Front Cover
 President's message
 Table of Contents
 A real marketing agreement
 Green fruit a major problem
 Florida's grapefruit movement
 Federal loans for agriculture
 Grade and size restrictions
 Mineral deficiencies in soil
 With the editor
 Value of advertising
 Back Cover

Group Title: Citrus grower (Orlando, Fla.)
Title: The citrus grower
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086640/00009
 Material Information
Title: The citrus grower
Uniform Title: Citrus grower (Orlando, Fla.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30-44 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
Place of Publication: Orlando Fla
Publication Date: March 15, 1939
Frequency: weekly (semimonthly july-sept.)[<1939>]
semimonthly[ former 1938-]
normalized irregular
Subject: Fruit-culture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruit industry -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Nov. 15, 1938)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1942?
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 4, no. 9 (May 15, 1942).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086640
Volume ID: VID00009
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 03227648
lccn - sn 96027371

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    President's message
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    A real marketing agreement
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Green fruit a major problem
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Florida's grapefruit movement
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Federal loans for agriculture
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Grade and size restrictions
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Mineral deficiencies in soil
        Page 16
        Page 17
    With the editor
        Page 18
    Value of advertising
        Page 19
    Back Cover
        Page 20
Full Text


'lAR 2 0 1939
U. S. Depart,~~





Most of our troubles lie between here and the final consumer


President .


tracted much attention in the past two weeks.
Most of the public and private comment upon it
has not been of a helpful or constructive nature.
There is the best of reason for the leaders in the in-
dustry to take this pessimistic attitude. Prices offered
have failed in two very important respects. They
have not had a stabilizing effect upon the market, and
they have bought too little fruit to talk about.
But the program is in operation in Florida. That
is, the government is offering to buy fruit. The prices
will be discussed further on. (The Federal Surplus
Commodities Corporation, as the arm of the Federal
government that does the actual purchasing, is not
bound by the cost-of-production ruling on grapefruit.)
We Offer Help
What I want to say here is that the Federal authori-
ties are evidently sincere in their belief that their plan
and prices will work, and if they can be made to work,
we are all anxious to assist in every way we can. The
seriousness of the situation forces us to work tirelessly
in every direction that promises any reasonable re-
turn to the grower.
Of course we all know the story. The Federal Sur-
plus Commodities Corporation was persuaded last Oc-
tober to set aside $10,000,000 to buy citrus fruits in
all the producing areas. The amount appropriated was
to cover buying, packing and transporting fruit to the
distribution centers. It was estimated it would be
sufficient only to buy five million boxes of grapefruit
and three million boxes of oranges.
Amount Too Small
The amount appropriated was primarily for pur-
chases of fruit for relief purposes, and it was recognized
at the time that it would not be enough to affect the
whole situation very much. In order to make the elim-
ination larger and more effective, it was proposed that
growers divert, to some use other than fresh fruits or
canned products, one box of lower grade fruit for each
box of higher grade fruit bought by the government.

On oranges, for instance, the current offer is 50
cents per box, loaded on the cars, and on grapefruit
33 cents per box loaded on the cars. here is another
price of 15 cents per box for grape ruit, net to the
grower at the grove.
After picking, hauling and packing charges are de-
ducted, the grower shows an average of 24 cents net
per box of oranges sold under this plan, except that
there are some expenses connected w th diversion of
the extra box of lower grade orange (and not in-
cluding the value of extra box), that are estimated to
bring the net price down several cents! more. This is
estimated in some cases to be as low as 11 cents per box.
Actual Net Prices
On a combination proposition a f~w days ago of
the 33c price loaded in the cars, and 3q0 extra boxes at
15c net at the grove, the total return to me, after de-
ducting all expenses was shown as 3.2 cents per box
on 4,600 boxes, or 6.4 cents per box on the 2,300
boxes actually to be delivered to the government. I
released the figures to the press showing how the re-
turn was far less than the fertilizer value of the fruit
in the grove and stated I had decided not to sell. It
even did not appear profitable to me after I had al-
ready gone to the expense of eliminating part of the
fruit and had an elimination certificate.
Fails In Purpose
If the primary purpose, and almost sole purpose of
the purchase program is to buy fruit for relief pur-
poses, it seems only reasonable that the Surplus Com-
modities Corporation should offer a price at which it
would be attractive to distressed growers to sell what
they have. Prices offered so far do not do this.
But, if there is some way of getting the fruit to
move under this plan, if it will make possible the pur-
chase of our fruit for the needy and give some reason-
able return for our product, we hope to see it work
in a big way. We are not able, as yet, to see how this
is possible unless the government pricei is raised.
Sincerely yours,

Florida Citrus Growers. Inc.


a N U

The Citrus Grower
Official Publication of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.

Our Organization

Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., is an agency through
which 21 county organizations work together for the
purpose of making citrus growing profitable. The
county organizations are made up of growers who have
no financial connection with or interest in the ship-
ment of fruit. In these units are growers who ship
through cooperative marketing associations as well as
growers who dispose of their fruit to cash buyers or
on consignment. So called "cooperative" growers and
so called "independent" growers are fighting side by
side in the ranks of the county units and, through the
county units, in the state organization for the benefit
of the citrus industry. The grower must work for a
stable market with a healthy demand for fruit at a
price that pays, in addition to distribution costs, the
cost of production and a reasonable profit to the pro-
Grower Price Ideal-
Unless this price ideal of the grower is attained, the
grower eventually must go out of business and with
him will fall the whole super-structure of the industry.
Only through organization can the grower realize this
ideal. Consequently, an effective grower organization
is of the greatest concern to every element within the
industry and to all of those business, professional and
other working people in the citrus area whose pros-
perity directly and indirectly depends upon the citrus
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., is the means through
which the grower works and expresses himself in striv-
ing for this ideal.
The state officers are:
L. H. Kramer, Lake Wales, President; J. J. Banks,
Jr., Orlando, 1st Vice-President; C. B. Van Sickler,
Ft. Pierce, 2nd Vice-President; W. L. Burton, Orlando,
Secretary; E. G. Todd, Avon Park, Treasurer.





President's Message._- Inside Front Cover
A Real Marketing Agreement -- 4
Green Fruit a Major Problem.----.. 6
Florida's Grapefruit Movement ---- 8
Federal Loans For Agriculture --..-12
Grade and Size Restrictions -..- -- 14
Mineral Deficiencies in Soil _. - 16
With the Editor.- -----...18
Value of Advertising--- -----... 19

To Get Volume Control

To turn our hope for volume control into a reality
we urgently suggest that you read the article on page
4 of this issue. Then it would be well to ask our-
selves the following questions:
"Have I reached the conclusion that lack of order
in marketing-marketing gluts-are a large factor in
lowering prices?
"Do I believe a marketing agreement providing for
volume proration on a current control basis will have
the effect of raising prices?
"Do I want to put my fruit under control?
"Have I reached the conclusion that in order to ob-
tain the advantages of volume proration I am willing
to 'find a home' for my fruit?
"What shipper will I have handle my fruit?"
After going so far as to answer all the above ques-
tions, we recommend that you see your shipper immed-
iately and talk the matter over with him.

Virgil H. Conner Editor Published the First and Fifteenth of each able. The publishers can accept no re-
month by The Florida Citrus Growers, sponsibility for return of unsolicited manu-
J. E. Robinson Business Manager Inc., Orlando, Florida. scripts.
Entered as second-class matter Novem- Subscription Bates
PUBLICATION COMMITTEE-W. E. her 15. 1938, at the postoffice at Orlando, In United States, one year $1.00 to non-
Kemp, Chairman; Carl D. Brorein, R. Fla.. under the Act of March 3, 1879. members of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.,
J. Kepler, E. G. Thatcher. W. L. Burton, Membership subscriptions, one year 50c.
C. A. Garrett, Karl Lehmann. Manuscripts submitted to this maga-
zine should be accompanied by sufficient Address all mail to The Citrus Grower,
Printed by The Chief Press, Apopka postage for their return if found unavail- P. 0. Box 2077, Orlando, Florida.

THE CITRUS GROWER. March 15. 1939

Start Work Now For--

WE HAVE WON A fraction of
our fight for a marketing
agreement-but only a frac-
tion. Within a very short time the
Department of Agriculture will, in
all probability, appoint the two nec-
essary marketing agreement commit-
tees and set its grade and size regula-
While past experiences with such
regulations do not justify much hope
for material benefits, it may lead to
a better program of orderly market-
ing if we give it our best support.
No matter how good or how bad
we, as individuals, may believe it to
be this one thing is certain . we
must all cooperate in order to get
good out of it, if there be any good
in it. However, as long as fruit
can be shipped to the markets in a
green or gassed-to-death condition
and in quantities out of all propor-
tion to demand, we need not expect
to realize a fair return for our labors.
Prepare Now
Next season's shipments will be-
gin sooner than we now realize and
there is much to be done to get our
house in order. If we wait until
fruit begins to move before making
preparations it will be too late. Now
is the time to take stock and pre-
pare to regain the losses which this
year has brought us. The job of
preparing for orderly marketing is
far too big to wait until the last
minute to make the necessary prep-
Law and Public Opinion
We may look with considerable
confidence to our state legislature to
enact a better "green-fruit-law" than
that which we now have and per-
haps to give us a state law perm't-
ting us to set up our own marketing
agreement. But no such laws will
be of any great help unless we our-
selves comply with them and like-
wise aggressively insist that the small
minority which does not like regula-

0 orderly marketing through volume

By J. J. BANKS, Jr..
Chairman, Marketing Agreement
Committee, Florida Citrus
Growers. Inc.
tion, complies also. No law is
stronger than the public opinion
which actively supports it. As far
as citrus laws and regulations go.
that public opinion is made up of
us growers. The unit of that "pub-
lic opinion" is and must of neces-
sity be the individual grower.
"WE" and Not "You"
One of the officers of the growers'
organization relates a story which
forcefully illustrates this point. A
grower came up to him and said:
"When are YOU going to stop
this green fruit shipping?"
The answer was:
"I am not only not going to stop
it, and it will not be stopped so long
as you continue to ask the question
that way.
"When you begin to say 'When
are WE going to stop this green fruit
shipment' something will be done
about it; but not until then."
The same answer also applies to
volume control. So important is this
individual attitude that no success-
ful approach to getting volume con-
trol can be made until we realize that
in "stock taking" it must be given
first consideration.
Remove Impediments
There is at least some substance
in the reasons given by the agricul-
tural adjustment administration why
volume control could not be put in-
to effect in Florida at this time. It
is our duty to ourselves to re-exam-
ine the question and to weigh care-
fully these observations so that we
can remove the present impediments
which stand in our way to getting

Control Requirements
The statement has been repeated-
ly made that until a very substan-
tial amount of fruit has "found a
home" volume control will not
work. When we look over the h's-
tory of marketing agreements we
find that in those cases where farm
commodities have "found a home"
-that is when the producers either
market through cooperatives or thru
handlers with whom they have re-
lationships based on sound business
practices and confidence-the agree-
ments work with reasonable satisfac-
tion and show substantial benefits
to producers. On the other hand
agreements have failed in almost ev-
ery instance where such alignments
have not been made.
When we compare these records
with our practices here in Florida.
we must in fairness to our own
progress admit that our business
practices put us in that class where
marketing agreements have not been
very successful.
Our Picture
A true analysis of our present
methods of doing business will give
us this picture-About 35 percent of
our fruit is handled through cooper-
atives. That fruit "has a home"
and can successfully operate under
any reasonable type of agreement.
About 15 percent or more of our
fruit is grown by shippers. That,
likewise, "has a home."
When we combine these two
groups we have 50 percent of our
fruit not only having homes, but
having these homes at the beginning
of a shipping season. This makes
an ideal set up for a successful oper-
ation of any type of agreement.
Let us look now at the other 50
percent. It cannot be properly
classified for its habits are largely


Page 4

THE CITRUS GROWER, March 15, 1939

unknown. Some of it goes through
the same handlers year after year.
Some of it is grown by what is
known as "preferred growers"-
those growers who have, for one rea-
son or another, alignments with han-
dlers which are not based entirely
upon the actual value of their fruit.
Back in our school days we would
probably have referred to them as
"teacher's pets." There are yet oth-
er growers who want to be left alone
to "trade" if. when and where they
Growers Further Classified
Out of this 50 percent there are
many growers who are just as co-
operatively minded toward their in-
dustry as any of those other growers
who belong to the first group. But
they have never taken aggressive
steps to align themselves with a
workable grower-shipper movement
in the interest of "finding a home"
in the sense that volume control im-
plies, nor are the vast majority of
them insisting that the shippers with
whom they do business take a sym-
pathetic attitude toward volume con-
trol agreements.
So the unknown question is yet
to be answered, namely:
How many growers in this last 50
percent group are in a frame of mind
to make volume control work?
How can they be identified and
what steps will they take to "find
homes" for their fruit?
Our Position
We find ourselves in the position
of the near-sighted man looking for
his glasses-"It is mighty hard to
find 'em without 'em." Let us think
this over for a moment and see why
it is important to get this answer.
The successful operation of a
marketing agreement, particularly
one with volume control, depends
almost entirely upon the support the
growers give it. With 50 percent
of the growers supporting it (the
50 percent who have "homes" for
their fruit at the beginning of the
season) and a large portion of the
other 50 percent trying individual-
ly to "chisel" themselves out of it
-well, it just inherently will not

What Is Necessary
Then, what percentage of whole
hearted grower support is necessary?
By those who are familiar with the
problem, it is estimated all the way
from 75 percent to 100 percent.
It will take, then, the active moral
backing of at least 75 percent of the
growers who are willing and even
anxious voluntarily to submit them-
selves to equitable and reasonable
regulation and not passively be con-
tent to regulate the other fellow.
This, however, is not all it takes. It
will be necessary militantly to de-
mand that the remaining 25 percent
likewise obey the law. And, of
course, the more we can add to the
75 percent group and correspond-
ingly reduce the 25 percent group,
the easier and more profitable the
problem becomes.
Next Season's Program
In order, as quickly as possible, to
map out a program which can be
used at the beginning of next sea-
son's shipments, we must begin now
to think in terms of what that pro-
gram will be. We believe that the
first essential requirement will be for
the 50 percent of the fruit which is
marketed through the so-called cash
buyers to begin to make their in-
dividual plans to get a "home" for
their fruit for next year. The uni-
form contract committee of the
growers' organization will be glad
to work with the individual grower
in devising contract forms which
will make such alignments workable.
See the president or some other of-
ficer of your county unit who will
be glad to get you in touch with
that service which is here waiting
for you.
Select a Shipper
The next important thing is for
you to select a reliable shipper, and
arrange to enter into a working
agreement for him to handle your
fruit for next season. If next sea-
son we have a surplus and a chaotic
condition as we have had this sea-
son, our chances of a satisfactory
cash-on-the-tree deal is very slim in-
deed. So we have everything to gain
and little to lose by beginning now
to make alignments. Talk to your
neighbor about this idea and encour-

age him to make these all-important
plans for self-preservation.
Grove Census
In the meantime your marketing
agreement committee is taking two
steps to bring us nearer our goal.
Plans are underway for an accurate,
grove census so that the necessary
information will be available to
make volume control equitable.

State Control
The other step is to sponsor a
state law by which a marketing
agreement can be set up under state
rather than Federal control. If the
U. S. Department of Agriculture
persists in its refusal to give us re-
lief we will then have available an-
other and perhaps even more efficient
route to travel toward an orderly,
marketing program.
In either event the marketing
agreement committee's original plan
should be carried out to the extent
that an agreement must be drafted.
and entered into in which a work-
able volume control plan is specific-
ally set up in plain and understand-
able language. Then and only un-
ti: then can the growers work to-
ward a definite and specific program,
individually meet and make final ad-
justments to a common purpose.

Must Find Outlet
There is, therefore, ahead of us,
beginning today the necessity of each
of us as individuals taking the nec-
essary steps to find for our fruit a
satisfactory market outlet through
those agencies that are or will adapt
themselves to volume control and to
continue to support and aid the com-
mittees of our organization in per-
fecting the machinery by which it
can be made efficiently and equitably
to work.

Industrial Suicide?
Without this sane, common-sense
approach to a common and vital
problem there seems only one al-
ternative-industrial suicide. We
cannot indefinitely continue to mar-
ket our fruit individually as we
please when we know full well that
the sum total of those uncoordinated
sales results in destroyed values. It
is a case of either "I" persist until


Page 5

Page 6

"I" perish or "WE" work together
so that "WE" can survive.
"I" and "We"
Mr. Chester Rowell, in discussing
the necessity of a law to prevent
destructive "run on banks," express-
ed the thought so well that we want
to repeat it here:
"It is all a question of 'I' or
'We.' If there is a danger of other
people drawing their money out of
banks, 'I' would be better off if
T drew all my money out first
and put it in a box. But if 'We'
try that, we can not get our money,
and it would do infinitely more
harm if we did. So laws have to
be passed to prevent each of us from
trying to do separately what it would
be self-destructive for all of us to
do together."
Let's Begin Now
Growers, let us begin now to take
to heart the lessons whrch the ex-
perience of others and common-
sense thinking teach us; let's realize
that success depends upon our in-
dividual strength collectively applied
and let us proceed now to get our
house in order for next season.
We Must Follow
Leadership cannot take us any-
where unless we follow; tireless and
un-e'fish work of all our committees
cannot accomplish anything unless
we prepare ourselves to take advan-
tage of their work. And whatever
form the final definite plan takes, re-
sulting from this work, its success
must of necessity be based upon the
handling of our fruit either through
cooperatives controlled by the grow-
er or through handlers who cooper-
ate w:th the grower.
We Face Choice
For us to choose any other type
of handler means failure of any or-
derly marketing plan. As it is our
fruit which is to be marketed and
as the choice of selecting handlers is
entirely in our hands we face as in-
dividuals the choice of sound, prof-
itable marketing or another season
of red ink and industrial destruction.
As this is basically an individual
choice let us individually beg:n to
give up old habits and collectively
to regain that prosperity wh:ch we
for so long enjoyed when conditions
were themselves different.

THE CITRUS GROWER, March 15, 1939

Green Fruit A Real Problem

1 ROWERS WANT A real green
Fruit law. Th:s is the out-
standing impression which one
gets when reading the stack of let-
ters received from growers by John
M. Criley, of Terra Ceia, Florida.
chairman of the legislative sub-com-
mittee on maturity tests. Growers
have different ideas about how it
should be done but are unanimous
in their desire to prevent bad fruit
from getting to their customers.
After all, no matter who ships and
packs the fruit or whose brand the
box carries, the final consumer who
eats it is the grower's customer. Now
that the grower has an organization
through which he can express him-
self, it is his hoDe that his customer
shortly will realize that the grower
is most anxious that the customer
be pleased with the product he buys.
The legislative sub-committee.
working with the research commit-
tee, has made a long series of inves-
tigations and the proposed green
fruit law is about ready for submis-
sion to the county units.
Growers Are Thinking
Some of the letters, particularly
one from Mrs. Laura Gano McNeill
of Thonotosas-a, came very close
to making recommendations exactly
in line w th those expected to be
proposed by the committee.
We are printing below letter from
Mr. Frank E. Davis of 160 Sanford
Avenue, Flushing, New York. This
is of interest because it gives a clear
picture of the customer's mind.
Mr. John M. Criley,
Terra Ceia, Florida.
Dear Sir:
As the owner of a grove near Bar-
tow where I spend a part of each
season, I have realized for some years
that the shipping of green fruit has
done more harm to the sale of Flor-
ida fruit than all the advertising
could do good. If the grower would
hold h's fruit till he is willing to eat
it himself there would be no prob-
With conditions as they are it will
take drastic action and considerable
time to undo the harm already done.

From the standpoint of a resident
of New York who is vitally inter-
ested in Florida fruit I answer the
questionnaire as follows:
1. Yes.
2. Yes.
3. Some different test should be
devised if possible.
4. Cannot say. Consider pres-
ent test inadequate.
5. Raised. Early shipments have
very little juice.
6. Yes.
7. Yes.
8. I am not familiar with the
coloring practices. There is a great
deal of ignorance here in the north.
of the facts concerning the ripening
of citrus. Many think fruit is pick-
ed green and ripens like bananas.
Most people believe it should ma-
ture in a season similar to ipplcs.
As far as I know there has never
been any information given by the
citrus district of the proper method
of selecting good fruit. I am very
doubtful of the value of "Color
Added." Mo-t of those I have
talked with think it is done only to
cover up the fact that the fruit is
green. If fruit is held till it is fit
to eat I believe it will sell better in
its natural color. Of course I real-
ize it is advisable to have it go thru
the coloring room to make the color
uniform in most ca-es, especially
with fruit like navels that reach
their best quality while still partly
grecn in color.

With the hope that something
may be done to correct what I be-
lieve to be the most detrimental
practice to the profitable marketing
of the Florida fruit, the shipping of
green fruit, I am,
Very sincerely yours,
Frank E. Davis.
Flushing, N. Y.

Many of the letters received, how-
ever, showed how uncolored and un-
treated fruit had been received di-
rect from growers with much en-
thusiasm by friends in the north
who never before had found such
quality as obtains in these thor-
oughly tree-ripened products.


THE CITRUS GROWER, March 15, 1939


Scaling the crags and peaks of mountains
requires expert cooperation and mutual
help between the climbers. And the
larger the mountain the greater is the co-
operation required. Any active boy can
climb a hill a'one.

The Florida citrus grower, facing the
ever greater pea' s of mountainous compe-
tition and saddled with constantly heavier
loads of production, needs cooperation
with his fellows more than ever before.

Without cooperation he never can r'se
over the pits of economic depression. He,
his neighbor, and his neighbor's neigh-
bor must face their common problem and
cooperate in its solution.
The Florida Citrus Exchange offers well
tested machinery for cooperative citrus
service from the care of the grove through
to the consumer. It is grower-owned,
grower-controlled, and grower-operated
in every phase of its activity. Its sole

interest remains the deve!opmert of im-
proved service to the grower.
Sales and merchandising equipment are
not created over-night. Its values are
based upon personal and effective con-
tac:s and confidence. During the thirty
years' operation of the Exchange sa e;
organization handling nearly one hundred
and forty million boxes of fruit, it ha;
built and proved its marketing personnel
and machinery. And that machinery is
kept well oiled and active during the en-
tire year by handling some of the nation's
largest deciduous accounts.
The Exchange alone today handles twice

as much fruit as the total crops of the
industry twenty-five to thirty years ago.
Its volume in boxes is many times greater
than during its formative years. It is the
unquestioned leader in the industry to-
But it cannot do the job alone.
The industry is beyond the small hills'
stage. Scaling the mountains of compe-
tition ahead requires the wholehearted
cooperation of every man jack in the in-
dustry today.
Shall the industry cooperate voluntarily
cr wait until economic depression starves
it into united action to save itself-and
its producers?
The Florida Citrus Exchange offers a
time-tested and proved nucleus around
which greater industry cooperation may
be built. Or it will join any move of
equally proved soundness and benefit to
the grower wh'ch assures the desired in-
dustry cooperation.





Page 7


Page 8 THE CITRUS GROWER, March 15, 1939

This Season's Schedule--

Grapefruit Movement And Price

tempting to market the largest
grapefruit crop in history, the
movement to date in both fresh or
canned form is not proportionately
as great as had been moved on corres-
ponding dates for the previous two
seasons. Crop estimates indicate a 32
percent larger crop in the United
States than the previous record crop,
while Florida's grapefruit produc-
tion this season exceeds her previous
record by 16 percent. Florida's ship-
ment of fresh grapefruit through
February 25 of this season amounted
to 14,196 cars. This includes motor
truck and boat shipments reduced
to carlot equivalents. For a corres-
ponding period last season, grape-
fruit shipments amounted to 11,657
cars and the season before to 17,079
cars. (Carlot movement in terms
of boxes was 5,768,400; 4,662,-
800; and 6,831,600 respectively.)
Movement of grapefruit in fresh
form this season has amounted to
only 27 percent of the crop estimate
as compared to 32 percent last season
and 38 percent the previous season.

Grapefruit used by canners this
season to February 25 is 3 million
boxes, compared with 31/2 million
by this date last season and 4 1-3 the
season before. (Table 1.)

Extension Economist in Marketing.
Prepared for this issue of "The
Citrus Grower"

years' shipping schedule as a base. it
is found that auction receipts are be-
hind 1,346 cars or approximately
one-half million boxes. Fresh fruit
shipments other than auction are be-

tional boxes. (Table 2.)
Grapefruit shipments by motor
truck have shown a considerable in-
crease during these three seasons. For
the 1938-39 season to February 25,
2359 cars have left Florida by means
of motor truck, for corresponding
period of 1937-38 season, 1907 cars
had moved by truck and for 1936-
37 season, 1704.
There has been 38 percent more
grapefruit shipped by truck during
this season than during the 1936-37

Table 2.-Estimated Florida Grapefruit Production, Actual Movement of 1938-39 Crop
and Calculated Schedule of 1938-39 Movement according to schedule of 2 previous
seasons to February 25.
Average Cal. Move. Actual
Seasons 1938-39 Crop Movement Boxes
1936-37 According to for Behind
and Sched. of 2 Season Calculated
1937-38 Prev. Seasons 1938-39 Schedule
Boxes Boxes Boxes Boxes
Estimated Production 16,350.000 21,000.000 21,000,000
Fresh fruit shipments
Truck, Rail 8 Boat* 5.747.200 7.381.500 5,678.400 1,703,100
Percent of Estimated
Production Shipped 35 35 27
Used by Canners 3.847,518 4.941.300 3.021.918 1.919.382
Percent of Estimated
Production Canned 24 24 14
Total Movement 9.594.718 12.322.800 8.700.318 3.622.482
Percent of Production
Moved to Date 59 59 41
*Does not include express shipments nor shipments within the state.

Tab!e 1.-Estimated Florida Grapefruit Production, Total Movement, for Seasons 1938-39.
1937-38 and 1936-37, covering period from beginning of season to February 25.
1938-39 1937-38 1936-37
Boxes Boxes Boxes

Estimated Production ---- 21,000,000 14.600.000 18.100.000
Fresh fruit shipments Truck, Rail 8 Boat* 5.678,400 4.662.800 6.831,600
Percent of Estimated Production Shipped 27 32 38
Used by Canners ---- ---- 3,021,918 3,369,472 4.325,565
Percent of Estimated Production Canned 14 23 24
*Does not include express shipments nor shipments within the state.
Had grapefruit been moved ac- hind schedule 2,912 cars or a little
cording to the average schedule of more than 1 million boxes.
the previous two seasons, there Canners have used proportionate-
would have been moved to date Canners have used proportionate-
would have been moved to date ly less than fresh fruit outlets. Had
about 3.6 million boxes which are .
S ii they canned according to the previous
still in the state. two seasons' schedule, they would
Again using the previous; two have used almost 2 million addi-

season. Since such a large propor-
tion of the grapefruit shipped by
truck is marketed in the Southeast-
ern States, it is concluded that these
states have used a proportionately
larger share of Florida's grapefruit
this season than during previous
Seasonal Movement Behind
Calculated Schedule
An analysis of weekly movement
of grapefruit shows that fresh fruit
shipments through February 25 of
this season followed fairly closely
the average of shipments of the past
two seasons. (Figure 1.)
The quantity used by canners has
been relatively small during this sea-


THE CITRUS GROWER, March 15, 1939


Sep. Oc:.
11-18-25 2-9-16-23-


Nov. Dec.
30 6-13-20-27 4-11-18-25

son. To about the middle of Jan-
uary canners were using approxi-
mately the same amount of grape-
ftnir as the average of the previous
two seasons, but if the larger crop
and normal trend in proportion used

Jan. Feb.
8-15-22-29, 5-12-19-26

by canners is taken into considera-
tion, the relative quantity canned
was small. Since the middle of Jan-
uary the quantity canned has been
considerably below normal. Fig-
ure 2.)


Date December January February
11 18 25 8 15 29 5 12 19
Florida Grapefruit Used by Canners by Weeks (through February 25)
--Seasons 1938-39 and Average for
Seasons 1936-37 and 1937-38

Information on origin of Florida
shipments is not readily available
but auction receipts indicate that a
relatively larger proportion of the
auction receipts this season have been
from the Indian River district. To
date this season, 2062 cars of Flor-
ida grapefruit, excluding Indian
River, had gone to auction as com-
pared with 3190 last season and
3779 the season before. Indian Riv-
er grapefruit to date has amounted
to 1904 cars as compared with 1392
last season and 1728 the season be-

Grapefruit Prices
Grapefruit prices this season have
been very unsatisfactory and consid-
erably lower than for corresponding
periods of the last two seasons. Av-
erage seasonal prices indicate that
this season prices to date are prob-
ably the lowest of record. Auction
prices of Number 1 regular Florida
grapefruit* averaged $1.88 per
standard box through February 25.
This grade and variety brought
$2.33 to date last season and $1.94
the season before. Indian River
regular brought $1.94 this season.
$2.53 last and $2.20 two seasons
Auction prices of Number 1
Marsh Seedless grapefruit* have av-
eraged $1.97 per standard box this
season while comparative prices for
the past two seasons were '2.64 and
$2.17, respectively. Indian River
Marsh Seedless grade Number 1 has
averaged $2.34 this season, $3.27
last and $2.73 the season before.
Prices of Number 1 grapefruit
compared to the average of the past
two seasons are shown in Table 3.
Regular grapefruit* prices this sea-
son have averaged 26 cents below
the average of the past two seasons,
Indian River 42 cents below. Marsh
Seedless* 43 cents below and Indian
River Marsh Seedless 66 cents be-
low. (Table 3.)
Number 2 grapefruit sold at auc-
tion brought less than Number 1 for
each variety and for both territorial
districts. Regular Number 2 grape-
fruit* has averaged $1.66 this season
as compared with $2.07 last and
$1.75 the season before. Indian

*Excluding Indian River.


Page 9

THE CITRUS GROWER, March 15, 1939

Table 3.-Auction Prices Number 1 Grapefruit for the 1938-39 Season, thru February 25.
compared with average of 2 previous seasons to corresponding date.
Average 1936- Season 1938-
37 and 1937- Season 39 below
38 1938-39 Average
Regular* $ 2.14 $ 1.88 $ 0.26
Regular Indian River 2.36 1.94 0.42
Marsh Seed:ess* 2.40 1.97 0.43
Marsh Seedless Indian River 3.00 2.34 0.66
*Exc:uding Indian River.

River auction price for Number 2
Regular grapefruit to date is $1.62
as compared with $2.05 and $1.88
the previous two seasons. Number
2 Marsh Seedless grapefruit* has
averaged $1.67 this season. $2.29
last season and $1.91 two sea-ons
past. Comparative prices for Marsh
Seedless Indian River for the last
three seasons are $1.91. $2.59 and
Number 2 grapefruit prices thru
February 25 this season have aver-
aged from 25 to 51 cents per box

cent of the previous two seasons
average while Indian River Regular
are 82 percent: Marsh Seedless* 82
percent and Marsh Seedless Indian
River 78 percent.
Prices of Number 2 grapefruit
this season compared with the aver-
age of the past two seasons as be-
tween districts and varieties were
quite similar to prices of Number 1

Table 5.-Percent that the 1938-39 Florida Grapefruit Auction Pric?, through February
25, represents of the average price of the 2 previous seasons through the same date.

Regular Indian River
Marsh Seedless*
Marsh Seedless Indian River

Gradz No. 1 Grade No. 2
Percent Percent
88 87
82 83
82 80
78 79

*Excluding Indian River.

prices are of the average for corres-
ponding periods of the 1937-38 and
1936-37 seasons. Regular grape-
fruit* prices this season are 88 per-

Table 4.-Auction Prices Number 2 Florida Grapefruit for the 1938-39 Season compared
with average of 2 previous seasons through February 25.
Average Season
1936-37 Season 1938-39
and 1938-39 Below
1937-38 Avera7'e
Regular* $ 1.91 $ 1.66 $ 0.25
Regular Indian River 1.96 1.62 0.34
Marsh Seedless* 2.10 1.67 0.43
Marsh Seedless Indian River 2.42 1.91 0.51
*Excluding Indian River.

lower than a like grade for similar
periods of the 1937-38 and 1936-
37 seasons. Regular grapefruit*
prices to date are 25 cents lower
than this grade and variety brought
for the average of corresponding per-
iods of 1937-38 and 1936-37 sea-
sons. Regular Indian River brought
34 cents below average: Marsh Seed-
less* 43 cents and Indian River
Marsh Seedless 51c. (Table 4.)
Prices of Number 2 grapefruit av-
eraged from 22 to 43 cents per box
lower this season than Number 1
grapefruit. Regular Number 2
grapefruit* 22 cents below Number
1: Indian River Number 2 grapefruit
32 ctnts below Indian River Num-
ber 1; Marsh Seedless* 30 below
Number 1, and Number 2 Indian
River Marsh Seedless 43 cents be-
low Indian River Number 1.
In Table 5 are shown the per-
centages that this season's grapefruit

grapefruit Regular grapefruit*
brought 87 percent of average; In-
dian River regular 83 percent: Marsh
Seedless* 80 percent and Marsh
Seedless Indian River 79 percent.
These data indicate that the re-
duction in price of Indian River
grapefruit has been proportionately
greater than for fruit from other
Florida areas. They also indicate
that the reduction in price of all
Marsh Seedless grapefruit has been
proportionately greater this season
than all regular grapefruit.
*Excluding Indian River.

The Valencia Situation

Reliable marketing authorities state that if the present Valencia
crop were moved at the rate of 1400 carloads per week for the bal-
ance of the season, the growers would be assured of a return of one
dollar per box on the tree.
At the present time, Valencias are being moved at the rate of
2300 carloads per week, which is causing a depressed market and
unsatisfactory prices.
The necessity for a Marketing Agreement containing VOLUME
PRORATE provision is self-evident.

H. E. CORNELL, President

Glen Saint Mary Nurseries Co.

56 E. Pine St.

1st Nat'l. Bank Bldg.


Page 10

THE CITRUS GROWER, March 15. 1939


Orange County Citrus Growers. Inc.. will hold
their annual meeting and election of officers at Kelley
Park (Rock Springs) Wednesday. March 22, beginning
at 10:30 in the morning.
According to the program committee chairman. W.
L'E. Barnett, Tangerine, proceedings will begin with
reports of officials and committee chairmen. These will
be very brief, as follows:
Reports of County President J. J. Banks, Jr., and
of County Secretary W. L. Burton, also reports of the
following committee chairmen: Marketing. J. C. Ha!ey;
culture, E. J. Parker; selling by weight, Arthur M.
Clark; legislative, Carl J. Jackson; research, W. L'E.
Barnett; publicity, John Jacquith; crop insurance, K.
McPherson; membership, T. C. Hawthorne: packing
house charges, C. S. Whitfield.
The reports will be followed by election of officers.
A picnic dinner will be served at 12:30. Besides
good eating, the noon hour will be featured by judging
of entries in a baking contest, sponsored by the county
organization and under the direction of Mrs. Nellie W.
Taylor, county home demonstration agent. Any baked
article is eligible for the contest in which citrus fruits
are an important ingredient. Mrs. Taylor will also
have a display of a great variety of citrus products made
in the home, and will distribute recipes for them.
At 1:30 L. H. Kramer of Lake Wales, president of
the state organization will speak, followed by Judge
Spessard L. Holland of Bartow, who will outline the
legislative program of Flor'da Citrus Growers. Inc. The
meeting will be closed by remarks by Orange County's
delegation to the state legislature, consisting of Senator
W. W. Rose, and Representatives Robt. L. Hodges and
L. C. Leedy.
There will also be "hill-billy" music.


This delicate, cake-like bread is just right served warm
for Sunday morning breakfast or for a luncheon or
supper dessert any day of the week. It requires:
1 2 cup cake flour sifted before measuring
1/4 teaspoon soda
2 teaspoons baking powder
Y2 teaspoon salt
2 cup powdered sugar
1 egg slightly beaten
Juice and grated rind of 1 orange. Add water if nec-
Sift dry ingredients together into a bowl. Beat the
cgg, add the grated orange rind and the juice and stir in-
to the dry mixture beating just enough to dampen all
the ingredients. It may be necessary to add a little more
orange juice. The dough should be a little thicker than
for ordinary layer cake. Spread the dough one inch
thick in a nine inch round pan or an eight inch square
one. Sprinkle the top thickly with powdered sugar and
pecans, dot with bits of butter and bake in a moderate
oven (375 degrees F) for 20 to 25 minutes, or until
nicely browned and firm when tested with a toothpick.
Cut in wedges or squares and serve warm. On second
thought, it would be better to double the recipe.

Page 11

How Much Nitrogen

Do You Own?

You May Be Better Off

Than You Think.

The air is full of sound waves. Has
been for centuries. But until recent
years we didn't know anything
about sound waves. Now it is
simple. We buy a radio, tune in,
and in comes sound. Where from?
From the air.

Nitrogen is just as free. The air
above your place is a regular store-
house of Nitrogen in its purest form.
It is yours. It is free. But you
have to "tune in" to get it.

The Bacterialized Plant Food
is Nature's way of "tuning in."
Once your soil is thoroughly inocu-
lated with ORGANO and its army
of little soldiers get organized for
work, there is contact: definite con-
tact: and down comes Nitrogen.
Natural, harmless Nitrogen. Plenty
of it.

The radio "tunes in" for sound.
ORGANO "tunes in" for Nitrogen
-and more.

The ORGANO program is to build
up; Make soil richer; Trees healthier;
Fruit better.

Nitrogen is costly. Why not draw
from your own storehouse?

PHONE 3842
138 N. Orange Ave.




Page 12 THE CITRUS GROWER, March 15, 1939

Help For Citrus Growers--

Federal Loans For Agriculture

T HERE ARE FIVE types of so-
called government loans avail-
able to Florida farmers. These
are made by various agencies of the
Federal government, under the su-
pervision of the Farm Credit Ad-
In 1917 the United States Con-
gress enacted a law authorizing the
establishment of Farm Loan Asso-
ciations under twelve Federal land
banks. For the purpose of starting
these associations, $9,000.000 was
These Farm Loan Associations
operated very much as they do to-
day. One of the features was that
each borrower subscribed for stock
in the Association to the extent of
5 percent of his loan.
By 1933 these stock subscriptions
amounted to enough to repay to the
government, this $9,000,000.
Revised in 1933
In 1933, the Farm Credit Ad-
ministration revised these Farm Loan
Associations. One of their greatest
accomplishments was the taking over
of mortgages which in those finan-
cially chaotic times were more than
millstones about the necks of farm-
ers everywhere.
Each association's affairs are man-
aged by a board of directors. At
the present time, a secretary-treas-
urer handles the clerical affairs of
several associations. There are sev-
en of these combined offices in Flor-

Cooperative Loan Association
Farm Loan Associations of Flor-
ida negotiate for the money through
the Columbia Federal Lank Bank.
They are not agents of the Federal
Land Bank, but operate as local co-
operative associations chartered by
the Federal Land Bank to make
loans in a designated area.
Strictly speaking, the association

County Agent, Orange County.
members borrow from the Federal
Land Bank. They are required to
subscribe for stock in the local as-
sociation to the extent of 5 percent
of the loan granted, and in turn the
association is required to subscribe
for a like amount of stock in the
Federal Lank Bank. The associa-
tions are required to endorse all Fed-
eral Land Bank loans closed by and
through them, and the association
and borrowers therein are liable on
the endorsement to the extent of this
5 percent stock. This same regula-
tion pertains to the Production Cred-
it Associations, which will be d's-
cussed presently.
Basis of Loans
"The sole basis of loans from the
Federal Land Bank and Land Bank
Commissioner, is the income from
the farm unit. This income must be
established and not prospective, and
must be sufficient to meet the mort-
gage installments as they mature, pay
taxes and upkeep of the property,
and allow a reasonable amount for
the average family to live on." The
interest rate charged is 4 percent, and
the term of years is ten years or more.
Loans are made up to 50 percent
of the appraised value of the farm,
plus 20 percent of the appraised
value of permanent improvements
on the farm. All National Farm
Loan Association loans require a
first mortgage on the property.
Production Loans
The Farm Credit Administration
also established Production Credit
Associations throughout the terri-
tories which each of the Land Banks
served. Likewise, they are not gov-
ernment agencies, and likewise they
are partly owned by the borrowers.

Production loans are made for
crop production purposes, and do
not exceed one year in time. The
interest rate is 5 percent for the time
the loan runs. Capital stock of these
associations was subscribed by the
Production Credit Corporation of
Columbia. This stock is known as
Class A stock, and is non-voting.
The proceeds of this stock are in-
vested in government bonds, the in-
terest from which is part of the in-
come of the association. Class B
stock is the voting stock, and is own-
ed by the members of the associa-
tion who subscribe to 5 percent of
the amount of their loan in stock.
At their annual meetings, they
elect a board of directors, which is
charged with the responsibility of
operating the association.
Associations In Florida
Originally two Citrus Production
Credit Associations were established
for the state, and a Citrus Produc-
tion Credit Association serving other
farm interests for each county. At
the present time there is only one
Citrus Production Credit Associa-
tion, with headquarters in Orlando.
Recently the interest rate has been
reduced to 41/2 percent. Mr. Philip
Marz is secretary-treasurer. Most
of the county production credit as-
sociations have been consolidated.
Red Tape Reduced
County agricultural agents in
various sections of the state can di-
rect prospective borrowers to the
headquarters of Production Credit
Associations, as well as Farm Loan
There is at present very much less
red tape in connection with loans
from these associations.
Losses Very Low
One must conclude from the re-
ports of the Production Credit, as
well as the Farm Loan Associations,
that they are being well and care-


THE CITRUS GROWER, March 15, 1939

fully handled. For example, the
Citrus Production Credit Associa-
tions since their organization, have
loaned approximately $3,000,000 to
citrus growers in Florida, and their
net losses have been only 7/100 of
1 percent, in spite of the fact that
during the first lending season we
had a severe freeze (1934). a hur-
ricane in 1935, another freeze in
1937, drought in the spring of
1938, and low fruit prices for the
past two seasons.
The Land Bank Commissioner is
authorized to make direct loans to
farmers in distressed financial circum-
stances, and whose property has pos-
sibility of ultimately paying out in
larger amounts than is authorized by
the regulations pertaining to Farm
Loan Associations. These are call-
ed Land Bank Commissioner loans.
Rehabilitation Loans
The department of agriculture,
through the Farm Security Adminis-
tration, is making rehabilitation
loans to small farm operators. They
have a system of trained farm and
home supervisors who work in one
or several counties, depending on the
population. These supervisors care-
fully record all the details with ref-
erence to every phase of farming pos-
sible on the farm owned or rented
by the applicant. The farm and
home supervisors discuss these pos-
sibilities with the man and woman
at the head of the family.
Loans are made for the produc-
tion of crops, the purchase of a small
amount of livestock and repairs to
the home and farm buildings. If
the loan is made, items are budgeted
and supplies are paid for by checks
signed jointly by the farm operator
and farm supervisor for the territory.
The interest rate is 5 percent. If
there seems to be no chance of re-
paying the loan within one year, the
loans are not granted. The inter-
est is charged only for the period
of the loan.
Emergency Crop Loans
Still another type of loan to small
operators is the emergency crop loan.
The limit of money available to any
one borrower is $400.00. These
loans are not made to any one who

is able to obtain credit from any
other source.
In one of the late reports, the
Land Bank Commissioner states
that literally thousands of farmers
have been able to establish credit
from other sources through this
source of help as a beginning.
Financial statements from the
Farm Loan Association and the Pro-
duction Credit Association show a
remarkably low percentage of losses.
Farmers throughout the country are
thus establishing their own credit
agencies and other lines of credit to
suit their various individual needs.

Credit Association
Gives Better Terms

The interest rate to members of
the Florida Citrus Production Credit
Association was reduced one-half of
one percent on all money advanced
beginning February 24, Philip
Marz, secretary treasurer, an-
nounced for the board of directors
of the Florida Citrus Production
Credit Association.
"This is made possible." said Mr.
Marz, "by the continued ready sale
of Federal intermediate credit bank
debentures to the investing public
Learning low rates of interest and the
favorable operating results of the

Federal intermediate credit banks and
the production credit associations
during 1938." Mr. Marz explained
that the association discounts the
growers' notes which it takes with
the Federal Intermediate Credit
Bank of Columbia.
New Rate 41/2%
"The new rate will be four and
one-half percent per year and as
usual interest will be charged only
for the period which the members
actually have the money," continued
Mr. Marz. "The reduction also is
effective in all the other production
credit associations throughout the
The Florida Citrus Production
Credit Association last year loaned
the citrus growers of the state $828,-
000.00 for the production of their
crops. These production loans are
short-term loans, and are repaid by
the members when their crop is har-
vested. Some loans are made on the
budget plan. in which members get
a commitment from the association
to advance to them sums covering
certain periods, thus enabling them
to be sure of sufficient funds to car-
ry them through their season's op-
eration, and yet not have to pay
interest on the entire amount for the
whole season. The budget plan
provides for advancing part of the
entire amount as needed.


If Your Trees Are Hungry


Calcium Nitrate
for immediate Results



...- jI m ... ~- ... ... .- I ... I--I -L Pc i ^. ,n I

Page 13



Page 14 THE CITRUS GROWER, March 15, 1939

Grade and Size Restriction--

Some Of Its Dangers And Values

grade and size regulation of fruit
shipments will shortly be put
into effect. This makes it necessary
for the grower to forecast, so far as
possible, the effect of this program
upon his interests.
According to some authorities the
grower can be crucified by grade and
size restriction, but the same au-
thorities say it can be made of great
benefit to the grower, to the trees
and to the health of the market. It
is th's last set of circumstances that
we want to bring about.
Do Not Do This
The worst thing a grower could
do, it is said, would be to have his
fruit picked clean and taken into the
packing house, the shipper to make
a return to the grower according to
the grades and sizes the crop is found
to contain. It is presumed the sh'p-
per will treat himself right, and
most likely he will treat the grower
right, but there are some risks for
the grower.
If, for instance, the control com-
mittee is permitting the shipment of
No. l's and No. 2's only, it is rea-
sonable to suppose, under the above
circumstances that the shipper will
see that the fruit he ships is really
good No. l's and No. 2's. There is
no incentive or reason for him tak-
ing doubtful fruit, or fruit very close
to the line, because he will be re-
quired to pay only upon the bas' of
what he takes. The No. 3's thrown
out would be entirely the loss of the
One Way Out
Two ways are suggested around
this difficulty.
One is that the shipper be required
to buy the whole croo. He can
make a close estimate of the fruit
that will be off size according to
current regulations of shipment. He
can also get a close estimate of the

percentage of No. 3's that will have
to be thrown out. The shipper has
always made such estimates in buy-
ing a crop of fruit, and there is no
reason why this information could
not be applied to the new conditions.
That is, he can tell the grower how
much the fruit is worth before it is
picked, and the grower has a chance
to save himself.
Those who hold to this theory of
selling urge the grower to be sure to
sell the whole crop and that he know
how much he is getting for it before
the fruit leaves the grove.
Sell Only Acceptable Fruit
There is another system of selling
This is that the grower sell only
those grades and sizes of fruit that
are popular at the time. For in-
stance, since the recent storm in Cali-
fornia, it is likely that the larger
sizes will be the most popular in
Valencias early in the season. In
fact the larger fruit seems to be more
popular at the opening of any sea-
son. The grower can require that
the shipper pick according to what
can be shipped and require the ship-
per to pay for all that leaves the
This arrangement has some dis-
advantages. The shipper does not
want to pick fruit that way. It
costs money to spot pick, and costs
more if the shipper must come in
the grove at another time to get the
balance of the croo. Those who
hold this opinion, answer that spot
picking is good for the grower; that
it is practiced to a far greater extent
in all other producing areas than in
Florida; that it is practiced in Flor-
ida less because shipper psychology
and shipper interest so completely
dominates customs and methods in
the Florida citrus industry.
Offsetting Considerations
Another disadvantage is that the

shipper can grade just as severely in
the grove as he can in the packing
house. This is probably true. It is
also true that after the grading it
would leave the grower with a large
part of his crop still hanging on the
trees and unsold. But the advan-
tage is that the fruit is still on the
trees and in the growers' hands with
the possibility that it can be sold
later. It is a!so said to be a greater
shock to the trees when all the fruit
is removed at the same time.
Spot Picking Advantages
The spot picking program has
other things to recommend it. Spot
picking for co'or and size is mo3t
useful toward improving uniformity
in appearance and maturity. It is
practiced to some extent in Florida


$ and

By paying cash for fertilizer,
spray materials, etc.
By borrowing from a grow-
ers' cooperative organization
-operated by and for the
growers who use it;
By paying interest only for
the time you have actual use
cf the money;
By repaying your loan when
you sell your crop.
New low interest rate.

41/2% per annum

We will be glad to serve you.
Write us for further details.
Florida Citrus Production
Credit Association
P. O. Box 1592 Orlando, Fla.


THE CITRUS GROWER, March 15, 1939

and extensively in other citrus pro-
ducing areas.

The smaller fruit will not be of
the same ripeness and flavor as the
larger fruit. The smaller fruit of-
fers more resistance to coloring and
causes undue exposure of the larger
and more mature fruit to the rigours
of the coloring process. If permt-
ted to hang on the tree longer it will
grow somewhat in size and, as the
season advances, and the smaller sizes
become more popular, it will be pos-
sible to get some return out of it.

Control Volume

Spot picking for grade and s:ze
will actually have some control on
volume shipped. That is. it will
have this effect in addition to the
slight control of volume resulting
from keeping undesirable grades and
sizes off the market. Spot picking
definitely limits the amount of fruit
the packing house will be able to
pick. A crew picking 1,000 boxes
a day cleaning the trees, would pos-
sibly be limited to 800 boxes spot
picking. In order to keep up the
volume now obtained. extra crews
wou'd have to be sent into the
groves. It is not likely any packer
would wi-h to do that under pres-
ent conditions.

It is, of course, true that holding
small fruit on trees and permitting it
to grow larger and become more
nearly mature, will cause a slight
increase in the total volume for the
season if all the fru^t is shipped.
But the general orderliness resulting
from spot picking for grade and s'ze
will many times more than offset
this extra volume.

Pick for Service

Packers will resist spot picking. It
will cost a little more to handle fruit
in this way. For this reason it be-
comes more necessary that the grower
think carefully in picking the ship-
per to whom to sell his fruit. Price
offered, of course, is a factor, but
the service rendered the grower as
well as the influence of shipping
practices on the industry will have
more and more weight in our decis-
ions as our problems and their pos-
sible solutions become more clear.


A meeting of growers was held
Friday night, March 10th at the
school auditorium, Mims. D. C.
Williams of Merritt Island, presi-
dent of the Brevard County Citrus
Growers Association, the Brevard
unit of Florida Citrus Growers.
Inc.. presided.
Mrs. Williams. G. A. Draa. of
Mims. member of the state legis-
lative committee, A. L. Prothman
active member of the Mims unit,
Thomas D. A. Peta of Titusville,
and member of the state citrus cul-
ture committee. Mr. and Mrs.
Walter Webb. ako of Titusville.
with other grower members, as we'll
as a large representation of non-
member growers, were present.
The principal speaker was W. L.
Burton, state secretary of the or-
ganization, who outlined the past
performance of the new state or-
ganization and made an inspiring
presentation of the organization's
future tasks and possibilities. Mr.
Burton was followed by Hon.
George I. Fullerton of New Smy-
rna. in a discussion of the state leg-
islative committee's work looking
toward new legislation for the good
of the citrus industry for which the
growers' organization will work in
the next session of the legislature.
Mr. Fullerton is chairman of a legis-

lative sub-committee of Florida Cit-
trus Growers, Inc.. handling bond
and license, fruit coloring. "color
added." Dr. T. A. Rhodes of Ti-
tusville, made a short and interest-
ing talk.

The first commercial air flight in
the world was made by Tony Jan-
nus from St. Petersburg to Tampa.
The first passenger was A. C. Pheil,
of St. Petersburg, who went to Tam-
pa to place an order for an oil en-
gine with The Cameron U Barkley
Company, an advertiser in this mag-
The advertisement of the engine,
in Tampa Tribune, January 4,
1914, from which the order result-
ed, has been placed in the perma-
nent historical records of the flight
in the Smithsonian Institution,
Washington, D. C.

Patronize Our Advertisers

the value cf the work h's organi-
zation is doing for the good cf the
citrus industry should pass this copy
of the ma-azine to some non-member
grower who does not know about us.
_ _


Page 15


Practical and Economical
Give your grove a chance to produce a crop at a cost per box that
will make you money. Now is the time to Trepare for the coming
crop and improve the quality as well as quantity.

ready for immediate delivery

Farm & Home Machinery Company
Orlando, Florida Phone 5791

THE CITRUS GROWER. March 15, 1939

How Mineral Deficiencies--

Affect Lake County Groves

phosphorus and potash to the
soil has been the classical meth-
od used in fertilizing citrus trees as
well as other plants for many years.
However, with the decrease in the
use of farm manures and other or-
ganic products in fertilizers during
the past few years and the increased
use of synthetic materials which are
often so pure as to exclude many of
the so-called secondary minerals, a
distinct mineral deficiency has be-
come apparent in many groves, par-
ticularly those on light, acid soils.
As a result of some excellent work
carried on by investigators at the
Citrus Experiment Station and by
some of the commercial concerns in-
terested in plant nutrition, some
striking demonstrations have been
carried out in an effort to show
growers how to overcome these
mineral deficiency symptoms in their
groves. The result has been healthier
trees, better fruit, and lower annual
fertilizer costs.
Mineral Deficiencies
Copper, zinc, manganese and
magnesium (as well as iron to a les-
ser extent in Lake county) are the
principal deficiency symptoms seen
by growers that have responded well
to an application of these materials
in sprays or in ground applications.
The use of copper in the form of
bluestone has been used quite ex-
tensively for a number of years by
growers in correcting so-called am-
moniation and die-back. Trees suf-
fering seriously from this condition
have been revived quite successfully
by an application of one-half to one

030 W. Church St. Orlando, Fla.

By R. E. Norris,
Lake County Agricultural Agent

and one-ha'f pounds of bluestone
per tree in the fall and spring. Sever-
al demonstrations have shown the
value of copper applied in Bordeaux
sprays applied in the spring for scab
or melanose control, in correcting
this condition. In very severe cases
trees have responded to both ground
and spray applications applied the
same crop year.
Zinc deficiency in citrus is shown
by a distinct mottled leaf or
"frenching." This condition has
been entirely cleared up in demon-
stration groves by a spray made up
of four pounds of zinc sulphate and
two pounds of hydrated lime to 100
gallons of water. Zinc is often added
to Bordeaux and lime-sulfur sprays
at the rate of three pounds to 100
gallons of spray as a maintenance by
Lake county growers. Zinc sulfate
has been applied at the rate of three
to five pounds per tree as a ground
application with varying results.
A deficiency of manganese is
characterized by a mottled effect
similar to that found in early zinc
deficiency symptoms, but with much
less contrast of chlorotic and green
leaf parts. The leaves are not
dwarfed where manganese deficiency
is present as found in frenched
leaves. Quite often zinc and manga-
nese deficiency symptoms are found
together and each must be treated
to entirely overcome the symptoms.
Spraying at the rate of four pounds
of manganese sulphate and two
pounds of hydrated lime to 100 gal-
lons of water has been found very
effective in overcoming this deficiency
in Lake county demonstrations.

This procedure is not generally
recommended, however, as it has
been pointed out by investigators at
the Citrus Experiment Station that
the increase in scale population is
very rapid after an application of
this spray and it must generally be
followed with an application of
Soil Application
Demonstrations using manganese
sulphate on the ground at the rate
of two pounds per tree on 12 year-
old trees are under way in Lake
county, but these are relatively new
and results have not yet been ob-
Magnesium deficiency is shown
by the well-known bronzed condi-
tion of citrus leaves. It is seen most
plainly on seedy varieties of citrus,
particularly early grapefruit at this
season of the year. It was formerly
mistaken for nitrogen starvation, but
close examination reveals the charac-
teristic "bronze" color of the leaves
instead of the pale yellow known as
the nitrogen starvation symptom.
This condition has been quite suc-
cessfully treated by ground applica-
tions of magnesium-lime in Lake
county groves applied generally at
the rate of 500 to 1000 pounds per
acre and by the application of mag-
nesium sulphate (crude epsom salts)
at the rate of two to four pounds
per tree. Both materials have been
effectively used and the severity of

We Offer Growers
A Market for Their Fruit
Cash on the Tree
Top Market Prices
At All Times

M. C. Britt Produce Co.
Phone 56 or 101


Page 16

THE CITRUS GROWER. March 15. 1939


Mr. V. H. Conner. Editor:
I am 100 percent Citrus Grower. Inc.. and
wish to say that our magazine is certainly
fine and all right in every way. Wish to
call the attention of all other members to
two things that will just about cure all our
citrus troubles:
First, by all means bolster up the green
fruit law by putting in more teeth and have
them longer. Our Mr. Mayo and his good
inspectors will then be able to call a full
stop on green fruit shipments.
Second, would have everybody insist on
this deficiency has been very greatly
Magnesium-lime is used in cases
where it is desired to sweeten the
soil to some extent as well as to make
calcium and magnesium available
for their nutritional value. This ma
trial is relatively slow acting when
used at the rates per acre mentioned
above, but can be very satisfactorily
used in connection with magnesium
sulphate, the soluble form of mag-
nesium, to correct bronzing. Most
investigators agree that the condition
will probably never be completely
eradicated in seedy varieties of fruit
where the requirements for mag-
nesium are very high. Spraying this
material on trees has not been effec-
tive in clearing up the condition in
Lake county demonstrations, prob-
ably because of the large amounts of
material required by the tree.
Copper. zinc and manganese have
been applied in the combined form
in sprays with very good results in
two demonstration groves in Lake
county showing a general deficiency
of minerals. To this was added wet-
table sulfur which aids in control-
ling scale crawlers and rust mites.
The formula consisted of four
pounds of 89% zinc sulphate, four
pounds of manganese sulphate, three
pounds of bluestone, seven pounds
of hydrated lime and ten pounds of
wettable sulfur to the 100 gallons
of water. Indications are that this
spray is most effectively applied
about ten days prior to the spring
Your fertilizer dealer will have
these materials mixed in your for-
mula if you request it. If you find
one or more of these deficiency
symptoms in your grove it will pay
you to investigate these treatments.

proration by volume of all citrus fruit go-
ing out of Florida. Will our legislative com-
mittee have a state law for proration by
volume on all citrus, to comply with the
orange market agreement now allowed by
Secretary Wallace. passed by the next Flor-
ida legislature, giving our state Citrus Com-
mission authority to carry it through, as
California regulates her shipments? This all
means wholesome ripe fruit and not a sup-
ply beyond demand, with repeat orders fol-
lowing up.
Lake Wales. Fla.

My dear Florida Citrus Grower:
Following up my letter in the last Citrus
Grower, which the editor donated his val-
uable space to. Of course I had to cut it
short because the space would have been
of more value than what I had to say.
Believe the reason the edito- ran my zt-
ter, is because I mentioned God Almightv
in a practical way. by comparison, to
govern the citrus industry, when men have
lost control, even of their own political
government, much less the citrus industry
as well as their individual selves, and com-
plain at each other, rather than coope-ate
with each other.
Since most letters and artrc'es printed a c
focusing the blame on the individual grower.
this one. must reverse it to some extent. so
as to equalize it at least.
As referred to in my other communica-
tion, of course the grower is the cargo, and
all else is the ship which transports him to
the unlimited consumers, since he won't eat
his own oranges, that is. not enough to
demonstrate to himself what kind not to
sell. or at least to make what we sell jibe

with the advertising.
The main thing a grower has yet to learn
about his own business, is to make what he
says fit and jibe with what he does and not
blame it on others-but show the others
how to do it, by doing it himself.
To do this may be the reason there are
so many grower-shippers trying to do it all
--still what they do and say don't always
jibe either, so is the reason for the loss of
confidence in man, and we still have to ap-
peal to God Almighty for proration, when
everybody is doing the same thing, the
wrong way.

R. D. Carter. grower-director of
Vero Beach. at the recent Winter
Haven committee meeting to discuss
maturity standards, said our state in-
spection department was like a man
we had hired to flat-weed the grove.
That we had given the department
a hoe (the maturity standards law)
with which to do the work. But.
before giving it to him we had
broken the handle out of the hoe,
and the department had been help-
less in preventing the shipment of
fruit they knew to be green.
Mr. Carter suggests that we pre-
pare a good hoe for the department,
to be passed during the coming ses-
sion of the legislature, and that we
do not break the handle out of it
by permitting crippling amendments
to be made to it after it is prepared.


Page 17

Control Melanose



The Ideal Neutral Copper Fungicide

2 to 3 lbs. in 100 gallons of spray is all that is needed! Copper
Hydro is also excellent as a nutritional and corrective spray.

Chipman Chemical Company, Inc.

66 W. Robinson Ave. Orlando, Fla.

Page 18

IT IS DOUBTFUL if many of us have realized the
recent problem of the citrus industry in its most
simple outlines. With some unimportant excep-
tions, up to recent years there has been a market at a
profit to the grower for all the fruit that could be
raised, that is, demand has exceeded supply.

In recent years, however, we have met what is
judged by all authorities to be a continuing situation
where supply does and will exceed demand. That is,
we have definitely passed from a situation where there
was competitive buying to one of competitive selling.
Competition between sellers, to get rid of their prod-
uct, naturally drives the market down.

Ways of Escape

There are two ways of meeting the difficulty, two
fronts upon which to attack the problem.

One is increased use of citrus fruits; more buyers.
More buyers may be obtained in two or three ways.
First among these is better marketing. This, in
turn, involves a number of considerations. The first
consideration is high uniform quality of the product.
We have fallen short of our duty in this respect.

So long as we were getting cost of production plus
a profit to us there was not so much incentive to think
about the customer. Our neglect has put poor goods
into the customer's hands that have turned him tem-
porarily and sometimes permanently against our fruit.
although its real quality compares favorably with the
best fruit from the other sections. But they are out-
selling us in the markets.
By effective green fruit laws, frozen fruit laws, and
rigid enforcement, we can bring into the fold of Flor-
ida consumers many thousands who have been driven
away by our neglect. We can back up the money we
are spending for advertising with goods that make the
advertising tell the truth. This is a fundamental ne-
cessity in any sort of merchandising.

Orderly Marketing

Another important marketing feature is regulating
the quantity of fruit to avoid gluts and scarcities in
the markets which keep the price situation disturbed.
Consumer pressure tends to make all disturbances in
prices have the effect of pushing prices downward. The
price of Florida fruit suffers from this disturbance and
Also, we must think out and promote methods that
will enable the millions who live in outlying towns
and villages to buy citrus fruit at prices which our
modern transportation facilities should warrant.

In this connection we should also give consideration
to keeping undesirable fruit off the markets, especially
those grades and sizes that have a depressing effect.
In the better days of the past, cull piles undoubtedly
had something to do with growers' profits.

Affect of Price
The second consideration in disposing of a greater
volume of fru-t is price to the final consumer. Citrus
goes into markets where the consumer has opportunity
to choose between it and other competing fruits and
vegetables. Price is an important consideration in this
choice. It must be right. We must work to cut out
all unnecessary expenses between the tree and the
consumer. We must keep production costs low. We
must introduce and promote practices that cut dis-
tributing costs as low as good merchandising will per-

Increases Number of Buyers

Price also has a direct effect upon how much citrus
fruit a consumer will use, and also upon how many
consumers are able to buy it at all.
One of the chief economists of the U. S. Dzoart-
ment of Agriculture was in Florida recently. Citrus
marketing is his specialty. He said that for each 10
cents reduction per box in the pr'ce of citrus fruit to
the final consumer, the consumption of an additional
one million boxes per season was guaranteed. Other
statistics, including those used by the Florida Citrus
Industry Committee in its report last October to the
Agricultural Adjustment Administration assign even
greater affect to price upon quantity sold. According to
those figures an advance of 35c per box was estimated
to reduce consumption of Florida fruit in the course of
a season by over 7,000,000 boxes. This indicates
that an increase of 5c per box on an average would re-
duce consumption 1,000,000 boxes.
The grower organization so lately on the job has
taken definite action in several of these fields and has
made exhaustive investigations in all of them. It is
persistently pressing for improvement.

The Road Back

The way is open to us back to a condition of prof-
itable growing. The route lies through making the
benefits of this beautiful product we produce available
to greater numbers of people. It lies through market-
ing efficiency. Fortunately, we do not need to be dis-
couraged or pessimistic about this surplus problem. It
can be overcome. We can accomplish it by applying
reason and thought to our business to a degree that was
never required for profitable citrus growing in times
when there was competitive buying.

THE CITRUS GROWER, March 15. 1939



Mrs. Quesse was born in Rooks, County,
Kansas, the daughter of Joseph and Kath-
erine Klein Pankau, pioneers in the cattle
business in the early days. She came to
Illino's in 1890. When she finished gram-
mar school she entered the Keel School of
Sewing. Later she entered the firm of Hol-
land 8 Holland, Ladies Tailoring, of Chi-
In 1901 she married Wi. F. Quessz and
helped her husband organize the Flat Jani-
tors and the Building Service International
Employees Unions.
After Mr. Quesme's death in 1927, she
came to Fort Pierce with her daughter and
parents to make her home. She developed
a 160-acre tract of land which Mr. Quesse
acquired in 1925. She added 60 acres more
to the already large acreage and now has
one of the outstanding groves in St. Lucie
Mrs. Quesse has two children, Wm. C.
Quesse cf Chicago, and Cathryn Gibbons of
Oak Park, Ill.
She manages her own grove and is a
member of the Fort Pierce Growers' Asso-
ciation, the Fort Pierce Drainage Board, and
the Chamber of Commerce.
As a member of the Florida Citrus Grow-
ers, Inc., she says that it is the salvation of
the industry and we can do many things
for the benefit cf the grower by banding to-
gether in one great cause and it is the only
way the growers can make fruit growing
a profitable business. Let's all get behind it.
Value of Advertising
Women are contributing much
more to the success of Florida Citrus
Growers, Inc., than is generally rec-
cognized. Their work is in the
mnor positions but it is done with
enthusiasm and effectiveness.
Mrs. Margaret A. Quesse, how-
ever, is alternate state director from
the St. Lucie county organization.
At a recent meeting of the state di-
rectors she proposed a unique and

practical plan for getting advertis-
ing for the magazine.
She proposes that a form be made
out by the state office reading about
as follows and addressed to a man-
ufacturer or distributor of materials
used by growers:
"We, the undersigned members
of (Name of county organization)
are users of your products in the
Quantity shown opposite each name.
We know you advertise in other
trade papers, but we are more likely
to see your advertisement and more
likely to be reminded of your prod-
ucts if you advertise them in the
magazine of our state organization
us read it thoroughly and regularly.
"It will also give us a more fa-
vorable attitude toward your prod-
uct, because your advertisement, be-
sides being of substantial commer-
cial value to you, would also be
contributing to an organization al-
ready well recognized as the most
wholesome and constructive influ-
ence in the industry."
The county unit members would
sign such statements addressed to
fertilizer companies, oil companies,
tire companies, farm machinery com-
panies, etc., and by their name state
the quantity of materials they buy
per year.
The signed statements from the
county units would be sent to the
state secretary's office, would be as-
sembled for best effect, and then
turned over to our advertising so-

licitors for the information of the
manufacturers and distributors of the
products covered.
The directors received the sugges-
tion very enthusiastically and it is
expected to put it into effect as soon
as possible.
"This is our opinion, and we do
not apologize for stating it and
urging it; but it is more than an
opinion, rather an indisputable con-
viction, corroborated by the testi-
mony adduced at the several meet-
ings and conferences held by various
agencies and organizations, that we
need and must have a GROWERS
ORGANIZATION, for whatever
major purpose may be deemed best
by the growers themselves-whether
for production or marketing or both,
Morning Tribune, February 17,

COVER CROPS Alyce Clover-Striata
and Specabalis Crotolaria at WHOLE-
AGE CO., Orlando, Fla., 28 E. Pine Street.
Virginia-Carolina Chemical Corp., Orlando.
Keenan Soil Laboratory, Lake Wales, Flor-
ida. Better quality-lower c3st.


Melanose, Scale Insects, White Fly
Du Pont Plant Spray No. 2, is a combined insecticide and fungicide, developed
especially for Florida Citrus. It kills scale insects and White Fly, controls Melanose
and promotes healthy vigorous trees. It is economical, since one spraying fre-
quently takes the place of two.
1 Now is the time to consider your spraying requirements. We will be glad to
consult with growers regarding their citrus problems.


Wilkins, L K ,Chief
Periolical Iiv U S Dept Agri.
Washington D C

Just a year ago there was no Growers' Organization. In the past nine
months, however. Growers in every major citrus producing county have de-
veloped their own organizations, and these county groups have joined together
in a State Organization, reaching a membership totaling close to 6,000 and
representing well over sixty percent of the total citrus acreage in the State.

Just a year ago the Growers had no leadership. Today there are well over
three hundred well qualified leaders analyzing and studying every phase of
the citrus industry, with the result that their leadership has not only been
recognized by the Growers themselves, but by the Industry as a whole. These
leaders have been developed from the ranks of the growers.

Just a year ago the Grower had no voice in his Industry. Today through
his Growers' Organization his voice is heard on every major citrus problem.

Just a year ago the Grower had no program. Today by virtue of the un-
tiring, unselfish work of the hundreds of Committeemen during the past year.
the Growers are offered a constructive program based on positive knowledge
of their own Industry.

It is, of course, not necessary to suggest the necessity of keeping the good
work going. This is only to remind readers that March is the month to re-
new memberships for another year. and is a good time to ask neighbors to join

Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.


P. 0. BOX: 2077

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