• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 President's message
 Table of Contents
 A citrus grower's organization
 Our objectives will be reached
 Citrus fertilizing practices
 We're in the citrus business...
 Weight selling is profitable
 Growers' legislative program
 Florida horticultural society
 With the editor
 Back Cover














Group Title: Citrus grower (Orlando, Fla.)
Title: The citrus grower
ALL VOLUMES CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086640/00010
 Material Information
Title: The citrus grower
Uniform Title: Citrus grower (Orlando, Fla.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30-44 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
Place of Publication: Orlando Fla
Publication Date: April 1, 1939
Frequency: weekly (semimonthly july-sept.)[<1939>]
semimonthly[ former 1938-]
weekly
normalized irregular
 Subjects
Subject: Fruit-culture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruit industry -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Nov. 15, 1938)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1942?
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 4, no. 9 (May 15, 1942).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086640
Volume ID: VID00010
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 03227648
lccn - sn 96027371

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    President's message
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    A citrus grower's organization
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Our objectives will be reached
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Citrus fertilizing practices
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    We're in the citrus business too
        Page 11
    Weight selling is profitable
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Growers' legislative program
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Florida horticultural society
        Page 17
    With the editor
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Back Cover
        Page 20
Full Text


TH


t-J


V 0-R


APR 6 -1939


OFF I C- I AAL
jkj,.FLO R I DA


PUBLIC CATI ON
CITRUS GRO


OF THE
WERS INC.


Our Fruit Must "Stack Up" Well on the Consumer's Table


;142













President


Speaks


U


U U


T HE LAS'fo0ALTF MONTH has been crowded
with the biggest events since our organization be-
gan. They are also outstanding in Florida cit-
rus history. All hgese events cluster around the single
fact that the growers are organized. This is well worth
considering at thisvtime, when we. are re.riewing our
membership and renewing our faith in ourselves.
Tremendous Importance
Some one said that the citrus industry really began
in Florida when top-working and budding became a
general practice. The large number of matters of tre-
mendous importance now crowding the calendar sug-
gests to me that the citrus industry in Florida actually
began when the growers organized. Giving substance
to this thought, we call attention to a few items:
Marketing Control
1. A grade and size marketing agreement, though
very slow in coming through, is expected to be in oper-
ation by the middle of the month. Under this agree-
ment, the growers' administrative committee and the
shippers' advisory committee have already sent their
marketing policy to Secretary of Agriculture Wallace
for approval. Every member of the grower adminis-
trative committee is also a member of our grower or-
ganization.
Oranges Stronger
The orange market has strengthened and prices have
shot upward in the last two weeks. There has been
some loss to California growers from a storm, and
the unduly rapid shipment of fruit from Florida has
diminished our surplus here. But all of the strong tone
of the present markets cannot be assigned to these two
causes. Buying confidence has definitely strengthened
because of the expected effect of regulation.
Special conditions govern the grapefruit situation
and we cannot expect much assistance to grapefruit
prices this season from market regulation.
Legislative Program
2. Another overwhelmingly important item sus-
tains the suggestion that the history of the Florida
citrus industry really began with odr grower organiza-


tion. This item is the growers' legislative program.
It is now going through the last stages of approval by
the members of the county units. It is expected to be
complete in the next few days. A very condensed
outline of the program is given in this issue.
The program is well rounded, and, we believe, the
only comprehensive legislative program ever presented
to the Florida legislature to help all of the citrus in-
dustry.
Grower Weight
3. Another thought showing that our industry
is in a new epoch is the fundamental change that our
organization has given to the citrus picture. We should
remember that up to the time we growers organized,
the control of our industry was solely in the hands of
organized shippers, organized canners, and other or-
ganized buyers. These interests make a profit off their
business so long as fruit brings a price above cost of
packing, hauling, processing and selling. There is no
real bread-and-butter urge upon them to try to main-
tain marketing conditions that will bring a return to
the growers. The grower is practically alone in being
immediately interested financially in looking for a price
above tree-to-market cost.
Shippers Help
I do not mean to say there are no constructive and
helpful elements among buyers. Most of them are in-
clined to be helpful and to cooperate for the good of
the industry. But only a grower organization could
rally and give direction to that spirit of helpfulness, as
it is doing now, and with fine results.
Our state and county organizations have done tre-
mendous work toward bringing about conditions that
will give the grower a profit. An article in this issue
by State Secretary W. L. Burton lays out a broad fu-
ture of activity for us.
The struggle is altogether worthwhile. The rewards
reasonably to be expected, based on the accomplish-
ments of our first and trial year, are great. The strug-
gle will be much easier if you will bring your neigh-
bor growers into the organization to help us.
Yours very truly,







President,
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.


The









The Citrus Grower
Official Publication of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.


VOLUME 1


APRIL 1, 1939


NUMBER 10


Our Organization

Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., is an agency through
which 21 county organizations work together for the
purpose of making citrus growing profitable. The
county organizations are made up of growers who have
no financial connection with or interest in the ship-
ment of fruit. In these units are growers who ship
through cooperative marketing associations as well as
growers who dispose of their fruit to cash buyers or
on consignment. So called "cooperative" growers and
so called "independent" growers are fighting side by
side in the ranks of the county units and, through the
county units, in the state organization for the benefit
of the citrus industry. The grower must work for a
stable market with a healthy demand for fruit at a
price that pays, in addition to distribution costs, the
cost of production and a reasonable profit to producers.
Grower Price Ideal-
Unless this price ideal of the grower is attained, the
grower eventually must go out of business and with
him will fall the whole super-structure of the industry.
Only through organization can the grower realize this
ideal. Consequently, an effective grower organization
is of the greatest concern to every element within the
industry and to all of those business, professional and
other working people in the citrus area whose pros-
perity directly and indirectly depends upon the citrus
industry.
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., is the means through
which the grower works and expresses himself in striv-
ing for this ideal.
The state officers are:
L. H. Kramer, Lake Wales, President; J. J. Banks.
Jr., Orlando, 1st Vice-President; C. B. Van Sickler,
Ft. Pierce, 2nd Vice-President; W. L. Burton, Orlando,
Secretary; E. G. Todd, Avon Park, Treasurer: W. J.
Steed, Orlando, General Counsel.


FOR BETTER HEALTH


EAT F


FRUIT


OUR CUP RUNNETH OVER

For the first time in its young life The Citrus
Grower this time has had a deluge of excellent material
for publication and has had to leave out pieces of high-
ly timely and worthwhile character.
Outstanding in this available material is an address
by E. D. Lambright, editor of Tampa Tribune, de-
livered before the county presidents of Florida Citrus
Growers, Inc., and their guests, the newspapermen of
the citrus belt, at Tampa, on Friday night, March
24th. Mr. Lambright's is an intimate but fresh in-
sight into the citrus situation. We will either include
it in the next issue or ask our friends, the local news-
papers in the various counties to reprint it, as we are
sure they will be glad to do, and it available to all
growers. It appeared in the Sunday Tribune March 26.
We also have left over some resolutions and com-
ments on controversial questions by various groups.
and much comment by other publications which de-
serves the attention of our pages and will be included
in the next issue.


Published the First and Fifteenth of each able. The publishers can accept no re-
Virgil H. Conner __. Editor month by The Florida Citrus Growers, sponsibility for return of unsolicited manu-
Inc., Orlando, Florida. scripts.
PUBLICATION COMMITTEE- E. Entered as second-class matter Novem- Subsription ates
Kemp, Chairman; Carl D. Brorein, R. ber 15, 1938, at the postoffice at Orlando, In United States, one year $1.00 to non-
J. Kepler, E. G. Thatcher. W. L. Burton, Fla.. under the Act of March 3, 1879. members of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.,
C. A. Garrett, Karl Lehmann. Manuscriptsto this aga-Membershi subscriptions, one year 50.
zine should be accompanied by sufficient Address all mal to The Citrus Grower,
Printed by The Chief Press, Apopka postage for their return if found unavail- P. 0. Box 2077, Orlando, Florida.







THE CITRUS GROWER, April 1, 1930


Are We in Need of--


Before you answer that question
perhaps it will be well either to
agree or disagree with the following
statements:
1. At present production, pro-
cessing, and distribution costs, it
is utterly impossible to sell all of
our citrus production at prices
netting the grower a fair return.
2. Elimination of a third of this
year's production at least would have
doubled the net return for the grow-
ers on their entire production.
3. For each 10c saved in produc-
tion, processing and distribution
costs and passed on to the consumer,
you may expect approximately an
additional million boxes to be con-
sumed.
4. Returns to the growers will
continue to decrease until growers are
sufficiently organized to enforce eith-
er the elimination program suggested
in statement No. 2, or the increased
consumer program in statement No.
3.
5. Well organized northern buy-
ers with the aid of price cutting
packers and canners are setting the
prices for our fruit. The best mer-
chandisers in the state have been
powerless to do other than meet the
cut prices of the most destructive in-
terests.
Not Rosy But True
These statements certainly fail in
producing a rosy picture, but isn't
it about time we throw away the
rose colored glasses and really face
the facts? Isn't it about time we
stop being mislead with such piffle
as was expressed by an influential
figure in the industry when he stated
recently, "most of our troubles this
year .can be traced to the Agricul-
tural Adjustment Administration ad-
vertising our surpluses?" Isn't it
about time that we stop attributing
our present condition in its entirety to
the limited buying power up north,
or the lack of a marketing agreement,


By W. L. BURTON.
Secretary Florida Citrus Growers.
Inc.
0
or the shipment of green fruit? The
last three are undoubtedly contribut-
ing factors, but honestly, have they
prevented you from getting good
prices in small crop years? Why, of
course, they haven't. As to crop es-
timates you may rest assured that our
buyers will always know if, and
when, we have a surplus, and the
prices they pay will depend entirely
on how efficiently the growers have
organized their industry to dispose
of that surplus.

Organization Justified
Perhaps you will disagree with
some of the statements, but surely
you can not disagree with all of them,
and your agreement on any one of
them will, in itself, justify a grow-
ers' organization. The problems in-
volved in the foregoing statements
are the ones which prompted the
forming of the growers' organization,
they are the problems that have jus-
tified, and continue to justify, the
leaders in the growers' movement to
devote so many hours of unselfish
labor in attempting to solve them.
If you as an individual grower can
now thoroughly appreciate the ser-
iousness of the situation, and clearly
understand that the job ahead is to
save an industry and not simply tem-
porarily to advance prices in any one
season, then you are in the position
clearly to understand the new objec-
tives of the growers' organization,
and to understand the basic funda-
mental thing which has guided their
formation.
Grower Needs Control
Objective No. 1. To Give the
Citrus Grower Control of His In-
dustry. An industry program de-
signed to obtain for the grower a


fair net return on his investment.
This will require first, increased
membership in the growers' organi-
zation, second, cooperation and sup-
port from state agencies, federal agen-
cies, civic and business organizations,
and business houses in general. It
will require that every available med-
ium including "The Citrus Grower"
magazine, the radio, the press, and
meetings be utilized thoroughly to ac-
quaint the grower with his merchan-
dising and production problems, and
specifically to thoroughly acquaint
him with the objectives of the grow-
ers' organization. Florida is pros-
perous in direct proportion to the
prosperity of its Number One indus-
try, the citrus industry. A prosper-
ous citrus industry demands one
thing, that the thousands of individ-
ual growers must prosper. Grant-
ing the truth of this statement then
not only the growers but all allied
industries and all other business con-
cerns both large and small are vitally
interested in supporting a construc-
tive program which has as its major
objective "prosperity for the grower."
The chairman of an important com-
mittee of perhaps one of the largest
organizations in the state quite re-
cently made this public statement:
"If we permit this growers' organiza-
tion to fail then we may expect
chaos in the citrus industry."
Controlled Selling
Objective No. 2. To Regulate
the Quality and Quantity of Citrus
Fruit Moved in all Commercial
Channels. In heavy production
years, through state and federal reg-
ulation, to prohibit the shipment to
fresh fruit markets and to canners.
all low grade fruit, and to regulate
in all seasons the shipments to fresh
fruit markets so that periodic gluts
will not destroy a seasonal price ob-
jective based on a fair net return to
the grower. This objective is based
on the realization that our produc-
tion has shown a constant increase,
anl that increased production may be


SELL TO BUYERS WHO HELP OUR INDUSTRY-BUY FROM CONCERNS THAT HELP OUR ORGANIZATION


Page 4







THE CITRUS GROWER, April 1, 1939


expected each year for the next ten
years even though no additional
plantings are made, and on the posi-
tive knowledge that permitting the
shipment of fruit in excess of nor-
mal demand will invariably demoral-
ize the price objective on the total
crop.
Cost Reduction
Objective No. 3. To Reduce the
Cost of Production, Processing. and
Distribution.
A. Elimination of uneconomic
grove practices.
B. Elimination of all processing
and distribution costs not vital to
the maintaining of quality or broad-
ening of markets.
This objective is based on the
sound economic principle that in-
creased production demands wider
distribution, and that wider distri-
bution can be obtained only through
a lowering of prices to the ultimate
consumer in order that the bulk of
our population in the low income
group may be reached.
Sell Good Fruit Only
Objective No. 4. To Permit Only
Quality Fruit to Reach Our Con:um-
ers. This objective demands improved
cultural practices, effective and en-
forceable maturity laws, competent
inspection, quality grades, improved
processing that will eliminate every
practice which destroys the eating
quality of our fruit, or adversely af-
fects its keeping quality, and shipping
and distribution practices that ma:n-
tain this quality to the consumer.
Organized Selling
Objecive No. 5. To Organ;ze Our
Selling to Compete Effectively With
Organized Buying. To reach this
objective it will be necessary to elim-
inate many inefficient, irresponsible,
shipping agencies, and particularly
those agencies refusing to cooperate
on a constructive program. No con-
rtructive program will be made effec-
tive until such time as our shipping
agencies cooperate in concentrating
their sales efforts through a few cen-
tralized sales agencies designed to
maintain the industry's price objec-
tives. The grower who continues
to sell his fruit to a destructive
agency and thereby gain a 5c ad-
vantage over his neighbor is simply


helping to maintain the present cha-
otic conditions. Selling all our fruit
through constructive channels, how-
ever, would raie the price level for
all growers many times this extra
five cents. No constructive program
will be possible until the grower
himself fully realizes that there are
only two ways in which he can sell
his fruit and avoid economic suicide.
Those two ways are through coop-
erative associations or shippers who
cooperate.
Collectively Strong
Individually the grower is power-
less, collectively he controls a three
hundred million dollar industry. We
have developed grower leadership of
unquestioned honesty and sincerity
and thoroughly capable of directing
this huge enterprise. This grower
leadership feels if the grower under-
stands the seriousness of the present
situation that he will do all of three
things:
1st. Immediately sign and mail
the membership blank on the back
cover of this magazine.


2nd. That he will discuss this
situation with his grower neighbors
and see to it that they not only
understand, but take an active part
in the growers' organization.
3rd. That they will start NOW
to find a constructive shipping agency
with whom to do business. Discuss
the above objectives of the growers
organization with shippers in your
community, and make the decision
NOW that your fruit will have a
home with the constructive shipper
long before next season's movement
starts, and realize that the shipper
who handles your business, and not
you. will dictate the policies of the
industry.


PASS IT ON
A GROWER WHO REALIZES
the valre of the work h's organi-
zation is doing for the good of the
citrus industry should pass this copy
of the ma-azine to some non-member
grower who does not know about us.


mll lll all mlllllll l ll iIn" t ul lllt ll ll. I s I II IIIllllll ln lll H I Illl il lllulu ll llmHi l l IIIII I I I Illu ll lll I I I I I I I Ill llllllll lll lll lJ ll I nII I ll lllll lllillllllllll lIII II11 1lllllll ll m l u t li t ll t u11 1 l l lnIt i t I II III I

KEENAN


SOIL LABORATORY

Lake Wales, Florida

Our business is built on satisfactory results to GROWERS.
Lower fertilizer ccst and less total production cos: wxth increased
production and improved quality and grade.

and

Better Condition Of Trees.

We have no fertilizer or fertilizer materials for sale-result-you
spend your money for necessary plant-food elements ONLY.
Let us show you groves in excellent condition although the aver-
age cost of fertilizer applied during the last five years has been less
than $15.00 per acre per year.

For a profit of 100% each year,

INVEST IN

KEENAN SOIL SERVICE

inmS nois nsmain ; i n et) nnHI t llH 911t 1111it It 11n1 i nua la n lm ln111nmu t [ [ 4 H an H i IIlioti h ainlUm -


SELL TO BUYERS WHO HELP OUR INDUSTRY--BUY FROM CONCERNS THAT HELP OUR ORGANIZATION


Page 5







Page 6 THE CITRUS GROWER, April 1, 1939


The Machinery By Which--



Our Objectives Will Be Reached


The work necessary to attain the
objectives of the organization will
be assigned to the committees listed
below. It is understood that each
committee assumes the responsibility
of making a thorough investigation
of the subject assigned to it, and
to save duplication of effort and ex-
pense they will fully cooperate with
other existing agencies interested in
similar studies, and as a result of
this thorough investigation, make
definite recommendations to the
executive committee. All committees
will be expected to make monthly
progress reports, and to cooperate
with the educational committee thru
the administrative office in supplying
information for presentation in "The
Citrus Grower" and for publicity
purposes, and to cooperate further
with the educational committee in
assisting in preparing papers for state
and county meetings thoroughly to
acquaint the grower with the prog-
ress of the various programs of the
organization.
*1. Marketing Agreement Com-
mittee-to obtain effective and en-
forceable agreements for controlling
both the quality and quantity of
fruit handled intra-state and inter-
state. This committee to be charged
with the problem of obtaining state
and federal government aid for se-
curing adequate tree and crop surveys,
and to represent the growers in se-
curing help from the federal and state
governments on our surplus prob-
lem. To study by-products and all
factors which have to do with the
stabilization of the citru; market.
*2. Traffic Committee-to obtain
the most advantageous rate structure
possible on the movement of citrus,
and on the commodities purchased
in its production and processing. The
work of this committee shall cover
railroad, boat. and truck shipments.
*3. Quality Standards Committee
-to permit only quality fruit to
reach the consumer. This commit-
tee to be charged with recommending


maturity laws, and any other pro-
cedure necessary to prevent the ship-
ment of low quality, frost damaged,
or inferior fruit. It will further
recommend proper grading and in-
spection regulations. It will study
the condition of fruit on its arrival
at terminal markets, and will collab-
orate with the culture committee,
the processing committee, and the
traffic committee in working out rec-
ommendations for quality improve-
ment.
*4. Processing Committee to
maintain the highest possible quality
of our fruit from picking to loading
for shipment, and to obtain this
service at the lowest possible cost.
This committee will be concerned
with all practices and costs of pack-
ing houses, including picking, haul-
ing, field boxes, processing, packing.
buying practices, and with all prac-
tices of canners which will include
picking, hauling, field boxes, process-
ing. grades of fruit purchased, and
quality standards of juice and hearts
sold.
*5. Marketing Committee to
obtain the widest distribution po;-
sible at prices netting the grower a
fair return on his investment. This
committee will be concerned with
the problem of trade and consumer
reaction to packaging, the advisabil-
ity of a standard package, and the
problem of bulk shipments. With
a state advertising and sales promo-
tion program. With the relative
merits of our present distribution
channels including f. o. b. sales, price
on arrival sales, commission house
sales, auction market sales, obtaining
of new markets. The selling of
fruit by weight. Organized selling
versus organized buying.
*6. Citrus Culture Committee-
to produce the highest quality fruit
at the lowest possible cost. This
committee will cooperate with the
Federal State Extension Serv'ce in
supplying to the growers through
meetings and articles in "The Citrus


Grower" authoritative information
on soil analysis, fertilization, cultiva-
tion, entomology, and irrigation, dis-
ease control, tree storage, maturity.
*7. Membership Committee to
maintain membership in the county
and state organization to the point
that the state organization will be
considered as truly representative of
the growers of the state. To obtain
a sufficient number of associate
members to maintain interest of the
business men of the state, and to in-
sure the association objectives.
**8. Legislative and Legal Com-
mittee-to draft and encourage en-
actment of state and federal legisla-
tion recommended by the organiza-
tion. To provide uniform contracts
covering the sale of fruit to protect
the grower against abusive practices.
To give legal advice.
**9. Educational Committee-to
present to the growers through "The
Citrus Grower" the press, the radio,
and county meetings-first, the gen-
eral program of the growers' organ-
ization, and second, to present each
part of the program in detail as it is
handled through the state organiza-
tion and sent back to the county
units. This committee will also be
charged with the responsibility of
presenting the growers' program to
business and civic organizations in
the citrus belt.
**10. Industry Finance Commit-
tee-to acquaint the grower of the
various channels for obtaining grove
and crop loans. To investigate the
financial set up and credit standing
and record of packers and canners,
and to investigate the effect of termi-
nal markets and railroad financing
on market practices. To study crop
insurance.
**11. Executive Com-nittee -
powers and duties to be designated
by board of directors.
**12. Resolution Committee-
for drafting resolutions to pre-ent to


SELL TO BUYERS WHO HELP OUR INDUSTRY-BUY FROM CONCERNS THAT HELP OUR ORGANIZATION








THE CITRUS GROWER, April 1, 1939


HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY

A meeting of Hillsborough Citrus Pro-
ducers. Inc.. was held in Tampa on March
17. The following directors were present:
R. M. Clewis, Sr.. Alex White. S. D. Sweat,
Roscoe DeHaven. L. G. Taylor. C. W. Cail-
louette. H. M. Pancoast. C. C. Wiggins. A.
B. Carlton and R. V. Wayne.
Proposals by the state board of directors
to increase the state executive committee fro-n
five to nine members, and the proposed state
budget for the coming year, were discussed
and approved. The proposal that regular
memberships be continued at $1.00 per year,
with sustaining members paying an additional
5 cents per acre for each producing acre
owned by the member over ten acres, was
also approved.
The proposal to obtain further needed
income for the state organization by solicit-
ing associate memberships at $10.00 per
membership, from firms and individuals out-
side the citrus industry, also received favor-
able action.
The meeting voted to cooperate with the
county agent in starting an intensive cam-
paign.
(a) to acquaint and assist growers need-
ing grove service in obtaining the necessary
facilities.
(b) in case of financial stringency, pos-
sibly to aid the grower in procuring financial
aid from established sources.

the directors' meetings.
**13. Budget Committee to
analyze the program outlined by the
executive committee, and from this
analysis budget the expenses of the
state organization. In analyzing
expenses, this committee will give
due consideration to the expenses of
the state office and traveling expenses
of various committees. To offset these
expenses, they will make a careful
analysis of all potential income to the
organization such as dues, contribu-
tions by members, contributions from
associate members, and revenue from
"The Citrus Grower."
*-County and State Committees.
**--Appointed Committees.
------ ------

HARDEE COUNTY

At a meting of the Hardee County citrus
growers in Wauchula Tuesday night, March
21st. the following directors were elected:
W. C. King, Zolfo Springs.
Walter Altman. Wauchula.
R. S. Farwell. Gardner.
R. M. Coile. Bowling Green.
C. C. Skipper. Avon Park.
D. F. Smith. Zolfo Springs.
A. H. Carlton. Wauchula.
A. Z. Olliff. Wauchula.
L. M. Shackleford. Wauchula.
V. S. Polk. Bowling Green.
F. G. Janes. Sr.. Wauchula.
County Agent H. L. Miller spoke on


"Fertilization."
Mr. W. L. Burton, of Orlando, secretary
of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., was the
main speaker of the evening. He prcsi'ned
the objectives of the association:
1. to give growers control of the citrus
industry.
2. to reduce cost of production, process-
ing and marketing.
3. permit only the best fruit to reach
the markets.
4. regulate the qualities shipped.
5. to organize an aggressive selling cam-
paign to combat stubborn markets.
He then presented the legislative program.
which the state organization proposes to
carry before the legislature.


-*


IDEASOS WiH
With Genuine Peruvian Guanoa


Will Help You Find The Way

To True Economy This Year
We know you've got a tough problem to solve when P E
it comes to figuring outan on economy program that is based on
the TRUE ECONOMY of not spending a penny more than you
absolutely must, yet being sure that you maintain grove condi-
tion, yield and quality.
Here are four reasons why we believe you'll find the
answer to your problem in the special economy formulas we D
have prepared for your Spring application: IDI
1. They contain GENUINE PERUVIAN GUANO
2. They are completely balanced CH
3. They supply immediate nourishment PLUS a
maintenance reserve to sustain your grove until W
the next application.
4. Your outlay of fertilizer dollars is smaller. W
Be assured that these recommended economy Th
formulas represent the sincere desire of Florida's largest fer- f,
tilizer manufacturer to help you find TRUE ECONOMY in an Io,
emergency.
Either Peruvian Top Dresser or one of the recom-
mended double-strength formulas will exactly fit your require-
ments for the Spring application.
If you need advice or further information ask our
trained field representative in your section. He is at your
service.


RUVIAN TOP DRESSER
12 -- 5 -- 8
Made of Genuine Peruvian Guano and
Nitrate of Potash. Complete, balanced,
non-acid tending and far superior to
ordinary all chemical top-dressers.

ouble-Strength Formulas
EAL PERUVIAN GROWER
8 -- 10 -- 10
EROKEE PERUVIAN GROWER
8 -- 10 -- 10
& T' PERUVIAN FRUIT AND VINE
8 -- 10 -- 15
& T'o PERUVIAN MIXTURE NO. 5
5 -- 12 -- 12
ese double-strength brands have twice the
Ad value of standard formulas at much
wer comparative cost. Complete plant foods
containing Genuine Peruvian Guano.

end for our ne Spring Booklet
by Boord F '" Citrus Grove
ist, and Dr. 'lo, lorticultur-
En mologst.


- I JACKSONVILLE, FLORID-


SELL TO BUYERS WHO HELP OUR INDUSTRY-BUY FROM CONCERNS THAT HELP OUR ORGANIZATION


Page 7


p--------------------------------- --- --
IRRIGATION
COMPLETE SERVICE
Genuine Ames Lcckscam
Slipjoint Pipe

ENGINEERING SERVICE FREE


THE CAMERON &
BARKLEY CO.
TAMPA, FLORIDA.
"-- --- ---------------







Page 8 THE CITRUS GROWER, April 1, 1939



Experience With Seasonal--




Citrus Fertilizing Practices


The diversity of soil types and
conditions, and the extreme varia-
tions in rainfall and consequent
soil moisture conditions from year
to year and from one season to an-
other must be taken into consider-
ation in setting up a citrus ferti-
lizing program for any given grove
or season of the year. When these
facts, together with the human
element factor, are taken into con-
sideration one can reach a degree of
understanding as to why so many
widely differing practices are fol-
lowed, and with approximately the
same results.
The most reliable source of data
on citrus fertilizing practices is, un-
doubtedly, the production cost rec-
ords obtained by the Agricultura1
Extension Service working in co-
operation with citrus growers. The
facts brought out in the following
tables were gleaned from these
records of Lake, Polk and Orange
counties, which sample is thought
to be large enough to represent at
least those three counties, if not all
of the interior counties of the citrus
belt.

Many Mixes

Table I presents a picture of the
multiplicity of analyses used in 171
groves, in the fall, spring and sum-
mer applications, 1936-37. In ad-
dition to the 60 given in the table,
65 more analyses were used which
were left out of the tabulation be-
cause they were reported used only
one time each.
To further explain the table, take
for example 3-8-8. According to the
records, the's analysis was used 52
times in the fall out of a total of
281 fall treatments; it was used 12
times in the spring out of a total of
277 spring treatments. Out of a
total of 406 summer treatments, it
was used 67 times; and it was used
131 times out of a combined total
of 966. fall, spring and summer
treatments-13.5 percent of all
treatments.


40
By E. F. DeBUSK

Citriculturist

0

Table 1-Different analyses of mixed
fertilizers and materials used by seasons on
171 groves, 1936-37 and number of times
each analysis was used. (Sorted and tabulated
from Production Cost Records of the Agri-
cultural Extension Service.)


5 S


Analysis
2-8-10 3 0
3-5-8 1 0
3-5-10 2 0
3-6-5 1 2
3-6-8 6 2
3-6-10 4 0
3-8-5 5 0
3-8-6 2 0
3-8-8 52 12
3-8-10 3 1
3-10-10 0 0
4-1-1 4 2
4-6-5 2 3
4-6-8 23 6
4-6-10 1 0
4-7-3 1 4
4-7-5 1 1
4-7-8 2 0
4-8-3 0 5
4-8-4 1 1
4-8-5 3 3
4-8-6 3 1
4-8-8 40 9
4-0-10 2 1
4-20-0 11 3
5-5-5 1 2
5-6-5 0 2
5-9-3 0 1
5-10-10 3 0
6-2-12 0 3
6-5-8 17 0
6-9-3 3 3
8-6-8 3 0
8-6-16 2 0
8-9-16 2 0
8-4-12 0 0
12-0-0 0 5
12-2-10 0 3
12-10-0 0 1
13-0-0 0 27
13-0-10 1 11
13-10-2 1 0
13-0-14 9 23
13-0-44 7 2
14-0-14 16 39
14-0-44 2 0
15-0-0 4 45
15-0-10 2 2
15-0-12 3 0
16-0-0 9 36


E ,
1<


0
3
2
3
6
13
0
67
8
3
6
11
28
9
4
2
10
13
2
4
3
43
5
0
3
6
2
5
3
5
2
0
0
0
3
1
0
6
0
2
2
8
0
24
0
27
0
0
16


16-16-16
16-0-25
17-0-14
0-18-0
20-0-0
0-0-48
48-0-0
0-0-56
0-0-50
6-5-12
Total


Trends Indicaticn

As an observation on probable
trends, attention is called to Table
II for comparison with Table I.
Here it is noted that 39 different
analyses were used in 181 groves.
in 1931-34. In addition, 17 anal-
yses were left out of the tabulation
because each was used only one time.

Groupings

In an effort to find in the rec-
ords something that resembles a
standard, or uniform practice, we
find that the 171 groves can be
placed in three groups with refer-
ence to a spring fertilizing practice
about which much discussion is
made. This grouping is made in
Table III. In this table it is noted
under "Group I" that 84 groves, or
49 percent of the total number, re-
ceived only nitrogen in the spring
application of fertilizer; in "Group
II" 61 groves, or 36 percent, re-
ceived only nitrogen and potash in
the spring application; and in
"Group III" 26 groves of the 171.
or 15 percent, received nitrogen,
phosphorus and potash in the spring
application.

Treatments and Costs

In comparing the results of these
three groups, adjustment should be
made for the differences in the per-
cent grapefruit and the relative re-
turns on grapefruit and oranges for
the shipping season of 1937-38.
The fact should not be overlooked
that the comparisons are on the
basis of fertilizer treatments and
costs only, and do not take into con-
sideration other operations and the


SELL TO BUYERS WHO HELP OUR INDUSTRY-BUY FROM CONCERNS THAT HELP OUR ORGANIZATION








THE CITRUS GROWER, April 1, 1939


Table II-Different analyses of mixed
fertilizers and materials used by seasons on
181 groves, 1931-34 and number of times
each analysis was used. (Sorted and tabulated
from Production Cost Records of the Agri-
cultural Extension Service.)


TABLE III-RELATION OF YIELD, FERTILIZER COST AND RETURNS ON
GROUPS OF GROVES RECEIVING DIFFERENT FERTILIZER TREATMENTS,
1936-37**.


Group 1
Receiving only
nitrogen in the
spring applica-
tion
(Jan-Mar.) *


Group 2
Receiving only
nitrogen and
potash in the
spring applica-
tion*


Group 3
Receiving ni-
trogen, phos-
phorus and
potash in the
spring applica-
tion


Analysis *
3-8-5 3
3-6-8 8
3-10-5 3
3-8-8 10
3-8-10 2
4-6-5 10
4-6-8 4
4-8-5 15
4-8-6 8
4-8-8 40
4-10-5
4-8-12
5-5-5 3
6-6-9 3
6-8-8
6-6-12
6-12-12
6-16-6 3
6-16-16
7-7-14
8-7-7 5
8-7-15
8-6-18
8-12-16
9-6-9 3
9-6-12 2
9-9-9
10-8-10 7
10-6-20 5
14-18-0
15-0-44 15
16-0-14 9
16-10-2
17-0-14
17-0-44 5
18-0-12 37
18-19-0-0 64
25-0-0 132
Total 396


25
9

11
3
3









3

4


*Nitrogen is expressed as amm


4 7
8
1 4
28 38
2
10
4 33
7 31
5 13
42 93
3
3
4 7
3
7 7
13 13
1 1
3
2 2
22 22
1 6
7 7
5 5
6 9
3
6
6 6
7
11 16
43
7 22
17
5 8
3
5 23
7 60
81 298
45 262
326 1104
onia (NH3)


total cost of production of each
group. In passing, attention is called
to the last item of the table-"Re-
turns per acre less fertilizer cost.
with fruit returns of 30 cents per
box." While the relative return
figures in this item somewhat com-
plicate the picture and run counter
to our common way of thinking
and planning in a production pro-
gram, the matter is simply presented
as food for thought.
To further enlarge upon the pic-
ture presented in "Table III,"
Table IV is offered as a supplement.
Reference is made to the same 171
groves. Of the 84 groves in "Group
I," receiving only nitrogen in the
spring application of fertilizer, 12
percent, or 10 groves, received only
nitrogen in the fall application, and


No. of grove records 84 61 26
Av. No. acres per grove --- 21 22 17
Average age of trees -- -- 18 19 17
Percent trees grapefruit .... ...-------- 20.7 16.4 22.4
Trees per acre ..------------------- 63 65 61
Pounds nitrogen per acre ---- 100 89 98
Pounds phosphoric acid per acre --- 100 82 148
Pounds potash per acre ---------- 125 121 153
Yield per acre, boxes -.-------------. 184 172 208
Returns per acre --- $113.13 $107.59 $123.79
Returns per box ....---. ------- .62 .63 .60
Fertilizer cost per acre 34.80 24.80 38.04
Fertilizer cost per box .-- -- .19 .14 .18
Returns per acre less fertilizer cost 78.33 82.79 85.74
Returns per acre less fertilizer cost.
with fruit returns of 30c per box 20.40 26.80 24.36
**Sorted and tabulated from Production Cost Records of the Agricultural Extension
Service.
*Phosphorus and potash were included in the other fertilizer applications during the year,
in most instances.

Table IV-Percent of Groves Receiving Nitrogen. Nitrogen and Potash, and Nitrogen.
Phosphorus and Potash in the Different Groups, Fall, Spring and Summer Applications.
Nitro-
gen,
Nitro- Phos-
Nitro- gen b phorus
gen Potash 8
Only Only Potash Total
% % % %


Group 1-(84 groves)
Fall application ---------------
Spring application .--- ------
Summer application ------ --
Group 2-(61 groves)
Fall application ------ --
Spring application ----------
Summer application ----
Group 3-(26 groves)
Fall application -------
Spring application --------
Summer application --- -----
All Groups-(171 groves)
Fall application --------
Spring application -----.- ----
Summer application -----

5 percent received only nitrogen in
the summer application; while 24
percent, or 20 groves, received only
nitrogen and potash in the fall ap-
plication. Of the 61 groves in
"Group II," receiving only nitrogen
and potash in the spring application
of fertilizer, approximately 19 per-
cent, or 12 groves, received only
nitrogen and potash in the fall ap-
plication, and 20 percent, received
only nitrogen and potash in the
summer application; while 12 per-
cent of these same groves received
only nitrogen in the summer appli-


24
0
1


100
100
100


6 19 75 100
0 100 0 100
--- 12 20 68 100

0 0 100 100
0 0 100 100
0 0 100 100

8 19 73 100
49 36 15 100
8 8 84 100

cation, and 6 percent received only
nitrogen in the fall application.

Dolomite
The records show that dolomite
(magnesium limestone) was ap-
plied in 1936-37, on 46 percent of
the 222 groves included in the pro-
duction cost studies, in Lake, Or-
ange and Polk counties. In Polk
county, the records showed 70 per-
cent using dolomite. A total of 948
tons was used on 103 groves of
2060 acres. As to the time of appli-
cation, it is noted that 47 percent
applied the dolomite in the fall


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Page 9








THE CITRUS GROWER, April 1, 1939


(October-December), 13 percent in
the spring (January-March) and
40 percent in the summer (April-
September).

Rainfall Factor

The practice of fertilizing citrus
groves in Florida three times a year
-spring, summer and fall-may be
correctly referred to as a standard
practice. However, the month in
which the seasonal application is
made and the kind and quantity of
fertilizer used is determined largely
by rainfall and soil conditions. In
California and Texas, waste of
plantfood by leaching is not a factor
in citrus production because soil
moisture is maintained and con-
trolled by irrigation supplementing
the light rainfall. In Florida, how-
ever, rainfall greatly affects the
efficiency of fertilizer treatments and
becomes a very important economic
factor in citrus fruit production.

Plant Food Unused
The rainfall factor should be
considered in fertilizing groves at
this time. Because of light rainfall,
a major portion of the applications
of fertilizer made since November
remains in the soil, (March 15)
except in small areas having more
rainfall and in groves which have
been irrigated. Except in a few small
areas, rainfall has not been heavy
enough at any time since October
to carry the plant food in water-
soluble fertilizer into the second
foot of Norfolk grove soils. The
scarcity of soil moisture in the nor-
mal root zone has forced a develop-
ment of small roots in lower depths
from which trees have been obtain-
ing moisture and plantfood carried
down by heavy rains in late sum-
mer and October. This deep devel-
opment of root system is an advan-
tage in conserving soluble plantfood
when heavy rains come and leach it
into the lower depths. This tree
condition should result in a higher
efficiency of fertilizer applied after
soil moisture has been restored, pro-
vided the first application is not too
heavy and is not made before the
root system becomes normally
active in the surface foot of soil.
0
Space does not permit use of all
letters received for this issue and they
will appear later.


PUTNAM COUNTY

Annual meeting held March 24th; fol-
lowing officers and directors elected:
President, E. H. Williams, Crescent City;
Vice President, Ralph Crosby, San Mateo;
Secretary and Treasurer, E. M. Pickens,
Crescent City.
The nine men elected to the board of di-
rectors were: Ralph Crosby, San Mateo; A.
E. Kepler, East Palatka; Ralph Atkinson, R.
F. D. No. 1, East Palatka; W. C. Cartledge,
Crescent City; Rufus West, Crescent City;
W. F. Glynn, Crescent City; R. B. Hill,
Crescent City; E. H. Williams, Crescent
City; E. M. Pickens, Crescent City.
Sen. W. F. Glynn, of Crescent City, was
elected director to the state organization.
Ralph Crosby, of San Mateo, selected as No.
1 alternate. Rufus West, of Crescent City.
was elected No. 2 alternate.
President E. H. Williams, appointed the
following as chairmen of the committee set-
up for the coming year.
Citrus Culture: E. M. Pickens, Crescent
City; Credentials (Board of Directors) : E.
M. Pickens, Crescent City; Crop Insurance:
E. H. Williams, Crescent City; Legislative:
W. F. Glynn, Crescent City; Marketing
Agreement: E. H. Williams, Crescent City:
Membership: Rufus West, Crescent City;
Research: Ralph Crosby, San Mateo; Selling
by Weight: R. B. Hill, Crescent City; Traf-
fic: W. C. Cartledge, Crescent City; Uni-
form Contract: A. E. Kepler, E. Palatka.
-----------------
POLK COUNTY

1939 presidents and secretaries of the local
units of Polk County Citrus Growers, Inc.
Auburndale-Pres., J. Victor Hodnett,
Auburndale; Sec., Mrs. C. E. Edmiston,
Auburndale.
Bartow-Alturas-Pres., W. G. Franken-
burger, Bartow; Sec., B. Lucian Durrance,
Bartow.
Davenport-Pres., V. J. Martin, Daven-
port; Sec., V. E. Woods, Davenport.
Frostproof-Pres. W. W. Owens, Frost-
Meade; Sec., D. L. Palmer, Ft. Meade.
Haines City-Pres., J. W. Sample, Haines
proof; Sec., B. H. Griffin, Jr., Frostproof.
Ft. Meade-Pres., M. M. Loadholtes, Ft.
City; Sec., Mrs. Elsie Horton, Haines City.
Lake Hamilton, Dundee-Pres., Carl
Nystrom, Lake Hamilton.
Lake Wales-Pres., L. H. Kramer, Lake
Wales: Sec., E. T. Hickman, Lake Wales.
Lakeland-Pres., J. A. Crosswy, Lake-
land; Sec., H. N. Donoho, Highland City.
Waverly-Pres., W. L. Pederson, Winter
Haven; Sec., W. J. Casey, Lake Wales.
Winter Haven-Pres., Fred T. Hender-
son,. Winter Haven; Sec., Geo. E. Cham-
bliss, Winter Haven.


WHERE TO BUY

COVER CROPS
COVER CROPS Alyce Clover-Striata
and Spectabalis Crotolaria at WHOLE-
SALE PRICE-ATLANTIC BROKER-
AGE CO., Orlando, Fla.. 28 E. Pine Street.


PHYTONOMIC

OIL SPRAYS

What They Are and What They Mean
to the Citrus Grower
Invention of "PHYTONOMIC" oil
sprays, of which VOLCK Oil Sprays are
the original and outstanding line, enabled
the grower to apply more effective oil
dosages, with greater commercial safety,
for control of scale and other insects on
growing plants.
To make an oil stock "phytonomic",
the low refined pale or red oils are especial-
ly treated to remove certain spray-purpose
impurities that under some conditions pre-
sent a hazard too great for commercial
safety.

"Phytonomic" Refers to Safety
The word "phytonomic" was coined to
describe the normally favorable reaction of
plants in foliage when sprayed with oils of
the spray-purpose purity invented by Mr.
William H. Volck and long since generally
accepted in informed pest control circles as
the principal index of safety in oil sprays.
The phytonomic oil stock selected for
use in FLORIDA VOLCK Oil Emulsion
and VOLCK READY-MIX Emulsifiable
Oil Spray has a high degree of insect-kill-
ing quality, volatilizes from the plant as
rapidly as is practicable for its intended
uses, is refined to the phytonomic stage that
years of experience in Gulf States have
shown to offer a wide margin of commer-
cial safety, and is prepared to give the
spreading, wetting and depositing qualities
required for Gulf States citrus pest control.
Proven "Phytonomic" Oil Sprays
"FLORIDA VOLCK" is emulsified phy-
tonomic petroleum oil, 83% active as an
insecticide, ready for dilution and use in
almost any equipment and water supply.
This is the popular brand of phytonomic
oil spray that has for years been in most
general use in Florida.
"VOLCK READY-MIX" is no w
98'/% phytonomic petroleum oil, plus
emulsifier, ready to be emulsified by a min-
ute or more of agitation or pumping, to-
gether with about an equal amount of wa-
ter, in an average spray rig, before the tank
is filled or while it is filling. This form
of oil spray is a more recent development
that many growers have preferred. Good,
but not necessarily excessive, agitation is
required in making the original mixture.
We do not know of any water supply that
requires conditioner with the present
"VOLCK READY-MIX" formula.

Unsurpassed for General
Clean-up
There is no adequate substitute foi
"VOLCK" as a general clean-up spray to
control Scale, Whiteflies, Mealybugs, Red
Spiders, Spotted Mites, Rust Mites, and to
remove Sooty Mold Fungus.
For further information, address Nitrate
Agencies Company, Jacksonville; Jackson
Grain Company, Tampa; Hector Supply
Company, Miami; or California Spray
Chemical Corporation, Orlando, Fla.


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Page 10







THE CITRUS GROWER, April 1, 1939

"We Are in the Citrus Business Too"

The associate memberships in Florida Citrus Grow-
ers, Inc., are justly proving popular with business and
professional interests outside the citrus industry. There
is sound reasoning behind the willingness shown by
the large number who have voluntarily taken out these
associate memberships who even wrote to the state of-
fice before the membership cards were ready.
The thinking behind this popularity is beautifully
expressed in a letter from R. L. Park, manager of the
Lakeland Chamber of Commerce, as follows:
"We take pleasure in enclosing our check for
$10.00 for an Associate Membership in the Flor-
ida Citrus Growers, Inc.
"With the cooperative efforts of far-sighted,
keen thinking, unselfish citizens such as these
banded together in your organization, we are sure
that the great citrus industry of Florida will profit
greatly.
"The Lakeland Chamber of Commerce just
wanted to express its approval of your worth-
while work by an associate affiliation."
We have received similar letters from a wide variety
of business interests.

Citrus Dollars
The citrus industry is the basic industry of the citrus
belt. The dollars which are spent in our stores are
citrus dollars; the dollars that pay taxes for our schools
and highways are citrus dollars; the dollars that pay
our doctors, lawyers, hairdressers, shoe repair men, of-
fice supply houses, bus fares and theatre tickets are
largely citrus dollars. The labor that operates our crate
mills, packing houses, insecticide plants and fertilizer
plants, that does the plowing and hoeing, dusting and
spraying, and the engineering and technical men that
oversee these operations are paid with citrus dollars.
These wages and salaries are the principal contribu-
tion to the funds that flow through our business sys-
tem, giving it life and health. Nearly everybody
that is in any business at all in Central Florida, in the
last analysis, is in the citrus business.
Helping Themselves
Their contribution to our organization and to its
work toward restoring prosperity for citrus growers
need not spring necessarily from altruistic motives or
a pure desire to help a good cause. Those who buy
these associate memberships, and, in this way substan-
tially contribute to our work, are actually helping
themselves.
These are the reasons for the popularity of our as-
sociate memberships. The associate membership card of
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., is appearing in the offices
and places of business of many clear thinking people
in the citrus area. They realize and say "We're in the
citrus business too."


Page 11


Yes!


We Need Rain


And Rainmakers

But-did it ever occur to you that
we likewise need to stop using the
kind of fertilizers that tend to de-
stroy Humus and all moisture-
holding elements?


Some fertilizers are so strong and
so made, they do just that; and the
less Humus we have, the quicker we
need rain.



ORGANO
The Bacterialized Plant Food

instead of destroying what Humus
you have, adds to and builds up more
Humus. It IS Humus of the richest
kind-Humus that is full of rich
Hormones and Enzymes, those pre-
cious things so dear to plant life.
Rich in everything your trees need
for health and vigor. And, unlike
other fertilizers, it is inoculated with
miscro-organisms that help to keep
soil moist.


Would you like to see some groves so
treated and see how little they show
thirst?



Just write, wire or phone

SOUTH ATLANTIC REDUCTION
CORPORATION
PHONE 3842
138 N. Orange Ave.


ORLANDO


FLORIDA


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,,,,







Page 12 THE CITRUS GROWER, April 1, 1939


From Grove to Processor--



Weight Selling Is Profitable


Selling by weight is scientific. It
is civilized, to use a broad and gen-
eral term. The citrus industry is
only fifty years behind other kinds
of fruits and produce in getting into
the selling by weight habit, and the
Florida citrus industry, so far as tree
to processor is concerned, is particu-
larly behind time in this respect.
California and Texas growers al-
ready sell to canners and fresh fruit
packers by weight and are very much
pleased with the custom.
The whole history of change from
the antiquated piece methods to the
modern weight methods of selling
has been lived through by many
men still active in business. Among
them is C. C. Spencer. citrus grower
of Haines City, and, until recently,
president of the Haines City unit of
the Polk County Citrus Growers,
Inc.

Pound Selling Pioneer

Mr. Spencer became a wholesaler
of farm products in 1890 when there
was no weight standard for any of
those commodities. In 1896 he was
in Pittsburgh specializing in eggs and
poultry. He was particularly im-
pressed by the inconvenience which
the trade had experienced through-
out hundreds of years in buying
geese, ducks and chickens by the
dozen. He was a pioneer in inaug-
urating the weight standard of meas-
ure on these commodities and also
soon saw the value of this standard
in merchandising eggs.
Eggs were once of all sizes. We
have lots of those various sizes now,
but much less so, since the standard
of weight has been introduced into
the trade, and now 1 Y pounds per
dozen is accepted as the standard
weight. Mr. Spencer used that 1 Y
lbs. per dozen weight standard back
in the '90s before cold storage came
into general use and through the
years when thrifty housekeepers were
afraid to buy cold storage eggs.


Applies It to Citrus
Mr. Spencer first came to Haines
City in 1908 and when he moved
there permanently in 1919 and
bought the land on which his cor-
poration's grove properties are now
located, planted in 1920, he brought
all this selling by weight experience
with him. Throughout the pro-
ductive years of his groves he has
been sure of the desirability of ap-
plying pound selling to the citrus
business. Consequently, for the
fourth season now Mr. Spencer has
been selling by weight all of the
fruit of the corporation of which he
is secretary-treasurer and general
manager (Haines City Heights, Inc).
The corporation has 350 acres of ex-
cellent grove property in good condi-
tion, irrigated, and cared for to make
first class fruit. Mr. Spencer nat-
urally says that the weight measure
is the correct method of selling any-
thing. One of its advantages is that
it gives the producer of his type a
premium for good fruit-well cared
for, full of juice.
He installed three years ago a 30
ton capacity Fairbanks vehicle scale
at a cost of $1800.00. The plat-
form is 10 feet wide and 40 feet long
and will take care of any truck or
truck and semi-trailer. In this time
he has dealt with a number of cash
buyers all of whom seemed well
pleased with the method. He has met
only two buyers who objected to his
method of selling. When they ob-
jected Mr. Spencer found another
buyer.
Buyers Like It
We have heard the objection raised
among shippers that the agitation
for selling by weight to the final
consumer is not fair to them since
they do not buy from the grower
by weight. This point is very well
taken. Selling by weight from grove
to processor would help remove all
along the line any chances to prac-
tice some of the various tricks of the


trade. In this connection we be-
lieve it pertinent to quote one rep-
utable shipper who said off the rec-
ord "pound selling is too honest to
suit some people."
Some Advantages
It is not the purpose of this article
to go into the tremendous advan-
tages to the Florida grower that
pound-selling to final consumer of-
fers. Florida fruit runs much more
than California to the larger sizes
which are discounted on account of
the present selling by the dozen prac-
tice. The retailer must advertise his
dozens as cheap as his competitor's
dozens. The selling by the dozen
works very favorably for California
where the fruit runs to smaller sizes.
Another distinct advantage of sell-
ing citrus fruits by weight will be to
show how cheap our oranges, grape-
fruit and tangerines are compared
with other fruits and vegetables sold
by weight.
Selling by weight also gives em-
phasis to the outstanding value in
Florida fruit, which is juice. Good
fruit with lots of juice weighs more;
weighs more in the store; it weighs
more when delivered by the grower
to the packing house.
Discourages Trickery
Selling by weight removes the in-
centive to some of our worst prac-
tices in the citrus industry; one of
them is the effort of the shipper to
get as much fruit as possible into a
field crate, piling it up and stacking
one crate upon another so that the
fruit is mashed and bruised and start-
ed well on its way to decay even be-
fore it reaches the packing house.
The record of weights kept at
Mr. Spencer's scales indicates that all
the details of the process had been
worked out satisfactorily. The av-
erage weight of a given shipper's
empty field crates can be readily cal-
culated by weighing a load of emp-
ties. The last truck shown on the


SELL TO BUYERS WHO HEIP OUR INDUSTRY-BUY FROM CONCERNS THAT HELP OUR ORGANIZATION







THE CITRUS GROWER, April 1, 1939


record indicated that it had weighed
in carrying 326 empties and had gone
out with 212 loaded boxes. The
weight of the truck or the truck and
trailer is also known. By this means
the exact weight of the actual fruit
is arrived at. The shipper can gain
no advantage by attempting to crowd
more fruit into a single box.
Good Investment
Mr. Spencer's scale cost $1800.00,
and he figures his corporation got
their investment back the first year.
One of its great advantages is that
there is no necessity to keep a man
in the grove to check the number of
boxes, to notice how they are filled
and how the fruit is handled. It is
highly improbable that any ship-
per wou'd be able to get away with
a truck load of fruit. Consequently,
it is necessary only to have someone
handy to weigh the trucks when they
come in and when they leave. This
service has been rendered to the cor-
poration by Mr. Spencer's son's wife,
the scales being close to their resi-
dence.
Supervision of picking 60,000
boxes of Valencias under the field
crate selling system would cost a
great deal, to say nothing of the
other advantages gained from selling
by weight. The advantage to the
Florida grower of inducing retailers
to sell citrus fruit by weight instead
of by the dozen has been well recog-
nized. The grower owes it to him-
self to push this campaign as much
as possible. Perhaps in no way could
he give it a greater boost than to
start the system of himself selling
by weight to the shipper and can-
ner.
The directors of Florida Citrus
Growers, Inc., have approved in
principle a law providing for the
universal sale of citrus fruits from
the grove by weight. Mr. Spencer,
the pioneer, applies this to a!l his
citrus fruit, oranges. grapefruit and
tangerines.
-------------------
BREVARD COU'-TY
The Brevard County unit of Florida Cit-
rcs Growers, Inc., held its annual meeting in
the Cocoa municipal building, Thursday.
March 23, at 7:30 P. M. It was called to
order by President D. C. Williams.
The report of Mrs. A. B. O'Hara, treas-
urer, showed receipts of $121.00, distburse-
ments $108.38. and balance in the bank of


S12.62.
T. A. Nyman, Frank E. Clark and Horace
Sams were appointed as nominating commit-
tee for the directors for the ensuing year and
suggested the following:
G. A. Draa, Mims; B. I. Garvey, Mel-
bourne; Mrs. A. B. O'Hara, Cocoa; Thomas
D. A. Peta. Titusville; A. G. Porcher, Co-
coa; D. C. Williams, Rt. 2, Cocoa; Frank
E. Clark, Cocoa; Dr. T. A. Rhoads, Titus-
ville; A. S. Butler, Cocoa.
Mr. G. A. Draa, member of the state
legislative committee, discussed briefly the
green fruit and color added legislation.
Secretary Thomas L. Cain read an ex-
cerpt from "Suggestions for Presenting the


Growers' 1939 Program" as outlined by the
state association, after which A. G. Porcher
gave an interesting talk on stabilizing the
marketing program.
The directors retired to elect officers for
the new year at which time Secretary Cain
discussed some of the important phases of
the soil conservation program.
Mr. Williams was re-elected president,
Mr. B. I. Garvey, vice-president, Mr. G. A.
Draa as 2nd vice-president, Mr. Thos. L
Cain secretary and Mrs. O'Hara, treasurer.
The following were appointed as a mem-
bership committee: A. S. Butler, Chairman,
J. A. Whittington, R. L. Davidson.


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Page 13








Page 14 THE CITRUS GROWER, April 1, 1939')



A Brief Outline of the--




Growers' Legislative Program


For the information of grower
members who have not been closely
associated with the development of
the legislative program, the publica-
tion committee believes it timely to
publish a brief synopsis of proposed
laws that have been approved in
principle by the State Board of Di-
rectors and which are now in the
hands of the county units for dis-
cussion, amendment, and approval.
Tht chief item in the legislative program
consists of changes in the fruit maturity law.
These changes include:
1. All fruit shall show definite break in
color before picking.
2. Individual fruits shall be tested in-
stead of a mixture of juices from a large
number of fruits. If 10% of the individual
fruits fail to meet the test requirements the
whole batch is to be turned down. This
change is designed to prevent mixing green
fruit with mature fruit now regarded as the
chief violation of maturity test laws.
3. Fruit for canneries will be required
to meet the same standards of ripeness and
quality as that intended for fresh fruit mar-
keting.
GRAPEFRUIT
The ratio of solids to acids is proposed to
be changed as follows:
Solids 7 to 9-Ratio 7 to 1
Solids 9 to 9.1-Ratio 6.95 to 1
Solids 9.9 to 10-Ratio 6.50 to 1
The ratios are on a sliding scale and are
lowered in proportion to the total amount
of solids. Juice content is proposed to be
raised 10% above the present law, that is.
the legal juice content required is exactly the
same as was required under the citrus com-
mission's ruling in December, which raised
th: juice requirement 10%. Under the new
law it is proposed that the commission at its
discretion may raise or lower the juice re-
quirement 10% from the new standard set
by the proposed law.
ORANGES
1. Under the proposed law the juice of
oranges would be required to contain 4-10
of 1% anhydrous citric acid. Two objects
are contemplated in this requirement. One is
to prevent insipid fruit getting on the mar-
ket. The other is to prevent the use of
arsenic sprays, as oranges sprayed with arse-
nic tend to lose their acid and become insipid.
2. Oranges will be required to yield 4
gallons of juice per box.
3. The juice of the fruit will be re-
quired to contain 71/2% minimum solids and


the ratio of acids to solids will be on a slid-
ing scale as follows:
Solids 7.5 to 8-Ratio 10.5 to 1
Solids 11 and over-Ratio 8 to 1
4. If "color-added" is continued, "col-
or-added" oranges will be required to yield
4'/2 gallons of juice per box and the ratios of
solids to acid will be .5 higher than for fruit
not treated with "color-added."
TANGERINES
Tangerine juice will be required to show
a minimum of .6% anhydrous citric acid
and the ratio of solids to acid will be as fol-
lows:
Solids less than 10-Ratio 7.50 to 1
Solids 10.90 and over-Ratio 7.00 to 1
The law will give inspectors the right to
inspect fruit at any place and under any con-
ditions they regard as desirable for its proper
enforcement. These maturity test recom-
mendations represent thousands of hours of
conference and investigations of almost un-
believable masses of statistics and details in
the effort to prepare a law that will prevent
unripe fruit from getting into the hands of
the growers' customers, and, on the other
hand, to be sure that no undue hardships
will result to any section or type of grower.
The work has been done by a legislative sub-
committee headed by John M. Criley, Terra
Ceia, and with the enthusiastic cooperation
cf Mr. J. J. Taylor, Mr. George Copeland
and other members of Mr. Mayo's inspec-
tion division, together with Dr. A. F. Camp,
of the State Experiment Station, and Dr. A.
L. Stahl of the University of Florida, Mr.
R. B. Thornton, Tampa. and many other
distinguished authorities in these fields.
COLORING
Closely rivalling the maturity tests in im-
portance has been the abuse of coloring
methods. Intensive investigations have been
carried on in this field by a committee of
which George I. Fullerton of New Smyrna,
is chairman. As Mr. Fullerton so often says,
"there is no need of going to a lot of trouble
and expense in making inspections of fruit
for maturity, if the quality and flavor of the
fruit is to be destroyed by abusive coloring
practices." In investigating coloring practices
it has been discovered that much of the harm
results from picking and attempting to color
immature fruit. Consequently, a great deal
of good is hoped to result from the proposed
maturity law. The requirement that the fruit
show a definite break in color before it is
picked is expected to be particularly helpful.
No other definite recommendations on color
have been made up to this time.
RESEARCH
It is recognized by all authorities that


enough information is available about ma-
turity standards to enable the committee to
write an effective green fruit law. That is, it
what we already know is enacted into law
and properly enforced, we can feel sure that
the confidence of our customers in the North
will nat again be betrayed by sour fruit, un-
fit to eat. However, in its researches the com-
mittee has found that there are several blind
spois in our knowledge of maturity and
quality. This information is highly desirable
as a guide to future legislation along this
line.
Consequently, upon the recommendation
of Mr. W. L'E. Barnett, chairman of the
research committee of Florida Citrus Grow-
ers, Inc., the organization will ask for an
annual appropriation of $6,000 specifically
to be used for studying citrus maturity. The
organization will recommend that the allo-
cation of these funds be left to the discretion
of Dr. Wilman Newell, of the University of
Florida, and the United States Agricultural
Extension Service, and it is presumed that he
will direct the continuance of this investiga-
tion under Dr. A. L. Stahl. Dr. Stahl already
has a mass of information on this subject
that has not yet been indexed and made
available.
CULTURAL PRACTICES
It is known that cultural practices have
much to do with the quality of fruit. The
organization will recommend an annual ap-
propriation of $25.000 for the Florida Cit-
rus Experiment Station to continue investi-
gations by Dr. A. F. Camp, Senior Horti-
culturist, to gather further information
about the effect of cultural practices aid
processing practices on fruit quality. These
studies will include study of the fruit in an
experimental packing house under all hand-
ling conditions and how it carries from th,
tree to the consumer.
FIELD CRATES
Hugh G. Jones, attorney of Arcadia, and
secretary of the general legislative committee.
has prepared a law exactly defining the size
of field crates.
There is a law on the statute books, but
it is drawn in such a way no one is able to
determine from its wording the regulation
size of field crates. The proposed law states
exact inside measurements whereas the pres-
ent law does not indicate whether the speci-
fied measurements are inside or outside. The
proposed law states the exact number of
cubic inches a crate shall contain and the size
of cleats on the top or on the bottom of the
box that have anything to do with the
volume of fruit it will carry. This will en-
able inspectors to determine at once whether
or not a crate comes within the law. This
has been impossible in the past.


SELL TO BUYERS WHO HELP OUR INDUSTRY-BUY FROM CONCERNS THAT HELP OUR ORGANIZATION







THE CITRUS GROWER, April 1, 1939


BOND AND LICENSE
Henry L. Pringle, of Leesburg, has out-
lined proposed changes in the bond and li-
cense law. Growers have lost thousands of
dollars due to the fact that bonds required of
citrus buyers have been entirely inadequate.
It is also possible under the present law for
an individual or firm to fail for thousands
of dollars under one name and immediately
obtain a license under some other name and
begin all over again. And the commissioner
of agriculture may be thoroughly aware of
the circumstances yet he has no authority to
refuse the license, provided the application
is accompanied by the bond for $500.00
now required. A new law proposes to raise
the bond requirement to $5,000 and to em-
power the licensing authorities to refuse al-
togther to grant the license if upon investi-
gation they regard the applicant morally and
financially unfit to merit the confidence of
growers.
ELIMINATION
W. J. Steed has proposed a law for the
elimination of low grade fruit in surplus
years. It would prevent the sale to or use by
canneries of goods not being shipped for
fresh fruit purposes. However, in surplus
years should No. 3 fruit bring a price as
high as 50c per box for oranges and tanger-
ines, or 40c for grapefruit it could be dis-
posed of on obtaining a permit.
The law would define the term "surplus
year" and would go into effect automatically
when, and if, a surplus condition should
exist. It is designed to combat the tendency
of growers to rush to dispose of their fruit
because of large yields. thus giving buyers
an advantage and driving prices downward.
INDUSTRY STABILIZATION
A tax on citrus production will be pro-
posed to create a fund to divert surplus fruit
and retire marginal groves. This is a long
range proposition to stabilize citrus produc-
tion and to bring production in line with de-
mand. (Both this law and the above men-
tioned "elimination" law would go into
effect only when and if other citrus pro-
ducing states enacted similar laws.)
STATE REGULATION
J. J. Banks, Jr., of Orlando, chairman of
the marketing agreement committee, is di-
recting the preparation of a state marketing
law which proposes state regulation of cit-
rus movement. The law is intended to secure
under state regulation the benefits expected
to be derived from federal marketing agree-
ments, and in some cases to supplement and
enlarge the benefits of Federal regulation
through intra-state regulation.
STATE INSPECTION
Glen Grimes. of Lakeland, attorney for
the citrus commission, has proposed a law re-
quiring that state inspection of citrus fruit be
the final and authoritative inspection. Fed-
eral inspections are less stringent than state
inspections and shippers have taken advan-
tage of this situation in the past. This pro-
posal received the approval of the board ot
directors.
Legislative Committee
All of these major purposes and


others of less consequence are in the
making and have been approved in
principle by the state organization,
and up to date, by a number of
county organizations.
The tremendous work of all the
committees, sub-committees and of
outside help has been supervised by
E. G. Todd, of Avon Park, chair-
man of the general legislative com-
mittee.
General Counsel
In order to put this legislation in-
to proper legal phraseology and to
get these principles stated in bills
ready for presentation to the legis-


PI


lature, W. J. Steed, attorney of Kis-
simmee, was appointed by the board
of directors as the organization's
general counsel. Mr. Steed is now
devoting himself to this tremendous
job and is calling upon legal talent
within the organization of which
there is a good supply, but attorneys
outside have also shown the greatest
willingness to cooperate and are also
assisting.

Note: Two other proposed laws have
been approved in principle by the state board
of directors-they cover selling by weight
from grove to packing house or other
processor, and also strict regulation of the
sale of frozen fruit.


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SELL TO BUYERS WHO HELP OUR INDUSTRY-BUY FROM CONCERNS THAT HELP OUR ORGANIZATION


Page 15







THE CITRUS GROWER, April 1, 193Q


sented to the legislature were approved as
read.
The vote on retaining or doing away with
color added stood three in favor of retaining
it and eleven in favor of doing away with it.
The number of directors was increased
from 12 to 14.
The following were elected as directors
for the ensuing year:
Francis H. Corrigan, Bradenton; William
R. Pollard, Terra Ceia; John M. Criley,
Terra Ceia: S. F. Peters, Palmetto; William
M. Burnett, Bradenton; Samuel B. Williams,
R. F. D. 1, Palmetto: Charles Sanford, In-
dian Beach, Sarasota; A. S. Harvey, Pal-


ELECTED GENERAL COUNSEL

W. J. STEED-Born February 3rd,
1895 in Savannah, Georgia, moved to De-
Land, Florida, in 1903 and lived there un-
til 1915, then moved to Kissimmee, in
Osceola County, where he has practiced law
for 22 years. In January, 1937, he moved
his law office to Orlando, Florida, where
he is now engaged in the practice of law.
Educated in the public schools of Vo-
lusia County; graduated from Stetson Uni-
versity in 1915 with LL.B degree; and
admitted to practice in the Supreme Court
and United States District Court of Flor-
ida. He is a member of the Orange County,
State, and American Bar Associations and
of the American Law Institute.
In 1919 he was elected and served full
term as Mayor of the City of Kissimmee.
He served for a great many years as City
Attorney of City of Kissimmee; as Coun-
ty Attorney for Osceola County; as At-
torney for the School Board of Osceola
County, and as City Attorney for City of
St. Cloud. He has had considerable legis-
lative experience, being a member of the
State Legislature during the regular and two
special sessions in 1931.
He is a citrus grower, owning his own
grove and vitally interested in the problems
of the citrus industry; a Democrat since
birth, a Baptist, a Kiwanian, a Shriner, a
K. of P., a Veteran of the World War and
a Legionnaire, having served one year as
Vice-Commander.
0
----------------
MANATEE COUNTY

The annual meeting of the Cooperative
Manatee Citrus Growers was held at Braden-
ton Tuesday, March 21.
The proposed maturity laws, to be pre-


metto; Ralph H. Higgins, R. F. D. 1,
Bradenton; Charles T. Council, R. F. D. 2,
Palmetto: John N. McClure, Palmetto; W.
A. Gillett, Parrish; William P. Mixon,
Bradenton; Henry J. Edsall, Bradenton.
The new board of directors held a meet-
ing and all officers were re-elected for the
cns-.ing year as follows:
President-Francis H. Corrigan; 1st Vict
President-William R. Pollard: 2nd Vice
President-John M. Criley; Secretary-
Henry J. Edsall; Treasurer-S. F. Peters.
The following were elected state directors.
Senior-John M. Criley; Junior-Wil-
iam R. Pollard: Alternate-Charles Sanford.


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-- ....-- .......----------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------


SELL TO BUYERS WHO HELP OUR INDUSTRY-BUY FROM CONCERNS THAT HELP OUR ORGANIZATION


Page 16






THE CITRUS GROWER, April 1, 1939


The Florida State Horticultural
Society has rendered valuable serv-
ice to citrus growers for over fifty
years. It will hold its Fifty-Second
Annual Meeting in the Hollywood
Beach Hotel, at Hollywood, Flor-
ida, on April 18, 19 and 20, 1939.
A number of outstanding speakers
from out of the state have been
booked, with others tentatively
committed. The citrus program will
emphasize soils, scale control, mela-
nose, the handling of drought in-
jured trees, nutritional sprays and
marketing. The sub-tropical fruit
program (Krome Memorial Insti-
tute) will discuss avocadoes, pine-
apples, papayas, mangos and limes.
Soil Science Society
The first session of the meetings
of the Horticultural Society and its
affiliates will be at 2:00 P. M., on
Tuesday, April 18. At this time
there will be an organization meet-
ing of the Florida Unit of the Soil
Science Society of America. A pro-
gram on Florida soils will be given
that will be of particular interest to
citrus and vegetable growers and
others who are interested in Florida
soils and their handling. This is an
open meeting and those interested are
urged to attend.
The usual opening session of the
Horticultural Society will be held
at 8:00 P. M., on Tuesday eve-
n ng.
Thursday
The Thursday morning session
will be devoted to a discussion of
factors in diagnosing grove condi-
tions; the place of nutritional
sprays in the spray and dust pro-
gram; factors influencing the de-
velopment and control of scale in-
sects on citrus; the effect of drought
on citrus trees and on citrus grove
practices; and melanose control.
These subjects will be discussed by
men who are authorities.
The meeting will reach its peak
on Thursday afternoon when mar-
keting and factors that have in-
fluence on the marketing of citrus
fruit, such as maturity, methods of
handling, and other pertinent sub-
jects, will be considered.


Florida Rose Society
The Fourteenth annual meet-
ing of the Florida Rose Society will
be held on Wednesday, April 19.
The first session' will open at 10:00
A. M., in the Hollywood Beach
Hotel. This program will consist of


a series of addresses covering new
and old varieties, diseases, pests,
commercial cut flower production,
roses in landscape work and other
phases.
Open to All
The show in connection will
open at 11 A. M. on Wednesday,
and will continue until noon Thurs-
day. April 20.


The Valencia Situation

Reliable marketing authorities state that if the present Valencia
crop were moved at the rate of 1400 carloads per week for the bal-
ance of the season, the growers would be assured of a return of one
dollar per box on the tree.
At the present time, Valencias are being moved at the rate of
2300 carloads per week, which is causing a depressed market and
unsatisfactory prices.
The necessity for a Marketing Agreement containing VOLUME
PRORATE provision is self-evident.

H. E. CORNELL, President

Glen Saint Mary Nurseries Co.
WINTER HAVEN


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SELL TO BUYERS WHO HELP OUR INDUSTRY-BUY FROM CONCERNS THAT HELP 6UR ORGANIZATION


Florida Horticultural Society


Page 17






THE CITRUS GROWER, April 1, 1939


The General Counsel

(See biographical sketch page 16)
In a recent meeting of the directors of Florida Citrus
Growers, Inc., where the multitudinous details of the
legislative program were thrashed over, it became evi-
dent that the organization must get some single lawyer
to direct writing the principles of this legislation into
legal language. The directors chose W. J. Steed, of
Kissimmee, for this office of general counsel, and, al-
though it meant many days of the hardest sort of pay-
less labor, Mr. Steed accepted. He is in the midst
of conferences with a wide representation of interests
in the industry, as we go to press, trying to reach an
agreement with their legal representatives to unite all
powerful groups behind one constructive program.
A few out of the large number of prominent law-
yers who are assisting, many of them members and
many completely outside the organization, are: Hugh
G. Jones, Arcadia; Doyle W. Carlton, Tampa; Henry
L. Pringle, Leesburg; George I. Fullerton, New Smy-
rna; Ed R. Bentley, Lakeland; Spessard L. Holland,
Bartow: Glen Grimes, Lakeland; E. D. Treadwell,
Arcadia; Counts Johnson, Tampa.
One astonishing thing about the growers' or-
ganization is the extent to which good men are will-
ing to give time and effort to it.


The Marketing Agreement Committee

THE GROWERS ADMINISTRATIVE committee
and the shippers advisory committee, recently ap-
pointed by Secretary Wallace of the U. S. depart-
ment of agriculture to direct the affairs of the grade and
size marketing regulation machinery, have held prelim-
inary meetings and have submitted to Secretary Wallace
a draft of their proposed general marketing policy.
The growers administrative committee elected
Thomas Swann, of Winter Haven, who is also a mem-
ber of the citrus commission as its chairman. It also
appointed Frank Seymour as its manager. Mr. Sey-
mour's acquaintance with past agreements and his high
standing as a statistician are expected to be of great
value to the committee.

The marketing policy agreed upon by the two com-
mittees has not been announced, although it has been
formulated and sent to Secretary Wallace for approval.
The members of the growers committee have passed
regulations in regard to their expenses which provide
for their donating their time. They are reimbursed
only for actual expenses of travel in attending the
meetings.
Their work involves great responsibility. They


must keep closely in touch with rapidly changing mar-
.keting conditions. They must take into account not
only the price of Florida fruits, but the fruit from other
citrus producing states, the price and supply of com-
peting fruits, such as apples, pears, grapes, etc., and also
canned fruits.

In the matter of fruit sizes, their work involves
such questions as the present rapidly increasing popu-
larity of small sizes in the markets. Since their statis-
tics show a large quantity of large fruit still on the trees,
and since the large sizes must move now, or likely
miss a market because of their greater likelihood of dry-
ing out, the committee may temporarily restrict the
movement of the small sizes to create a demand for
these larger sizes and get them out of the way.

Spot Picking
The advantages of spot picking, fully discussed in
our March 15 issue under the title "Grade and Size
Restriction-Some of Its Dangers and Values," seems
to be the growers' route to greatest benefit from the
operation of the present sort of marketing agreement.
The committee has up-to-date statistics of all mar-
kets and estimates of grades and sizes of fruits remain-
ing on the trees. This last information is compiled
from the files of Florida citrus commission. The grades
and sizes shown to be failing to bring a margin over
cost of picking, processing, shipping and selling, are
expected to be prevented from leaving the state.
The budget of the grade and size regulation com-
mittees is estimated at one-quarter cent per box for
the fruit yet to be shipped this season. This provides
for a fund to cover cost of careful estimate of the entire
citrus crop as to quantities, grades and sizes next Au-
gust. This survey will be of tremendous value to all
interests, and will be helpful toward volume control.

Regret Delays
Growers regret the slowness with which the U. S.
department of agriculture has shown in putting the
agreement into effect. Hearings were first held in De-
cember. Secretary Wallace sent back the present agree-
ment for vote the latter part of January. It was ac-
cepted promptly by growers and shippers. On Febru-
ary 22 the agreement was ordered to go into effect. Last
minute delays will prevent the agreement going into
operation sooner than Monday, April 10. We do not
believe any of these delays have been chargeable to failure
of growers or of the growers administrative committee.
Besides Mr. Swann, the committee consists of Henry
L. Pringle. Leesburg, vice-chairman; Harry Askew,
Lakeland, secretary; C. S. Whitfield. Orlando; A. W.
Young, Vero Beach; A. V. Saurmann, Clearwater; R.
J. Kepler, DeLand; Charles H. Walker. Bartow. All
are members of Florida Citrus Growers. Inc.


Page 18










GROWERS TAKE NOTICE

Mr. Grower: Have any of the plans and&
speeches you have heard and read- tbopt
shown you where you would be reasonably
sure of making a fair profit from your citrus
groves, especially when you have to pay 60
to 80 cents per box in preparing your fruit
for shipment, and 60 cents to $1.00 per
box freight, also selling charges, etc?
I have seen nothing so far that appears
to me will solve our problem of over pro-
duction so long as our state laws require us
to take our fruit to packing houses and have
it all DOLLED UP, and we be forced to
pay the existing high charges for this service.

Now Mr. Grower. what would you sug-
gest? I would say that the citrus growers
of the state demand that the citrus laws as
passed in 1935 be repealed or amended so
as to allow free sale and shipment of bulk
fruit. All growers agreeing to this should
immediately see their senators and members
of the house of representatives and see that
the necessary relief is given.
I believe that we should be free agents
and have the privilege to sell our fruit to
whom we please and in the way that the
purchaser may want it, subject to proper
tests for sugar and juice content.
I will give you some of my experiences
in the fruit deal before the 1935 citrus
laws were passed. At that time I was a
member of a fruit and vegetable brokerage
firm. I, however, withdrew from this firm
at the end of the 1935 season and after
the citrus laws had been passed. Prior to
the passing of these laws our firm operated
a citrus packing house and were equipped
to wash, polish, grade and pack fruit. and
will say that we ran at full capacity, but
did not have to pack a box of fruit unless
for special orders. Our demand for truck
and carloads in bulk was greater than our
output. Occasionally the buyers would pay
15 cents per box extra to have the fruit
washed and polished; some would take it as
it came from the grove, and others would
go to the grove and buy direct from the
grower. We all got the cash and had no
complaints for fruit arriving in bad con-
dition, on the contrary we would receive
repeat orders. We sold many cars of fruit
in bulk for other packing houses. I judge
the reason they gave us the orders was be-
cause we were obtaining a greater return
for them in bulk than they were receiving
by packing.
I am interested in citrus graves in Mar-
ion, Hardee and Lee counties, and did well
with my fruit until the citrus laws of 1935
were passed. Since then I have not oper-
ated a packing house and under present
regulations it has been very hard for me to
dispose of my fruit at profitable prices.
We should advertise Florida oranges. Sell
our oranges for interior quality and not al-
together op outward appearance.
If our state laws would permit, we could
now advertise throughout the south and
east to fruit dealers. "Send your trucks
and buy oranges, grapefruit and tangerines
at reasonable prices direct from the growers
and packing houses in bulk." You would


see fruit begin to move and the growers get credit for leadership in this respect.
the cash. An exhibit of citrus products, including
St sjrti is giv.in- u" viewf -T temotjn citrus baking, were shown un-
Sexpltns irtls gI feelhouYa deserwlie-a d on of County How emons
xr l d I eehl sho!ul deser jI elder dil4ieon of County Holtp emonstri-


earnest consideration of all citrus growers.
A CITRUS GROWER.
(Name of above correspondent will be
furnished on application.-EDITOR.)


INDIAN RIVER COUNTY

Annual election in the Indian River Citrus
Growers' Association held Tuesday, March
21, resulted as follows:
President: A. W. Young, Vero Beach:
Vice President: H. S. Jones, Vero Beach;
Treasurer: A. O. Helseth, Vero Beach;
Secretary: E. G. Thatcher, Vero Beach; Di-
rectors (in addition to the above): R. D.
Carter, Wabasso; A. M. Hill, Sr., Vero
Beach; R. L. Kinney, Fellsmere; S. B. Tay-
lor, Vero Beach; M. T. Baird, Vero Beach;
W. T. Zeuch, Vero Beach.
Senior State Director: W. T. Zeuch, Jun-
ior State Director: M. T. Baird; Alternate
State Director: S. B. Taylor.
---------------
ST. LUCIE COUNTY

St. Lucie County Unit of Florida Citrus
Growers, Inc., meets at the court house in
Fort Pierce the first Friday night of each
month.


ORANGE COUNTY

President L. H. Kramer, of Florida Citrus
Growers. Inc., and Judge Spessard L. Hol-
land, prominent in citrus affairs for many
years, were the special speakers at the annual
meeting of Orange County Citrus Growers,
Inc. It was held at Rock Springs Wednes-
day. March 22.
The report of County Treasurer W. E.
Kemp, showed that over $1,400 had been
gathered into the treasury through one means
and another during the county organization's
first year of existence, and a considerable por-
tion of the amount had been expended in
helping other counties and even the state
unit to get going. In addition to the proper
share of membership dues, the account show-
ed an item of $500 contributed to the
state body. Mr. Kramer gave Orange county


SA VE .$andf

Progressive growers are anxious to have a dependable source of credit from which
they can be sure to obtain money in the right amounts and at the right times. This
is why so many have joined this Association. They like the idea of planning their
financing for a whole year.
Our members arrange their loans just as early as they wish and are assured that
as long as they maintain their credit standing their Association will advance them
money as they need it to grow their crop. Then, too, their loans do not come due
until their crop is ready to harvest.
Perhaps we can serve you too. Write us today.

FLORIDA CITRUS PRODUCTION CREDIT ASSOCIATION
P. 0. Box 1592 Orlando, Florida


It n lgent Vrs. l e e ay or.
The objectives and budget of the state
organization for the coming year were dis-
cussed and approved. All of the proposed
items in the state legislative program were
approved with the exception of the elimi-
nation law.
New directors elected included: J. J.
Banks, Jr., Orlando; Ben Carpenter, Turkey
Lake; J. C. Haley, Walton Rex, George
Marsh and Emil Karst, Orlando; Arthur
Clarke, Ocoee; E. M. Coffin, Winter Park;
T. C. Hawthorne, Ocoee; W. E. Kemp, Pine
Castle; W. L'E. Barnett, Tangerine; Gus
Seidel, Gotha; J. C. Palmer, Windermere;
A. W. Hurley, Winter Garden, W. H. Mr-
Nutt, Woodsmere.
The board of directors afterwards met
and elected the following officials for the
ensuing year: Walton Rex, president; W.
E. Kemp, first vice-president; J. C. Haley,
second vice-president; W. L. Burton, sec-
retary; W. H. McNutt, treasurer; J. J.
Banks, Jr., senior state director; T. C. Haw-
thorne, junior state director; Ben Carpenter.
alternate state director.
--------*--------
FOR RESEARCH PURPOSES
19985 Lorain Ave.
Rocky River, Ohio
March 23, 1939
The Citrus Grower
P. O. Box 2077
Orlando, Florida
Gentlemen:
I am enclosing a dime and five cents in
stamps. Please send me the December 1,
1938, and December 15, 1938, issues of
"The Citrus Grower." Those two copie,
have been mislaid in our house and cannot'
be found; we have the rest, however.
Your articles on the ills of the Florida
citrus industry are proving helpful to me in
an investigation of that subject as part of my
work in a graduate course in engineering
management at Case School of Applied
Science in Cleveland. They should prove
beneficial to the future of my father's grove
in Vero Beach also.
I shall appreciate your sending the two
magazines.
Sincerely yours,
Kenyon L. Zapf





Wilkins, L K ,Chief
Perioli(a' ")iv U S Dept Agri.
Washington D C


Growers! This is YOUR Organization!

S Join It Now .

Membership Application Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
OBJECTIVES OF THE FLORIDA CITRUS GROWERS, INC.
1. To give the CITRUS GROWERS OF FLORIDA identity in the Citrus Industry.
2. To bring about a better understanding of all phases of the Citrus Industry, and to create con-
fidence and good will between those responsible for the various activities throughout the Industry, to
the end that better cultural methods may be employed to improve the quality of citrus fruits, and that
marketing methods may be improved, markets stabilized and new markets developed.
3. Tq represent the CITRUS GROWERS in legislative matters; to cooperate collectively with
Federal and State Agencies in the improvement of the Citrus Industry and to assist such agencies in car-
rying out the mandates of laws and regulations affecting the Citrus Industry.
4. To foster, encourage and promote research beneficial to the Growers and to cooperate with all
existing research agencies.
5. To compile and analyze data relative to Citrus Culture and Citrus Markets and to furnish from
time to time such information to the Grower so that he may be kept better informed as to actual ex-
isting conditions in the Industry.
6. To foster and encourage the formation of local and county units of Citrus Growers for the pur-
pose of affording the Growers opportunities to meet, discuss and collectively act upon their problems.

QUALIFICATIONS FOR MEMBERSHIP
Membership in the -------- County Citrus Growers is limited to bona-fide growers
who do not buy or sell citrus fruit of others as a business for profit, and who do not derive a salary or
commission from any marketing organization, and who have no interest in any non-cooperative mar-
keting agency.
Under the above qualifications, I, -------------------------- ----
hereby apply for membership in the ---------------
(Name of County)
County Unit of the Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., Orlando, Florida, and inclose $ ---- as my
annual membership dues, 50 cents of which is for a year's subscription to "The Citrus Grower."
......................................................................-
Signature.
Date --- --.- 193 .-
Membership Committeeman
Name --------------------------------------------
Mail Address -------------- Phone.---. -----
Grove Location ------------------------------------------------------
County, near ....---------- --------- ---------
Section ----- Township ----------------. Range
Total Acreage (all groves) ------------- --------------------------------------------
Marketing Method: Independent--- --------------------------------------------
Cooperative -----------------
PRODUCTION
1937-38 1938-39
Boxes No. Groves Acres Boxes No. Groves Acres
Oranges---- ---
Grapefruit -- -- -- ---
Tangerines -- --- --- --
Mail your Application to the President of your County's Unit, or to the Florida Citrus
Growers, Inc., Orlando, Florida.




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