will
hold in May their annual series of
citrus meetings. The University and
Extension Service are old, tried and
true friends of the grower. They
give out information only after it
has been sifted and tested. In view
of their conservatism it is a great
compliment that Florida Citrus
Growers, Inc., has been asked to have
a representative on the board of
This illustrates how important the
state and federal agencies regard the

work of this organization for the
growers' benefit. We give below a
schedule of the dates upon which
meetings will be held in the various
May 9-Lake-Hernando-Pasco.
May 10-Lake-Pinellas-Hillsbor-
May 11 -Seminole-Volusia-Hills-
May 12 Putnam-Marion-Sara-
May 16-Osceola-Orange-Polk.
May 17-Orange-Brevard-Polk.
May 18-Indian River-St. Lucie-
May 19-Dade-Highlands.

Francis H. Corrigan and his Mana-
tee County growers are to be con-
gratulated for turning in to the state
organization this year a greater aver-
age amount per member than any
other organization.
Their $2.74 per member is 98c
ahead of the nearest competitor re-
ported at the Bradenton meeting
which was Hillsborough County
with $1.76. Orange County placing
with $1.70; Pinellas, $1.67; High-
lands, $1.40; Marion, $1.33; Bre-
vard, $1.30; Hardee, $1.13; Volusia,
$1.06, and all the other counties
coming under $1.00.
Of course, as the year advances
these other counties are expected to
approach the shining accomplishment
of Manatee County. If this is done,
Treasurer E. G. Todd says the finan-
cial problems of the state organiza-
tion will be completely solved.

Sell to buyers who help our in-
dustry-Buy from concerns that
help our organization.

Page 14

SAVE $and'

Progressive growers are anxious to have a dependable source of credit from which
they can be sure to obtain money in the right amounts and at the right times. This
is why so many have joined this Association. They like the idea of planning their
financing for a whole year.
Our members arrange their loans just as early as they wish and are assured that
as long as they maintain their credit standing their Association will advance them
money as they need it to grow their crop. Then, too, their loans do not come due
until their crop is ready to harvest.
Perhaps we can serve you too. Write us today.

P. 0. Box 1592 Orlando, Florida


They're in the Citrus Business, Too

Business, professional people, and
others who are not grove owners or
are not in any way connected with
the citrus industry are permitted to
come in to the county units of Flor-
ida Citrus Growers, Inc., as associate
An associate membership marks a
worthy friend of the grower move-
ment. It indicates that the holder of
the membership has contributed sub-
stantially to the success of our organ-
We are pleased to print below a
representative list and hope that the
county secretaries will send us for
printing in this column in future is-
sues the names of other associate
Jacobs Printing Co.. Orlando.
First National Bank, Winter Garden.
G. H. Bray, Winter Garden.
Dr. B. P. Harter, Winter Garden.
R. J. Mobley, Ocoee.
Fred D. Gregory. Winter Garden.
Arnold's Feed Store, Winter Garden.
Pounds Motor Co., Winter Garden.
Orange Belt 8 Tractor Co.. Orlando.
Sears 8 Roebuck, Orlando.
Slemons Department Store, Orlando.
Dickson-Ives, Orlando.
San Juan Pharmacy. Orlando.
Rutland's, Orlando.
Morgan's Dept. Store. Orlando.
Yowell-Drew, Orlando.
S. K. Guernsey, Orlando.
Central Title V Trust Co., Orlando.
Greater Orlando Chamber of Commerce,
Empire Hotel by Chas. Magruder. Orlando.
J. E. Sadler, Oakland.
H. E. Fowler. Winter Garden.
Fruit Treating Corporation, Grand Ave.,
Central Camera Shop. Orlando.
J. C. Stewart, Orlando.
Dr. F. D. Gray, Orlando.
American Sales Agency. Orlando.
Rice. Trew E Rice Co.. Inc.. Orlando.
Howard Fertilizer Co., Orlando.
Central Florida Lumber 8 Sup. Co.,
Florida Agricultural Supply Co., Orlando.
Brice Printing Co., Lake Wales.
Wales Furniture Co., Lake Wales.
Lake County Chamber of Commerce, Ta-
Ray E Davidson. Ocala.
City of Orlando for membership of
Greater Orlando Chamber of Commerce. Or-
W. H. Poe Grocery, Titusville.
Dr. L. L. Whiddon. St. Lucie County.
Dr. H. E. Center, St. Lucie County.
Sunrise Lumber Co., St. Lucie County.
D. C. Haynes, St. Lucie County.
N. H. Bullard. St. Lucie County.
Orris Nobles. St. Lucie County.
B. A. Brown. St. Lucie County.

W. R. Lott. St. Lucie County.
E. R. Pierce. St. Lucie County.
Townsend Sash, Door 8 Lumber Com-
pany. Lake Wales.
Lake Wales State Bank. Lake Wales.
Moffett Motor Co., Lake Wales.
Murray's Pharmacy, Lake Wales.
Parker's Market. Mt. Dora.
W. J. Murdock Grocery, Cocoa.
David S. Nisbet, Filling Station, Cocoa.
Smith Motor Co., Ford Dealers, Cocoa.
Swan Store, General Merchandise, F. A.
Alderman. Mgr.. Cocoa.
Mrs. D. C. Williams. Real Estate, Cocoa.
Manatee River Bank K Trust Co., Bra-
American Oil Co.. A. D. Carriger, Mgr.,
First National Bank, Bradenton.
Iveson Lloyd, Bradenton.
Sinclair Oil Co., R. F. Vanskike, Mgr.,
Standard Oil Co., W. H. Troutman, Mgr.,
Gulf Oil Co., S. E. Oliver, Mgr., Bra-
Palmer National Bank 8 Trust Co.,
Ludwig-Walpole Insurance Co., Sarasota.
Prew-Kellim Insurance Co., Sarasota.
Standard Oil Co.. F. L. Ziegler, Mgr.,
Gulf Oil Co.. A. W. Knapp. Mgr., Sara-
American Oil Co.. F. H. Brad'ey. Mgr..
Tri-City Motor Supply. Bradenton.
Bradenton Hardware Co., Bradenton.
Ivey Auto Parts, -Bradenton.
Wyman. Green 8 Blalock, Bradenton.
L. W. Blake. M. D. Bradenton.
Nocatee-Manatee Crate Co., Manatee.
J. L. Lavender Co., Terra Ceia.

Montgomery Roberts V Co., Bradenton.
Tallant 8 Groff, Bradenton.
Dr. L. B. King, Bradenton.
Seaboard Oil Co., C. W. Holt, Mgr..
Gulf State Printing Corp., Bradenton.
E. J. Bacon Insurance Co., Sarasota.
S. Frank Perkins Co., Manatee.
Chamber of Commerce, Bradenton.
Bradenton Herald, Bradenton.

A complete audit of the records of
State Treasurer E. G. Todd was
presented to the Board of Directors
in their annual meeting at Bradenton.
This audit represents a lot of detail
work. It was made free of charge
by the accounting firm of N. H.
Bunting 4 Company, Lake Wales. It
was their donation to Florida Citrus
Growers, Inc., and to more proper-
ous conditions in ths citrus industry.

More Citrus Recipes
2 tbsp. shortening
2 cups of grapefruit juice (heated)
1 tsp. salt
1 yeast cake dissolved in luke
warm water
Add two eggs or not, as desired.
Add flour to dough consistency
(about 6 cups.) Proceed as in other

Sell to buyers who help our in-
dustry-Buy from concerns that
help our organization.

Support the Growers' Organization

We take this opportunity to urge every citrus grower to give
his loyal and active support to the Florida Citrus Growers, Inc. It
is YOUR organization, laboring unceasingly to advance YOUR

One hundred per cent control of the industry can best be accom-
plished by one hundred per cent membership in the organization.

H. E. CORNELL, President

Glen Saint Mary Nurseries Co.


56 E. Pine St.

1st Nat'l. Bank Bldg.

Page 15

Page 16 THE CITRUS GROWER, May 1, 1939

The Grower Organization--

Is Experiencing Growing Pains

ried. After the manner of good.
wholesome, husky and hard
working boys of his day he had
looked ahead and gathered together
enough money to buy 40 acres of
good land in the woods on Moro
Creek. A man could not raise a fam-
ily without land.
Some days before the wedding,
Ezra had butchered a fat and luscious
pig that he had raised on the Aber-
nathy place where he worked out,
and the resulting barbecue and log
rolling had left him equipped with
a cabin to which to bring his bride.
In the months after, he and she
threw up pole buildings for corn
cribs, chicken houses and other nec-
essary appurtenances. He cleared
some land at odd times and by dint
of great effort managed to borrow a
mule once in a while to cultivate it.
A Great Need
But the fact he did not have a
mule of his very own on his place
and under his control all the time,
Ezra realized, would keep him in
poverty indefinitely. In consequence
of this reasoning his next objective
became the buying of a mule.
This was accomplished in the
course of the second year's operation.
Ezra knew a mule when he saw it
and was careful to get a good one.
It was young and full of vigor and
high purposes, plowed at a good fast
pace, which pleased Ezra very much,
was strong enough to do a lot of
the work, and multiplied Ezra's pos-
sibilities of sources many times.
Breaks Out
When the hot summer came how-
ever, and laying-by time, and the
crop was all clean and the sun had
sapped some of Ezra's drive and de-
termination, the mule stood in the
lot for a few days unworked. Ac-
customed to being active all his
life, this dullness and confine-
ment was a great weariness to
the mule's spirit. Whereupon he
jumped the rail fence and got out in

the corn and tried to go between the
house and the wellshed, tore down
the clothesline, got the spotless
washing in the dirt, pushed the
wellshed over and committed num-
erous and expensive depredations.
Whereupon Ezras' wife, a sturdy
and helpful mate, but given to strong
expressions at times, wished the
the blamed old mule was dead.
True Value
Ezra remonstrated with his faith-
ful spouse even for thinking that in
such terms about the animal that had
been of so much value to them in the
past and probably would contribute
greater benefits in the future. He said
that "Beck is young and don't know
no better. He ain't hardly broke
yet. He shore pulled us through
this year and I've more work laid
out for him next year, and I guess I
will larn him as he goes along how
to behave hisself."
The attitude of most citrus grow-
ers toward their organization is the
same as the attitude of Ezra to his
precious old Beck. It was an awful
struggle to get the organization. It
has been of great value in the short

time the growers have had it and
more and better work is planned for
it in the future.
We had some little arguments at
the legislature with some few grow-
ers taking a position opposite to
that which the state organiza-
tion regarded as the best position.
These arguments, however, are only
growing pains. They show the
youth and inexperience of our young
organization. They show internal
weaknesses and give to all of us
valuable experience, which will en-
able us to do much in the future.
Needs Experience
The great inexperience of our or-
ganization was exemplified in the
fact that we let a dispute over so small
and simple a matter make it appear
before the members of the legisla-
ture that real disagreement existed
within our ranks. Such disagree-
ment does not exist. The over-
whelming majority of thz growers in
the organization have shown a desire
only to understand facts. After that.

Sell to buyers who help our in-
dustry-Buy from concerns that
help our organization.


Practical and Economical
Give your grove a chance to produce a crop at a cost per box that
will make you money. Now is the time to prepare for the coming
crop and improve the quality as well as quantity.
ready for immediate delivery

Farm & Home Machinery Company
Orlando, Florida Phone 5791


agreement on proper procedure has
been a matter of course and such
agreement has been practically unan-
When all of us have worked to-
gether longer, when we better realize
that each must make it his business
to look out for the interests of
the entire industry, when we get ac-
quainted and find out that most
of our differences of opinion are due
to misunderstanding. that the crooks
and hard-headed ones among us are
so few they do not destroy the
work of the majority-when time
has given us some of this seasoning,
then we can really get to work. There
will be no comparison between these,
our first halting efforts and our
grownup, more sophisticated accom-
In the meantime, we have accom-
plished the hard thing, we have a
growers' organization. It is as impor-
tant and necessary to our life as Ezra
Seestrunk's mule was to him. It may
get out of hand once in a while and
jump the fence, or, due to our neg-
lect, the organization may make ser-
ious errors, but our collective sea-
soned judgments will always fol-
low that of Ezra, that we growers
ourselves must direct it and "larn" it
how to do as it goes along.

On page 5 of last issue of The
Citrus Grower we printed a resolu-
tion passed by the Blanton Unit of
the Pasco organization concerning
truck shipments. Through an error
on our part two paragraphs were
omitted. The following should have
been shown as items 3 and 4 in the
first section of the resolution.
"3. Whereas: the growers of this
(Blanton) unit feel that they have
been "Sold down River" in the in-
terest of the packing house, and
"4. Whereas: The excuse given
for the passage of the present truck
law was to prevent the theft of citrus
Items 3 and 4 under "Therefore
Be it Resolved" reading as follows
should have been omitted:
"3. If the present legislature fails

Sell to buyers who help our in-
dustry Buy from concerns that
help our organization.

or refuses to repeal the present ob-
noxious truck law, that we, the
growers, place a candidate in the
field at the next election against ev-
ery legislator who declines to assist
in the repeal of said law and be it
further resolved that
"4. Such candidates be pledged in
writing to, if humanly possible, re-
peal the present truck law by a roll
call vote and to leave the gypsy truck
unhampered by arduous regulations,
and be it further resolved that"
The above sections were eliminat-

ed from the resolution before it was
passed by a vote of 8 to 2.
We regret this error.
April 21, 1939.
Mr. Virgil H. Conner,
Editor, The Citrus Grower
That was generous space you gave the
Colonel Clearwater clippings, and the same is
very much appreciated by The Sun. If every-
body with a stake in citrus would lend a
hand we could develop this bread idea into a
big thing. You certainly are doing your part.
With all good wishes. I am
Yours very truly.
Victor H. Morgan.

Citrus Needs Complete Fertilizers

All the elements

properly balanced

are provided in p





Orlando, Fla.

Page 17

Page 18 THE CITRUS GROWER, May 1, 1939

Auction Head Writes of--

Auction Principles and Distribution

sus, estimate of January 1,
1938, we learn the farm popu-
lation of the United States is 31,-
819,000 or about 24.5 percent of
our total population. We are ad-
vised that this figure should be re-
garded as representing only those
resident on farms. It does not take
into account the host of persons em-
ployed by or dependent on many
industries which in turn are depen-
dent upon the farmer and his buying
It can well be said that our entire
population, in a very real sense, is
affected by conditions on the farm.
There is no substitute for active ex-
change of goods and services as the
most potent force of national pros-
perity. If so large and important a
section of our country becomes im-
poverished, the walls of enterprise
likewise become dry. It is my pro-
found conviction that success and
prosperity on the farm means pros-
perity to the entire nation.
Auctions and Prices
Our auctions do not claim to have
a monopoly on all the good points
in produce distribution, but we can
state definitely that the auction prin-
ciple of sale is predicated on the basis
of securing the highest possible prices
at which the necessary volume will
move. That necessary volume is de-
termined by producers and their
agents in our markets. Our task is
to do our utmost with the volume
they decide should be sold to keep
incoming supplies moving onward
to the ultimate consumer.
One of the many phases of auc-
tion procedure which I think is vital
to growers and shippers is that an
unusual opportunity is available for
all sellers to feel the pulse of the
demand instantly. The concentra-
tion of buyers present and their com-
petitive bidding makes this possible.
It is not so easily apparent under

Sell to buyers who help our in-
dustry Buy from concerns that
help our organization.


President American Fruit 4 Produce
Auction Association. Inc.


other methods where buyers are
scattered. Auction sellers can intel-
telligently gauge the demand and
regulate offerings on a true ratio to
their knowledge of supply and de-
mand conditions.
All dealers in fresh fruits and pro-
duce are conscious of the strenuous
competition existing in this field to-
day. They handle the necessary
volume of many commodities in such
manner as not to increase the orig-
inal cost any more than is absolutely
warranted. The auctions aid in this
by concentrating incoming supplies
so that numerous commodities can
be procured at one time and place.
Our auctions act as a clearing house
whereby the demand from all types

1. Combined insecticide and fungicide-one
spray frequently takes place of two-
saves labor and machinery.
2. Economical because it goes farther-use
one gallon to sixty of water; also super-
ior spreading qualities.
3. Does not leave undesirable spray residue
inducive to recurrence of scale because
it permits quicker return of "friendly
fungi"-frequently saves later spray for
4. Easier to prepare spraying solution-no

and kinds of buyers is concentrated
on each day's available supply. The
necessary warehouse space is pro-
vided for unloading, sorting and de-
livery with a maximum of service and
at. a minimum of cost to those who
sell through us.
Most folks little realize the extent
of trade which must be served in
metropolitan areas. While the house-
hold larder is filled through grocers
and butchers, there are many other
outlets requiring supplies of fruits
and produce. Among these are gen-
eral stores, markets specializing in
perishables, hotels, restaurants, cafe-
terias, lunch rooms, refreshment
stands as well as steamship lines and
the many types of federal, state and
county institutions. Jobbers and

The Woman's Store
Is a booster for the Florida citrus

fussing with stock solutions-just mix
and spray.
5. Designed especially for Florida citrus-
effectiveness proven during seven years'
use by growers.
6. Dries quickly-forms uniform and al-
most invisible film over leaves, twigs and
effectiveness proven during seven years
trees-healthier color of foliage and
more abundant leaf, twig and fruit pro-
duction observed in many groves.

For further information, see



brokers ably serve in supplying this
varied assortment of trade.
Credit Facilities
The credit situation in terminal
markets should never be overlooked.
In our auctions all buyers, regardless
of size, have equal privileges-none
have preference. Liberal credit is
extended to all worthy buyers to aid
unrestricted bidding. This credit is
based on honesty and past record '
rather than on buyer's net worth.
Our auctions assume all credit risks
in good times and bad. It is a fact
that the risk is greater at present than
when times are really good, prices
comparatively high and turnover at
a profit is reasonably assured.
While it is true that quality mer- -
chandise is always recognized and in
demand, there are buyers in all ten
metropolitan auctions for all sizes
and grades. From the fancy fruiter-
er supplying gift baskets right down
to the peddler or huckster who takes
on a load to peddle from house to
house, all have their place in produce
distribution and come to the auc-
tions either directly or indirectly.
There is no "fencing in" or restrict-
ing of demand to any particular type
of buyer when fruits and produce
are sold at auction.
Equal weights of eggs and sugar
1-2 weight of flour
Beat first two ingredients for 10
minutes; add sifted flour. For
flavoring add chopped calamondin

Scab A Melanose

4 Scale

Rust Mite

\ White Fly

Page 19

Inspecting Samples

Night Scene-New York Fruit and Produce Market

Are now controlled at greatly reduced cost in TIME
and LABOR--the main cost of spraying-in using
plus PERMA WETTABLE SULPHUR-the first combi-
nation of materials for all main grove insects and dis-
20 years have proven definite results and reasonable safe-
ty. If you are not using Schnarr Combination Sprays, sub-
stantial savings in cost of materials, time and labor
should justify your investigation and use. Dr. A. F.
Camp states: "There has been an increasing tendency
during the last two years toward the development of
sprays which accomplish two or three things where only
one was accomplished before. Motivating this develop-
ment is the fact that it ordinarily costs more to apply a
spray than it does to buy the materials."





(Continued from Page 11)
considerable unfair practices in the
marketing of fruits and vegetables.
This act provides for the licensing of
dealers and provides for the termina-
tion of licenses to violators of the
act. The act requires that handlers
must keep records for a period of two
years. The administration of the
Agricultural Commodities Act is un-
der the Bureau of Agricultural Eco-
nomics. Most of the complaints are
for claims of for less than $500.00,
most of which are for rejections, fail-
ure to correctly account for proceeds
of shipments, improper deductions,
etc. It is difficult for the adminis-
trators for this act to locate false ac-
counting especially in case of cash
sales. However, the commission
says as result of the bureau's efforts
in this connection, rejections have
been greatly reduced.
The commission seemed to speak
well of cooperatives in general and
though they say 57 percent of the
citrus fruits are handled by coopera-
tives, 95 percent of the lemons, 66
percent of the grapes, there is suffi-
cient competition from the other
sources to keep these large coopera-
tives from getting a corner on the
market. They seemed to indicate that
cooperatives in general practice fair
trade practices.


Oil Sprays


White Band

Experienced pest control men
freely at your service . . .

Write for information


The commission states that the 17
chain stores paid an average of 22 1-2
percent return in 1929 and for the
six year period 1929-19J5, they
averaged a rate of more than 16 per-
cent. Processors and manufacturers
returned 7.3 percent; wineries, 4.4
percent; wholesalers, distributors,
4.6 percent. It was not possible
to get comparable figures for pro-
ducers of fruits and vegetables but
it was considered that producers of
these commodities received less re-
turn on their capital than the above
It was also brought out there was
a considerable increase in capitaliza-
tion and assets of these organizations,
the greatest being among the chain
stores group.
The commission investigated the
tax avoidance of officers of these cor-
porations but found that apparently
these officers had a clean slate. Re-
gardless of the fact that their sal-
aries averaged from 42,000 to 200,-
000 dollars per year. In the case
of chains, the average salary of of-
ficers was almost $200,000.00 per
Proportions Handled
Chain stores handle 14 percent of
U. S. production of grapefruit and
12 percent of the oranges. Appar-
ently from the reports of the com-
mission, growers get an average of
16c per box less for grapefruit sold
through chain stores and 19c less for
oranges sold through chains. In only
two cities shown on their report did
the returns on grapefruit from chain
stores show a higher return to grow-
ers than other than chains, those
cities being Atlanta and Baltimore.
The returns from oranges sold in
chain stores were lower in every
city than returns from other than

COVER CROPS Alyce Clover-Striata
and Spectabalis Crotolaria at WHOLE-
AGE CO., Orlando, Fla., 28 E. Pine Street.
Jaffa, Pineapple, Hamlin buds on Sour
Stock. Sour Orange Seedlings. R. P.
Thornton and H. S. Pollard, Copothorn
Nurseries, Box 2880, Tampa. Florida.


Sprayed Trees

Thrived on Higher Dos-
ages in These Florida
A 1938 study of the effect of various
phytonomic oil spray dosages included
"VOLCK" Oil Sprays at dilutions of
from 1% to 21/% actual oil, applied to
several varieties of oranges, from Parson
Browns and Hamlins to Valencias, dur-
ing the heat of July days... at Orlando,
Florida. Observation includes March,
At dosages sufficient to give GOOD
scale control (and higher than was re-
quired, to include 2%% actual oil),
trees and fruit thrived on the treatment.
At the lower dosages, benefits were in
proportion to oil deposit. All trees were
benefited by the treatments and all
fruit varieties colored normally.

Dead Wood Formation
was about in proportion to
LACK of scale control

The untreated check trees and buffer
rows suffered heavily from Purple Scale
damage, although the July infestation
was moderate. In these untreated checks
a great deal of deadwood formed during
the seven months following spraying of
the adjoining trees, defoliation was se.
vere, and fruit was lost and lowered in
grade by heavy Scale damage. Rust
mite damage by the end of October was
severe where untreated.
In the "VOLCK"-sprayed area, the lower
dosages were distinctly beneficial but the
benefits of Adequate Dosage were out-
standing. At the higher dosages there
was practically no Scale, and only a
negligible amount of dead wood, after
seven months. Rust Mite control for
three months (at which time the entire
planting was dusted with sulphur by
airplane) was practically perfect where
commercial dosages of "VOLCK" had
been applied.

There is no adequate substitute
for a commercial dosage of
"VOLCK" for a general clean-
up of citrus insect pests.

For further information, consult Nitrate
Agencies Co., Jacksonville; Jackson
Grain Co., Tampa; Hector Supply Co.,
Miami; or


Orlando. Florida

Page 20


Legislature Passes Growers' Bills

EDITOR'S NOTE: In preparing the leg-
islative program now before the legisla-
lature, the leadership of Florida Citrus Grow-
eds, Inc., had difficulty in getting expressions
from the rank and file of growers on many
important subjects. That expression which
it was possible to get revealed the growers
had not given careful study to many of the
industry's problems. The remedies pro-
posed would run the legislative committees
into difficulties in some other branch of the
citrus situation.
For instance, the proposition to let trucks
haul fruit without restriction after December
1st, does not provide far protecting the grow-
er and the industry against shipment of
frozen fruit, of fruit picked up off the
ground, etc. And this is only one of sev-
eral points where the failure of the grower
to study the whole industry, threatened to
bring up some misunderstanding between
some grower members of the organization and
the committees that were spending their own
money and time in carefu' study of thesz
The accompanying article by Mr. Saur-
mann raises some of the questions that the
growers must investigate thoroughly and
come to an agreement upon.
A sound broad knowledge of such ques-
tions among all growers would be a solid
rock upon which complete unity of the or-
ganization could be solidified.
Thes: questions should form the subject:
matte: of many local and county meeting;
throughout the year.
As we go to press the following
bills have been passed by the Florida
Senate: Canners unwholesome fruit
bill; canners maturity bill; soap and
other materials license bill; tractor
and vehicle license bill; color added
regulation; maturity standards; froz-
en fruit embargo; regulation of pro-
The house committee Saturday
approved all of these bills with the
exception of the maturity standards
bill on which there seems to be a
minor controversy. It is hoped that
the house committee will, at the next
meeting of their committee called for
next Monday evening, report favor-
ably on the balance of the growers'
program, which will include the
elimination bill, the state marketing
agreement, field specifications, license
and bond for fruit buyers.
House Prospects
The House Committee Saturday
also approved two additional can-
ners' bills, reported them favorably
out of the committee as committee
mills, in order that they might take
their place on the calendar with the

other citrus bills. These two can-
ner bills provided:
1. Establishing of grades and the
regulation of embossing.
2. Prohibiting the importation of
canned grapefruit from other areas
and the reshipping of it from Flor-
ida under Florida labels. As was to
be expected, considerable shipper op-
position was in evidence at both
public hearings held by the joint cit-
rus committees of both houses, es-
pecially three bills which are designed
to regulate the quality of fruit han-
dled by both canners and packers.

In fighting for this type of legis-
tion regulation, the grower is fight-
ing against a continuation of ruinous
prices such as were experienced this
year and growers will continue to de-
mand that the processors of our fruit
subject themselves to this type of
regulation in order that the grower
might live.
The point to all this is the grower
has been represented at the legisla-
ture. It has been possible for the
legislators to know what laws the
growers themselves want. The
legislators have not been forced to
rely on the shippers telling the legis-
lators what the growers want. This
was made possible solely because the
growers have an organization.

"Sell Fruit and Produce the Auction Way,

Where Supply and Demand Meet Every Day"



THAT supplies at Auction are centralized and correct competitive principles are
THAT all buyers have equal opportunity to bid on each and every lot as it is
THAT centralized supply automatically creates concentrated demand from all buy-
ing units.
THAT concentrated demand is aided by liberal buyer credit and complete buyer
THAT the Auctions assume all credit risks despite their moderate selling charges.
THAT day-after-sale accounting is a practice resulting in prompt returns to you.

Fruit & Produce Auction Association, Inc.
66 Harrison Street, New York, N. Y.

American Central Fruit Auction Co.
St. Louis
Baltimore Fruit Exchange
Consolidated Fruit Exchange. Inc.
Detroit Fruit Auction Company
Fruit Auction Sales Company

H. Harris 8 Co.
New York Fruit Auction Corp.
New York
Philadelphia Termina's Auction Co.
Union Fruit Auction Company
United Fruit Auction Company

Page 21


A Victory for Unity

Individuals form organizations to achieve unity of
thought and action. So unity of thought and action
among growers is the first necessity for a successful
state organization.
In this respect, one of the greatest victories of the or-
ganization's young life was won on last Tuesday in
a committee room at the annual meeting of the state di-
Disunity, like death and serious accidents, comes at
unexpected places. This time it was on the proposed
field box law.
The size of field boxes is a point upon which grow-
ers and shippers can readily agree. It should have
been a "non-controversial" piece of legislation.
The grower wants the size of field boxes carefully de-
fined because he wants to know how much fruit he is
selling. The honest shipper wants the size defined,
because he wants to know how much he is buying.
Since the present field box law is indefinite and no
one knows exactly what it means, field boxes have had
a way of growing in size as time has passed. Some
chiseling shippers could put higher cleats on their field
boxes making it possible to squeeze more fruit into
them, which would enable them to offer 5c a box or
10c a box more than an honest competitor could offer.
It is very difficult to explain away an offer of 5c or
10c more per box. Growers have not learned enough
to turn it down. This is one peg upon which so many
growers hang up. Consequently, the honest shipper in
order to stay in business has been forced to heighten
the cleats on his field crates.
Everybody was anxious that a law would be passed
by the present legislature which would definitely de-
fine a legal field crate.
In spite of the ease with which it appears this ques-
tion should have been settled, it became the subject of
much controversy. The argument broke out in the
joint legislative committee hearings in Tallahassee.
The enemies of the organization marched legislators
by the committee room to show how the growers were
fighting among themselves and to give legislators the
idea that the grower organization was not united.
From the legislature the controversy was brought
to the state board of directors' meeting at Bradenton.
In spite of the comparatively small importance of the
question, and in spite of the fact that plans for the
coming year and other fundamental problems were to
be discussed at the meeting, the question could easily
have consumed the whole day and could easily have
divided the directors into warring camps and could
have left the grower movement crippled for months
and years to come had it not been removed from the
floor to a committeeroom.
In the committeeroom the arguments proceeded at

a hot pace the greater part of the day. The members of
the committee within a short time could have brought
back a majority report to the board of directors that
would have been adopted, but the farsighted men on
this memorable committee realized the importance of
unanimous agreement. They were working to destroy
the seeds of discord which the controversy over this
question was sowing in the organization. They were
working for unity.
Their efforts were crowned with most unusual suc-
cess. The committee report was unanimous. It was
an inspiring last act to a great day of accomplishment.
It marked the beginning of a new and successful year
for the young grower organization.
The men who made up this committee were John
M. Criley Terra Ceia, chairman; Col. B. F. Haynes.
Altamonte Springs; C. Roy Buchan, Arcadia: Henry L.
Pringle, Leesburg; E. L. Wirt, Babson Park: C. S.
Whitfield, Orlando; A. V. Saurman, Clearwater.
It may appear that we are putting undue stress upon
this event, but its lesson must be learned if the organi-
zation is to survive and continue to be of still greater
service to the grower.
Unity is Necessary
Editor E. D. Lambri'ht in our April 15th issue
quoted this truth from Longfellow:
"All your strength is in your union.
All your danger is in discord."
Without unity we had as well have no organiza-
tion. We cannot always hope to reach all those unan-
imous decisions so dear to the heart of President Lou
Kramer but nothing must ever be permitted to come
up that threatens a split or serious discord in our
ranks. This committee won a great victory.

In the Same Boat

There is no doubt but that the small grower and the
large grower both suffer from depressed conditions in
the citrus industry. Likewise all areas suffer. In fact
the best fruit and the best producing sections suffer
greater in proportion than the poorer fruit and the less
favored sections. That the best fruit and the best
producing sections can save themselves in these times
is no argument against the unity of all growers in all
sections in a single organization working for the good
of all growers. What we want is the best price we
can get and the best profits possible. It will take an
industry-wide program a long time to reach that goal.
Consequently the grower who would most help
himself is the one who will look at his industry as a
whole. He may even lose immediately in following
the rules that must be set up to work out our salva-
tion, but he can rest assured he will profit handsomely
in the end.

Page 22

We Read In The Papers

The interest of Florida Citrus Growers. Inc., in the
improvement of citrus industry impels it to express
sincerest appreciation for the intelligent and timely
assistance which has been given to the cause by leading
papers throughout the citrus belt. Among them, in
particular, we mention an editorial in the Tampa
Daily Times of April 21, entitled: "The Bill to
Abolish the Citrus Commission."
We quote from the editorial as follows:
"Many Floridians outside the industry have the dis-
tinct impression that any shortcomings of the Citrus
Commission have been due to the weakness of the
laws and the authority given it. The current legisla-
tive program of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., is ap-
parently designed to strengthen these laws and regula-
tions in accordance with growers' wishes."
The Ft. Pierce News Tribune on April 25th has
the following to say:
"The proposals for state legislation that have been
drafted by committees of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.,
are by far the most constructive that have been made.
These growers, who have worked for months in analyz-
ing the industry's problems and in developing plans
for a complete merchandising marketing program, have
rendered a service of inestimable value and are deserving
of the support of the entire industry.
"This is no time for Florida growers to get away
from sound merchandising and marketing practices and
experiment with untried panaceas. The production
of citrus fruit will continue to increase and with it
will increase our competition from other sections and
other products. The Florida industry can hold its
own only if it sticks to fundamentals and does those
things that must be done to standardize the quality
and regulate the distribution of our fruit."
The Tampa Morning Tribune on April 23 discusses
the legislative picture as follows:
"Most of the laws submitted by thz growers' or-
ganization are fine. They are constructive and go a
long way to meet the troublesome problems.
"Our advice to growers is to rally around and back
up their leaders to see that these bills are approved.
But the growers should not halt with the real job un-
finished. They should not stop until that orderly dis-
tribution of fruit we mentioned before is obtained thru
a strong state marketing agreement or prorate. It
will take some time, but there is more red ink unless
it is accomplished.
"Unanimous cooperation in the Florida citrus in-
dustry is the only real solution to the problems, both
present and future, and it cannot come as long as small
groups and individuals are constantly striving to upset
the orange cart."

The Citrus Grower congratulates the following official's for their
enthusiastic and unanimous reelection to their posts for another
L. H. Kramer, Lake Wales, President; J. J. Banks, Jr., Or-
lando, 1st Vice-President; C. B. Van Sickler, Ft. Pierce, 2nd Vice-
President; W. L. Burton, Orlando, Secretary; E. G. Todd, Avon
Park, Treasurer; W. J. Steed. Kissimmee, General Counsel.

Don't Let

Another Drouth

Catch You Napping

There is a way to fertilize that will
help your trees pull through long
dry spells. Others are doing it. You,
too, should begin now to inoculate
your soil with

The Bacterialized Plant Food

which, in addition to being the
richest plant food known, is also a
carrier of moisture gathering and
holding organisms.

Nothing takes the place of rain. Not
even irrigation. But this will help.

Don't wait. Investigate now.

PHONE 3842
138 N. Orange Ave.



Wilkins, L K ,Chief
Periolical Div U S Dept Agri.
Washington D C

Growers! This is YOUR Organization!

. Join It Now .

Membership Application Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.


Through an industry program designed to obtain for the grower a fair net return on
his investment.
A. Elimination of uneconomic grove practices.
B. Elimination of all processing and distribution costs not vital to the maintaining of qual-
ity fruit or the broadening of markets.
A. Effective green fruit laws.
B. Improved cultural practices.
C. Quality grades.
D. Elimination of all processing practices adversely affecting quality.
E. Improved shipping and distribution practices.
Establishing Laws and Marketing Agreements to provide for orderly distribution.
A. Elimination of all inefficient, irresponsible shipping agencies, particularly those agencies
refusing to cooperate on a constructive program.
B. Coordinating all sales through a few centralized sales agencies.
C. Maintaining prices to net the Grower a fair return on his investment.
Membership in -- County Citrus Growers is limited to bona fide growers who do
not buy or sell citrus fruit of others as a business for profit, or who do not derive a salary from Ship-
ping Agencies except as provided for in the By-Laws.
SUSTAINING MEMBERSHIP DUES $1.00 plus 5c per acre E[
It is understood and agreed that 50 cents of above amount covers one year's subscription to THE CIT-
SIGNATURE .. ... -.. .......-.. .....- ADDRESS -
INDE PL N DENT--...........

Mail your Application to the President of your County's Unit, or to the Florida Citrus
Growers, Inc., Orlando, Florida.

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