Front Cover
 President's message
 Table of Contents
 Growers' legislative program
 Facts about handling costs
 Adjustments of federal loans
 Government purchasing failure
 Status of combination sprays
 Letters to the editor
 With the editor
 DeSoto county growers

Group Title: Citrus grower (Orlando, Fla.)
Title: The citrus grower
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086640/00008
 Material Information
Title: The citrus grower
Uniform Title: Citrus grower (Orlando, Fla.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30-44 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
Place of Publication: Orlando Fla
Publication Date: March 1, 1939
Frequency: weekly (semimonthly july-sept.)[<1939>]
semimonthly[ former 1938-]
normalized irregular
Subject: Fruit-culture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruit industry -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Nov. 15, 1938)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1942?
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 4, no. 9 (May 15, 1942).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086640
Volume ID: VID00008
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 03227648
lccn - sn 96027371

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    President's message
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Growers' legislative program
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Facts about handling costs
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Adjustments of federal loans
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Government purchasing failure
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Status of combination sprays
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Letters to the editor
        Page 17
    With the editor
        Page 18
    DeSoto county growers
        Page 19
        Page 20
Full Text











March 1, 1939

........ . .


INV. '60

ar4-d '60
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N MARCH WE WILL HAVE election of county
officers. Being infant organizations the counties did
well in their first elections toward selecting capable
men, loyal to the interests of the growers and willing
to devote so much time to revive our industry. Expe-
rience. undoubtedly, will enable us to do as well or
better this time.

Election of state officials by the Board of Directors
has been set for the third Thursday in April.

We have been told by many that Florida Citrus
Growers, Inc.. has done a magnificent job toward
bringing order into the industry. Others say we have
few accomplishments behind us to which we can point
with pride. Now that it is time to renew our member-
ship, and renew our faith, it is well to weigh these
favorable and unfavorable criticisms of our work. In
this first year we have accomplished two things of
astounding importance.

First Accomplishment
The first of these is, that a large portion of the grow-
ers has been brought into an organization. This had
been tried so many times before with such poor success
that many had come to believe it could not be done.

The policies of the organization have been directed
in such a judicious way that all sections and types of
growers are subscribing to its program and giving it
their support. We have completely exploded the con-
fusing and splitting argument that growers in sections
where fruit matures early could not be brought to a
position where they could cooperate with growers less
favorably situated. We have completely exploded the
notion that the Indian River section is a place apart,
that its problems are different from those of the rest
of the citrus belt, that growers of that section could not
be brought into an organization for the benefit of the
entire citrus industry. The growers who ship through
the cooperatives and the growers who sell to the cash
buyers are working together enthusiastically in our or-


Pr '" r"i.

V 1I

No Fairy Tale
This true statement of existing conditions would
have sounded like a fairy tale eighteen months ago. yet
it has been brought about by this organization in which
we are about to renew our membership and set ourselves
for greater and more effective accomplishments. Organ-
ization, however, is not the only thing that has been
accomplished. The machine has actually been put to
Second Accomplishment
Second. it would take many volumes to hold th?
important information concerning the industry that
has been sought out, weighed, and considered by the
committees of this grower group. Some of us started
with a little knowledge of culture. We have greatly
enlarged our knowledge of how to produce, and have
opened for ourselves an entirely new field of informa-
tion concerning marketing and the many things that
affect marketing.
We have looked into almost everything from field
crates to constitutional law, and we have done it in-
telligently, because we have men in our ranks capable
of doing all these things intelligently. In addition
specialists in all these fields have been pleased to give
us advice and counsel. The result of this work is re-
flected in our legislative program about to be submitted
for final grower discussion and approval.
The infant organization has cut its teeth on such
problems as marketing agreement, grapefruit cost of
production, arsenic spray law enforcement. In other
words, we have had the seasoning of several major
In our learning and in our working, we have just
begun, but we are organized and we are trained and we
are experienced. All of this we have done in the course
of a single year. starting from scratch.
The picture now is that we are all set and ready to
Yours for pushing ahead

Florida Citrus Growers. Inc.


The Citrus Grower

Official Publication of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.


MARCH 1, 1939


Our Organization

Florida Citrus Growers. Inc., is an agency through
which 21 county organizations work together for the
purpose of making citrus growing profitable. The
county organizations are made up of growers who have
no financial connection with or interest in the ship-
ment of fruit. In these units are growers who ship
through cooperative marketing associations as well as
growers who dispose of their fruit to cash buyers or
on consignment. So called "cooperative" growers and
so called "independent" growers are fighting side by
side in the ranks of the county units and. through the
county units, in the state organization for the benefit
of the citrus industry. The grower must work for a
stable market with a healthy demand for fruit at a
price that pays, in addition to distribution costs, the
cost of production and a reasonable profit to the pro-
Grower Price Ideal-
Unless this price ideal of the grower is attained, the
grower eventually must go out of business and with
him will fall the whole super-structure of the industry.
Only through organization can the grower realize this
ideal. Consequently, an effective grower organization
is of the greatest concern to every element within the
industry and to all of those business, professional and
other working people in the citrus area whose pros-
perity directly and indirectly depends upon the citrus
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., is the means through
which the grower works and expresses himself in striv-
ing for this ideal.
The state officers are:
L. H. Kramer. Lake Wales. President: J. J. Banks.
Jr., Orlando. 1st Vice-President: C. B. Van Sickler,
Ft. Pierce, 2nd Vice-President; W. L. Burton. Orlando.
Secretary; E. G. Todd, Avon Park. Treasurer.




President's Message ... Inside Front Cover

Growers' Legislative Program ... ...... 4

Facts About Handling Costs -....--...... 6

Adjustments of Federal Loans_ ... ... 8

Government Purchasing Failure .....10

Status of Combination Sprays -- ...... 12

Letters to the Editor -.. .....-.... 17

With the Editor ....-.. .......... 18

DeSoto County Growers .. ....- ..... 19

Grapefruit Bread

Two or three issues back. The Citrus Grower an-
nounced that a delegation representing Texas growers
was here to make an agreement with the industry in
Florida on grapefruit prices and brought with them
two or three dozen loaves of grapefruit bread. The
bread was made with grapefruit juice taking the place
of the milk products generally used. Since that time.
we have noticed grapefruit juice bread on food counters
in several cities and towns in the citrus belt.

This use probably is cutting into the grapefruit sur-
plus and. no doubt, eventually citrus juice in the baking
industry will take care of our surplus grapefruit pro-
duction. It is estimated that if grapefruit juice is used
in one-tenth of the bread baked in the United States
the present surplus will find a market in this channel.
It is good bread, costs no more to bake, keeps fresh
longer, resists mould. Growers and their friends should
encourage its use.

Virgil H. Conner --- Editor
J. E. Robinson Business Manager
Kemp, Chairman: Carl D. Brorein. R.
J. Kepler, E. G. Thatcher, W. L. Burton,
C. A. Garrett, Karl Lehmann.
Printed by The Chief Press, Apopka

Published the First and Fifteenth of each able. The publishers can accept no re-
month by The Florida Citrus Growers. sponsibility for return of unsolicited manu-
Inc., Orlando, Florida. scripts.
Entered as second-class matter Novem- Subscription Rates
ber 15. 1938, at the postoffice at Orlando, In United States, one year $1.00 to non-
Fla.. under the Act of March 3, 1879. members of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.,
Membership subscriptions, one year 50c.
Manuscripts submitted to this maga-
zine should be accompanied by sufficient Address all mail to The Citrus Grower,
postage for their return if found unavail- P. 0. Box 2077, Orlando, Florida.

Page 4 THE CITRUS GROWER. March 1, 1939

The Committee Reports Progress---

Growers' Legislative Program

Inc., is working out a legislative
program. This is not news to
our members and to large sections of
the public outside the membership.
But the comprehensiveness of this
program, the thousands of hours of
preparation and discussion that have
been given to it, the numerous au-
thorities that have been consulted.
the painstaking effort to assure that
the industry is safe-guarded against
abuses and yet to see that no section
or group is discriminated against, the
study that has been given to these
and many other phases of the ques-
tion did make news of a surprising
nature even to many members of the
state board of directors in session at
Lakeland Thursday, February 16th.
Ills Thoroughly Sifted
Certainly not in this state and
probably in no other state, ever be-
fore have the ills and problems of an
important agricultural industry been
so thoroughly sifted and examined
from all angles. To have hired the
talent to make these investigations
would have cost a staggering sum of
money. The program now taking
shape is a labor of love by the grow-
ers and their friends. It was revealed
that the committee had sought and
had secured the benefit of advice from
scientists, shippers, growers, busi-
ness men and all other representative
interested parties.
Reports Progress
The legislative committee is made
up of growers from twenty-one
counties in the citrus belt. In its re-
port to the meeting, the legislative
committee did not make definite
recommendations on many subjects.
Its report was in the nature of an ac-
count of progress so far. Shortly,
however, definite recommendations
on all subjects will be formulated by
the committee and these recommen-
dations will be sent to the various
county units for discussion, ap-
proval, alteration or amendments.

The rank and file members of the
county organizations have the final
say about what legislation shall be
proposed. The recommendations of
the committee will designate not on-
ly the subjects upon which legisla-
tion will be requested at the coming
session, but also it will show the
order of importance in which the
committee holds the various subjects.
that is, which shall receive first at-
tention, which second, etc.
Grower Study Asked
Chairman J. M. Criley. of the
legislative committee on maturity
tests, gave an eloquent talk to the di-
rectors showing the study and
thought which are going into the
preparation of this program and
urged that the recommendations of
the committee should not be thrown
aside by the membership for light
and transient reasons or without giv-
ing due regard to the knowledge.
judgment and care that had been
exercised in preparing the program.
It also goes without saying that
this committee of growers with the
aid and advice of other growers and
all possible assistance outside the or-
ganization. have had but one thing
in mind, namely, protecting the
growers interest and to make the pro-
duction of citrus more profitable.
With due regard for the above
considerations, each grower in the
county units is expected to study the
recommendations himself and fight
and vote for his own convictions on
each particular phase of the program.
Screen Fruit
Chairman E. G. Todd, of the
legislative committee, said among
other things. "We will get a good
green fruit law at the coming session
of the legislature if we don't get any-
thing else." The committee and the
growers in general who have writ-
ten letters to the committeemen on
the various legislative subjects seem
to agree with Mr. Todd that green

fruit legislation stands out as the
most necessary item in the program.
The research committee, of which
W. L'E. Barnett is chairman, has co-
operated with the legislative commit-
tee in making an exhaustive study of
maturity tests in order to arrive at
an effective green fruit law. Mr. J.
J. Taylor and others connected with
Commissioner of Agriculture Nathan
Mayo's inspection service have also
given hearty and extensive assistance
to the committee in its study of ma-
turity tests.
Ratio of acids to solids in the
juice, minimum solids, or minimum
acid requirements, juice content, col-
or, and all other indicators of matur-
ity have been considered.
Mixing Fruit
Mixing of ripe fruit that is above
the maturity test with green fruit
that is below test so the average of
the total will pass is regarded as the
most general violation of the matui-
ity laws.
The committeemen expressed the
opinion that if this mixing could be
prevented a large part of the green
fruit troubles would disappear. We
quote a paragraph from the report
submitted by Mr. Criley, which has
to do with oranges, and which is
"In arriving at the above recom-
mendations for oranges, your com-
mittee considered the deplorable con-
dition of the early orange market
and the many complaints against the
shipment of early varieties of oranges
which give poor consumer satisfac-
tion. Your committee feels that these
standards (given in detail previously
in the report,) if adopted, should
improve the quality of early oranges
reaching the market. The recommen-
dation that no lot of fruit may con-
tain more than 10% by count of
fruit which fails to meet the stand-
ard, is designed to prevent the mix-
ing of immature with mature fruit
so that the entire lot may pass. It


THE CITRUS GROWER. March 1. 1939

was also felt by your committee that
by requiring all oranges picked for
commercial purposes to show a tinge
of yellow or orange color on 50%
of the surface of the fruit it would
have the effect of cutting down on
the time the fruit must be kept in
coloring rooms under gas in order to
color it, thereby improving the
carrying and keeping qualities, as
well as the flavor when it reaches the
While Chairman Todd put most
emphasis upon green fruit legislation
the activities of the committee are
by no means confined to that field.
Coloring Fruit
Regarded as a close second in im-
portance to a good green fruit law is
the question of regulation of color-
ing-room practices. Mr. George I.
Fullerton, chairman of the legisla-
tive sub-committee on coloring-room
practices and "color added." dis-
cussed this question at length in the
February 15th issue of this maga-
The sentiment of the board of di-
rectors seemed to agree with the ques-
tion of Mr. Fullerton in the above
mentioned article:
"What purpose can there be in
setting up expensive enforcement
machinery to test the ripeness of fruit
if that ripeness and flavor are to suf-
fer serious damage by bad coloring
Chairman of the field crate com-
mittee said that the difficulties about
the present law arose from the law's
lack of clearness and he was instruct-
ed to draft a law clearly setting
forth the disputed points and making
the law apply to tangerines as well
as oranges and grapefruit.
The "color added" committee was
instructed to continue their studies.
Bond for Buyers
The bond and license sub-com-
mittee suggests that the minimum
bond for fruit buyers be placed at
$5000 instead of $500 as provided
in the present law, and that the com-
missioner of agriculture be given au-
thority to refuse to grant a license
for cause. The $500 bond has been
found to be the cause of enormous
losses to growers when failures have
occurred. A buyer who fails this

year and causes a loss to growers can
go in business again next year in the
name of his wife or other close rela-
tive or as a corporation of which the
defaulter may be the principal own-
er. Under the present law the com-
missioner of agriculture cannot re-
fuse to grant a license to an applicant
presenting a bond. even though the
commissioner may know all these
circumstances and feel sure the buyer
is likely to default again and cause
further losses. It is proposed to give
the commissioner power to use dis-
cretion in such cases, and to refuse to
grant a license should circumstances
justify it.
Arsenic Sprays
Arsenic sprays are up for study.
One recommendation did receive the
unanimous vote of the committee, as
"That no change be made in pres-
ent law prohibiting the use of arsenic
on oranges, except such amendments
as may be found necessary to
strengthen the police power of the
state department of agriculture for
more strict enforcement of said law."
Sentiment is divided as to arsenic
sprays on tangerines and grapefruit.
There is some discussion of the
repeal of that section of the citrus
commission law providing for in-
spection of citrus fruit by an inspec-
tor licensed by the United States de-
partment of agriculture in case of
Some study has been given to
standard containers, a great deal to
regulation of the shipment of frost
c;amaged fruit and strengthening the
cost-of-production law.
Levy Tax
Looking toward the future and
toward eventual stabilization of the
citrus industry on a sound profitable
hba.is. the legislative committee is
investigating the proposition that a
'ta: be levied in some form to create
a fund to be used for the following
purposes: (a) retirement of marginal
groves: (b) diversion of surpluses.
It is quite well recognized at present
that the citrus industry faces surplus
conditions. The production, at pres-
ent. exceeds the demand at profitable
prices and the surplus will grow larg-
er in future years as young groves
already planted come into produc-

tion. The purpose of the fund to be
created by the tax is to buy and
eliminate from production groves
which by reason of weather disad-
vantages or soil conditions cannot
produce fruit at a cost that will be
profitable under present and future
Discourage Plantings
The discouragement by well con-
sidered means of new grove plant-
ings is suggested as a necessary part
of this program. Such a program is
expected eventually to bring demand
up to the normal level of production.
In the meantime, surpluses which
the market will not absorb at profit-
able prices are to be purchased with
this fund and diverted from fresh
fruit and canned fruit markets.
Such a law is proposed to become
effective only upon enactment of
similar legislation by other citrus
producing areas. In the ranks of
Florida Citrus Growers. Inc.. is
found a large representation of the
best legal talent in Florida. These
lawyers are giving their time and
closely cooperating with all the com-
mittees drafting laws for consider-
ation and giving advice on constitu-
tional questions. They are discussing
the matter with their lawyer friends
outside the organization and there
is hardly any doubt that the pro-
gram to be offered to the coming
session of the legislature by Florida
Citrus Growers. Inc.. will be thor-
cughly comprehensive, carefully
drawn, clear, understandable and en-
forceable when enacted into law.
The legislative program is the
grower organization's current in-
valuable contribution to all the in-
terests in the citrus belt. It will not
be the program of the growers only
but a result of the combined expe-
rience and intelligence of scientists,
business men, shippers and every
other group whose interests are af-
fected. The program should be en-
acted into law without crippling

the value of the work his organi-
zation is doing for the good of the
citrus industry should pass this copy
of the magazine to some non-member
grower who does not know about us.


Page 5

Page 6 THE CITRUS GROWER, March 1, 1939

Of Importance to Growers---

Facts About Handling Costs

try today is faced with the prob-
lem of disposing of larger and
larger crops in a highly competitive
market under drastically reduced na-
tional purchasing power. Many are
the problems to be solved if the
grower is to maintain his economic
place in the industry by being able
to sell his crops at prices enough
above production cost to give him a
reasonable return for his effort and
Much has been said about the
problem but the fundamental eco-
nomic facts of supply and demand
are the basic elements with which
we, as growers, must deal. We must
direct our efforts to balancing sup-
ply with demand and to do this
three major lines of endeavor are
available to us: first, to increase con-
sumption by every known means;
second, to regulate supplies in accord-
ance with existing demand by mar-
keting agreements or other co-ordi-
nated efforts; and third, to limit
available supplies and/or production
by drastic measures such as destruc-
tion of surplus fruit and possibly
by elimination of marginal acreage.
Must Increase Consumption
Most important from a construc-
tive point of view should be our ef-
fort to increase consumption. Pro-
ducing and shipping highest quality
fruit, research for new uses, adequate
advertising, improved distribution.
and lowered cost of moving fruit
from tree to consumer are the gen-
eral factors that must be worked on
effectively to solve this major prob-
lem. Growing, handling, transpor-
tation, and selling must be carefully
surveyed with the definite end in
view of reducing the cost of all of
these, so that consumer prices can
be maintained at the level best cal-
culated to induce greatest consump-
tion. President Kramer has appoint-
ed committees which are now active-
ly at work on these elements of cost.
The packing house charges commit-

Chairman, Packing House Charges
Committee, Florida Citrus
Growers, Inc.

tee has been given the task of inves-
tigating handling costs and deter-
mining how they can be reduced.
Study Costs
The cost of packing and the eco-
nomic factors affecting it have not
been thoroughly understood by most
growers. This lack of understand-
ing is largely responsible for the
packing charges now prevalent.
When fruit prices were high and de-
mand good packing costs were given
little attention but under today's
conditions the subject is vital. Hand-
ling methods must be thoroughly
analyzed and the actual costs and
factors affecting them must be
Sources of Information
Growers should be familiar with
the costs of materials, labor, over-
head, and investment; they should
be familiar with the factors of size,
capacity, volume, design, and effi-
ciency of packing plants; and fur-
thermore they should seek more ef-
ficient methods and endeavor to elim-
inate obsolete and uneconomic units
and practices. Much constructive
work has been done along these lines,
the most recent of which is the sur-
vey made by the general crops section
of the Agricultural Adjustment Ad-
ministration for the 1935-36 season
under the direction of Dr. H. G.
Hamilton, Professor of Marketing,
University of Florida. Your com-
mittee has made considerable study
of this survey but feels that further
work should be done on the basis of
operations for the present season be-
fore a true picture of costs and their
economic factors can be obtained.

Since 1935-36 use of the 1 3-5
bushel Bruce box has become wide-
spread and due to the volume use of
this container it seems very impor-
tant to have a survey of a full sea-
son's operation including costs on
this container as compared with oth-
er containers. For this reason your
committee is requesting the board of
directors to ask the government to
undertake a study of the 1938-
39 season. Until the results of this
new survey can be obtained there
does not seem to be sufficient con-
clusive evidence to make a definite
statement concerning present costs.
However, during the next several
months your committee expects to
make studies of individual houses
and from time to time make reports
with comments pointing out the eco-
nomic factors responsible for the
costs of these individual packing
Excess Capacity
One of the outstanding uneco-
nomic facts of our present handling
is the excess capacity for packing.
There are 350 to 400 individual
packing houses operating in the state
today and most growers and ship-
pers will agree that these houses
could handle many times the volume
provided by our largest anticipated
crops. Probably 75 or 100 of the
largl efficient plants could adequate-
ly tbke care of the entire crop by op-
erating at their most economical ca-
pacity. Another glaring economic
waste is in the movement of fruit
from tree to packing house. Many
unnecessarily long hauls and cross
hauls due to territorial competition
adds to the cost. Both of these cost-
ly problems are burdens that are
very difficult to justify and it is
hoped that continuous effort toward
correcting them will be made.
In analyzing average packing costs
over a period of years it is significant
to note that materials (boxes, paper,
etc.) represent about 50 percent of


THF CITRUS GROWER. March 1, 1939

the cost, labor about 20 percent, and
overhead about 30 percent. The va-
riation in materials cost is not great.
in fact, for similar containers it is
almost the same for all houses. La-
bor costs are more variable but in 1
small range. being affected by size
of plant, floor plan. capacity used
and good management. The over-
head costs are subject to the widest
variation and the greatest reduction
to be realized in total packing cost
will undoubtedly result from under-
standing of the relation of this item
to volume and efficiency of individ-
ual plants. Within certain limits
the greater the volume the lower the
overhead cost and the trend to larger
units is, within reason, good eco-
nomic progress.

Materials Higher

In our studies of material cost
for the present season we have found
that boxes are much higher than
for the past two seasons. In the
1935-36 season the average cost of
the standard box was 14 / c com-
pared to 20c at present. While we
do not have exact data on the Bruce
box it is interesting to note that in
the same season the average cost of
the 2 bushel Bruce box was 13c
compared to 18 3-4c at present for
the 1 3-5 bushel Bruce box. The
effect of the wages and hours law on
manufacturers' costs is the reason
given for the increase but even so
it seems out of proportion.

Standard Package?

In connection with the Bruce box
we find that under certain conditions.
notably after early season movement
of tender skin fruit is over. it seems
to be the least expensive box type
of container so far developed for
volume low cost handling of citrus
fruit. However. your committee
does not wish to enter the contro-
versy as to the relative merits of the
different packages now in use. It is
worth mentioning here that cheap-
ening the package does not necessar-
ily produce the results anticipated.
Your committee hopes that their
work will aid in a thorough discus-
sion of the desirability of working
towards some uniform method of
handling fruit consistent with good

Costs and Buying

The writer wishes to point out
that in considering lower handling
costs as an aid to increased consump-
tion the growers must realize that
unless these savings are reflected di-
rectly into lower retail prices the ef-
fort to reduce them will be largely
wasted. Unfortunately in the past
lowered costs have almost invariably
been passed on to the wholesale
markets but have not been reflected

in the retail prices to the extent that
would be most beneficial in increas-
ing consumption. Since little if any
of these savings have been reflected
in the returns to the grower it would
seem important to know who has
been getting the benefits. A thorough
investigation of marketing practices
would seem to be indicated.
The packing house charges com-
mittee expects to acquaint the grow-
ers with the facts of costs.

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this year. The advantages of these formulas are
obvious to men who want to save sensibly.
Combine wisdom and thrift. Use our recom-
mended economy formulas this Spring and be assured
that you have supplied your groves with immediate,
balanced nourishment PLUS a maintenance reserve
that will carry them healthily along to the next
Our trained field representative in your
section is at your service for information or advice.
Get his recommendations for your grove.

12 -- 5 -- 8
Mode of Genuine Peruvion Guano and
Nitrate of Potash. Complete, balanced,
non-acid tending and for superior to
ordinary all chemical top-dressers.

Double-Strength Formulas
8 -- 10 -- 10
a -- 10 -- 10
8 .- 10 -- 15
5 -- 12 -- 12
These double-strength brands have twice the
food value of standard formulas at much
lower comparative cost. Complete plant foods
containing Genuine Peruvian Guano.

Send for our new Spring Booklet
"Economies in the Citrus Grove"
by Bayard F. Floyd, Horticultur-
ist, and Dr. Ralph L. Miller,.
Entomologist. t,

Use- IDADi Ge a Les a HAL BXMlOR pe Tr


Page 7

Page 8 THE CITRUS GROWER, March 1, 1939

Growers In Financial Distress--

Adjustments Of Federal Loans

Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., on
the one hand and the Farm
Credit Administration and the Fed-
eral Land Bank on the other hand
have been highly satisfactory. It has
been another one of those instances
where the grower organization has
been able to accomplish much where,
as stated by grower President L. H.
Kramer. "individual growers would
have fought a lone and losing bat-
The matter of growers who are in
financial distress and who will be un-
able to pay the principal amounts
due upon their Federal loans was
brought to the attention of the State
Boaro of Directors at its Lake Wales
meeting in January. The time for
general extension of these loans ex-
pired in 1938. At the Directors'
meeting the State Secretary, W. L.
Burton. was instructed to take this
matter up with the Land Bank offi-
cials and the Florida Congressmen
and Senators. Very active coopera-
tion resulted on the part of Senators
Claude Pepper and C. O. Andrews.
and members of Congress. Lex Green
and Joe Hendricks.

Explain Position
The result of discussions with the
Land Bank authorities have been as
follows: Borrowers who are able to
pay will be required to do so. Cases
of those who are unable to pay will
be disposed of by the Land Bank.
each case standing on its merits. We
quote from a statement by A. S.
Goss, Land Bank Commissioner
from whom Mr. Burton received a
letter on January 27th:
"If a borrower can pay, the na-
tional farm loan association should
insist that he does pay what is due.
If he cannot pay, his case should be
analyzed to determine whether he is
worthy of further help or whether
the loan should be foreclosed. Here

again we have four rather simple
rules to follow as a test of the bor-
rower's worthiness.
Borrower Must Try
"First, he must be doing his hon-
est best. No one who will not do his
best should expect his fellow bor-
rowers to make sacrifices on his be-
"Second, he must take proper care
of the security. Again, no one who
is unwilling to take care of the prop-
erty within his ability to do so
should expect special consideration
from his fellow borrowers.
Must Not Waste Money
"Third, he must apply the in-
come from his farming operations.
after paying necessary living and
operating expenses toward meeting
his taxes and loan installments.
While the association should not ex-
pect anyone to deprive his family of
the common necessities of life, the
members are entitled to know that
the borrower whose loan has been
endorsed is not wasting his money.
is careful in his operations, and i..
meeting his obligations out of the
production of the farm or from
other sources, as far as it is possible
for him to do so.
Loan Capacity
"Fourth, he must have the capac-
ity to carry a reasonable burden of
debt under normal conditions and
he must be showing satisfactory
progress. If under normal
conditions the borrower cannot
carry a reasonable burden of debt,
or. all things considered, is not
making satisfactory progress, it will
be found in almost every case that
the best interests of the bank and the
borrower alike will be served if some
change is brought about so that the
borrower will not be continually
working on a losing proposition.
In most instances, if taken in time.
this can be brought about by finding

a purchaser for the property who can
carry on successfully.
Adjust Loan to Borrower
"If the borrower measures up to
these four reasonable tests, but is un-
able to meet his payments, we feel
his case is worthy of special consider-
ation. The type of aid extended to
him should be designed to fit his
particular needs. Just as the safest
loan is the one that is best adapted
to the borrower's capacity to pay, so
the best and safest adjustment is
usually that which is best adapted to
a worthy borrower's needs. We
should never lose sight of the fact.
however, that our purpose is to en-
able borrowers to get out of debt,
and that any adjustment should be
designed to result in the reduction of
the delinquent items as fast as may
reasonably be expected.
Kinds of Aid
"There are four general lines of
aid which will cover most cases in
which you find borrowers are unable
to pay but are deserving of further
"First, is forbearance. If the de-
linquency is likely to prove of a tem-
porary nature and the borrower will
be able to meet it before long, it is
clearly a case for forbearance. This
usually is a mutual understanding
between the association and the bor-
rower as to the approximate date
when the payments will be made.
"Second, is an extension. If it is
apparent that the delinquency is
greater than the borrower will be
able to take up in the near future.
but if there is reasonable expectation
that with the making of another
crop. or from other sources, he will
be able to take up the delinquency
or the major part of it within a cer-
tain time, the remedy is a definite
extension. This means that the as-
sociation and the bank enter into an
agreement with the borrower that


THE CITRUS GROWER, March 1, 1939

they will extend the date of the pay-
ment of the delinquency until a
stated time, and the borrower agrees
that be will meet it at the time agreed
upon. Forbearance is the most com-
mon type of remedy, and exten-ion
is probably the second type most
commonly used.
"The third is deferment. If the
borrower has met with misfortune
and it is apparent that temporarily
he cannot meet his principal install-
ments: and if it is further apparent
that under normal conditions he
could meet the regular schedule of
payments, it is possible that the best
remedy would be to defer the pay
ment of the principal of the next in-
stallment until a later date, thus ex-
tending the life of the loan. When
this is done it usually is best to enter
into an agreement with the borrower
that if he becomes able. he will pick
up the deferred items and restore the
loan to its original standing. If such
an agreement is made and the farmer
grows a better crop or receives higher
prices than anticipated, he should re-
store the loan to its original terms as
soon as possible.
"The fourth remedy is to rear-
range the terms of repayment or re-
amortize the loan. If a careful study
of the loan indicates that the pay-
ments are heavier than the borrower
will be able to meet. but that in all
probability he would be able to make
them if they were extended over a
longer period of years, this may be
the remedy. It is more expensive and
frequently cannot be applied because
of the rights of others responsible for
the loan, or of junior lienholders.
Furthermore, there is a tendency on
the part of some borrowers to wish
to put off the date of payment as
long as possible, and it is our
thought, therefore, that changing the
terms of repayment should be re-
sorted to sparingly. In most cases it
is wise to test the capacity and the
good intentions of the borrower
through some other means of meer-
ing the situation before resorting to
reamortizing the loan."
This seems a fair, reasonable and
safe proposition for the distressed

grower and also for the Federal Gov-
ernment which holds the grove as
security. The resolution passed by
the Board of Directors at the Lale
Wa!es meeting suggested that "* *
we consider a proper case for ex-
tension would include all borrowers
who are properly maintaining their
groves, keeping interest and taxes
paid and personal expenditures in
line with their individual financial
condition." In regard to this Mr.
Coss in his letter said:

Interest and Taxes
"The resolution includes all bor-
rowers, while our policy provides
that those who are able to pay.
should do so. The resolution also
establishes as a qualification that the
borrower must keep up his interest
and taxes. We insist that he pay his
interest and taxes if he is able to do
so, but if he is temporarily embar-
rassed to the extent that he cannot
meet these obligations, but otherwise
qualifies as a worthy borrower, we
expect to give him the assistance best
suited to his needs."
The proper procedure seems to be
for the grower borrower who finds
himself unable to meet all of the in-
terest and principal requirements of
his loan to take his case up with the
local director of the Farm Loan As-

sociation and get the matter adjusted
according to the policy set out above.

Grower Organization
Got Action
Illustrating the effective work of
this organization and the attention
which it receives from government
agencies. State Director Karl Leh-
mann. of Lake county, himself
executive secretary of the Lake coun-
ty chamber of commerce, requested
that the letters which show this pol-
icy be mimeographed by Secretary
Burton and mailed to the secretaries
of all the chambers of commerce in
Florida for their information. Ac-
corcing to Mr. Lehmann. the cham-
bers of commerce have been work-
ing for a declaration of this sort from
the Farm Credit Administration and
the Federal Land Bank but so far
have been unable to get it.

Genuine Ames Lockscam
Slipjoint Pipe


I ---- -----------------------------

Below, we quote an excerpt from a bulletin issued February 11, by a Marketing
organization desirous of getting for the grower best returns for his fruit:

"During the past week we have made some headway in boosting f. o. b. prices.
We have had some help from the auctions. which have shown considerable strength
from day to day. However, as generally happens with the slightest rise in the mar-
ket. Florida shippers have made excessive shipments and the market will not rise
to as high a level as we anticipated because of these heavy shipments. Whenever we
have a chance to get and hold a rising market, or even half a chance, shippers in-
variably ship too heavy and kill that chance. History appears to be again re-
peating itself at this time."

Of course the remedy for this situation which constantly recurs, is the reasonable
and wise use of a Marketing Agreement, containing VOLUME PRORATE pro-
vision for shipment in interstate commerce.

H. E. CORNELL, President

Glen Saint Mary Nurseries Co.


56 E. Pine St.

1st Nat!. Bank Bldg.


Page 9


Growers Cannot Understand--

Government Purchasing Failure

T HE GROWERS OF Florida are
completely at a loss to under-
stand why a plan to buy fruit
for relief purposes by the United
States Government has not yet been
put into operation. Federal Surplus
Commodities Corporation last Octo-
ber set aside $10.000,000.00 to buy
5,000,000 boxes of surplus fruit in
the three principal citrus producing
areas. It was known at the time that
this amount of money, which was to
cover not only the price paid to the
grower but also the cost of packing.
freight and other distribution items.
would not remove enough fruit from
normal channels of trade to take care
of the large surplus.
In order to make the money go
twice as far, it was proposed that the
Corporation pay the average market
price for the fruit with the under-
standing that the grower would di-
vert to uses other than fresh fruit or
canned fruit purposes one box of
lower grade merchantable fruit foi
each box purchased by the Federal
Surplus Corporation. It was calcu-
lated by this means to remove from
the citrus picture 10.000.000 boxes
of fruit.
Plan Working Elsewhere
In the other citrus producing area-.
the plan has been worked out and
the government, through the Fed-
eral Surplus Commodities Corpora-
tion, has been purchasing fruit for
distribution to relief clients, but it
has not been possible to get the plan
in operation here. Prices offered here
by the Corporation have been such
as would tear down the market
rather than have the desired, healthy
effect of building it up.
The first price offered for oranges
was 50c per box. This was not net
to the grower at the grove, but pick-
ing, hauling and taxes were estimated
to cost 26c per box. leaving the
grower 24c per box for No. 1's com-
bination or No. 2's, and, in accept-
ing the 24c, the grower further obli-

gated himself to use for fertilizer or
other specified diversion purposes a
box of lower grade merchantable
fruit. Culls are not acceptable for di-
version purposes. Needless to say,
no oranges have been bought at these
prices because this is not the average
market price. Growers can do better

Grapefruit Prices

In grapefruit the government is
offering at this writing 28c per box
for No. I's, 20c for combination
grade. 20c per box interior grape-
fruit, 21c for Indian River grape-
fruit No. 2 grade. The Florida Cit-
rus Industry Committee has been
striving to get the Florida representa-
tives of the Surplus Commodities
Corporation to offer the 32c per box
cost of production price set by the
Florida Citrus Commission. The
Federal Surplus Commodities Cor-
poration says 32c is not the average
market price. In arriving at the figure
which the Corporation regards as the
average marketing price the average
price in the auctions has been taken.
F. O. B. prices have been higher than
auction prices this year on the aver-
age but the Corporation refuses to
accept f. o. b. prices as a factor for
its calculation. It has also excluded
from consideration Indian River
fruit which, of course, brings a high-
er price than other Florida fruits.

The Corporation's insistence on
this arbitrary method of arriving at
the average market price is one of the
things that is most difficult for the
growers to understand. What sound
reason can the Federal Government
give for setting aside the most fa-
vored varieties and using only the
lower prices obtained for the lens
favored varieties and calling this the
average market price? It seems an
average market price should be ar-
rived at by taking all grades of fruit
from all sections in all markets and
averaging all these prices.

Committee Worked Hard
The Florida Citrus Industry
Committee has been wrestling with
this problem for months. Last Octo-
ber the AAA called representatives
to Washington from the three citrus
producing areas and asked them to
submit plans for handling the large
surplus of fruit expected this season.
The Florida Committee was the only
one of three who went to Washing-
ton with a program. This program
was based on a previous careful study
of statistics. After getting advice of
representatives from these three areas..
the Agricultural Adjustment Ad-
ministration rejected all proposals
and made a plan of its own. which
was the present plan of spending
$10,000,000.00 to buy 5.000.000
boxes for relief purposes, the grower
to divert one box of lower grade
for each box of higher grade
fruit bought from him.

The Committee has struggled for
weeks to arrive at a price structure
that would put this government
purchase plan into operation here
but all of the prices so far suggested
as fair have been regarded by the
Committee as of no assistance.

Money Enough Now

The government's representatives
have not been able to give the Indus-
try Committee satisfactory answers
as to why the Surplus Commodities
Corporation should be offering prices
regarded as destructive instead of
constructive and pointing toward
more healthy marketing conditions.
Part of the citrus fruit which the
government plan was intended to
eliminate has already eliminated it-
self by fal'irg off the trees and is
now on the ground. If the govern-
ment were to offer the 32c price for
the remaining grapefruit, or even 50c
per box and begin buying at the rate
of 200 cars per week, it would be
impossible now to spend the whole
:um of money allotted to Florida be-


Page 10

Page 11

THE CITRUS GROWER. March 1. 1939

fore the season is out. But this oper-
ation of the purchase plan would be
very beneficial to the market.
Production Cost
It is well known that Mr. Henry
A. Wallace, United States Secretary
of Agriculture, is opposed to any cosi
of production arrangements where
this cost of production price is not
accompanied by a control of pro-
duction volume. Citrus fruit is pro-
duced upon trees of years standing
and the volume of production cannot
readily be controlled from year to
year by reduction of acreage as is thb
case with cotton, wheat, corn, etc.
Consequently. it would be against
the policy of the Department of
Agriculture to contribute to a pro-
gram providing for cost of produce
tion to the producer in the citrus in-
dustry where volume of production
is not controlled.
However, if the government
should quit quibbling over pennies
and pay the grapefruit producer 32c
per box. with the provision that the
producer thereby obligate himself to
divert another box of lower grade.
the Surplus Commodities Corpora-
tion would be paying 32c for two
boxes, or only one-half the co;t of
production price as estimated by the
Florida Citrus Ccmmission as the
minimum price for grapefruit. Hence
there seems to be no sound basis for
failure of the Corporation to cooper-
ate with the Florida Citrus Industry
in the 32c cosr of production price
for grapefruit.
Plan Fits California
The plan is working in California
because it fits thb California situ-
ation. In California they have a good
export trade. The Corporation has
ruled that fruit shipped out of the
country is diverted from local mar-
kets and, therefore, for each box
shipped to export the government
will buy one box from the grower.
But the California grower. of course.
gets paid for this exported box.
Whereas. the Florida grower, who
discs the fruit into his grove for ferti-
lizer. gets only the fertilizer value.
The California average market
price as is proposed in Florida, is
based on the average price for Cali-
fornia fruit in the auctions. but

California has a well controlled mar-
keting situation. For years. knowing
that the auctions in the several big
cities, more or less, make the market
for the rest of the country, Califor-
nia has been shipping only a limited
quantity of fruit to these auction
markets and that fruit is of the high-
est quality and. of course, brings the
best price. By this means, California
sets a high auction figure which the
government accepts as the average
market price.

These are understandable dis-
criminations against the Florida situ-
ation because of California's better
marketing picture. A discrimination
against Florida that is less easily un-
derstood is that California oranges
as small as the 324 size are accepted
by the government as purchasable
under the plan whereas in Florida
the 288 size is the smallest that will
be accepted. Apparently, no justifi-
cation can be found for a discrimina-
(Continued on Page 16)


Use V-C Fertilizers

and Grow Quantities

of Quality Fruit.




Orlando, Fla. l.

Page 12 TIlE CITRUS GROWER, March 1, 1939

Writes of the Economic--

Status Of Combination Sprays

THERE HAS BEEN an increas-
ing tendency during the last
few years toward the develop-
ment of sprays which accomplish
two or three things where only one
was accomplished before. Motivat-
ing this development is the fact that
it ordinarily costs more to apply a
spray than it does to buy the mater-
ials. A perfect example of a com-
bination spray is the application, at
the proper time for melanose or scab
control, of a spray containing cop-
per. zinc, manganese, lime and wet-
table sulfur.

Many Ingredients
Such a spray contains copper to
control melanose or scab and to fur-
nish copper for the nutrition of the
tree. zinc to control zinc deficiency
or frenching, manganese to control'
manganese deficiency, and wettable
sulfur to control mites and reduce
scale crawlers. In the spray itself
the materials also have certain com-
plementary actions that can hardly
be overlooked, the wettable sulfur
containing wetting and spreading
agents that aid in the coverage of the
metallic sprays, while the precipi-
tates produced by the combination
of zinc or manganese sulfate with
lime have sticking qualities which in-
crease the effectiveness of the cop-
per and sulfur. If something could
be added to the above combination
which would effectively control
scale it would be the perfect spring
spray for thousands of acres of citrus
in Florida.
Use Limited
So far, however, the scale prob-
lem is still paramount and the use
of this and other similar sprays will
be limited to conditions where it is
economically more profitable to con-
trol scale than it is to use other
means of supplying copper, zinc,
and manganese to the trees. In the
subsequent discussion reference will
be confined to those sprays which
have nutritional value, leaving to the

By Dr. A. F. CAMP,
Horticulturist in Charge, Citrus
Experiment Station.
Lake Alfred

Entomologists and Plant Pathol-
ogists the discussion of other sprays.
In order to have a proper basis
for the further discussion certain
facts should be pointed out which
are fundamental to the use of nu-
tritional sprays. First, what mater-
ials is it feasible to use in spray form
for nutritional purposes? Copper,
zinc, and manganese have been rec-
ommended as nutritional sprays;
evanescent results have been obtain-
ed from iron sprays but not results
which would justify their recommen-
dation even on trees so deficient in
iron as to take them out of produc-
tion; magnesium is definitely not
recommended as a spray, and the
same applies to potash, phosphate,
and nitrogen.
Varying Results
The basic reason for this discrim-
ination is that responses can be ob-
tained to copper, zinc, and manga-
nese sprays and not to the others.
This in turn probably involves the
amount of the element needed by
the tree, i.e., the leaves can take in
enough of an element to meet a very
small requirement but cannot ab-
sorb enough to satisfy larger require-
ments. This serves to emphasize
the fact that magnesium is needed
in relatively large amounts whereas
copper, zinc, and manganese are
needed only in traces.
A second phase of the problem
has to do with the fact that the de-
ficiency of one or more of the ele-
ments under consideration is com-
monly caused by the fixation of the
elements in the soil, as on marl soils.
In such cases responses are likely to
be slow and unsatisfactory, and the

amounts of the material required
An adjustment of soil conditions
may sometimes promote the avail-
ability of the element but the grow-
er does not wish to wait for such
a correction when he can correct the
tree condition immediately by using
a spray. In addition, trees deficient
in zinc and copper, and probably
manganese also, have greatly reduced
and injured root systems so that
absorption of elements from the soil
is likewise reduced. Peculiarly enough
it has been observed both here and in
California that this root condition
can be corrected more rapidly in
cases of zinc deficiency by spraying
zinc on the tree than by applying it
to the soil.
This is probably a combination
of effects, the injured root system
being unable to absorb the element
in quantity before it is fixed in the
soil and becomes unavailable. In
cases where the deficiency is relative-
ly minor and the soil conditions are
favorable to the retention of the
element in an available form, rapid
correction can be obtained from soil
applications but this does not rep-
resent the conditions under which
deficiencies commonly develop.
pH Affect
Considering the three elements in-
dividually, zinc seems to be the ele-
ment most likely to be either fixed or
leached. As has been shown repeat-
edly, both experimentally and prac-
tically, zinc fixes rapidly at pH's
higher than 6.0 and becomes deficient
rapidly at pH's below 5.25 although
in the latter case it has not been def-
initely determined whether it is
leached or fixed.
The fact that so many soils do
not commonly retain zinc in an
available form has led to the gen-
eral recommendation of zinc as a
spray in practically all cases where


THE CITRUS GROWER. March 1. 1939

it is needed. Field data would indi-
cate that the fixation of manganese
in alkaline soils does not become
acute until the pH is above 7.0 while
its loss at lower pH's is slower than
that of zinc.
Results can be obtained fairly
readily from manganese applications
on the soil through the range of pH
on which citrus is grown but on
soils with a high fixing power the
amount required may be relatively
large and yearly applications needed.
If soil applications are properly
made, however, the results will ap-
proximate those obtained from
sprays which is not generally the
case with zinc. Copper has a still
wider range of availability and good
results are generally obtained from
soil applications throughout the pH
range. Even with copper responses to
soil applications are not as fast as
those obtained from sprays. and soil
applications give no control of dis-
Groves Differ
With the above background it
should be possible for the following
discussion to be easily understood
and used as a guide in grove prac-
tices. Essentially any grower wishes
to get the most from his money but
what practices will give him this will
depend to a very considerable extent
on his grove situation and a practice
that may be desirable for one grove
may be a poor one for the adjoining
Two Purposes
The subsequent discussion will b.
divided into the fields of initial cor-
rection and maintenance since the
two problems are somewhat differ-
ent and because sprays are used more
generally for correction than for
Sprays Quick and Sure
In determining the pract ce to be
followed in applying corrective
treatments the following factors
favor the use of sprays over soil
treatments, particularly if the case
is a serious one. In the first place
speed is an important factor and
sprays applied just before a flush of
growth give almost immediate re-

sponse whereas soil applications may
be extremely slow due either to fix-
ation in the soil or a depleted root
system. In the second place is the
certainty of achieving results, and
here again, sprays are far superior.
This is particularly true in the
case of zinc since soil treatments with
zinc sulfate may fail altogether or
require three or more years to ac-
complish even a small degree of cor-
rection. As a consequence if zinc is
needed there is little incentive toward
using copper or manganese on the
soil since the strong zinc spray
needed as a corrective will probably

require a following oil spray any-
In such cases the addition of cop-
per or manganese, or both, to the
spray somewhat increases the scale
hazard but is much cheaper and
faster than soil applications. A delay
of one year in getting a grove back
into production is likely to be more
costly than the problems induced by
spraying with a residue spray.

Causes of Scale

In connection with the above re-
marks it should be remembered that

"Sell Fruit and Produce the Auction Way,
Where Supply and Demand Meet Every Day"


Marketing today's crops requires unity of effort to obtain
best results.




Fruit & Produce Auction Association, Inc.
66 Harrison Street, New York, N. Y.
American Central Fruit Auction Co. H. Harris 8 Co.
St. Louis Boston
Baltimore Fruit Exchange New York Fruit Auction Corp.
Baltimore New York
Consolidated Fruit Exchange, Inc. Philadelphia Terminals Auction Co.
Cleveland Philadelphia
Detroit Fruit Auction Company Union Fruit Auction Company
Detroit Pittsburgh
Fruit Auction Sales Company United Fruit Auction Company
Chicago Cincinnati


Page 13

THE CITRUS GROWER, March 1, 1939

the build-up of scale populations is
not entirely a matter of residues
from sprays; trees in poor growth
such as bronzed trees are likely to be
very low in scale infestation since
scale prefer leaves on vigorously
growing trees. As a consequence, the
addition of available magnesium to
severely bronzed groves frequently
results in a scale build-up following
the vigorous growth response even
though no residue spray has been
applied. The increase in scale fol-
lowing a zinc spray thus results from
both the residue and the increased
vigor of the tree.
In addition to the above, the ap-
plication of one or more of the ele-
ments mentioned in spray form on
very deficient groves has the advan-
tage of giving the grower a period
during which he can experiment
with soil applications for mainte-
nance purposes while the grove is
rapidly recovering from its poor con-
dition. We might say then that in
general, if zinc must be applied to a
grove in bad condition as a pre-
requisite to getting it back into pro-
duction, then copper and manganese
might as well be combined with it
in the spray.
Soil Treatment
Where only copper or manganese
or both are deficient soil treatments
may be resorted to if the grower
starts in sufficient time to get these
absorbed into the tree before the
next flush of growth. Where he has
delayed, however, and the trees will
soon start to grow and bloom, he
may find it much more desirable to
use a spray.
The experimental work on wh:ch
the above discussion was based shows
that in severe cases of copper defi-
ciency diebackk or ammoniation) a
copper spray (3-3-100) applied
thirty days ahead of the bloom gave
100 percent correction of ammoni-
ation on fruit while a soil applica-
tion at the same time gave only 85
percent correction.
Stops Frenching
A high degree of correction has
also been obtained by using a copper
spray after the growth had started,
whereas soil treatments at the same
time gave indifferent results in the

control of ammoniation on the
young fruit. On severely frenched
groves it has been commonplace to
find sprays applied at any time prior
to spring growth giving almost 100
percent control of frenching on both
old and new growth and a tremen-
dous crop response whereas soil treat-
ments running up to 20 pounds per
tree per year required three years to
give even a fair control.
Comparisons between sprays and
soil treatments with manganese have
not been so marked as in the case
of copper and zinc but sprays have
nevertheless given results more quick-
ly than soil treatments. In experi-
ments on marl soils, 10 pounds per
tree of manganese sulfate gave less
correction the first year and did not
last as long as five ounces applied in
spray form on ten year old trees.
Probably if neither copper nor
zinc was required, which is rare in
a case of manganese deficiency, suffi-
cient corrective results would be ob-

trained from soil applications of
manganese although even then the
cost might be higher than the cost
of a spray and the succeeding oil
In the field of maintenance there
is less reason to recommend sprays
over soil treatments except in the
case of zinc. Even in the field of
maintenance, however, both copper
and manganese sprays find a place.
One of the situations in which this
is true is where copper is used as a
control for scab or melanose. Ob-
viously the use of soil applications
of copper would not be indicated
except in unusual circumstances.
Moreover, since copper residues are
the most potent of the three in build-
ing up scale the incentive toward
using manganese on the soil is re-
Taking the case of marl soil and
a copper spray needed for disease
control as an example, it will be
found that such a grove is likely to
(Continued on Page 16)

111 1111i Jtlii llllMlllil 6 lllfllth~ll F I I PI t I IIIIIIINIIII IPF 11rl tl II I J I II ll II I llllll l f ll J] flll I l t lll ll lll tdifii 111t1 In l ill lll ll i ti I tlt I 'n t It [ lrll ll llllll [ll l! Nl II it illIIIIIHI'



Lake Wales, Florida

Our business is built on satisfactory results to GROWERS.
Lower fertilizer cost and less total production cost with increased j
production and improved quality and grade,


Better Condition Of Trees.

We have no fertilizer or fertilizer materials for sale-result-you
spend your money for necessary plant-food elements ONLY.
Let us show you groves in excellent condition although the aver-
age cost of fertilizer applied during the last five years has been less
than $15.00 per acre per year.

For a profit of 100% each year,





Page 14

THE CITRUS GROWER, March 1. 1939

Robert B. Woolfolk

Since our last issue the citrus industry of the nation
has had occasion to mourn the death of Robert B.
Woolfolk, senior vice-president and chairman of the
board of American Fruit Growers. Inc., and a resident
of Orlando for many years. Mr. Woolfolk was a na-
tive of Kentucky, and was reared on a stock farm near
Goshen in that state.
His first large venture in the fruit business was in
1896, when he and a cousin, J. S. Crutchfield, founded
the firm of Crutchfield 8 Woolfolk. in Pittsburgh.
handling a general wholesale distribution of fresh fruits
and vegetables. This thriving business which had
branches in other centers of population, formed the
nucleus around which was organized American Fruit
Growers, Inc.. in 1919. At the time of his death Mr.
Woolfolk was president of Deerfield Groves Company.
owners and operators of 500 acres of citrus groves in
the Indian River section: was treasurer of Union Fruit
Auction Company, Pittsburgh. and a director in Elec-
tric Fruit Marketing Company, Los Angeles.
Mr. Woolfolk helped organize Florida Citrus Grow-
ers Clearing House Association and served continuous-
ly on its board of directors until its activities were ab-
sorbed by and he became a member of the first Florida
Citrus Control Committee under the original Agri-
cultural Adjustment Act of 1933. He was also presi-
dent of Florida Growers' and Shippers' League. His
work in chambers of commerce and on various indus-
try committees were too numerous to mention.
He was a real contributor to Florida's general wel-

Cost of Production

While the price argument between canners and grow-
ers proceeds a natural elimination of the grapefruit
surplus is going on and good quantities are falling on
the ground.
The picture has some encouraging sides.
1. The canners see that the law will hold and that
they will not be successful in stampeding the growers
and in breaking it down.
2. The grower is benefitting himself by letting this
fruit lie on the ground and discing it into the soil
rather than sell it for 8c to 15c a box. These figures are
in the conservatively estimated range of the fruit's fer-
tilizer value.
3. This very low priced grapefruit that would now
be going into cans if there had been no cost of produc-
tion arrangement, will not be in the market competing
with higher grade, fresh fruit next season.
4. The prospects for this season are very good for
higher prices. Tests of the late bloom fruit show that
in some cases it will take three or four field crates of the
late bloom to produce an amount of juice normally
extracted from one field crate of early bloom fruit. So
an elimination of a large part of the surplus has been
accomplished. Without the aid of the government pur-
chasing program or of volume control, the grapefruit
grower faces still an encouraging future.
Altogether. the cost of production movement will
prove helpful to the Florida citrus industry.

Page 15

50 Years of

Stimulating Fertilizers

And Where Are We?

Lands getting poorer, requiring more
and more stimulants.
Trees getting weaker, requiring more
and more care.
Fruit won't stand up, causing more
and more marketing troubles.
Tree diseases and pests increasing.
Some diseases the old-timers never
heard of.


If stimulants are all that are needed
-why are these things so?
Give your trees a break. Give them
a good square meal of what THEY
like-Not what you like-and see
what happens.

The Bacterialized Plant Food
Builds up: Regenerates: Makes soil
alive and good as new.
Once your ground becomes alive with
ORGANO and your trees become
saturated with this natural whole-
some sap, many of your tree diseases
will disappear and your trees will
produce fruit that is richer in every
respect. Fruit that won't need :o
much painting. Fruit that will
stand up and take it-and won't rot
so quickly. Fruit the buyers will
want more of.

PHONE 3842
138 N. Orange Ave.



THE CITRUS GROWER. March 1, 1939


(Continued from Page 14)
show both frenching and manganese
deficiency symptoms. Repeated ex-
periments have shown that zinc ap-
plied to such soils is quite ineffective
so it is naturally combined with the
copper application or a subsequent
sulfur spray.
Combinations and Oil
Such a spray program will make
the use of an oil spray mandatory
and the addition of manganese to
that or another spray will not ap-
preciably change the picture. Under
such circumstances it is cheaper to
apply 3 to 5 ounces per tree of man-
ganese sulfate in a spray than to ap-
ply 2 to 10 pounds per tree on the
soil. Moreover, it is usually neces-
sary in such a grove to apply man-
ganese every year and the sprays
have been found to give more last-
ing effects than the soil treatments.
In fact, wherever copper sprays
are used for disease control the pos-
sibility of applying zinc or man-
ganese in spray form, if needed,
should be considered. The addi-
tional residue will give a higher rate
of scale increase but the copper will
usually have made an oil spray nec-
Economy Application
Somewhat the same reasoning
may be followed with regard to the
use of manganese in spray form
where copper is not used but where
a zinc spray is necessary. This is
particularly the case when trials have
shown that large amounts of man-
ganese are necessary on account of
the fixing power of the soil.
Since either manganese or zinc
may be added to sulfur sprays. no
additional cost of application is re-
quired beyond the cost of materials
and mixing. That the above reasons
have considerable weight is indicated
by the rapidly increasing use of these
sprays in practice although repeated
warnings have been given as to scale
When copper is not used as a
fungicide and zinc deficiency is not
present, both copper and manganese
are commonly used on the soil and
there is probably little justification

for their use in a spray under these
circumstances. Where zinc is used
in very low concentrations with sul-
fur sprays, the scale build-up may
not become an acute problem and
the necessary copper and manganese
can be applied to the soil with ex-
cellent results.
The final decision as to which
shall be used will have to lie with a
grower's analysis of his own par-
ticular grove situation. Instructions
in the method of making up the nu-
tritional sprays are given in the Bet-
ter Fruit Program published by the
Florida Citrus Commision. A copy
of this may be obtained from your
county agent or from the offices of
the Florida Citrus Commission in
------- -- ------

(Continued from Page 11 )
tion like this.
Florida Situation
Needs Study
It seems the Department of Agri-
culture, which is responsible for the
Agricultural Adjustment Adminis-
tration and for the Federal Surplus
Commodities Corporation, has neg-
lected or refused to study the needs of
the Florida situation. It appears that
the difficulties along this line are in

Washington. Local representatives of
the department seem willing to go
as far as they can but they are bound
to follow only those policies given
by the Washington authorities. Some
of the higher representatives of the
Corporation have been in Florida
the last few days and they have been
unable to make satisfactory explana-
tion of the questions raised above
and of other phases of the purchase
program policy.
Want Action Now
The grower organization is very
anxious that the Federal Govern-
ment clear up these misunderstand-
ings. It is more anxious that money
appropriated to relieve the grower in
Florida should begin to be spent for
that purpose.
It is readily understood how in a
concern as big as the United States
Department of Agriculture incom-
petent men may get into high places
and do a lot of damage. This appears
to be the present situation which de-
serves the immediate careful attention
of Mr. Wallace himself. It is causing
the growers to lose faith in the ad-
visability of the government's pro-
gram. If allowed to go on, it will de-
stroy the basis of mutual confidence
which must exist between the grow-
ers and the administration in order
that any program may be able to

--------------- -- ------- --- ------

South Lake Apopka Citrus Growers Ass'n.


Has Grown from 50.000 Boxes to Last Year's Record of 643,356.

About 3.500 Acres Are Owned by About 150 Members.

Packing Profits Are Paid back to Growers and more than $300,000
has been repaid.

The Association offers a complete caretaking service, operating its
own Fertilizer Plant and grove equipment at actual cost to


A. W. Hurley. President
Phone 61, Winter Garden

G. S. Hall. Secy.-Manager
Postoffice. Oakland, Fla.


I __ ------~-------------------------------- -------- .I

Page 16

THE CITRUS GROWER, March 1, 1939

Letters to the Editor

February 23, 1939 There
My Dear Florida Citrus Grower: gassing f
firmly p
In order to make things not as they seem.
or even not as they are. when they seem bad Winderm
-is to volunteer to cooperate as one's judg-
ment tells him to do. against one's own feel-
ings. Especially when the proposition is to
benefit the whole situation, or would be to To the
correct a general situation. With confidence, Washingi
not in man, but in God Almighty. Orlando,
For instance when a boat is overloaded by Dear Sir
error and is discovered so late that it is neces- In the
sary to sacrifice the whole cargo to save its Grower.
personnel, do they call it waste of produc- larive coi
tion or economy? ida for t
This will certainly apply to the citrus tions. I
cargo, or any other industry, that must knowing
sacrifice to equalize. Merit and conditions, follows:
called natural are forcing all going concerns "I ha
to do as their judgment tells them, if they article ai
are to keep going. of The
Our hyprocisy of not making, what we to you
know is the right thing to do work, will fixed dat
of course be forced on us by necessity, shipped.
The writer of course considers himself "If su
very fortunate, to have gotten his personal likely hb
affairs so that he does not have to depend southern
on his citrus crop for a meal ticket, or for as fruit f
to take care of his personal obligations, so really mc
he still has his fruit, and does not consider only mak
that which nature destroys, as wasted. He when it
considers it a benefit to over production of a higher
one thing, and am broadcasting that which move onl
there is a scarcity of. which is understanding That wil
of the situation. of Florid
Sincerely submitted, the way
Carl Galloway reaches m
Winter Park. Florida. "Perso
a citrus g
-- ing of f
tree colo
Feb. 7, 1939 tret cl
The Citrus Grower something
Orlando, Fla. necessity
Dear Editor: rooms an
I read with much interest the article or. ing of fr
green fruit legislation in the last issue of matically
The Citrus Grower. and also
Question eight of the questionnaire rela- tasting-
tive to coloring practice seems very impor- t
tant. option f
My investigations lead me to believe that colored v
more than fifty percent of the complaints on thus hol
our early fruit is covered by faulty gassing
and colored added practice.
As an engineer I have examined many
coloring rooms in packing houses and found
them far from what they should be to ob-
tain even fair results.
Poor installations require longer hours
of gassing. The only factor to offset danger- PI
ous conditions required to bleach fruit is the they
fresh air and circulation of that air in the is w
rooms and around the fruit in the closely finan
stacked boxes.
Fruit that is gassed too long has a changed
flavor in the consumers' hands, because of as
penetration of gas into center of fruit and mon
because of decay that has started but is not
apparent to the consumer. Pe
Therefore I believe a maximum time
limit should be placed on (gassing) coloring
fruit. This would make necessary the im-
provement of coloring rooms and the'r oper- P.
nations, also improvement in fertilizing and
other field practices that affect gassing.

has been to much buck passing in
ruit and I believe a time limit would
lace responsibility.
J. N. Geier
ere. Fla.
February 10. 1939.
Editor of the Citrus Grower,
ton Street Arcade,

SFebruary 1st issue of The Citrus
Mr. Criley, a member of our legis-
nmittee, asked the growers of Flor-
heir reaction to a number of ques-
thought you might be interested in
I wrote Mr. Criley somewhat as

ve read with great interest your
nd questionnaire- in the last issue
Citrus Grower. and I hasten to say
that I do not favor establishing a
e before which fruit can not be

ch a date were established, it would
Ild back the movement from the
part of the state until such time
rom the central part of the state is
ire eatable, and in so doing would
ke the movement that much heavier
does start. What we really need is
maturity standard and let fruit
y when these standards are attained.
II let fruit from the southern part
a move when ready and be out of
of fruit in the other parts as it
nally I feel that if we could pass
reen fruit law preventing the pick-
ruit until such time as it is 75%
red-then we have accomplished
g. 75% tree colored cuts down the
for long hours in the coloring
d the decay that follows such cook-
uit. 75% tree colored would auto-
see that the juice content is greater
that the fruit is sweeter and better
thus insuring a much better re-
rom the buying public. 75% tree
till encourage "spot picking" and
d down supply to a point more

- i i

SAVE $andt

progressive growers are anxious to have a dependable source of credit from which
can be sure to obtain money in the right amounts and at the right times. This
hy so many have joined this Association. They like the idea of planning their
cing for a whole year.
ur members arrange their loans just as early as they wish and are assured that
ng as they maintain their credit standing their Association will advance them
ey as they need it to grow their crop. Then, too, their loans do not come due
their crop is ready to harvest.
rhaps we can serve you too. Write us today.


). Box 1592

Orlando, Florida



Page 17

in line with demand and result in better
prices to the grower through the elimina-
tion of glutting of markets. Spot picking
is a sound program and beneficial to the
tree-as well as the grower.
"As a safety valve-I would suggest
that in addition to requiring fruit to be
75% tree colored for picking-that we also
require at all times that oranges test at
least 10 to 10 to 1 rather than the pres-
ent 8 to 8/2 to 1 and that the citrus com-
mission be empowered to raise that require-
ment by 10% at any time they feel the in-
terest of the industry needs such an increase
in maturity standards.
"It seems to me, Mr. Criley. that the
suggestion of 75% tree colored about solves
most of our problems regarding maturity
tests, juice content and coloring room vices
and in addition it will assist in helping to
solve a part of our problem of supply and
demand by the elimination of market gluts.
"I trust these suggestions do not come
to you too late and that your committee
will consider these remarks with an open
mind and give serious thought to the possi-
bilities of solving a part of the growers'
problems from this angle."
Yours truly,
Orlando, Fla.
Last figures available from the
Department of Commerce show that
for the month of June American iron
and steel products sold to Japan
amount to $2,305,828.

We Offer Growers
A Market for Their Fruit

Cash on the Tree
Top Market Prices
At All Times

M. C. Britt Produce Co.
Phone 56 or 101

Page 18



This Plan Will Raise Prices

Mr. Marvin Walker, secretary of Florida Citrus
Producers Trade Association, a group of shippers who
produce not less than half the fruit they handle, read
the following proposal before the state board of di-
rectors of our organization at its February meeting:
Valencia Marketing Proposal
"The net profit which Florida growers receive from
the sale of their Valencia oranges this season can be in-
creased as much as five times if growers and shippers
controlling an adequate percentage of the crop will
support a program to market it intelligently.
"Under the marketing conditions that now prevail
the Valencia orange crop may not return growers more
than $1,000,000 above production costs. But if this
fruit is distributed in an orderly manner it can be sold
at prices which will return growers as much as $5,000,-
000 above production costs.
"The new Federal marketing agreement, whenever
it becomes effective, cannot of itself make Florida or-
anges sell for what they are worth. The restriction of
grades and sizes of interstate shipments under this agree-
ment will have little immediate effect upon fruit values
unless there is also control over the volume of ship-
ments leaving the state.
"Last week there was shipped from Florida the un-
precedented total of 2200 cars of oranges. despite the
fact that we do not need to ship more than 1500 to
1600 cars a week during the balance of the season to
move the entire crop. If current shipments of Florida
oranges could be reduced even 500 cars the market price
for the fruit sold would advance at least 50 cents a box.
"The Florida Citrus Producers Trade Association
believes it is high time that the growers and shippers
of this state do something to help themselves, that they
develop and support a program that will remedy these
conditions. The current Valencia crop offers an ex-
ceptional opportunity to demonstrate what can be
done. The Valencia crop can be controlled more easily
than other varieties, and the rewards for doing so are
"The cooperative groups and the grower-shippers
that are members of this association now control a little
more than half of the Valencia oranges in the state.
This is not enough fruit to regulate shipments and in-
fluence prices. At least 80 percent of the Valencia crop
must be under the control of shippers who are sup-
porting a program of orderly marketing before such a
program can achieve effective price results.
Asks Grower Cooperation
"This association invites the members of Florida
Citrus Growers. Inc.. who have made no arrangements

THE CITRUS GROWER, March 1, 1939


for the sale of their Valencia oranges, and all other
responsible marketing agencies which produce enough
fruit on their own groves to give them the viewpoint
of other growers, to join with it in a program to regu-
late the distribution and sale of this season's Valencia
crop so that growers may receive all the fruit is worth.
Asks Shippers Agree
"Under such a program this association proposes
that shippers agree to
(1) Regulate the volume of the Valencia oranges
that they ship from the state each week.
(2) Regulate the volume of shipments to the prin-
cipal terminal markets, if found necessary.
(3) Maintain uniform minimum prices for various
grades and sizes on all f. o. b. sales.
"The members of this association can legally do
these things because they are not only shippers but
growers too, and as growers they are organized under
laws that give them price-regulating privileges that are
denied to shippers or groups of shippers which do not
produce more than half of the fruit they handle.
"If the growers of Valencia oranges want the higher
prices that such a program will make possible, a suffi-
ciently large percentage of them must, within the next
few weeks, arrange for the marketing of their fruit by
shippers who will and who can do these things. The
only way in which we are ever going to solve our mar-
keting problems is to begin doing some of these things
for ourselves."
Directors Endorse
The state directors heartily congratulated this group
of constructive shippers on the proposal and instruct-
ed the executive committee of the marketing committee
of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., to confer with the
Florida Citrus Producers Trade Association to work
out details.
The committee and the association have held several
meetings. The association has agreed to approach
shippers outside their own group with the idea of get-
ting eighty percent of the shipper citrus tonnage to
bind themselves by ironclad contracts to submit their
operations to this plan of voluntary control.
This is a development of the highest importance.
Growers, conscious of their own best interests, will lend
it assistance in every way, and the grower organization
expects to use every means to give united grower sup-
port to it. So far as they can, that is if they are not al-
ready obligated elsewhere, growers will handle their
fruit through these constructive channels. More infor-
mation about those shippers cooperating in the move
will be given out as the situation develops. In the
meantime the grower should talk the matter over with
the shipper usually handling his fruit. It would be
highly beneficial that all shippers feel the pressure of
grower support of the movement. Get your shipper to

DeSoto County Growers

A call meeting of DeSoto City
unit of Highlands County Citrus
Growers, Inc.. was held in the school
house auditorium. DeSoto City.
Thursday evening. February 23.
1939. President A. K. Hallett pre-
After the treasurer's report. Ma-
jor Amos Tyree. chairman of the
marketing agreement committee, and
W. W. Masters. chairman of packing
house charges committee, reported
progress without special comment.
President Hallet Reports
President Hallet reported on ac-
tivities of the board of directors of
Florida Citrus Growers. Inc.. at a
meeting held in Lakeland. February
16th. He advised favorable replies
had been received regarding relief
of growers owing Federal Farm
Loans. It was developed that the
land bank has sufficient authority
under existing laws to grant exten-
New Dues Basis
The finance committee had rec-
ommended and it had been adopted
that the membership fee for the
next fiscal year be fixed at $1.00 per
year. plus 5 cents per acre of pro-
ducing grove in addition, groves of
ten acres or less to be exempt from
the 5 cents per acre fee. By motion
the dues of the DeSoto City unit
were voted to conform with this
State Operating Funds
President Hallet advised that
Highlands county had pledged to
raise $125.00 as a part of a fund
to meet a deficiency in operating
funds of the state organization, of
which $25.00 had been allocated to
the DeSoto City unit. A joint re-
port by President Hallett and Ma-
jor Tyree indicated the amount had
been raised.
Fact Finding Institute
A motion was made by D. C. Bar-
row, seconded by Major Tyree, sug-
gesting that the directors of Florida
Citrus Growers, Inc., communicate
with the Florida Citrus Fact Finding
Institute, which has now formed and
request it to cooperate with Florida
Citrus Growers. Inc. We are all of
one purpose and the facts developed
by the institute are not to be pub-
lished unless approved by Florida

Citrus Growers, Inc. Further, that
any legislative program the Institute
may wish to develop, be done in co-
operation with the legislative com-
mittee of the Florida Citrus Grow-
ers. Inc.. so that there shall be no
conflict of purpose. This motion
was carried.
Walker Proposal
Mr. Marvin Walker, secretary of
Florida Citrus Producers Trade As-
sociation, made a proposal concern-
ing the marketing of Valencias. (See
elsewhere in this issue. Ed.)
Grower Nomination
C. H. Walker was unanimously
selected as one of the Growers' ad-
ministrative committee to be nomi-
nated Tuesday. February 28, to ad-
minister the marketing agreement
recently declared effective by Secre-
tary of Agriculture Henry A. Wal-.
Distillate Tax
Director G. Maxcy was appointed
by President Hallett to get informa-
tion from the State of Kansas con-
cerning a proposed 3c per gallon
tax on distillate, and turn the data
over to the legislative committee of
the state organization for their in-
formation and action.
D. C. Barrow discussed the possi-
bility of formation of a state mar-
keting organization to handle the ex-
cessive sale of all citrus fruit moving

in interstate commerce. On motion
by Major Tyree and Mrs. Naylor,
Mr. Barrow was asked to write his
ideas out and send to E. G. Todd,
chairman of the state legislative com-


orange root: Valencia, Hamlin, Jaffa,
Parson Brown. and Lambs' Late oranges;
also, Marshseedless and Excelsor grapefruit.
Earl B. Way, Eagle Lake, Florida.

Start With

Quality ..

By this we mean feed your trees
TILIZER and insure quality fruit
at harvest time.
This year get the most out of
your soil by making sure it Is
properly balanced. Your soil test-
ed free at your request.

The American
Chemical Company
Pierce (Polk County) Florida


Practical and Economical
Give your grove a chance to produce a crop at a cost per box that
will make you money. Now is the time to prepare for the coming
crop and improve the quality as well as quantity.
ready for immediate delivery

Farm & Home Machinery Company
Orlando, Florida Phone 5791

Wilkins, L K ,Chief
nerioiical riv U S Dept Agri
1A 01 D C

All Finally Depends On

What The Grower Himself Does.

That grower organization is important, no one doubts. A grower standing by himself is helpless
against the bad practices which drive him toward bankruptcy. All the growers united can turn the
tide the other way.

We have finally reached that place where the interests of the individual grower are represented by
his own powerful organization. He has elected his own representatives, county and state officials, di-
rectors, committee chairmen, committeemen, etc. He has the machinery with which to investigate and in-
form himself on all important matters-what they mean and how to handle them.

In sound legislation on such questions as green fruit, arsenic sprays, field crates, etc., in the prep-
aration and bringing into effect of the marketing agreement, and in other ways this organization is
showing results.

There is much the grower himself should do. He should carefully examine-even cooperate in
the forming of-these organizational opinions and policies. There are plenty of opportunities open
for him to do that. And once plans and policies are made, he should immediately make it part of his
daily exercise to work toward carrying them out. We cite one instance of why the grower should do
this now:

Using one single instance, as an example that of an effective green fruit law-This organization
is going to do its best to have such a law written upon our statute books. The necessity of a green
fruit law in first place has come from the fact that some shippers completely disregard the interests
of others, and, in the hope of getting a higher price for early fruit have shipped green fruit to custom-
ers in the North, which these customers could not eat and which turned many of them permanently
against Florida fruit. These interests will be in the front rank of those in the legislature openly op-
posing, or more or less secretly carrying on guerilla warfare against the enactment of a good law this

Still these interests could nor stay in business and consequently make trouble unless they were able
to make money off of somebody's fruit. If they were large growers themselves the% could not do a
thing like this so much against themselves. They are in business only because growers sell them
their fruit

We cite this as one of numerous places where the grower's interests demand that he examine his
own habits and use the weight of his own influence and the bargaining power of selling his own fruit
to stop practices of long standing that have brought us to our present unhappy situation

Support the helpful influences.

A similar case could be drawn concerning volume control proper field crates good coloring-room
practices and many others. Particularly at this stage of the game. when we need to emp!o% every pos-
sible means toward bringing order to our industry, the attitudes and acts of the individual grower are
of the highest importance.

Talk the matter over with vour shipper.

Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.


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