Front Cover
 President's message
 Table of Contents
 Control of the citrus industry
 "We did not know these men"
 Market for grapefruit bread
 Necessity for grower unity
 Importance of grove irrigation
 More about 1935 law
 With the editor
 Back Cover

Group Title: Citrus grower (Orlando, Fla.)
Title: The citrus grower
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086640/00011
 Material Information
Title: The citrus grower
Uniform Title: Citrus grower (Orlando, Fla.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30-44 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
Place of Publication: Orlando Fla
Publication Date: April 15, 1939
Frequency: weekly (semimonthly july-sept.)[<1939>]
semimonthly[ former 1938-]
normalized irregular
Subject: Fruit-culture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruit industry -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Nov. 15, 1938)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1942?
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 4, no. 9 (May 15, 1942).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086640
Volume ID: VID00011
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 03227648
lccn - sn 96027371

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    President's message
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Control of the citrus industry
        Page 4
        Page 5
    "We did not know these men"
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Market for grapefruit bread
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Necessity for grower unity
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Importance of grove irrigation
        Page 14
        Page 15
    More about 1935 law
        Page 16
        Page 17
    With the editor
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Back Cover
        Page 20
Full Text

p 1



Attracuive merchandising makes the customer buy once. Good
fruit brings him back again and again.

o| uHsBa

APR 2 4 1939
I~,'? 1t Of g o


WE HAVE HEARD comments from some quar-
ters that our grower organization is graduating
too rapidly from its baby clothes. These com-
ments said that we are biting off a big mouthful in
proposing that the grower get control of his industry.
This proposition is set down as No. 1 in the objec-
tives for the coming year.
Our proposal is not vainglorious or threatening to
the interests of anyone. It is prompted by careful anal-
ysis of the mistakes of the past. It is based upon the
inescapable conclusion that the grower, and he only,
has that economic position in the industry which forces
him to think of all the industry in protecting his own
interests. He and his children must live and work in
the citrus belt. He wants the citrus community to be
Entirely Possible
For the grower to obtain control of his industry is
a big undertaking. But it is not at all impossible. The
respect and confidence which the organization has won
in its first year of existence from its own members and
from all the other factors in the industry show how
rapidly an organization can develop when it has the
loyal support and the enthusiastic devotion and the
clear thinking and the boundless energy and the un-
stinted generosity of so many good men which its ac-
tivities have uncovered. An organization with this
kind of support-and it is the kind of support your
president and your state officials and board of direc-
tors has had-cannot help but go places.
Thoroughly Justified
The idea that the growers should have control of the
citrus industry is thoroughly justified. But it does
not by any means arise from a desire on the part of
the growers to dominate and dictate for their own --
terests without consideration of all other interests.
Grower control sounds odd only because at this time it
comes on the scene against the dark background of cha-
otic conditions brought about by the control of others.
There is something in our habits of thinking that
makes us ask the question: "If all these successful and
highly prosperous shippers have been unable to steer





the citrus industry away from the rocks, how can the
grower hope to do it?"
Others Care For
The answer to that one is easy. Nobody is in busi-
ness for his health. I know the growers are not and
we do not believe the shipper and the auctions and the
chain stores and the railroads and the fertilizer com-
panies are in business for their health. All of these
come in for a good share of the citrus consumer's dol-
lar; all of these are well organized: have been careful
in the past to take care of themselves. These interests
have made money in good years and bad years. They
made money last year, and will show a greater profit
this season. Only the grower suffers immediately from
surplus conditions and chaotic markets. The grower
alone has a bread-and-butter interest in putting the
whole industry on a firm, steady, stable basis.
Grower Responsibility
The grower is the only element in the industry that
must take all other interests into consideration. He
must have packing house service, fertilizer, railroad
service, terminal market service and retail service. The
grower knows that all of those interests must live,
otherwise there would be no way of disposing of his
fruit after it is produced. The grower differs from all
of them in that he only is interested in all of the cor-
rect practices which will deliver to consumers good
fruit in quantities that the markets will absorb at a
price that will pay not only marketing and other ex-
penses but also something in addition so the grower
may live. The grower's outlook must take all these
interests into consideration. He is the basis of the in-
dustry; he has the most at stake and the most to lose
if the industry fails. On him should rest logically the
responsibility of control of his industry.
Not An Apology
This is not an apology for the grower saying that he
must control the citrus industry. It is only an ex-
planation of the necessity that growers do control their
Yours very truly,

Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.

The Citrus Grower

Official Publication of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.


Our Organization

Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., is an agency through
which 21 county organizations work together for the
purpose of making citrus growing profitable. The
county organizations are made up of growers who have
no financial connection with or interest in the ship-
ment of fruit. In these units are growers who ship
through cooperative marketing associations as well as
growers who dispose of their fruit to cash buyers or
on consignment. So called "cooperative" growers and
so called "independent" growers are fighting side by
side in the ranks of the county units and, through the
county units, in the state organization for the benefit
of the citrus industry. The grower must work for a
stable market with a healthy demand for fruit at a
price that pays, in addition to distribution costs, the
cost of production and a reasonable profit to producers.
Grower Price Ideal-
Unless this price ideal of the grower is attained, the
grower eventually must go out of business and with
him will fall the whole super-structure of the industry.
Only through organization can the grower realize this
ideal. Consequently, an effective grower organization
is of the greatest concern to every element within the
industry and to all of those business, professional and
other working people in the citrus area whose pros-
perity directly and indirectly depends upon the citrus
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., is the means through
which the grower works and expresses himself in striv-
ing for this ideal.
The state officers are:
L. H. Kramer, Lake Wales, President: J. J. Banks.
Jr., Orlando, 1st Vice-President; C. B. Van Sickler,
Ft. Pierce, 2nd Vice-President; W. L. Burton, Orlando,
Secretary; E. G. Todd, Avon Park. Treasurer: W. J.
Steed, Orlando, General Counsel.


h. ~


ffw 'a y

Thomas S. Carpenter, Jr.

Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., has great cause to re-
gret the recent death of Mr. Thomas S. Carpenter. Jr..
president of the Putnam County Citrus Growers, Inc..
the Putnam County unit of the state organization.
Mr. Carpenter was born in Attleboro. Mass.. 38
years ago, died March 23, 1939.
He attended the common schools in Crescent City.
Fla., and graduated from Dartmouth College of Han-
over, N. H. Moved to Crescent City in 1925.
He occupied a place of prominence in the industrial
life of the state and community in which he lived, hav-
ing been president of the Crescent City Citrus Growers
Association, was one of the original members of the
state committee of fifty of the old clearing house, a
state director of the Florida Citrus Exchange, the first
president of Putnam County Citrus Growers, Inc.. and
otherwise took an active part in all matters pertaining
to the interest of the citrus grower.
Mr. Carpenter was a large grower of citrus, having
considerable acreage in and around Crescent City.

Virgil H. Conner ... .- Editor Published the First and Fifteenth of each able. The publishers can accept no re-
month by The Florida Citrus Growers, sponsibility for return of unsolicited manu-
Vernon Keith ------ Advertising Manager Inc., Orlando, Florida. scripts.
PUBLICATION COMMITTEE-W. E. Entered as second-class matter Novem- Subscription Bates
Kemp, Chairman: Carl D. Brorein, R. ber 15, 1938, at the postoffice at Orlando, In United States, one year $1.00 to non-
J. Kepler, E. G. Thatcher, W. L. Burton, Fla., under the Act of March 3, 1879. members of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.,
Membership subscriptions, one year 50c.
C. A. Garrett, Karl Lehmann. Manuscripts submitted to this maga- ddresrs subscriptions, one yGrower
Szine should be accompanied by sufficient Address all mail to The Citrus Grower,
Printed by The Chief Press, Apopka postage for their return if found unavail- P. 0. Box 2077, Orlando, Florida.

Page 4 THE CITRUS GROWER, April 15, 1939

Growers Must Prepare to Accept--

THE GROWER HAS declared he
intends to gain control of the
citrus industry. He intends to
get this control through his grower
To many, gaining control seems
like a large undertaking. However,
it is by no means so great an under-
taking as preparing ourselves to be
capable of accepting the responsibil-
ity of such control. For that mat-
ter, by giving due consideration to
the sort of shippers that handle his
own fruit, by his influence with
other growers, by his vote, by agree-
ing and acting with other growers
on these seemingly small and home-
ly matters, the grower readily can
direct the citrus industry.
Growers Must Know
Successful grower control hangs
on two large considerations. The
grower organization must be per-
fected so that growers may act to-
gether. The rank and file grower
must learn more about his industry.
He must know enough that grower
control will result in permanent
benefit to all of its branches. It is
not enough that leadership only
should be capable of analyzing im-
portant questions and making wise
decisions. As years pass leadership
becomes less efficient, less aggressive
and narrows its vision unless con-
stantly renewed and checked by the
rank and file.
Need More Leaders
In discovering and developing
leadership the young Florida Citrus
Growers, Inc., has been amazingly
successful. A few of these leaders
are discussed in another article in
this issue. They have worked ably
and energetically. Their accomplish-
ments have been tremendous. They
have shown the vigor and enthusiasm
of a young enterprise. It will be
more difficult to continue this pace
in the future unless broader interest
and knowledge of what should be
done is spread throughout the thou-
sands of growers in the citrus belt.
This is the task the organization

It would be well to measure the
extent of this task. It can be di-
vided into two general subjects--
production and marketing.
What does the grower know
about production? There are some
who know a lot. They get tre-
mendous yields of high quality fruit
at a low cost. But there is a wide
difference between the results oib-
tained by the poorest and the best
growers. The state and federal gov-
ernment experiment stations have
helped a great deal along this line
for many years. But the organiza-
tion should attach much importance
to encouraging its members to take
advantage of the available knowl-
edge to improve yields and quality
and reduce costs.
Tree-to-Market Troubles
Most of our vexing problems
begin, however, after the fruit is
produced and starts on its way to the
consumer. Our present legislative
program deals almost altogether with
this end of the citrus problem. The
grower who is to be an intelligent
unit of the organization, which will
direct the affairs of the citrus in-
dustry, must make an intensive study
of reducing costs of picking, haul-
ing, packing, railroad rates, terminal
market charges, retailers' profits, etc.
He must become thoroughly aquaint-
ed with every one of these processes
and diligently question every cent
of cost that goes into the train of
expenses. Every cent that is not
necessary to give the customer good
fruit and good service must be elim-
Lower Costs Important
We must remember that any re-
duction of cost, whether it comes
back to the grower or whether it
is given to the final consumer, helps
the citrus industry. We have more
fruit than we can sell at consumer
prices which present processing and
marketing charges make necessary.
One estimate by highly competent
statisticians says that for each re-

duction of 5c per box on grapefruit
the market will absorb an additional
1,000,000 boxes. This estimate is
the most optimistic of them. The
United States Department of Agri-
culture says, however, that a general
reduction of 10c per box on citrus
fruit to the final consumer will cause
an additional million boxes to be
Marketing has been unscientific,
chaotic and uncontrolled. It is quite
reasonable to believe that somewhere
along this line several dimes per box
can be eliminated without reducing
the attractiveness of our fruit to the
final consumer, thus causing a much
larger quantity to be used, and en-
abling us to sell a greater percentage
of our crop at a profit to the grower.

Patience Required
In order to do this intelligently
and without serious and expensive
backfires, the grower must study the
whole marketing question thorough-
ly. We must not be like those re-
ferred to as "fools rush in where
angels fear to tread." We must
really know what we are doing.
Every act must be carefully weighed
because we cannot make a change
in one place without necessitating
changes all the way along.
Patience is said to be the greatest
human virtue. Patience is the psy-
chological attitude under which our
mind works best, it creates the cir-
cumstances under which we learn
easiest. We must take much time
carefully to examine things as they
are and discuss and weigh and ex-
periment with gradual changes in
order to make conditions what we
hope them to be.

Do It Today
The first step the grower should
take in making a practical study of
the marketing of his fruit should be
to pick out today the shipper that
he wants to handle his fruit next
season; then go over and have a talk
with the shipper, see what his ideas
are about green fruit, about volume
control and about other reforms the

THE CITRUS GROWER. April 15, 1939

grower hopes to introduce into the
industry. If you find the shipper
you have picked does not want to
cooperate for the benefit of the in-
dustry, you have picked the wrong
man. You should try another one.
How each grower handles his own
fruit is about the whole question.
Growers Must Act
We can build the most efficient
grower organization and we can get
90 to 100 percent of all growers to
join it. We can have it well fi-
nanced. and get for it the respect
of state governing bodies and of busi-
ness interests, but we still will not
be able to get anywhere unless the
grower understands the problems of
his industry and insists that the
leaders of his organization work in-
telligently to solve those problems.
Nor can we hope to get anywhere if
growers insist on selling their fruit
through shippers who work against
the interests of the grower and of
the industry by bad packing house
The grower has the political pow-
er, and the economic power to make
citrus growing profitable. but all of
this power will do him no good
whatever unless he begins at once to
use it intelligently. He must begin
at home, in small things to control
his industry.
Good In Small Things
The marketing agreement fight.
the present struggle in the legislature
are spectacular things and out of
them we expect to gain some ad-
vantages, but most of the good that
is coming to the grower will be done
by the rank and file exerting pressure
by their every day dealings with oth-
er interests in the industry.
All of us must study and work

Blanton Unit of Pasco

1. Whereas: A marketing emer-
gency exists in the citrus fruit in-
dustry of Florida and
2. Whereas: This emergency is
aggravated and to a large extent
caused by the present unfair, and

probably unconstitutional, truck law
3. Whereas: The real reason was
to force all citrus fruits to pass thru
the packing houses and
4. Whereas: The present d:ffi-
culty in selling fruit at a profit is the
lack of sufficient markets and
5. Whereas: The common or
gypsy trucks when unhampered by
prohibitive legislation vastly increased
those markets and
6. Whereas: The grower likes to
enjoy all of the necessities and a few
of the luxuries of life and
7. Whereas: The grower likes to
see his wife unworried by unsolvable
financial problems and
8. Whereas: The grower likes to
see his children well fed, well dress-
ed and happy and
9. Whereas: The repeal of the
present truck law will greatly add
in the achievement of these ends
Therefore. Be It Resolved and
Hereby Is Resolved That
1. We, the growers of the Blan-
ton unit, demand that the present
legislature repeal the present truck
law and pursue in future a "Hands-
off" policy in regard to the gypsy
truck and be it further resolved that
2. We invite every grower unit
in the state to join the Blanton
unit in the adoption of these reso-
lutions and be it further resolved that
3. If the present legislature fails
or refuses to repeal the present ob-
noxious truck law. that we. the
growers, place a candidate in the
field at the next election against ev-
ery legislator who declines to assist
in the repeal of said law and be it
further resolved that
4. Such candidates be pledged
in writing to. if humanly possible.
repeal the present truck law by a
roll call vote and to leave the gypsy
truck unhampered by arduous regu-
lations, and be it further resolved
5. A copy of these resolutions be
spread on the minutes and be it fur-
ther resolved that
6. A copy of these resolutions be
sent to each grower unit in the state
and be it further resolved that
7. A copy of these resolutions be
sent to every member of the state
legislature by registered mail.

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Page 5

Page 6 THE CITRUS GROWER, April 15, 1939

Only a Short Year Ago--

"We Did Not Know These Men"

That is what A. J. Grant said at
the recent annual meeting of the
Pinellas County Unit of Florida
Citrus Growers, Inc. Mr. Grant is
president of that unit. It is what any
county president or State President
Kramer, himself, could say with the
greatest of truth.
At that moment there was a ques-
tion before the Pinellas meeting
about competent men suitable for
election on the county board of di-
rectors for the ensuing year. A res-
olution had been passed raising the
number of directors from 11 to 15.
A statement had been made that by
far the greater part of the work of
the Pinellas county organization
during the year just closing had been
done by four or five men. Much
more work was in sight, more inten-
sive and broader activity must be en-
gaged in to carry out the program of
the coming year. It would take more
men to do it.
Men Available
Mr. Grant said "We have plenty
of talent among the growers of
Pinellas county. Our trouble last
year was we did not know these
men." But the Pinellas county or-
ganization knows these men this year
and they will be put in the harness
for bigger and better accomplish-
Among the other great accom-
plishments of Florida Citrus Grow-
ers, Inc., none are so important as
the men that it has discovered in its
short life.
Maturity Authority
We were looking at John M. Cri-
ley of Terra Ceia, for instance-
just a plain every day grower, who
was appointed chairman of the legis-
lative sub-committee on maturity
tests. With what seems to be bound-
less energy, and, apparently, with no
thought of expense to himself, Mr.
Criley has investigated every angle
of this vexing question.
J. J. Taylor, state chemist. Dr. A.
V. Camp, horticulturist in charge of

the State Experiment Station. Dr. A.
L. Stahl, who has made thousands
of experiments at the University of
Florida Experiment Station in the
last few years to determine an accu-
rate test for maturity, R. P. Thorn-
ton, a grower and chemist, and
numerous other authorities have been
wrung dry, so to speak, by the en-
ergetic investigations of Mr. Criley
and his committeemen.
Mr. Criley, in fact, is thoroughly
informed on the subject, and he and
his committee have used sound judg-
ment in arriving at their conclusions.
The shippers have found it absolute-
ly impossible, successfully to ques-
tion the wisdom of the maturity law
now before the state legislature. There
was nothing other interests in the
industry could do but agree with the
proposed maturity provisions and
make suggestions only for minor
changes that would express the in-
tent more clearly.
In this connection the organiza-
tion has discovered another outstand-
ing man in the person of W. L'E.
Barnett of Tangerine, as chairman
of the research committee. He and
his fellow committeemen rendered
invaluable service to Mr. Criley and
his committee. Mr. Barnett also
found positive proof that we do not
know nearly enough about chemical
tests for maturity and quality and
his committee has been instrumental
in recommending that the legislature
appropriate $6000.00 per year for
three more years to pay salaries of
assistants, buy materials and other
expenses for Dr. Stahl to continue
his investigations in this direction.
Want Cultural Data
Mr. Barnett's committee also
brought to the front the fact that
cultural practices have much to do
with fruit quality, also that good
fruit can be spoiled by mishandling
in packing houses, and his committee
has been instrumental in asking the

legislature to appropriate $25,000.00
to the State Experiment Station, Lake
Alfred, to continue investigations of
the effect of cultural practices on
fruit quality; also to install an ex-
perimental packing house where all
sorts of soaps, waxes and dyes may
be used and the fruit traced through
the channels of transportation to the
final consumer, so that we may know
definitely what packing house prac-
tices are good and what are bad with
the view of regulating these practices
for the benefit of the grower and his
customer in the north.
The organization has discovered
men like E. G. Todd, Avon Park,
chairman of the general legislative
committee, who has spent much time
and effort on matters of policy, fi-
nance, and management of the organ-
It has discovered J. J. Banks, Jr.,
Orlando, Arthur G. Porcher, Cocoa,
Fred T. Henderson, Winter Haven,
who fought the first skirmish in the
marketing agreement battle-we say
first skirmish because much more is
yet to come.
Practical Culturists
The organization has discovered
in its own ranks plain everyday
growers like Clifford R. Hiatt, Ta-
vares, and Stephen Chase, Dunedin,
who are outstanding cultural experts
and whose work and advice will be
most valuable in showing the grower
how better fruit can be produced
more economically.
Varied Talents
D. C. Williams, Cocoa, who did
much of the groundwork in organiz-
ing the state unit; A. V. Saurman,
Clearwater, a grower who already
knew a great deal but has uncovered
much more information about
charges assessed against growers for
marketing services; W. E. Kemp of
Orlando: R. M. Clewis of Tampa,
outstanding business men whose
services have been so useful in plan-
ning the work of the organization;

Page 7

THE CITRUS GROWER. April 15, 1939

Will it Work on Prices, Too ?

Maybe there is a substitute for common
sense in handling Florida citrus market-
ing problems.
Maybe Florida growers can soothsay con-
sumers into believing that they ship
good. ripe fruit at the beginning of the
season, even though they won't eat it
Maybe some magic can be found to offset
the bitter, cut-throat competition be-
tween Florida's 400 or more "sales agen-
cies" for Florida fruit.
Maybe some wand may be waved or "sit-
ter may be sot" to make the surplus dis-
appear profitably without bothering to
develop by-products, new channels of
distribution or volume control of ship-
Maybe the Florida citrus industry, fa-
vored by nature beyond all others, can

abandon the development of sound mer-
chandising methods and practices.
But we doubt it.
That is why the Florida Citrus Exchange
continues to improve and develop to
meet changing conditions. That is why
new sales offices are opened to expand
still further what already is the largest
and hardest hitting sales organization in
Florida, why merchandising technique is
being improved constantly, why associa-

tion grove service and packing facilities
are being broadened and made more
That lack of belief in things magic has
been behind the interest of the Florida
Citrus Exchange in the successful develop-
ment of its automatic fresh orange juice
dispenser, its orange flake breakfast food,
and other means and methods of liquida-
ting surpluses beyond the capacities of
market absorption.
It has stimulated Florida Citrus Exchange
development and support of every pro-
gressive step undertaken in the industry
to improve fruit handling methods so as
to benefit producers.
It is because of this sound adherence to
common sense policies and principles that
the organization today services nearly ten
times the volume of fruit it handled
thirty years ago.


,Pn~\ ~.&

THE CITRUS GROWER, April 15, 1939

Senator A. W. Young of Vero Beach.
and Senator W. F. Glenn of Cres-
cent City, who have participated in
the formation of and at this moment
are engaged in the effort to get a
constructive grower legislative pro-
gram enacted into law.
Wilbur C. King of Zolfo Springs,
has done a good job in gathering to-
gether an interested and loyal county
organization. He is one, however, of
the 21 county presidents all of whom
are worthwhile discoveries the or-
ganization has made.
The grower organization has un-
covered in its ranks legal talent such
as W. J. (Funie) Steed, Kissimmee,
Henry L. Pringle, Leesburg, Doyle
W. Carlton, Tampa, Geo. I. Fuller-
ton, New Smyrna, W. W. Levis,
Ocala, Hugh G. Jones, Arcadia. The
pleasingly surprising things about
these attorneys was expressed by a
prominent shipper who complained
to our President Kramer, that "these
lawyers work harder with your or-
ganization for nothing than they
will work for me when I pay them."
Francis H. Corrigan of Bradenton.
has ably headed a committee looking
into canning practices. They have
done such a good job that the can-
ners themselves admit some regula-
tion is necessary to be introduced in-
to that completely unregulated sector
of the citrus industry.
Karl Lehmann of Montverde, can
hardly be called a discovery, because
he was well known throughout Flor-
ida, but he has helped with publicity
to make these others known.
Many More
Every grower elected on the Grow-
ers' Administrative Committee of the
grade and size marketing regulation
arrangement is a member of this or-
ganization. There is a big group of
state directors who have spent time
and gasoline going to meetings of
the state organization and have con-
tributed thought and undertaking.
Hardly any of these men were known
a year ago beyond the limits of their
own county, many of them not even
within the county. The grower or-
ganization has discovered and devel-
oped them. They are loyal, steady.
and able. They are the reason the
organization has gained such wide
sympathy and respect in its under-

Shows the Way
As an example of complete aban-
donment of personal affairs when or-
ganization work has called upon him,
we can think of none better than
President Lou Kramer himself. Very
probably the air pilots and hostesses
are calling him "Lou" by this time
on account of the numerous trips he
has made to Chicago, Washington,
New York, Atlanta and other places
outside the state on business of this
organization. Here inside the state
he has been constantly on the jump
from one county to the next address-
ing meetings, holding conferences and
other necessary activities.
The magazine is limited in space,
consequently, we have to mention
these very few outstanding examples
of men that the grower organization
has discovered in its first year. We
are sure that if any one had told any
of us a year ago that any of these
men would work the way they have
with no urge behind them except a
desire for a stable citrus industry none
of us would have believed it, not
even the men themselves. We believe
Mr. Grant was absolutely right. "We
did not know these men."
Polk County

1939 presidents and secretaries of
the local units of Polk County Cit-
rus Growers, Inc.:
Auburndale-President, J. Victor
Hodnett, Auburndale; Secretary,
Mrs. C. E. Edmiston, Auburndale.
Bartow-Alturas-President, W. G.
Frankenburger, Bartow; Secretary,
B. Lucian Durrance, Bartow.
Davenport-President. V. J. Mar-
tin, Davenport; Secretary, V. E.
Woods, Davenport.
Frostproof President, W. W.
Owens, Frostproof; Secretary, B. H.
Griffin, Jr., Frostproof.
Haines City-President, J. W.
Sample, Haines City; Secretary, Mrs.
Elsie Horton, Haines City.
Ft. Meade President, M. M.
Loadholtes, Ft. Meade; Secretary, D.
L. Palmer, Ft. Meade.
Lake Hamilton, Dundee-Presi-
dent, Carl Nystrom, Lake Hamilton.
Lake Wales-President, L. H.
Kramer, Lake Wales; Secretary, E.
T. Hickman, Lake Wales.
Lakeland-President, J. A. Cros-
swy, Lakeland; Secretary, H. N.
Donoho, Highland City.
Waverly-President, W. L. Ped-

erson, Winter Haven; Secretary, W.
J. Casey, Lake Wales.
Winter Haven-President, Fred
T. Henderson, Winter Haven; Sec-
retary, Geo. E. Chambliss, Winter
St. Lucie County

The St. Lucie County Unit of
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., meets
at the court house in Fort Pierce the
first Friday night of each month.
County Secretaries

Please mail to The Citrus Grower
the principal meeting dates of your
county organization and of the
county units for publication in this
column. We have many requests for
this information. Thanks.-Editor.

the value of the work his organi-
zation is doing for the good of the
citrus industry should pass this copy
of the magazine to some non-member
grower who does not know about us.


$ and

By paying cash for fertilizer,
spray materials, etc.
By borrowing from a grow-
ers' cooperative organization
-operated by and for the
growers who use it;
By paying interest only for
the time you have actual use
of the money;
By repaying your loan when
you sell your crop.
New low interest rate.

41/2% per annum

We will be glad to serve you.
Write us for further details.
Florida Citrus Production
Credit Association
P. 0. Box 1592 Orlando, Fla.

Page 8

THE CITRUS GROWER, April 15, 1939



On Standard Vent Shipments



The Advantages---
No Decay
A Better Polish
Better Keeping Qualities
A Better Color and at Lower Temperature
Less Shrinkage in Coloring Rooms
More Weight per Box upon Arrival
Tight Straps and a Full Box upon Arrival

The Cost---
The savings on refrigeration and decay and on adjustments on F. 0.
B Sales will more than pay for the service charge on these processes.
The savings on refrigeration and the higher prices received on auc-
tion sales will leave a profit above the cost of the processes.
The satisfaction your fruit will give due to superior keeping qual-
ities will mean more F. 0. B. orders.
May we discuss the matter with you?




-------m -- ---------------------------------- M---- ---'

Page 9

Page 10 THE CITRUS GROWER, April 15, 1939

Clever Thinking Creates Ready--

Market For Grapefruit Bread

OPEN LETTERS to and by Col-
onel Clearwater to Fred Yenisch
of Clearwater Bakery, to S. B.
Strickland of Federal Bakery.
A friend of mine, an elderly lady
who has lived all her life in Florida
and whose bread-kneading knowl-
edge runs back to pioneer days. tells
me that there is nothing new about
the use of grapefruit juice in making
bread and biscuits.
"In the old days when we made
bread in our kitchens." she said, "we
always used grapefruit juice. It kept
the bread fresh and I always thought
it improved the flavor. Grapefruit
juice was especially useful in biscuit

Has Possibilities
The "grapefruit loaf" idea is very
intriguing to those of us (and that
means nearly everybody in the Clear-
water area) whose business welfare
springs largely from citrus produc-
tion. It may be that in the grapefruit
loaf lies the solution of the acute and
aggravating problem of citrus under-
The grapefruit process of bread-
making has lately been revived by
commercial bakers in the Rio Grande
valley of Texas at the behest of cit-
rus growers who, like those of Flor-
ida, are hard hit by under-consump-
tion. The formula is two ounces of
grapefruit juice to the standard loaf.
The process increases the cost of a
standard loaf of white bread by less
than two percent and this cost is ab-
sorbed by weight reduction of one-
half ounce to the loaf.
Large Outlet
I cannot vouch for the figure but
one student of citrus economy esti-
mates that if the grapefruit loaf were
generally accepted in the Clearwater
section an annual consumption of
10,000 boxes of the fruit would re-
sult. The state as a whole eats 111,-
000,000 loaves of bread every year.
What a tremendous outlet for citrus
that would be if two ounces of juice
were used to produce each loaf! And
Florida is not the only state inter-


Editor's Note: Grapefruit bread looks like
a good means of disposing of some of our
grapefruit surplus. It has been successfully
tried in Texas, as reported in the press sev-
eral weeks ago. Other matters perhaps have
prevented the subject getting the general at-
tention here that it deserves.
Colonel Clearwater of the Clearwater Sun,
however, seems to have been working on the
case with good results. His experience as
shown in the following clippings from his
paper, shows that the introduction of grape-
fruit bread is practical. It is readily accepted
by the public when properly advertised.
The whole series of quotations also proves
the truth of the slogan recently adopted by
the associate members of Florida Citrus
Growers. Inc.-men who are not directly
connected with any branch of the citrus in-
dustry-but who say of themselves "We're
in the citrus business too."

ested in better bread, longer fresh.
The market possibilities are almost
limitless. There would be no prob-
lem about supply as canned grape-
fruit juice serves the same purpose as
fresh juice.
Generous Proposal
I feel so keenly on this subject
that I make you two gentlemen this
proposal: If either or both of you
will produce the grapefruit loaf in
your Clearwater bakeries I will give
without cost all the advertising you
need for a thorough marketing ex-
periment. No use to make a new
product if you don't let people know
about it. The promotion work
should be done in a big way and this
I promise to do through The Sun.
I make only one condition: that the
grapefruit loaf be actually produced
in your own bakeries here in Clear-
If in the past you have experiment-
ed with the grapefruit loaf and were
not impressed with the results you
may be sure that was due to lack of
large-scale advertising. Other things
being equal, I am certain this com-
munity will give the grapefruit loaf
what the sales experts call sympa-
thetic reception. But to change buy-
ing habits a product must be adver-

tised over and over in a large and
convincing way. It will pay both
of you to experiment with at least a
couple of baking. A single batch
generously exploited might reveal the
key to a new prosperity for both the
baking and the citrus industries.
Clearwater Sun,
March 12.

Grapefruit Bread Popular
Two Clearwater commercial bak-
ers today announced that they will
supply the local market with "grape-
fruit loaves" of white bread, as sug-
gested by Colonel Clearwater last
The Federal Bake Shop, 526
Cleveland Street, made a baking yes-
terday. Manager S. B. Strickland said
today that he is marketing a trial
batch of forty-eight loaves. He used
one and a half ounces of grapefruit
juice to each eighteen-ounce loaf.
"Later on," said Mr. Strickland, "we
shall also experiment with a loaf
flavored with orange juice."
The Clearwater Baking Company,
637 Chestnut Street, selling at
wholesale only, promises a baking of
two hundred and fifty grapefruit
loaves to be marketed next Friday.
Manager Fred Yenisch said that he
will use two ounces of grapefruit
juice to the loaf.
It is argued that grapefruit juice
improves the flavor of bread and pre-
vents it from becoming stale. The
use of citrus juice in breadmaking is
suggested also as a possible means of
solving the problem of under-con-
sumption of grapefruit and oranges,
now so vexing to growers. If the
grapefruit loaf meets with popular
acceptance and the process comes into
general use a new outlet for citrus
almost limitless will develop.
When the citrus industry is pros-
perous Clearwater is prosperous.
When the grower is receiving a fair
price for his fruit and the packing
houses and canneries are in full op-
eration money pours into Clearwater

THE CITRUS GROWER. April 15, 1939

and all of us benefit.
Hence, when you help the grower
you are only helping yourself. You
can help the grower by buying the
grapefruit loaf. The next time you
buy bread-Ask For The Clearwa-
ter-Made Grapefruit Loaf.
Clearwater Sun.
March 14.

Gets Results
To S. D. Strickland of Federal
Bakery; Fred Yenisch of Clearwater
Two weeks ago This Page called
upon you to help the citrus industry
by using grapefruit juice in your
bread-making. In return for putting
the grapefruit juice loaf on the mar-
ket The Sun agreed to do all the in-
troductory advertising and promo-
tion without cost to you.
Result: Both of you are selling all
the grapefruit juice bread you can
bake. The demand steadily increases
and is every day in excess of supply.
Thus we see exemplified again
this ancient truth: If you have a good
product advertise, advertise, adver-

Emerson said that if you make a
meritorious product the world will
wear a path to your door to purchase
it. Emerson was only half right.
The world cannot wear a path to
any door unless it knows where the
door is. Advertising tells where the
door is. Repetition is the soul of ad-
vertising. If you have worthy goods
or services to sell say so over and
over again.
Clearwater Sun,
March 26.

For More Results
To Nathan Mayo, Commissioner
of Agriculture: C. C. Commander,
Manager of Citrus Exchange; John
Maxcy. Chairman of Citrus Com-
A little promotion work by The
Sun, coupled with cooperation by lo-
cal bakeries, has put grapefruit juice
bread on the tables of a majority of
the people in middle Pinellas county.
What the Sun has done in its small
way you three men, backed by your
organizations, can do in a big way.
Mr. Mayo can issue an official bul-
letin to the bakers of the state ask-

ing them to follow the example of
the Clearwater bakers. Mr. Com-
mander and Mr. Maxcy, by adding
their influence, can extend the idea
beyond Florida boundaries. All
three of you should refer to the
grapefruit loaf in all your advertising
and public documents. The same
stores that sell grapefruit and grape-
fruit juice also sell bread. With a
little effort the owners of these stores
can be persuaded to interest bakers
in the grapefruit loaf.
There is merit in the use of grape-
fruit juice in bread-making. The
juice keeps the bread fresh. Cost is
not important inasmuch as the juice
reduces the weight of the loaf suffi-
ciently to offset the price of the juice.
If only a part of the bakers of the
land used grapefruit juice that would
go a long way toward solving the
problem of citrus under-consumption.
Of course this sort of thing is a lit-
tle out of your routine, but it is
worth doing. It is a ready-to-hand
partial solution of a problem that
must be giving the three of you many
a sleepless night.
Clearwater Sun, April 9.

Tampa, Florida


is the comment usually made when one compares a grove being fertilized
with "EXTRA VALUE BRANDS" to one receiving ordinary fertilizers.

But why should it be amazing? If growers really knew of the unquestioned
quality of the materials used in each ton of ''E X T R A VALU E
BRANDS" and the knowledge and experience behind these Brands, out-
standing results would naturally be expected.

Let one of our experienced field representatives-not just a salesman-
assist you with your summer fertilization program. You, too, will be
surprised, not only at the improvement made in your tree condition, but
also in the actual savings affected through increased yield of b e t t e r
quality fruit.


-1 IlI I -I I I0 I

Page 11

Box 1021

Page 12 THE CITRUS GROWER, April 15, 1939

Outstanding Newspaperman Discusses--

Necessity For Grower Unity

Editor Lambright said:
"The Tribune, on which I have
served almost a lifetime, has ever
been closely related to the citrus in-
dustry, conscious of its importance,
sincerely desirous of promoting its
welfare. This is only natural, be-
cause the territory The Tribune cir-
culation covers is the citrus producing
territory. We have fought and bled
with the industry and occasionally
have come very near dying with it,
only to see it recover, more through
the operation of nature's laws than
from any prescription prepared by
highly reputed industrial specialists,
and resume fair to good health.
"We have watched at its cradle,
aided in its adolescence, marked with
pride its maturity, cheered its suc-
cesses, and tried to prescribe remedies
at its bedside. And that's what we
and a great many other individuals
and agencies are trying to do now-
because citrus is undeniably sick, sick
abed, and, if it is to recover, to get
back on its feet, and take its place
again as the healthy, productive,
profitable, progressive business it
should and must be, that means so
much to Florida and to all associated
with it, it needs strong medicine,
emergency treatment, copious and
corrective doses of common sense and
"Grower's Headache"
"The economic doctor who would
diagnose the ailment now affecting
Florida citrus doubtless would de-
scribe it as a complication of confus-
ion, cross-purposing, dissension and
disruption. It has a grower's head-
ache and a shipper's bellyache; and
just now is suffering particularly
from malnutrition, due to insuffi-
cient intake of returns, and a calam-
itous combination of high produc-
tion pressure and low price pressure.
"We have had in the industry a
motley mixture of legislation and li-
cense, price-fixing and prorate, agree-
ment and auction, over-production
and over-processing, trucking and
trafficking, cost-minimum and court
proceedings, inspection and arsenic,

(Editor's Note: E. D. Lambright, editor
of the Tampa Tribune, spoke Friday night
March 24, at a dinner in Tampa given by
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., for the press
of the citrus belt, and praised the organiza-
tion's attempt to solidly unite South Flor-
ida's biggest industry. Representatives of
the grower organization passed a resolution
at the meeting asking Tampa Tribune to
publish the address in full, which they did
in their Sunday issue, March 26, and num-
erous requests to The Citrus Grower are now
answered in reprinting it here.)
coloring and confiscation, canning
and commissioning about every-
thing that could happen to a poor
devil who is trying to find the right
way out of his difficulties.

What's the Answer?
"We have been listening of late
to dozens of amateur citrus experts
telling us of dozens of things the
matter with citrus and dozens of
plans to rescue and restore it. It is ex-
tremely doubtful that any one of
them has the right answer. What is
the right answer? Does anybody
here, anybody anywhere know? The
one who does know has a place re-
served for him in Florida's Hall of
"While none may know the one,
the correct, the workable plan for re-
covery, we must know and recognize
sensible and practical steps toward
that greatly desired result. Perhaps
through the several suggested pro-
cesses of analyzing and understanding
the problem, we may be enabled ulti-
mately to reach its satisfactory and
saving solution.
"I am convinced that you have
discovered one definite approach to a
cure in this Florida Citrus Growers,
Inc.-the largest organization strict-
ly of growers ever formed in this
state. The Tribune has always be-
lieved and asserted that the salvation,
permanence and prosperity of the
citrus industry must depend on the
growers-those who produce the
fruit and make the industry possible.
I say this without disparagement of

the other branches of the industry,
who are, for the most part, trying
to do what they deem best both for
themselves and for the growers-but
unfortunately, these purposes, as
they practice them, often are not
Growers Should Control
"But unquestionably and inevi-
tably the industry must be controlled
directed and dominated by the men
who produce the crop. The grow-
er of the fruit should dictate its dis-
position. I note you state this em-
phatically in your 'Objective No. 1'
-'to give the grower control of his
industry.' And you are making a de-
cisive step to that end in this asso-
ciation, which, I am informed, now
has a membership of about 6000,
representing 60 percent of the total
citrus acreage. This organization
can give the grower a long-lacking
leadership, a combined, cohesive pow-
er, which, bringing heretofore con-
flicting, confused and quarreling
cliques and factions into intelligent,
efficient cooperation, should, and I
believe will, put the industry back
on the broad and shining highway
of profit and prosperity.
"If the industry is to prosper, the
individual growers must prosper-
and the individual growers can pros-
per only when they are united, in
*singleness of purpose and singleness
of performance, for their common
good. That I am sure can be ac-
complished through this great and
growing association, which ought to
include every producing acre in the
state, and which should be kept
strictly and exclusively a growers'
organization, constituted, governed
and directed of the grower, by the
grower and for the grower.
Must Expand Agreement
"Your objective relating to regu-
lation of quality and quantity move-
ment, appears also sound, and anoth-
er important step toward the restora-
tion of good conditions in the indus-
try. Certainly you are fundamental-
ly right in insisting that the present

THE CITRUS GROWER, April 15, 1939

marketing agreement on grade and
size must be extended to include vol-
ume prorate. Effective and fully
beneficial regulation must apply to
both quality and quantity. I cannot
see how any intelligent grower can
dissent to that obvious conclusion.
"You are planning a program of
legislation. I shall not attempt to
discuss that, in this limited time. It
must be pleasing to you growers,
however, to hear Speaker-elect Pierce
Wood say that he will make the next
citrus legislative committee a grow-

Seminole County

Seminole County has elected the
following officers, directors and com-
mittee chairmen:
President, Fred Forward, Mait-
1st Vice-president. W. H. Pope,
2nd Vice-president. C. Endor
Curlett, Geneva.
Secretary-treasurer. W. B. Rich-
ards, Maitland.
Fred Forward, Maitland.
W. H. Pope, Maitland.
H. H. Pattishall, Geneva.
E. Curlett, Geneva.
W. J. Wells, Jr., Longwood.
J. F. McClelland, Sanford.
Amos Tingley, Oviedo
Mrs. Emma A. Lyman. Altamonte
V. E. Douglass, Chuluota.
John Leonardy. Sanford.
W. B. Richards, Maitland.
B. F. Haines. Altamonte Springs.
P. D. Anderson, Lake Mary.
Geo. Bridge, Longwood.
Commitete Chairmen: Marketing
Agreement. E. Curlett, Geneva;
Traffic. W. H. Pope. Maitland;
Quality Standard, Miss Nona Wylly,
Lake Mary; Processing. Mrs. Emma
A. Lyman, Altamonte Springs;
Marketing, V. E. Douglass, Chulu-
ota; Legislative and Legal, B. F.
Haines, Altamonte Springs; Industry,
Finance, H. H. Pattishal!. Geneva;
Resolutions, P. D. Anderson, Lake
Mary; Educational, W. B. Richards,
Maitland; Membership, W. J. Wells.
Jr.. Longwood; Citrus Culture, C.
R. Dawson, Sanford; Budget. Amos
Tingley. Oviedo.

ers' committee. That is a logical
and entirely just situation which ap-
pears to have escaped the concept of
our former legislators and officials.
Whether the best interests of the in-
dustry demand the present laws, new
laws, or no laws, is for your wise
and experienced decision-but when
you do reach a decision, for your
own sakes, back it up solidly and
unitedly and see that it is put thru
at Tallahassee. And see to it that
any agency which is now or may be
created by law is removed from pol-
itics as far as it is possible to remove
anything in Florida from politics
-which. in too many instances, not
of course particularly meaning cit-
rus, has proved to be not far enough.
Must Watch Chiselers
"You growers also have your re-
sponsibilities. You must keep out
the chiselers and self-seeking politi-
cians, the termites that prey on the
industry for their own advantage
and emolument. You must recog-
nize the small grower, give him full
voice and representation in your pro-
gram. You must maintain the qual-
ity of your product, never permitting
unfit fruit to go out of your groves.
There is serious question whether
coloring, or any artificial expedient,
makes better and more marketable
fruit. In most cases, man can't do
a better job than nature-and noth-
ing can improve good Florida oranges
and grapefruit as they naturally grow
on the tree.

"And, above all, you must get to-
gether and stay together in a spirit
of 100 percent unity and cooperation.
You can never reach the right goal if
you travel in different directions or
quarrel all along the way. That, in
my opinion, has been the damning
curse of Florida citrus-dissension
and disagreement, selfish and jealous
rivalries-the lack of harmonious
and concerted effort for the general
good. If your industry. Florida's
greatest industry, is worth saving, it's
worth working together for and
fighting together for. It was Long-
fellow who said:
"'All your strength is in your un-
"'All your danger is in discord.'
"And long before Longfellow,
Pascal wrote: 'The multitude which
does not reduce itself to unity is con-
fusion; the unity which does not
depend upon the multitude is ty-
ranny.' So you citrus growers must
bring your multitude into unity and,
at the same time, be sure that your
unity serves the desire and the bene-
fit of your multitude.
"And you may be confident that,
in your sincere endeavor to rescue and
restore your industry, you will have,
always, the earnest and utmost sup-
port of The Tribune."
Our issue of May 1st will be an
anniversary number, with complete
state directory.


Practical and Economical
Give your grove a chance to produce a crop at a cost per box that
will make you money. Now is the time to prepare for the coming
crop and improve the quality as well as quantity.

ready for immediate delivery

Farm & Home Machinery Company
Orlando, Florida Phone 5791

Page 13

THE CITRUS GROWER, April 15, 1939

Extension Economist Tells of--

Importance Of Grove Irrigation

are becoming more aware of the
importance of grove irrigation.
Unfortunately many growers who
did not have access to an ir-
rigation system in the spring of
1938 spent more money for
hauling water in barrels than for
all cultural care except fertilizer,
In spite of all expense incurred in
hauling water to withered trees, an
insufficient amount existed for nor-
mal tree growth and fruit develop-
ment. Then too, the expense of
hauling water on some groves ex-
ceeded the total cost of irrigating
other groves in the same locality.
Normal Crop
These irrigated groves retained
most of the first or regular bloom
fruit and only a scattering "June
bloom" was obtained. Many of the
non-irrigated groves lost more than
30 percent of the first bloom fruit as
a result of the drouth last spring. In
addition to the loss of the young
fruit much of the foliage also drop-
ped. As a result of this severe shock
to the trees most groves bloomed
again in May or June after it rained.
Thus, most groves had two crops of
fruit to be marketed instead of one
this season. From the standpoint of
market conditions and potential sup-
ply of citrus fruits in California and
Texas, it was probably providential
that Florida groves did set two crops
in that the marketing of fruit can be
prolonged. On the other hand, the
usual grove care last fall and this
spring was very much disrupted on
account of the late bloom fruit be-
ing on the trees at a time when an-
other crop was being produced.
We need not go back even a year
to point out the importance of irri-
gation in Florida. During the time
this article was being prepared, hun-
dreds of dollars were being spent ev-
ery day in hauling water in barrels
to wilted trees. The spring drouth
plus a comparatively large crop of
"June bloom" fruit, is probably re-
sponsible for the fact that many
groves have not yet bloomed. It re-

Assistant Extension Economist

mains to be seen if again many of
these non-irrigated groves will bloom
Need of Irrigation
Before considering the effect of
irrigation upon costs, yield, and net
returns, let us review some of the
factors which would indicate the
need of grove irrigation on our sandy
soils. First, the average rainfall rec-
ords from ten stations located in
Lake, Polk, Orange, and Highlands
counties for eight years beginning
in 1930, are shown in Figure 1. It
may be noted that there has been
considerable variation in rainfall by
months and that approximately 55
percent of the rainfall occurred dur-

ing the four months of June. July.
August, and September. It is per-
haps true that during these months
more rainfall is necessary as respira-
tion and transpiration are consider-
ably greater for a citrus tree at tem-
peratures which prevail in Florida
during these months. The evapora-
tion of soil moisture is also greater.
In spite of the comparatively high
amount of rainfall during these
months, growers have found it prof-
itable to irrigate in some years dur-
ing this period. However, the av-
erage rainfall from October through
May, or eight months of the crop
year, amounted to only 24 inches.
It is during this period that trees and
fruit suffer most from drouth.
This Year and Last
According to the records, less
rainfall occurred in the principal cit-
rus producing counties during De-
cember, 1937, through April, 1938,

Figure 1.-Average monthly rainfall for 10 stations in Lake, Polk, Orange,
and Highlands Counties, 1930-1938.
(Source: U. S. Department of Agriculture. Weather Bureau.)





Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr MaV Jun Jul Aug

Page 14

THE CITRUS GROWER, April 15, 1939

than in any five-months period since
1930. The average for the ten sta-
tions was one and one-tenth inches
per month or about two-tenths of
the annual rainfall. This may ac-
count in part for the heavy drop-
page of young fruit during March
and April of 1938, as well as the
largest "June bloom" crop of fruit
on record in Florida.
Indications are that this spring
might be another dry period similar
to the previous one, since the average
rainfall for December, January, and
February amounted to about one
inch per month for the same sta-
tions. Many groves have not re-
ceived as much as one inch of rain-
fall during the three-months period.
Sand Soils
Second, most citrus soils in Flor-
ida contain a high percent of fine
to coarse sand. According to the
agronomist, the chief characteristics
affecting capillary action of soil mois-
ture are texture, structure, amount
of organic matter, and depth to wa-
ter table in the sand. Comparatively
speaking, the average depth to stand-
ing water is probably the greatest fa-
vorable factor in obtaining moisture
from below. Due to the texture,
structure, and comparatively small
quantities of organic material in our
sandy soils, the nearness to free wa-
ter is of little value in many groves.
Thus we may conclude that the
principal amount of water used in
respiration and as the transporting
agency of plant food must necessar-
ily come from above through rain-
fall or surface irrigation.
Cost and Management
Needless to say that irrigation in-
creases the per acre cost of grove
care in Florida and that the extent
of cost will depend upon the amount
of irrigation, source of water includ-
ing elevation of grove above the wa-
ter supply, distance from grove, size
of pump and mains, type of equip-
ment as well as the managerial ability
of the grove operator. Due to the

the value of the work his organi-
zation is doing for the good of the
citrus industry should pass this copy
of the magazine to some non-member
grower who does not know about us.

size of grove or high cost of obtain-
ing water, it would be unprofitable
to equip many groves with an effi-
cient irrigation system, based upon
average prices of fruit since 1930.
However, if fresh water lakes are
not accessible, perhaps a large well
might be dug and a cooperative
pumping system installed from which
several small nearby groves might
be irrigated profitably. The portable
irrigation system provides a very
economical means of irrigating small
groves if water can be fairly easily
obtained. For comparatively large
groves, a permanent system or at least
the pumping plant and mains would
be more economical and efficient over
a period of years due to the higher
rate of depreciation and cost of labor
to operate an all-portable system.
According to the grove records,
those groves which more nearly re-
ceived adequate moisture through
irrigation yielded 33 percent or 42
boxes per acre more fruit than non-
irrigated groves. This increase in
yield reduced the cost approximately
16 cents per box, covering a produc-
tion of five crops. The difference in
cost of production per box on the
average grove which was irrigated
during a five-year period made a cor-
respondingly greater net return. In-
dications are that the returns from
the 1937-38 crop and the 1938-39
crop being marketed at this time,
will not be sufficient to cover cost
of production. (Complete data are
not yet available for publication for
these crops.) Even the increased
yield as a result of supplying addi-
tional moisture through irrigation on
many groves failed to show a net re-
turn to the operators. The records
further indicate that irrigation on
sandy soils is second to fertilizer in
affecting greater net returns through
increased yield, although irrigation
must go hand in hand with other
profitable practices if the expense of
this operation is to be profitable.
Use any pie crust-
Fill with the following:
3 egg yolks
Juice of 4 medium sized calamon-
1 scant cup sugar
Boil in double boiler until thick.
When cool fold above in 3 stiffly
beaten egg whites. Pour into pie


Sprayed Trees

Thrived on Higher Dos-
ages in These Florida
A 1938 study of the effect of various
phytonomic oil spray dosages included
"VOLCK" Oil Sprays at dilutions of from
1% to 2 / % actual oil, applied to several
varieties of oranges, from Parson Browns
and Hamlins to Valencias, during the heat
of July days . at Orlando, Florida. Ob-
servation include March 1939.
At dosages sufficient to give GOOD Scale
control (and higher than was required, to
include 2V/2% actual oil), trees and fruit
thrived on the treatment. At the lower dos-
ages, benefits were in proportion to oil de-
posit. All trees were benefited by the treat-
ments and all fruit varieties colored nor-
was about in proportion to
LACK of scale control.
The untreated check trees and buffer rows
suffered heavily from Purple Scale damage,
although the July infestation was moderate.
In these untreated checks a great deal of dead
wood formed during the seven months fol-
lowing spraying of the adjoining trees, de-
foliation was severe, and fruit was lost and
lowered in grade by heavy Scale damage.
Rust Mite damage by the end of October
was severe where untreated.
In the "VOLCK"-sprayed area, the lower
dosages were distinctly beneficial but the
benefits of ADEQUATE DOSAGE were
outstanding. At the higher dosages there was
practically no Scale, and only a negligible
amount of dead wood, after seven months.
Rust Mite control for three months (at which
time the entire planting was dusted with sul-
phur by airplane) was practically perfect
where commercial dosages of "VOLCK" had
been applied.
There is no adequate substitute
for a commercial dosage of
"VOLCK" for a general clean-up
of citrus insect pests.
For further information, consult Nitrate
Agencies Co., Jacksonville: Jackson Grain
Co., Tampa; Hector Supply Co., Miami; or


Orlando, Florida

Page 15

THE CITRUS GROWER, April 15, 1939


The Citrus Grower
I would like to compliment Mr. J. K.
Christian on his article in the April 1st Cit-
rus Grower magazine and say if we had
more growers who expressed the truth as he
has, we would soon be on the way to pros-
perity. For men in the legislature depend on
our votes and if they go against our wishes
we will know what to do when they run for
office again.
I too have lived to see the greatest indus-
try in Florida ruined by mismanagement
and the laws passed in 1935 by ignoring the
small grower.
I am opposed to being regulated from
Washington, also to a commission of eleven
men appointed by the governor. If we are
so incapable of running our business, then
have a commission elected by growers and
have only growers of many years standing
to serve.
I am in favor of abolishing all citrus laws
passed in 1935. These laws that force the
grower to have his or her fruit graded, pro-
cessed, which includes gassing and color add-
ed, and then taxed for a stamp on each box.
This has been the means of ruining the small
growers. By repealing these laws the selfish
interests could not ship green fruit, for the
public would not buy.
By repealing these laws of 1935 it would
give the small grower the right to sell to
trucks the field run of fruit, and he or she
(the grower) would then be able to make
a little profit. As it is, the small grower is
going deeper in debt each yeas. When he is
forced to pay this extra cost the small grow-
er cannot make expenses.
I favor a law that would prohibit any
fruit to be shipped out of the state before
November 15, and then only the early va-
rieties which would be tree ripened. We then
would be dealing honestly with the public.
As it is the public is buying fruit that is
dishonestly advertised, for it isn't fit to eat,
and we growers are forced to pay an adver-
tising tax that runs to nearly one million
dollars a year.
This would be a parallel case. Suppose a
merchant sold a suit of clothes advertising it
as being all wool, and it turned out to be
mostly cotton. He would not be any more
dishonest than those who now are running
the citrus business, as they are offering and
selling a product that is not coming up to
the standard as advertised. All the heralded
rests are a farce. The fruit that is passed, no
honest grower would eat.
Just keep on as we are forced to by these
laws and regulations, and it will not be long
before the citrus industry in Florida will put
all small growers out of business, forcing
them to lose their all.
I have reports from many states asking
why they are not able to get Florida fruit
that is fit to eat: that it is sour and has a
cooked taste; that they have stopped buying
This is written by one who was born and
brought up in a grove. My family has been
in the citrus business since 1871, so I think
I am competent to judge as to what is being
done to our citrus business.
(Miss) Nona A. Wiley,
Lake Mary. Florida.

EDITOR'S NOTE: The letter referred
to by Miss Wiley in foregoing communica-
tion as from Mr. J. K. Christian, was on
page 19 of the April 1 issue, headed "Grow-
ers Take Notice" and signed "A Citrus


Mr. Editor:
The hue and cry "A BUMPER CROP"
goes out while statistics show that of the
35-36 crop we marketed almost 7 million
boxes grapefruit, under the old plan and for
the same period 1938-39 crop we marketed
approximately 5/4 million boxes and for
37-38 crop approximately 4 2/3 million
boxes the last two under our present set up.
Canners have used for 1938-39 a little
over 3 million boxes, and for the year
1937-38 they used approximately 334 mil-
lion boxes.
1935-36 crop under old system netted
growers from $1.50 to $3.00 per box. Un-
der present system 1938-39 crop has netted
grower from $.00 to $.50 for oranges and
much less for grapefruit, and fruit is wasted,
growers impoverished, ultimate cost to con-
sumer so great he can't buy and condition
of fruit when it reaches consumer, so bad he
can't use it, method and costs through pack-
ing, shipping, handling, re-handling, and re-
shipping being responsible for the quality
and cost to consumer.
Statistics further show that if this crop
had been marketed on the average of the past
two seasons, we would have marketed about
4,000,000 boxes of grapefruit more than we
have marketed, and while I have not the
statistics on oranges,-I am sure that the or-
ange market shows a greater deficit, for this
I recite as some of the causes for this
deficit in marketing:
1. Green fruit, colored and marketed be-
fore eatable.
2. Processing, and pressure pack (Ruin-
ing the Fruit)
3. Barring free shipment by truck, to
small markets.
4. Exclusive shipping through packing
5. Packing-house, boxing, and processing
6. Exclusive (almost) to Ten markets
7. Cost of auction sales, re-handling and
8. Added costs in profits to numerous
dealers handling.
9. Advertising a quality we do not give
10. Canners using culls, drops and unfit
fruit, and thereby setting the price.
11. The Government agencies buying and
thereby setting a price, ruinous to the indus-
try, and creating price bedlam.
12. Buyers must buy at prices set in (10)
and (11) above.
Under the present system the consumer
must pay approximately $6.00 per box for
oranges and $5.00 per box for grapefruit
to net the grower $.75 for oranges and
$.40 per box for grapefruit.
If the markets are opened to truck and
bulk shipments direct to the consumer mar-
kets the consumer would pay $3.00 for or-
anges and $2.40 for grapefruit and net the

grower $1.00 for oranges and $.75 for
grapefruit, in the farthest markets and more
in the near markets. At these last prices, the
consumer will use four or five times as much
citrus, and get fruit direct from the tree, un-
processed, and undamaged, and will repeat
his orders. Under our present system, the
masses are barred from use, and the grower
is ruined.
Open the markets and we'll market all the
fruit Florida can produce, at a price the
grower can live and the consumer can buy.
500 trucks will buy and pay for at the
grove, and dispose of at least 5,000,000
boxes per season and bulk R. R. shipment
will distribute more, where they are not now
using fruit at all.
Tampa, Fla. A. B. Carlton.


April 3, 1939
Dear Editor:
Herewith sending you a few ideas of my
own as a grower. Have a 30 acre grove that
I have been 24 years in making, just to see
a bunch of packers, canners and fly-by-night
buyers fix prices for fruit that are below the
cost of production and the courts sustain
I am digesting the "Citrus Grower" with
much pleasure. Now that the legislature is
about to begin operations it would seem
wise to have a bonafide growers delegation
on hand to look after the grower's interests.
In my estimation the proper legislative pro-
cedure would be to wipe the slate clean of all
existing laws relative to the citrus industry
and begin anew. There should not be many
points to cover in a set of new laws. The
main thing is to prohibit the shipment of
green, immature fruit with which Florida
has been flooding the northern markets as
early as September of each year. All sorts ot
tests for maturity have been adopted from
time to time and none have prevented the
shipment of undesirable fruit. The only
test that will stop green fruit from being
shipped is to make a test of a ripe, edible
grapefruit or orange-see what it shows in
juice, acid, solids and sugar content-and
adopt that test before shipment is allowed.
This would also do away with all the ob-
noxious coloring processes which are but
ruses to induce consumers to buy something
that is not what it seems to be-in other
words obtaining money for fruit under false
pretenses. This taken care of, a volume pro-
rating provision, the banning of arsenic
sprayed fruit, a standard shipping crate-
California size preferred-the allowance of
grove owners to sell fruit to truckers at
grove, always providing it came up to test,
prohibiting the shipment of any but No. 1
and No. 2 fruit, and you would have the
fundamentals of a pretty good set up for the
growers. Such fruit as would be put on the
market under these conditions would cut out
a tremendous amount of advertising expense.
as the fruit would advertise itself. It is true
that the law of supply and demand is some-
times hard to adjust, but if you have a
meritorious article to dispose of it is easier
to increase the demand for it than it would
be to try and foist upon the buyer an in-
ferior article.
Lutz, Fla. F. W. Fairbanks

Page 16

THE CITRUS GROWER, April 15, 1939


The annual meeting of the mem-
bers of the Citrus-Hernando County
citrus growers was held in the court
house, Brooksville, March 25, at
which meeting the following direc-
tors were elected:
A. B. Endsley, Brooksville.
James Mountain, Brooksville.
James M. Weeks, Brooksville.
W. P. Murphy, Brooksville.
J. T. Daniel, Brooksville.
R. T. Hancock, Brooksville.
W. H. Van Ness, Inverness.
W. L. Spivey, Floral City.
Frank H. Leslie, Inverness.
On Friday, March 31, a meet-
ing of the directors was held and the
following officers were elected for the
President, A. B. Endsley, Brooks-
ville; 1st vice-president, James
Mountain, Brooksville; 2nd vice-
president, W. H. Van Ness. Inver-
Highland County

On Friday, March 31, the High-
lands County Citrus Growers, Inc.,
held their annual meeting and the
following officers and directors were
President Guignard ( G u y)
Maxcy, Sebring.
1st Vice-president-W. W. Mas-
ters, DeSoto City.
2nd Vice-president C. H.
Shackelford, Hicoria.
Secretary-treasurer-A. M. Wolfe,
Senior Director-.E G. Todd,
Avon Park.
Junior Director-Guignard Max-
cy, Sebring.
Alternate Director-Philip Cor-
rell, DeSoto City.
The local units also have all held
their elections and the following of-
ficers will serve from April 1, for
the coming year.
Avon Park Unit: E. W. Hartt,
president, Avon Park; E. G. Todd,
vice-president, Avon Park; Parke
Anderson, secretary-treasurer, Avon
Sebring Unit: Guignard Maxcy,
president, Sebring; V. G. Watters,
vice-president, Sebring; A. M. Wolfe,
secretary-treasurer, Sebring.

DeSoto City Unit: Philip Correll,
president, DeSoto City; W. W. Mas-
ters, vice-president, DeSoto City;
Mrs. Clara Pearce, secretary-treasur-
er, DeSoto City.
Lake Placid Unit: C; L. Craw-
ford, president, Sebring; G. A. De-
Vane, vice-president, Lake Placid;
C. H. Shackelford, secretary-treas-
urer, Hicoria.
Manatee County

F. H. Corrigan, president of Co-
operative Manatee Citrus Growers,
Inc., called a meeting of the board
of directors of the local unit for
Tuesday night, March 7, at the
county agent's office. In the letter
announcing the meeting, President
Corrigan said in part:
"I urge you to continue your
whole hearted support of your or-
ganization in this time of stress."
Showing the seriousness and de-
votion county presidents bring to
their work in this organization, we
quote another paragraph from Mr.
Corrigan's letter:
"At a time like this, it is well to
disregard all rumors, promises, and
the like, until verified. You may
reach me at my office at all times,
and I will be only too glad to dis-
cuss with you any matters relative
to the present situation."

Pinellas County

Pinellas County has elected the
following officers and directors:
President: A. J. Grant.
Vice-president, A. V. Saurman.
Secretary-treasurer, Ernest E.
Senior Delegate, S. A. Whitesell.
Junior Delegate, Stephen Chase.
Alternate Delegate, C. W. Whit-
District No. 1-Stephen Chase,
Palm Harbor; L. E. Sutton, Palm
Harbor; Hugh B. Hutch, Palm Har-
District No. 2-A. J. Grant,
Dunedin; J. A. Boyd, Dunedin; S.
T. Beebles, Dunedin.
District No. 3-Ernest E. Whit-
acre, Clearwater; E. W. McMullen,
Clearwater; I. C. Nelson, Clearwater.
District No. 4-A. V. Saurman,
Largo; S. A. Whitesell, Largo; C.
W. Whittle, Largo.
District No. 5-F. L. Campbell,
Seminole; F. R. Watkins, St. Peters-
burg; Geo. Clinger, St. Petersburg.

830 W. Church St. Orlando, Fla.

The Valencia Situation

Reliable marketing authorities state that if the present Valencia
crop were moved at the rate of 1400 carloads per week for the bal-
ance of the season, the growers would be assured of a return of one
dollar per box on the tree.
At the present time, Valencias are being moved at the rate of
2300 carloads per week, which is causing a depressed market and
unsatisfactory prices.
The necessity for a Marketing Agreement containing VOLUME
PRORATE provision is self-evident.

H. E. CORNELL, President

Glen Saint Mary Nurseries Co.

56 E. Pine St.

1st Nat'l. Bank Bldg.

Page 17

THE CITRUS GROWER, April 15, 1939

The Grower is Represented Does Not Affect Grade and Size

At every session of the legislature citrus laws are the
subject of heated discussion. Rumors about what the
legislature will or will not do swarm through the pa-
pers and through all channels of gossip. They will
be at their height for this session about the time this
issue of our magazine reaches its readers. It will seem
then that this session is like all the sessions that have
gone before it.

Different This Time
Such "seeming" is far from the truth. This session
marks a brand new era in citrus legislation. At this
session for the first time the grower, the man who ac-
tually produces the fruit, is represented. His case will
be heard. For the first time the legislators will know
what the grower thinks. The legislators will not be
forced to guess what the grower thinks by listening to
the representatives of all other branches of the citrus
Not only will the grower be represented, but he will
be represented in a big way. We hear that caravans
of growers will attend the sessions where citrus legis-
lation is under consideration. The growers' representa-
tion will not be that of hired lobbyists but of scores of
wholesome citizens, deeply interested in the welfare of
the citrus belt and of the state in general.
Advocates Are Voters
These are men who have influence with their neigh-
bors back home, whose judgment is respected, whose
word means votes. Votes are the music to which poli-
ticians dance best and most consistently.
The growers' legislative program has been outlined
and discussed in several previous issues of this maga-
zine and in many newspapers of the citrus belt. Flor-
ida Citrus Growers, Inc., has developed experts in many
lines. Some of these men are discussed in an article
on Page 6 of this issue. Each section of the legisla-
tive program has been assigned to one of these out-
standing grower authorities for presentation to the
joint legislative committee.

Hearing 18th

As we go to press the hearing before this joint
session of committeemen from the House of Representa-
tives and from the Senate has been set for the afternoon
of Tuesday, April 18th. It is urged that as many
growers as possible attend this session to give their
views or to lend to the grower program the prestige of
their presence.
Such a hearing as this will be is something new in
the history of Florida. It is a result of the work of
the grower organization. In this important matter
of citrus laws, the grower is handling his own business.

On April 10, Judge Alexander Akerman. of the
United States Court for Southern District of Florida,
issued a restraining order prohibiting the federal govern-
ment from enforcing the fruit grade stamping law. It
was a temporary ten day order, issued to L. T. John-
son, of Philadelphia, who has grove properties in
Florida and is also a shipper.
Suspends 1935 Law?
So far as Mr. Johnson was concerned, the order was
regarded as having the effect of suspending operation of
the law passed in 1935 giving authority to the Florida
Citrus Commission to require fruit to be graded, in-
spected and stamped or labeled before it could be
taken out of the state.
The regulations set up by the Citrus Commission
under authority of this act make it almost necessary
that fruit pass through some sort of packing house be-
fore it could leave the state. The regulations do not
mention a packing house, but the requirements are
of such a nature that a packing house is the only con-
venient concern offering the processing and inspection
services required. The regulations have the effect of re-
stricting the sale of fruit to trucks at the grove, except
for sale within the state.
How to Solve
It is not known what price fruit-to-trucks would be
bringing at this time, if the old unrestricted selling were
restored. Most of the discussion of it is based on prices
paid by truckers in the prosperous years of the past.
Those conditions cannot hastily be compared with the
In times like these, however, the best minds in the
grower organization are wrestling with the problem.
They do not want to cut off the slightest possibility of
disposing of any fruit at a profit. They also have not
found satisfactory answers to the question: "How is
the industry to have the protection of necessary in-
spections to guard against green fruit, frozen, culls,
etc., getting to our customers outside the state?"
Grade and Size Continues
It has been suggested the court order may stop the
working of the grade and size marketing committees.
This, however, is not expected. Regulations restrict-
ing the movement of oranges to specified grades, and
the movement of grapefruit to specified grades and sizes
are expected to continue in effect.
That is. until April 3, shipments of early and mid-
season, Temple and Valencia oranges and Marsh or
other seedless grapefruit, are restricted to grades higher
than U. S. Grade No. 3; Duncan and other seeded
grapefruit to grades higher than U. S. No. 2 and sizes
larger than 80.

Page 18


Vero Beach, Fla.
In regard to our conversation in
Orlando, Tuesday, April 4th, while
the citrus growers' meeting was in
session; the idea Mrs. Van Sickler,
(Mrs. C. B. Van Sickler, of Ft.
Pierce), Mrs. Zeuch. (Mrs. W. T.
Zeuch, of Vero Beach), also myself,
advanced simultaneously and more
or less facetiously, that we were the
Women's Auxiliary, occurs to me is
a splendid thought worthy of ad-
Personally, I do not qualify as I
am not a grower and no member of
my family is, but, we who live in
the fruit belt realize how much the
business of growing fruit means to
other fields of business in this state.
All wives and daughters of grow-
ers should be vitally interested in
such a movement. If a Woman's
Auxiliary were properly organized,
it would give a tremendous impetus
to the organization as a whole.
Women need not be timid about or-
ganizing such a group. It is a splen-
did forward movement worthy of
time and thought, and I am sure
every woman's husband (or father)
in the citrus growers' organization
would be more than pleased to have
this cooperation.
Incidentally, the shops and various
other businesses, particularly in cen-
ters where meetings are so frequently
held, would profit by advertising in
your magazine, without a doubt. As
witness, our Easter shopping Tues-
day and multiply that by a large
Ruth Sherry Jett.
(Grower reader: Please let us have
your comments on this idea.-Edi-

(Editor's Note: It appears to us the fol-
lowing exchange of letters goes deeply into
the most important phases of our citrus
problems. They are printed here with the
hope of exciting more comment. This
magazine will be pleased to hear from other
Mount Dora, Florida
March 9th, 1939.
Mr. A. V. Saurman,
c-o The Citrus Grower,
Dear Sir:
I read with interest your article in the
March 1st issue, page 6, of the Citrus
Grower and on page 6, column 1, you say.
"--- and third to limit available
supplies and/or PRODUCTION by DRAS-

TIC measures such as destruction of sur-
plus fruit and possibly by elimination of
marginal acreage."
Several times within the past few months
I have noticed statements by various writers
along the lines mentioned by you in the
part of the article quoted above and I
would like to bear a full discussion of this
phase of the question and have the views
of citrus leaders generally brought out.
You would, I believe, be doing a real
service to bring about a full discussion of
this matter.
Very truly yours,
J. O. Hall

Dear Mr. Hall:
Your letter of March 9th is appreciated.
I am fully aware of the increasing interest
in the problem of control of supplies and
production to meet demand for our fruit.
Supply and demand will always, in the long
run, determine prices and we must influence
either or both to continue a profitable busi-
ness for us as growers. If we cannot develop
sufficient demand, we must try to control
First and foremost we should concen-
trate our efforts to create the demand needed
to profitably consume the entire crops pro-
duced. We should work to change the pres-
ent buyer's market to a seller's market.
With increasing demand the troubles of the
industry grow less and so our most con-
structive endeavors can and should be along
lines that will result in satisfactory outlets
for all the fruit we can produce. To take
fullest advantage of our efforts in this re-
spect we should regulate existing supplies
with current demand. The use of marketing
agreements, price stabilization plans, etc.,
is of great importance in accomplishing
Only when the industry has determined
beyond all doubt that constructive efforts
will not find profitable markets for our pro-
duction, should measures such as destruc-
tion of surplus fruit and elimination of
marginal acreage be considered. Unfortun-
ately citrus fruit growers cannot curtail pro-
duction as simply and easily as farmers who
grow annual crops. For citrus growers to
actually curtail supplies means destruction

of products already produced. It takes
years to grow a full bearing citrus tree and
to intentionally destroy even a part of the
fruit therefrom seems hard to justify.
My personal opinion is that any program
involving destruction of food stuffs is un-
justified until there is no other alternative
to prevent complete economic collapse. I
should much prefer, and consistently advo-
cate, approaching the stabilization of the
Citrus Industry by constructive means, all
of which lead to greater demand and build-
ing of consumption to handle the entire
production at profitable prices. I do not be-
lieve that we have any where near reached
the saturation point of citrus consumption
nor do I believe we have reached a point
of annual surplus crops. When we do then
elimination is the only solution.
I am taking the liberty of sending a copy
of your letter as well as a copy of this re-
ply, to the Editor of The Citrus Grower,
with the request that he seek expressions
from other growers on this important sub-
Very truly yours,
A. V. Saurman



COVER CROPS Alyce Clover-Striata
and Spectabalis Crotolaria at WHOLE-
AGE CO., Orlando, Fla., 28 E. Pine Street.

PORATION, Orlando, Florida.
PORATION, Phone 3842, 138 N. Or-
ange Ave., Orlando, Florida.
Jaffa, Pineapple, Hamlin buds on Sour
Stock. Sour Orange Seedlings. R. P.
Thornton and H. S. Pollard, Copothorn
Nurseries, Box 2880, Tampa. Florida.

Everything used for both citrus and vegetable insects and diseases is manu-
factured in the complete plant shown above. Its central location and our fleet
of trucks assure quick deliveries and make it unnecessary to purchase in ex-
cessive quantities or far in advance.

Wilkins, L K ,Chief
Perioilia 'iv U S Dept Agri.

Growers This is YOUR Organization!

. Join It Now! .

Membership Application Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.


Through an industry program designed to obtain for the grower a fair net return on
his investment.
A. Elimination of uneconomic grove practices.
B. Elimination of all processing and distribution costs not vital to the maintaining of qual-
ity fruit or the broadening of markets.
A. Effective green fruit laws.
B. Improved cultural practices.
C. Quality grades.
D. Elimination of all processing practices adversely affecting quality.
E. Improved shipping and distribution practices.
Establishing Laws and Marketing Agreements to provide for orderly distribution.
A. Elimination of all inefficient, irresponsible shipping agencies, particularly those agencies
refusing to cooperate on a constructive program.
B. Coordinating all sales through a few centralized sales agencies.
C. Maintaining prices to net the Grower a fair return on his investment.
Membership in ------County Citrus Growers is limited to bona fide growers who do
not buy or sell citrus fruit of others as a business for profit, or who do not derive a salary from Ship-
ping Agencies except as provided for in the By-Laws.
SUSTAINING MEMBERSHIP DUES $1.00 plus 5c per acre O
It is understood and agreed that 50 cents of above amount covers one year's subscription to THE CIT-
SIGNATURE -------------------- ADDRESS ------------.---

Mail your Application to the President of your County's Unit, or to the Florida Citrus
Growers, Inc., Orlando, Florida.

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