tli'-: 3 - 1939
lFLO RI DA
PUBLIC CATI ON
We know how to produce it; can we learn how to merchandise it?
FLORIDA CITRUS GROWERS, INC., is a thor-
oughly democratic organization. I said this in the
early stages of the movement and wish to confirm
and emphasize that statement now.
The reason I feel it necessary to re-state the demo-
cratic nature of the organization at this time is that
work for several months past has been done so largely
by directors' meetings, committees and officials. The
reason for this is that this new grower organization
came upon a field cluttered up with the mistakes and bad
practices that have vexed the industry for these many
years. It was impossible to act wisely toward cleaning
up this situation without doing an immense amount of
research and study so that we might go to the bottom
of all these difficulties, find the best way out and make a
Growers Should Comment
This sort of work necessarily must be done by some
groups of men who have the time and have had experi-
ence and training in particular lines. We have not for-
gotten the democratic nature of the organization, how-
ever, and have urgently solicited the opinions and advice
of growers in these matters. Any of us growers who
have neglected our duty in this respect should certainly
look at the current and past copies of the magazine,
examine the questionnaires that have been printed con-
cerning these important matters and write out our
opinions and advice and mail them to the chairman of
the sub-committee handling the particular matter in
which we are most interested. The name and address
of the chairman is given along with each of the ques-
An article by Mr. W. L'E. Barnett in the February
1st issue about maturity standards, and the article in
this issue by George I. Fullerton about coloring room
practices, give some idea about how complicated these
questions are, about how many different interests are
affected and the difficulty met in trying to get laws that
accomplish our purposes and that will also work as
little hardship as possible on all concerned.
We Want A Grower Program
As complicated as these questions are, we do not
want the final legislative propositions of this organiza-
tion to be merely the work of these committees. These
final proposed laws must be the work of all the growers
that make up the organization. It must be their work
because the program must have the urgent support of
all the growers in order to get it enacted into law with-
out crippling amendments.
As stated elsewhere in this issue, the legislative com-
mittee will bring all its recommendations to the state
board of directors where each proposition will be
thoroughly discussed and a program adopted by the
board of directors will then be sent out to the county
organizations. This program, however, will be only a
suggested program. It will indicate what the committees
conferring with experts in all of these fields have found
out and will also indicate the judgment of the board of
directors as to what should be done.
Still. let me say again this will be only a suggested
program. We expect the real and final legislative recom-
mendations to come from the discussions and refine-
ments which this program will receive by the rank and
file members of the county organizations. When the
membership has had its say, the program will then
come back to the officials and committees with instruc-
tions to endeavor to have it enacted into law.
Meetings and Records Open
As much as possible, we want the growers to par-
ticipate now in the formation of this, your program,
take it up with the chairman in your county handling
the question in which you are most interested. If your
suggestions do not get the attention you think they
should in that way, take it up with your state director
or come with him to the meeting of the state directors
and make your ideas known.
In fact. if I understand the setup of this organiza-
tion, every grower member is entitled to attend any state
meeting, any county meeting, any committee meeting,
any board of directors' meeting or any other sort of
group where the policies of Florida Citrus Growers,
Inc.. are being discussed.
Using the legislative program as an example I have
tried here to make it clear that there are no secrets in
this organization, no formalities. Its records and in-
tentions are open for inspection and questioning by any
interested party. We invite and encourage such interest
and questioning in order that we, ourselves, may have
the benefit of your suggestions and that we, ourselves,
may stay on the right road.
Florida Citrus Growers. Inc.
The Citrus Grower
Official Publication of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
VOLUME 1 FEBRUARY 15, 1939 NUMBER 7
Human Resources A Plenty
THE GROWER ORGANIZATION is in itself a
recognition of the lately realized fact that the
grower is the basis and final hope of stability in
the citrus industry. It is recognition of the fact that
when the grower once has a working knowledge of his
business, the problems of the industry are well on the
way to solution.
This grower knowledge must include both knowl-
edge of marketing because no profit is realized until the
consumer buys the product.
This does not necessarily mean that the grower will
do his own marketing. The hotel manager himself may
be the very worst of chefs, but if he is a successful ho-
tel manager he must know how to choose a good chef
and know when he is receiving proper service. To this
extent the grower must know the marketing end of the
There is not the slightest likelihood that the growers,
as a whole, are lacking in the required native ability to
analyze and apply correct judgment to every single
problem facing the citrus industry from the time the
raw land is grubbed for grove planting until the con-
sumer judges and buys the fruit from the grocer.
Our organization has advanced far enough to show
that we have in our membership a great wealth of all
kinds of trained men in all phases of the industry. We
have a still greater wealth of men in our membership
of unquestioned native ability who are anxious to learn
the detai's of these problems and apply to them the
benefit of their judgment and advice. Futhermore, the
grower organization has inspired volunteers outside of
its membership who are unquestioned authorities in all
these special lines.
We can imagine no person or group of persons more
competent to direct the economic stabilization of the
industry and no person or group of persons more
thoroughly interested in accomplishing that stabiliza-
tion than the men in and around our organization.
FOR BETTER HEALTH
R. D. Carter of Vero Beach, and chairman of the
Legislative Committee for Indian River County, raises
fruit of which he is proud when it leaves his grove.
Recently he yielded to a long cherished urge to trace
some of this fruit to the person in the North who
finally bought it, there reveal himself as the grower
of the fruit and receive the consumer's congratulations.
When he found some of the fruit in a grocery store
in Virginia, to his dismay, it was in a sorry state, due
to bad coloring and rough handling in shipping. Not
only did he fail to show himself as the grower of the
fruit, but he did not even want the people to know he
was from Florida.
J. C. Haley, vice-president of the Orange County
unit and chairman of its marketing committee, went
to Roanoke recently on business, where some friends
whom he was visiting had grapefruit for breakfast.
His northern friends knew there was something wrong
with the fruit, and on examining it, Mr. Haley found
it was late bloom. With thousands of tons of good
fruit hanging on the trees, this sour stuff is permitted
to discourage consumer buying.
Virgil H. Conner .. ....Editor Published the First and Fifteenth of each able. The publishers can accept no re-
month by The Florida Citrus Growers, responsibility for return of unsolicited manu-
J. E. Robinson .Business Manager Inc., Orlando, Florida. scripts.
Entered as second-class matter Novem- Subscription Rates
PUBLICATION COMMITTEE-W. E. ber 15. 1938, at the postoffice at Orlando, In United States, one year $1 00 to non-
IKemp, Chairman: Carl D. Brorein. R. Fla., under the Act of March 3, 1879. members of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc..
J. Kepler, E. G. Thatcher. W. L. Burton. Membership subscriptions, one year 50c.
C. A. Garrett, Karl Lehmann. Manuscripts submitted to this maga-
zine should be accompanied by sufficient Address all mail to The Citrus Grower,
Printed by The Chief Press, Apopka postage for their return if found unavail- P. 0. Box 2077, Orlando, Florida.
Page 4 THE CITRUS GROWER, February 15, 1939
Customers Don't Know It, But---
ABUSES OF FRUIT coloring
methods have been almost, if
not altogether, as disastrous to
the interests of the Florida citrus in-
dustry as the shipping of green fruit.
What purpose can there be in setting
up expensive enforcement machinery
to test the ripeness of fruit if that
ripeness and flavor are to suffer seri-
ous damage by bad coloring prac-
Coloring in itself is undoubtedly
a beneficial factor in fruit marketing.
We have not seen the case stated any
better anywhere than in the opening
paragraphs of a bulletin* by Dr. J.
R. Winston, and R. W. Tilden, of
the U. S. Department of Agriculture,
which we quote below:
Color and Ripeness
S"In Florida, some of the early or-
anges such as the Parson Brown,
mature before they develop their
color, or at least their full color. Cit-
rus fruit of any variety growing on
densely foliated trees and shaded by
the foliage, such as an inside crop of
grapefruit, retains much of its green-
ness even after maturity. In both
Florida and California, Valencia
oranges develop almost full color in
winter and become mature in the
spring but have a habit of regreening,
particularly at the stem end when
spring growth sets in, if allowed to
remain on the tree until fully ripe.
Late varieties of grapefruit sometime
remain green in the spring and need
to be put through the coloring treat-
ment. It is highly desirable to make
the appearance of the fruit match its
eating quality throughout its market-
"The term 'coloring' is somewhat
ill-chosen. It conveys the erroneous
impression of attempting to conceal
inferiority. In reality, 'coloring' is
merely a stimulation of natural de-
greening processes. The presence of
the coloring agent under favorable
conditions hastens the natural break-
ing down of the green pigment in the
*Bulletin: "The Coloring or Degreening
of Mature Citrus Fruits with Ethylene," by
J. R. Winston, senior horticulturist, and R.
W. Tilden, formerly field assistant, United
States Department of Agriculture, division
of fruit and vegetable crops and diseases.
By GEORGE I. FULLERTON,
Chairman of Legislative Sub-
Committee on Fruit Coloring.
Editor's Note: A questionnaire on
coloring room practices and "color
added" has not been prepared for
this issue, but growers and other read-
ers are urgently requested to comment
upon the questions raised in the ac-
companying article and send their
comments and opinions to Mr. Ful-
lerton at New Smyrna, Florida.
peel, thereby making a good, legally
mature fruit look better. The de-
struction of the green chlorophyll
reveals the previously hidden yellow
or orange pigments. There is no ac-
tual coloring other than possibly a
slight intensification of the orange-
yellow pigments. 'Coloring' is more
of a blanching or decoloring process
involving the use of a harmless gas
of the unsaturated hydrocarbon
This committee is interested only
in a effort to have laws enacted and
enforced that will enable the indus-
try to get the greatest possible bene-
fit out of the knowledge these
scientific men have discovered and
out of the experience of fruit packers
who have used coloring methods
constructively. This is no easy task.
Hazards to Flavor
The abuses of coloring processes
affect the flavor of the fruit and
hasten its decay. In fact, decay is the
monster we are grappling with in
all coloring and fruit handling.
There is hardly any doubt that if
fruit were removed from the trees,
washed, dried and packed by the
most gentle method, with the least
possible handling, it would carry
much longer and would reach the
final consumer with its tree-ripe
flavor intact. Under modern pack-
ing house practices, at best, fruit
stands severe punishment and suffers
in flavor on account of this punish-
ment. The more mature the fruit and
the better its quality the more sus-
ceptible to injury from these beauti-
fying agencies. However, good mer-
chandise seems to make these agencies
necessary and profitable and it is our
concern only to endeavor so far as
possible to prevent by legislation un-
necessary hazards to flavor and carry-
Of the two principal abuses, one
is bad equipment; the other is mis-
handling of good equipment. Within
the last year we have seen a news-
paper account of a packing house
burning down from a fire that was
believed to have originated from the
old fashioned kerosene burners first
used years ago in the degreening proc-
ess. With the greatest of care it is
difficult to get the best results from
such equipment. Scientists are of the
opinion that the very small percent-
age of ethylene in the kerosene fumes
is the agent that does the coloring.
Old fashioned equipment and poor
construction of coloring rooms
lengthen the time that fruit must be
subjected to the coloring process.
This contributes to decay.
Reports have come to us also of
the careless handling of good equip-
ment which lengthens the time neces-
sary for coloring.
The disadvantages resulting from
THE CITRUS GROWER, February 15, 1939
either or both of these sources, that
is, poor equipment and poor han-
dling, are numerous. The greatest
care must be given to be sure that all
of the fruit in a given coloring room
reaches the optimum temperature for
coloring. Inspections have indicated
that where a crop of fruit had been in
the coloring room for as long as
48 hours the bottom fruit had
never yet reached the temperature at
which the degreening process works
best. It is more trouble to have fruit
temperature thermometers at both
the top and the bottom of the room,
consequently the temperature of the
bottom fruit is often neglected.
It is often found that part of a
batch of fruit removed from the
coloring room (the bottom fruit)
has not taken the color as much as
desired. This is picked off the belt
and sent back to the coloring room
for another round of high tempera-
ture, humidity and gas treatment,
all of which are favorable to decay.
In this second round the fruit is even
more difficult to color and the effect
upon it is very bad. It is twice baked.
so to speak.
Fresh Air and Humidity
The most critical time in the
coloring process is during the first
several hours and to the failure to
watch bottom temperatures can be
placed much of the abuse fruit gets
in the coloring process. To correct
this difficulty, of course, better cir-
culation of air must be had.
Humidity also is a serious diffi-
culty in the first several hours of the
process. It is usually too low and
causes wilting of the fruit besides
increasing the number of hours neces-
sary for coloring. On the other hand.
if the humidity is too high the de-
caying process is accelerated. especial-
ly stem end rot.
Poor regulation of fresh air supply
in the coloring rooms, introduction
of excessive amounts of ethylene gas
and numerous other factors hasten
the decaying process. Excessive ethy-
lene gas is particularly favorable to
the development of stem end rot.
In many packing houses the night-
watchman is expected to know the
effect of all these agencies and to
know the great importance of being
careful to see that every detail is ex-
actly right in order that the coloring
process may be completed in as short
a time as possible. The night watch-
man usually has other duties in con-
nection with the care of the coloring
rooms and naturally the fruit suffers
on this account. Proper coloring
practices may involve some added
expense, but such expense could
hardly be seriously compared with
the disastrous effect to the citrus in-
dustry arising from good fruit
spoiled by bad coloring.
In addition to the difficulties met
at the packing house there are many
cultural practices that make coloring
difficult. Fruit grown on lemon
stock and poorly fertilized is said to
give a much greater resistance to
coloring than fruit produced on sour
stock that has had good care. Oil
sprays and some fertilizing methods
are said to cause the fruit to give
great resistance to the degreening
Difficulty Can Be Foreseen
As a usual thing the experienced
grove or packing house man can look
at a crop of fruit and predict with
reasonable accuracy whether or not
it will color readily. For one reason
or another good judgment in these
matters is not always followed. If
the fruit can be forced to color up
after days on end in the coloring
room some operators are so forget-
ful of their own and the interest of
others in the industry as to do it.
The industry is also vexed with
buck passing between the packing
house and the grower. Packing house
operators say the kind of culture the
fruit has had makes it hard to color.
Some very worthwhile suggestions
have come to us, among them a
proposition to set the maximum
number of hours that fruit can re-
main in the coloring room. The
proposition which seems to be in
greatest favor, however, at this time
is to require that a certain percentage
of the fruit is breaking color before
it is permitted to be picked.
Your committee would like sug-
gestions, advice and records of ex-
"erience on these points. As we have
heretofore stated, in all coloring and
handling processes we run into the
problem of decay. The grower is
very much interested in the condition
of the fruit long after it leaves the
auction and jobbers' warehouse be-
cause it is that final customer who
judges its quality.
Our "color added' experience has
not been entirely satisfactory. We
find that some citrus consuming sec-
tions have a definite preference for
"color added" fruit; other sections
object to it seriously: other citrus
producing areas use "color added"
as a talking point to prejudice the
public against it.
The "color added" process a'so
subjects fruit to more heat, further
hastening decay. The "color added"
process is used by the unscrupulous
to turn 2's into I's and turn 3's into
2's, etc.. and in a large section of the
industry we are a long way off from
the proposition that "color added"
should be "a badge of honor" show-
ing that fruit treated by the's process
is of unusually high quality.
A cold "color added" process has
been developed. Some packing houses
are using it. This gets away from the
bad effects of heating. It is not
known how popular this process will
become. It evidently has great ad-
vantages over the hot process. If the
cold process is generally adopted it
may remove many of the thoroughly
justified objections to "color added."
At a recent meeting of the general
legislative committee this question
was again referred to this sub-com-
mittee for more careful study.
The task of our committee is to
design legislation that will give our
good fruit the best possible chance
to carry its delightful flavor all the
way to the breakfast table.
Suggestions from growers calcu-
lated to aid in this respect will be
greatly appreciated by the committee.
TOO MANY GROVES
Mr. V. H. Conner, Editor
Have read all the issues of the "Grower"
from cover to cover, and wish to congratu-
late you on the fine work you are putting
over. It does look as though the growers
of Florida need to get together for better
marketing. Thought this ever since I pur-
chased a grove in Orange County twenty
years ago. The fruit has been marketed be-
fore it has been ripe, growers have been com-
peting with each other trying to sell at
most any pric:, and the market has been
flooded with oranges and the shippers had to
take what was offered.
One point that has not been stressed in
the "Grower" is the fact that too many
groves have been set out in the last few
years, and more will be set out. I think
every person in Florida and every tourist
should be apprised of this fact that no more
groves should be planted. For awhile this
may work to the disadvantage of the real
estate agents but in the long run it is to their
advantage to have the growers prosper.
L. L. Mulcahy
Batavia. N. Y.
FOR GROVE IRRIGATION
FLORIDA PIPE F SUPPLY
630 W. Church St. Orlando, Fla.
Page 6 THE CITRUS GROWER, February 15, 1939
Good Management Essential to---
Economical Production of Fruit
IN ALL OF the large citrus pro-
ducing counties of the State of
Florida can be found practically
all systems of grove practices and
various methods of grove manage-
ment, from the oldest followed forty
years ago to the latest methods now
used by a large number of growers
seeking to lower production costs in
order that they may stay on the
black side of the ledger. Low mar-
ket prices have made this necessary
in a large number of cases.
Having such a varied range in
grove practices on practically all
types of soil, from the heaviest ham-
mock soil to the highest sandy soil.
with trees on all types of root stock.
affords a wonderful opportunity to
make close observation and compare
results. During the writer's ten
years of service as County Agricul-
tural Agent in Lake County, it was
his policy to keep in close touch with
all methods of grove practices being
carried on within the county. Such
close contact during the period of
years brings to light some very in-
teresting comparisons as to results,
condition of groves and yield and
quality of fruit-as well as com-
parative costs. Dry weather condi-
tions from time to time since the fall
of 1934, up to the present drought,
as well as the freeze during the fall
of 1934 and 1938, has afforded a
wonderful opportunity to make
comparisons as to various methods
of grove practices and the effect of
the dry weather and freezes on these
different methods of grove manage-
Rapid Changes in Grove
It is true that during the past six
or seven years there has been a rapid
change in grove practices, more in
some of the citrus counties than in
others. The low market price of
fruit has had a good deal to do to-
wards speeding up this sudden trend
in change of management methods.
It was necessary for such changes
to be made in order for growers to
stay in the business. It is not right
that a man should labor throughout
the entire year and then at the end
Sof the year find nothing for which
By C. R. HIATT,
Chairman, Citrus Culture
to repay him for his labors and to
feed his family, much less keep up
the grove for another year. Con-
tinued credit from year to year will
not save him, for there comes a time
when this credit is shut off. It is a
case of making the dollar count.
No Set Program Can
Practices that may work satisfac-
torily on one grove may not neces-
sarily apply to another----unless con-
ditions are nearly equal. What prac-
tice is to be carried out on one grove
depends upon that individual grove
and the conditions under which the
grower is working, financially and
otherwise. Therefore, grove man-
agement is probably the most im-
portant part in the control of pro-
duction costs, crop and quality of
Good grove management covers a
wide field of activities, and the foun-
dation of economic production is
founded on the old principles of
building up the rough organic mat-
ter on the light sandy soils. The old
pioneers in the citrus industry of
Florida started their groves on good
hammock soil. They knew the
value of rough organic matter. They
were successful growers and grew
fruit economically. Growers now.
where possible, must produce the
cover crop that grows best on his
particular grove, and handle it to
the best advantage from a conserva-
Sane cultural practices are highly
important in the maintenance of
good tree foliage and the production
of the best quality fruit.
Improved fertilizer practice has
proven to be the saving of a large
sum of money to the citrus grower-
not necessarily in the purchase price
of the fertilizer, but in putting the
grove in better condition and main-
taining uniform production.
It is a well known fact that in
order to produce fruit at the lowest
possible cost per box, it is absolutely
necessary to receive, as nearly as pos-
sible, a good uniform production.
Improved fertilizer practices dur-
ing the past few years have shown
us that by proper adjustment of
plant food and supplying the trees
with the proper amount to keep
them in good physical condition
throughout the year, especially be-
fore they go dormant in the fall, it
is possible to produce a more uni-
form crop from year to year. In
order for a grower intelligently to
fertilize his grove, he must study and
understand conditions within his
grove-because what is best for his
grove, would not necessarily be best
for his neighbor's grove-as weather
conditions and climatic conditions
are not identical. He must fertilize
his grove according to the crop set
and climatic conditions if he is to
get the best results from the plant
There are no secrets in the ferti-
lizer problems of today. The main
thing the grower must do is study
his conditions and then supply the
trees with what is most needed. This
is good grove management practice
and is one of the main factors in
the control of production costs. Any
fertilizer program that would have a
tendency to lower the quality of
fruit is false economy. In determin-
ing the fertilizer program at any
given time during the year, there are
several points that the grower must
First: The general physical condi-
tion of the trees.
Second: The condition of the
cover crop and how much cover crop
is being grown.
Third: The type of cultural prac-
tices used in the grove.
Fourth: What is the normal re-
quirement of the trees for a year-
to produce a uniform crop of fruit
and maintain good physical condi-
(Continued on Page 12)
THE CITRUS GROWER, February 15, 1939
Florida Gower Seldom Eat SeedOcs Grefru lt
\PP^ : 'sss sU .... h. .'... -::. .. : ''.,\
Another Job In Work
The folder and display unit illus-
trated above form a part of the
Exchange campaign on seed grape-
fruit. They are included in dem-
onstrations made in the larger re-
tail outlets by women especially
trained for that purpose. Also,
they are distributed in the boxes of
seed grapefruit as they are packed.
Thousands of the folders are being
dropped in the bag containing the
housewife's purchases at the cash-
ier's desk of hundreds of retail
This promotion work is just a
part of the service rendered by the
greatest sales organization available
to Florida citrus growers for the
least sales charge-5c per box on
grapefruit; 9c, on oranges and
Approximately 65% of all Florida grapefruit are of the seed va-
rieties. Seedless from Texas is pushing this part of our citrus in-
dustry right off the fresh fruit marketing map. Today the only fu-
ture for seed grapefruit seems to be the can-and at canners' prices.
Obviously, something must be done about it. And the Florida
Citrus Exchange is doing it!
The advertising and promotion of seed grapefruit as such properly
is an industry job. It should be supported by funds drawn from
the industry for the promotion of the grapefruit which pays the
bill. The facts uncovered by aggressive experimental work con-
ducted by the Exchange may serve as a suggestion of what can be
done and how.
A preliminary analysis of those facts is interesting. The Exchange
has found the trade disinterested-willing to carry only the fruit
which meets least resistance from the consumer. And the consumer,
other things being equal, inclines to seedless grapefruit.
These facts, also, the Exchange uncovered. Things are not equal in
the case between seed and seedless. Seed grapefruit are demon-
strably richer in minerals, vitamins, flavor. When brought to the at-
tention of the consumer with even modest force, consumer prefer-
ence may be swung-and fixed-on seed grapefruit.
Th Exchange has done it in one market-is doing it in others--
where practically no Florida seed grapefruit has been consumed in
several seasons except from cans.
Florida seed grapefruit can be promoted to its proper status as a
premium fruit-and without harming the seedless market!
110 OAK AVENUE
Page 8 THE CITRUS GROWER, February 15, 1939
Conditions Force Growers to Effect---
Economies in Grove Management
ALL OUTLOOK information in-
dicates that citrus production in
the United States, already so
high that it is difficult for growers to
find profitable markets for all fruit,
will continue to rise. Consequently.
efficient and economical production
will be necessary if many growers
continue to realize a return on their
investments. The old saying that
there is more in the man than in the
land applies in the production of cit-
rus fruits in Florida. Regardless of
the natural fertility of soil, climate,
and other favorable factors in the
production of citrus, unless utilized
to the best advantage by growers
through profitable management prac-
tices in keeping with economic con-
ditions, little or no returns may be
realized during a low price level
Profits Once Easier
When the net returns per box were
two dollars and better, growers had
little difficulty in showing a return
or profit on their groves, regardless
of management practices. However,
in recent years with declining prices
as the result of larger crops the situ-
ation has changed. Groves having
comparatively better natural advan-
tages, with efficient and economical
production practices employed, and
obtaining average returns or better
per box, may still be able to earn a
fair rate of interest on their invest-
Generally speaking, a grove hav-
ing comparatively less natural ad-
vantages than the average may be
classified as marginal. Many of the
marginal citrus groves in Florida
have competed in recent years in
spite of natural disadvantages because
of more efficient and economical pro-
duction by some grove operators.
Although, after maximum efficiency
is acquired, according to all known
economical and profitable practices,
and cost of production becomes
greater per box than the price of
fruit, the marginal groves will un-
doubtedly be at a disadvantage.
Many of the so-called marginal
groves might be classified as sub-
marginal during a relatively low
price period, as far as returns or prof-
its are concerned.
By R. H. HOWARD,
Assistant Economist in Farm Man-
agement. Agricultural Extension
Received B. S. A. degree. College of
Agriculture, University of Florida in 1928.
and M. S. A. in 1930. Majored in Agri-
cultural Economics. Also attended summer
schools at the University of California and
Cornell University. Taught Agricultural
Economics subjects in the college of Agri-
culture. University of Florida from 1929
to 1933. Appointed Assistant Farm Man-
agement Specialist in the Agricultural Ex-
tension Service in 1933, at which time the
study of grove management, based upon
growers' records, became part of his work.
Since appointment, has written and pub-
lished numerous articles, prepared several
mimeographed reports and one bulletin.
"Florida Citrus Costs and Returns."
Florida citrus growers probably
face greater losses in the crop being
marketed at this time than in any
since the 1934 freeze and possibly
since the 1894-95 freeze, unless
market demand and price materially
improve. However, the losses during
the former periods were due to lack
of marketable fruit, while the present
crisis is the result of supply and de-
mand. With uncertainty as to what
the future price of citrus fruit will
be, the grower may well give serious
thought to possible further econo-
mies in production.
Grove records have been studied
and summarized by the State Agri-
cultural Extension Service since
1930. These studies have pointed to
practices which were most profitable,
as well as those which gave poorest
returns. The following suggestions
are based on this study.
Disregarding efficient or inefficient
practices from the 1930-31 through
1935-36 crop years, the groves that
received the best care, as measured by
amount of money spent, showed the
greatest net returns per acre. How-
ever, the average price of citrus fruits
during this period probably was
more than double the average received
for fruits marketed thus far this sea-
son. With this large percentage re-
duction in prices received and the
present average being less than total
cost of production, the greater the
amount spent for care in the produc-
tion of this crop the greater the losses
will be for many marginal groves.
Due to variations in natural advan-
tages, time of marketing, yield, costs
incurred for care, and price received.
the fruit returns from many groves
will doubtless exceed cash cost of
production. However, indications
are that comparatively few groves
will show any return on the invest-
ment during the past two years unless
present fruit prices materially im-
prove. Should prices remain relative-
ly low for several years, many sub-
marginal and unprofitable groves
will likely be neglected.
Obviously many growers will seek
every means of reducing cost of pro-
duction in an attempt to cope with
the situation. With this in view, let
us see how and where growers might
economize in the care of groves dur-
ing a low price level, according to
the results of our grove records.
First, the largest single item of cost
in growing citrus on the sandy soils
is fertilizer, which affects yield more
THE CITRUS GROWER, February 15, 1939
than any other item of cultural care.
However, the price of fruit in a large
measure determines the extent to
which additional pounds of fertilizer
Apparently many growers will
have to cut costs with present prices
of fruit, and fertilizer should prob-
ably be no exception. The average
cost of fertilizer since 1930-31
through 1936-37 was 17.7 cents per
box of fruit marketed. As greater
yields per acre or per tree were ob-
tained, the cost for fertilizer per box
was reduced. A reduction in fertilizer
cost may be effected in several ways.
according to the growers' record.
First, a reduction in the pounds of
plant food: second, through the use
of higher analysis fertilizers which
cost less per pound of plant food:
third, a temporary change in the
ratio of nitrogen to phosphoric acid
and potash used. However, a major
reduction in fertilization will reduce
According to a study of plant
food, the amount of nitrogen stimu-
lates greater fruit production than
either phosphoric acid or potash.
This might suggest that if a tempo-
rary reduction in cost of fertilizer
must be made. smaller amounts of
phosphoric acid or potash would
probably be economically justifiable
if a complete and balanced fertiliza-
tion program has been followed
previously. By maintaining the
nitrogen plant food, yield of fruit
can be fairly well maintained for the
immediate future (but not perma-
nently) if no apparent deficiencies
During the crop years 1931-32
and 1932-33. when prices of fruit
were comparatively low and the
average grove failed to show a net
return for those crops, many growers
in Lake County resorted to such a
program as outlined above. The fol-
lowing years, according to the
records, net returns for the groves in
Lake County were higher than the
average of all other groves in interior
part of state.** This method of
economizing in fertilization helped
*Florida Citrus Costs and Returns, mis-
cellaneous publication 26, issued July, 1938.
Some factors affecting citrus costs, yields.
and returns, Citrus AE6-Supplement. is-
sued August 30, 1937.
**Statistical Summary of Costs and Re-
turns for Lake County Citrus Groves and
Miscellaneous Information. Crop Years
1930-31 to 1935-36, issued January 1.
many growers to maintain the trees.
which should be of first consideration
during an unprofitable year. A grove
consisting of full bearing trees repre-
sents years of care and expense, and
severe set-back in its productiveness
may result from neglect. However.
if a grove is so situated as to have
comparative natural advantages over
most groves and the owner is finan-
cially able, he would probably be
justified in following the normal
fertilization program including the
maintenance of some of the so-called
soil amendments, recommended by
the Agricultural Experiment Station
at Lake Alfred.
Second. in the most recent analysis
of factors affecting returns from a
citrus grove in Florida, irrigation
was found to be second in impor-
tance by increasing returns through
increased yields. However, the re-
turns from the additional expendi-
ture for irrigating groves also de-
pends largely on the price of fruit.
Adequate water for profitable citrus
production at an average price of
$1.02 per box for oranges and $0.52
per box for grapefruit (simple aver-
age from 1930-31 through 1936-
37 marketing seasons) paid large
dividends for the expenditure. At
present prices of both fruits. the ex-
FROM BELL TO BELL
T O SECURE quick action, readily-
available plant food is used in citrus
Due todelayed applicationof the suim-
iner fertilizer, spring top-dressers must
frequently continue to supply plant
food to the trees and to the developing
fruit "from bell to bell." Be-
cause of its unusual proper-
ties, UREA, a water-soluble
organic form of nitrogen, furnishes ni-
trogen to meet these requirements. It
goes to work quickly and keeps working.
See that considerable Urea Nitrogen
is used in your spring top-dresser. Where
nitrogen only is used as a top-dresser,
"I'HRAMON" or a "URAMON"-dolomite
mixture will give excellent
results. Consult your ferti-
lizer manufacturer or writes.
Urea-Ammonia Liquor (20o% Urea Nitrogen-25% Ammonia Nirrogen)
"Uramon" Fertilizer Compound (42% 1 rea Nitrogen)
Reg. U. S. 'at. Off.
E. I. DU PONT DE NEMOURS & CO., INC.
Ammonia Department Wilmington, Delaware Orlando, Florida
THE CITRUS GROWER, February 15, 1939
pense necessary to irrigate may not
be justifiable unless severe drouth
occurs. Then this care may be given
more for the sake of the trees than
for immediate fruit production.
Third, according to a study of the
influence of cultivation upon grove
yields and returns, it was revealed
that little or no immediate benefit
results from the expenditure. Al-
though, over a period of years some
cultivation may be justifiable. In
view of the outlook for the citrus
industry, indications are that many
growers might well reduce the ex-
pense for cultivation to a minimum.
By using rotary cutters for disposing
of cover crops in the summer and
fall, most growers can very profit-
ably get by with only one cultivation
in the spring, principally for pre-
paring seedbeds for cover crops. If
the rotary cutter fails to dispose of
the cover crop sufficiently to keep it
from being a fire hazard, disking or
plowing with three-bottom plows
may be necessary. Disking instead of
plowing in the spring will also re-
duce the cost of this operation. Indi-
cations are that cultivating groves
during a drouth period on many of
the sandy soils in the central part of
the state, does not materially con-
serve moisture, so this operation may
well be curtailed.
The expense of hoeing bearing
trees may also be dispensed with in
order to reduce cost of production.
It is uneconomical to hoe bearing
trees, with the modern and efficient
machinery available for tilling and
disposing of cover crops. Indications
are that hoeing bearing trees increases
the cost of production with no in-
crease in yield of fruit.
Fourth, the expense of insect and
disease control measures could prob-
ably be reduced some by close in-
spection and either spraying or
dusting at the opportune time before
serious damage occurs. Present prices
for number one bright fruits do not
justify the necessary expense to ob-
tain a high percent of this grade.
The scale-insects, most of which prey
upon parts of the tree, may cause
considerable damage and future pro-
ductiveness may be materially re-
duced if a heavy infestation is
allowed to develop. The control of
scale insects probably should be given
first consideration during a low price
period, in order to maintain a fairly
healthy tree that can produce a fair
crop at such times as economic con-
ditions may seem to justify stimula-
tion of immediate fruit production.
If citrus trees are neglected by lack
of fertilization and insect control,
it will take several years of addition-
al care and expense to obtain profit-
able yields. Then too, should a grade
and size marketing agreement go into
effect, any reduction in pest control
will likely be reflected in the percent-
age of number one and two fruit
Fifth, considerable dead wood
should probably be present before a
great amount of expense is incurred
for pruning, at the present prices of
fruit. If a fair amount of nitrogenous
fertilizer is used, together with
partial control of tree insects, the
necessary pruning expense could be
reduced to a minimum, unless trees
are injured by cold.
Another important phase of grove
management is that of purchasing
materials. The extent of purchasing
power is closely associated with the
volume of business. Considerable
saving in the cost of materials may
be made by several small growers.
who are not members of a local co-
operative production association,
buying necessary materials coopera-
tively. The amount saved in buying
large quantities cooperatively may
mean the difference between a minus
and a plus return from a grove.
Stick to Standards
Doubtless many new materials
and grove practices will be offered
which seemingly will perform mir-
acles in lowering cost of production.
producing earlier fruit, greater yields.
better quality, and the like. Such
materials and practices often fail to
give the results for which they are
intended. According to the records.
many of these new things increase
cost and decrease net returns pro-
portionately. It would seem wise for
the average grower to try these new
materials or practices only in a small
way, if at all, until they have been
proven of economic value by the
Agricultural Experiment Station or
other research agencies.
"FRUIT PRICES vs. THE GROWER"
We, the Rocking Chair Growers. accus-
tomed to the buyers bidding on our fruit on
the trees and bringing us the cash, or leaving
it to be handled by the shipper, "do not
understand" what has happened while we
slept on the piazza, although we had read
the newspapers continually driving it into
the minds of the grower and the consuming
people up north: a "tremendous crop." 55
million boxes from Florida alone to flood
the markets this year. Are we really surprised
that the buyers up north are cautious in
buying? The shippers slipped us the finish-
ing touch, advocating shipping green fruit.
camouflaged with "color added," a fruit we
would not eat ourselves. Now that the
growers woke up the shippers still are our
blessed friends with practical advice to
remedy future business and so dear grower
just scrap your third grade.
Two years hence we can scrap the second
It is about time we quit selling fruit by
auction, establish real sales distributing
agencies that will cover small as well as
large cities at f. o. b. reasonable prices, and
strictly tree-ripened fruit, no color added.
We will then be able to sell all the fruit we
can grow for years to come, with a union
label on every box.
J. M. Enholdt.
Practical and Economical
Give your grove a chance to produce a crop at a cost per box that
will make you money. Now is the time to prepare for the coming
crop and improve the quality as well as quantity.
CHAMPION & MADEWELL
PORTABLE PIPE IN STOCK
DEMING PORTABLE PUMP OUTFITS
ready for immediate delivery
Farm & Home Machinery Company
Orlando, Florida Phone 5791
THE CITRUS GROWER, February 15, 1939
Growers Should Always Keep in Mind---
In Membership is Our Strength
By D. C. WILLIAMS
THE GROWER organization has
received high praise for accom-
plishing so much in so short a
time. It has done this without heavy
financing, which was a part of some
past efforts in the citrus industry
that did not accomplish so much.
The one reason for these accomplish-
ments is that this organization has
had such broad membership and
that membership has been loyal and
intent on accomplishing the tasks
put before it. We need greater mem-
bership. We need an organization
the word of which will be recognized
as the collective word of all the
There are several ways of getting
this membership. The best of which
probably is for each member to
recognize his obligation to himself
and his neighbor grower and go
down and ask his neighbor grower
to join. I hope every member will
make it a point to do this today.
Need Friendly Assistance
Another way of accomplishing
this is to use friendly assistance
whenever you can get it. One good
place to look for these friends is
among newspaper editors and pub-
lishers in your community. Months
ago. for instance, when this organi-
zation was in its infancy and we
were stirring up interest on the Pi-
nellas Peninsula we found several
good newspaper friends to help us
out. We are quoting herewith a good
boost given us in the form of an open
letter from Colonel Clearwater, in
the Clearwater Sun.
"To D. C. Williams, Cocoa, now
organizing the Pinellas county unit
of the Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
"You are hoping for a member-
ship of at least fifty percent of the
state's 16.000 citrus growers, with
units in the twenty-one leading cit-
rus counties. Only growers are eligi-
In this and future issues of the magazine
we hope to make the grower members ac-
quainted with the numerous other grower
members who have done the prodigious
amount of drudgery of which the sum to-
tal is the young, thriving Florida Citrus
Growers, Inc. The accompanying article
was written by D. C. Williams (photo-
graph above) who covered many counties
in the early days of this movement and gave
assistance in county unit organization.
Mr. Williams was born in Kentucky
(April 7, 1868. he confided to us). In 1891
he was appointed agent for the Prudential
Lifz Insurance Company at Henderson, Ky.,
and in 1902 became district superintendent
for that company at Vincennes, Ind.. a
larger district, and from there to Evans-
ville. a still larger district.
In the Fall of 1914 while on a vacation
in Florida, he bought land on Merritt Is-
land. As a result the "Prudential Citrus
Groves" were planted by his son, Leslie
Dodd Williams. graduate in citrus produc-
tion from the State University at Gaines-
ville. Florida. 1922.
After 35 years' service with his company.
Mr. Williams retired and moved with hi-
family to Florida in 1926, his permanent
While attending a citrus meeting in Or-
lando. May 1938, where a county unit was
formed. Mr. Williams at once sensed the im-
portance of this move and became active in
forming units as state organizer for the
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., having organ-
ized several counties in the citrus belt.
Mr. Williams is a Mason, also a mem-
ber of Lake Worth Consistory, a York R;te
Mason, and a Shriner. He was an elder in the
Christian Church in Evansville, Indiana,
and at present is an elder in the Presbyterian
Church in Rockledge. Florida.
ble to membership. Your aim is an
organization 'with no axes to grind,
nobody to punish, nothing to do but
to work for the interest of growers
"Although the organization work
did not begin until July 6, thirteen
units have been formed. The move-
ment has been characterized by har-
mony. Disharmony is the rock on
which many meritorious citrus
movements have split in the past.
Must Have Harmony
"The success of the Florida Cit-
rus Growers. Inc.. depends upon
whether the concord which has
marked the organization steps will
continue after organization has been
completed. You are wise in not aim-
ing at a particular purpose. You hope
to become the voice of the grower
interest, prepared to speak on all
questions that may arise, whether it
be a marketing agreement, state cit-
Be Sure to Attend
2nd Largest Fair
Feb. 27 thru March 4
THE CITRUS GROWER, February 15, 1939
rus legislation or a standard contract
for the sale of your fruit.
"You are wise also in vesting final
power in the county units. Your by-
laws provide that on any important
question the majority of the units
can call for a referendum of grower
"This is the first time that a state-
wide grower organization has ad-
vanced to the present stage. Make
your organization complete, preserve
the harmony which now exists,
choose able leaders-and you will
certainly become a profound in-
fluence in the industry.
We are not sure, of course, but we
have our suspicions that this very
affable and helpful gentleman going
under the nom-de-plume of Colonel
Clearwater is none other than our
good friend, Mr. Victor Morgan.
proprietor and editor of that publi-
We also received valuable assist-
ance from Mr. Arch Dunlap, of the
St. Petersburg Evening Independent,
and Mr. Tom Harris. of the St.
Petersburg Times. To the help that
these gentlemen gave our organiza-
Lion we attribute much of the suc-
cess that has been realized in the Pi-
This kind of publicity created fa-
vorable soil in which such pioneers
in the Pinellas organization as S. A.
Whitesell, J. A. Barnes, C. E. Jack-
son, Jr., A. J. Grant, John H Logan,
Stephen Chase and B. L. McMullen
Of course, all of us realize the
value of publicity and we believe one
of the best things that can be done
is to lose no opportunity to use these
gentlemen of the press who are so
willing to help us.
Definite plans for increasing mem-
bership are under way and will be
announced soon. We have raised our
sights since we got out of our swad-
dling clothes and were talking to
Colonel Clearwater. We are not
looking for "at least 50% of the
state's 16.000 growers." We are
hoping that every grower will come
into our organization who is quali-
fied for membership.
Florida's state owned Farmer's
Markets are playing an important
part in helping farmers and growers
of the state find a profitable outlet
for their produce.
(Continued from Page 6)
Fifth: What are the climatic con-
The time is growing near when
growers will start making plans for
their spring fertilizer program. Some
fertilized last fall and some did not.
Weather conditions throughout the
citrus belt are dry, and the question
now that the grower must keep in
mind is-what fertilizer can he use
at this time of the year to give him
the best results and rebuild the vi-
tality of the trees as quickly as pos-
The Citrus Culture Committee of
the Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.,
plan to have a series of articles pub-
lished in each issue of "The Citrus
Grower." These articles to be pre-
pared by recognized authorities and
published at the time of the year
when they will be of most value to
the growers in their production
problems. The writer hopes that
growers throughout the state will
find them of value and assist them
in solving grove problems.
Let us not overlook the fact that
rapid changes are taking place in
grove methods and a good grove
manager should keep posted on these
changes and let us also keep in mind
the fact that good grove management
is the keynote to a grower's success
in economical fruit production.
By paying cash for fertilizer,
spray materials, etc.
By borrowing from a grow-
ers' cooperative organization
-operated by and for the
growers who use it;
By paying interest only for
the time you have actual use
of the money;
By repaying your loan when
you sell your crop.
We will be glad to serve you.
Write us for further details.
Florida Citrus Production
P. O. Box 1592 Orlando, Fla.
WE MAKE LOANS TO CITRUS
gai "'"lnl'in Mlilllllll ii m n ri Mnlll! ll f lll llllll i n ll ll lllll llllll illlal l m l u m l l lnlll l ]o c l wi aIIIIIII ll fll IIII 1ill l llI llllli H I II lli I li ll!
Lake Wales, Florida
Our business is built on satisfactory results to GROWERS.
Lower fertilizer cost and less total production cost with increased
production and improved quality and grade,
Better Condition Of Trees.
We have no fertilizer or fertilizer materials for sale-result--you
spend your money for necessary plant-food elements ONLY.
Let us show you groves in excellent condition although the aver-
age cost of fertilizer applied during the last five years has been less
than $15.00 per acre per year.
For a profit of 100% each year,
KEENAN SOIL SERVICE
lil l 11111111 IIIIIIIInIIII III l uII I II IIIII Iu n iI I1111111i i i IIIIIun111 l11i91I1 H i l ulll l il I HII niItll HilU l IIIIIIIIIIIII ll I III II I ti lll i Ii I Il[ttll Inf111iu i M iI fi l i I I I I
THE CITRUS GROWER, February 15, 1939
Famous Dummitt Grove
By MISS MARGUERITE DRENNEN
If you cross the bridge at Titusville and continue
four miles east, then two miles north over the Haulover
Canal on North Merritt Island, you will arrive at the
celebrated Dummitt Grove-oldest grove in the Amer-
icas and the birthplace of the Indian River orange. On
high ground, a mile and a half south of the Old Haul-
over Canal (two and a half miles south of the new
canal), extending from the Indian River on the west
to the Ponce de Leon Inlet (also known as Mosquito
Lagoon and Indian River north) on the east. the
grove is especially well protected from the cold, having
tidal waters on all sides. Its location, its soil of co-
quina shell with underlying red clay, and the method
of budding the original trees so that the bud-union
occurs more than three feet above the ground, probably
explain the survival of these hundred and ten year-
old veterans through the freezes of 1835 and 1895.
For it is claimed that all other sweet oranges were
killed in 1835 on the east coast and the entire state.
Seed and budwood from the Dummitt trees made pos-
sible the re-establishment of sweet orange culture in
Florida after the freeze.
Dummitt Grove takes its name from its founder-
Capt. Douglas D. Dummitt, an Englishman, born in
the Barbadoes in 1784. He came to Florida at the
time of the British Abolition Act of 1807 when his
father. Colonel Thomas Dummitt (formerly from
Tottenham. England). loaded his slaves into his three
cargo sailing-ships and abandoned his sugar plantation
on the Barbadoes, over night, rather than submit to
the law. It was while the new home-seekers were
sailing up the Florida coast opposite what is now North
Merritt Island that "the sweet perfume of orange blos-
soms was borne to them across the waters"-and young
Douglas vowed then and there some day to seek out
those orange trees. The Dummitt ships landed near
New Smyrna where the family settled-later spread-
ing out their plantings to the west and north, plying
their cargo-ships laden with sugar, indigo, rice and
tobacco between New Smyrna and St. Augustine.
Douglas was a young man of twenty-three when he
made a dugout canoe carved from a single cypress and
having a prow of copper, and ventured southward to
search out those orange trees. He found them to be
sour seedlings which he believed had been planted for
decorative purposes in the days of Spanish occupation,
for the early Spaniards did not know that oranges
were good to eat.
Eventually he settled on the site of what later came
to be known as the Dummitt Grove. and began the
careful and scientific propagation of a rare and perfect
variety of orange-known to the early trade as "Dum-
mitts," later called "Indian Rivers."
The exact date of the planting of this grove is not
known except that it was a few years prior to 1832.
In a historical sketch printed in the "Proceedings of
the Florida State Horticultural Society. 1926," C. A.
Bass writes: "Andrew Jackson, an old darkey who
came to Florida from Savannah, Georgia. in 1866.
and worked for Captain Dummitt, states that his was
an old grove at the time and that the trees were then
about twenty-five feet high and the tips of the branches
almost met in the middle of the rows. The trees in the
(Continued on Page 19)
The High-Ball may flush your
cheeks and give you color. May even
pep you up for a moment; but you
can't live on it. It doesn't enrich
the blood stream. You want food.
Food that makes rich blood. Food
that makes for lasting vim and vigor.
So with your trees. A stimulant
may flush a green color. For a mo-
ment they may appear to be gay. But
they, too, want food. Real whole-
some food. Natural food.
The Bacterialized Plant Food
is about the richest plant food
known to science. It is Nature's
own handiwork. It is the kind of
food trees are hungry for and thrive
on. The kind of food they need, to
make rich, wholesome, slow to rot,
fruit with. The kind of food that
will stop the drain on your capital
account, and make your grove profit-
Booklet tells more about it.
SOUTH ATLANTIC REDUCTION
138 N. Orange Ave.
Page 14 THE CITRUS GROWER, February 15, 1939
Auction Head Asks the Shippers---
Is Your Brand Merely A Label?
rTO MANY GROWERS and
Shippers this title question may
sound foolish but if they could
step into our shoes occasionally and
see how fruit looks in metropolitan
markets from four to ten days after
it has been shipped; see the miscel-
laneous line up of brands and realize
just how much they vary in appear-
ance, the question would not seem
out of place.
Many fortunes have been built on
brand names but the name alone was
only a word or phrase which in itself
Norman C. Ives, President,
American Fruit b Produce
Auction Association, Inc.
had no monetary value. The sub-
stance which created the fortune was
an outstanding product backed by
the ability and intention to give the
public exactly what the brand called
for and a bit more if need be. Con-
sumer satisfaction is no mere catch
phrase but a definite force which is
responsive to good treatment and
The thought I have in mind is
well illustrated in an article which
appeared in the December 1938 Blue
Anchor, official publication of the
California Fruit Exchange. Mr. F.
W. Read, Manager of Standardiza-
tion and Advertising for the Ex-
AT THE AUCTIONS-Upper left, Philadelphia; Upper right, Detroit; Center, Philadelphia; Lower left, Boston; Lower right, St. Louis.
THE CITRUS GROWER, February 15, 1939
change made the following statement
of conditions found in New York
on a recent visit there. This is di-
rectly quoted from the Blue Anchor.
"If one walks up and down
the grape displays and merely
listens to the buyer's comments
as they inspect the offerings, it
is a liberal education. They are
swift to detect light packs or
ones that are not uniform in
weight. Soft and override fruit
is as quickly noted. Color, size
of bunch, berry, condition and
all get their share of attention.
It is remarkable how much they
know about each shipper. One
buyer remarked this morning.
'Here's a shipper who has made
a reputation for high quality
ribiers-why does he put those
poor, straggly emperors under
the same brand?' "
That Mr. Read went on to tell
how a car of fancy grapes had sold
that very day for $2.50 per lug
against other brands selling from
$1.55 to $1.95 emphasizes his reali-
zation that at auction quality mer-
chandise is recognized and in de-
mand. The main point which I de-
sire to stress is involved in the
question which the buyer asked.
That question might also apply to
oranges, grapefruit and tangerines.
While there are outstanding packs
and outstanding quality in all com-
modities, brand reputation can easily
be broken down if extreme care is
Growers and shippers sometimes
fail to realize just how much good is
done for them by jobbers and retail-
ers alike. When a brand becomes
known for its merit, each handler
passes the word along to his trade.
Each firm becomes a salesman and
advertising man for that brand.
Competition is stimulated, move-
ment to the ultimate consumer is
quickened and better prices are pos-
Best Try for Better
It is refreshing when visitors
representing well known producers
come to see u;. They ask all manner
of questions; get reactions from the
auction buyers; go into jobbing
stores to ask more quest-ons from
store men and learn to see their own
merchandise through the eyes of the
auction trade in order to improve
their quality and pack to the utmost.
To these producers brands are not
mere labels. They know the value of
brand reputation. Through consum-
What Others Say
"When two seasons of below-cost
citrus prices occur in succession, the
result means disaster for the entire
"The disaster would be irrepara-
ble, were it not for certain compen-
sations that serve in a measure to
balance the loss.
"The greatest compensation we
have already reaped from the pre-
vailing period of hardship is the fact
that the citrus growers are uniting in
one Grower Organization, are mak-
ing an intensive study of all the
problems of the industry, and will
unquestionably reach intelligent so-
lutions to the fundamental difficul-
ties in the Florida citrus industry."
-C. C. Commander, in Citrus.
"Outstanding is proof of the value
of cooperation and unified action. In
bringing this program (Grapefruit
cost-of-production program. Ed.)
to a speedy consummation, Florida
Citrus Growers, Inc., has played an
important role. Efficiency of their
organization made it possible, when
a general meeting of Florida grape-
fruit growers was called early in
January, to bring a record crowd of
producers together. Circulation of a
er satisfaction and buyer cooperation,
they earnestly strive for better re-
sults. How we wish all producers
could and would see their own packs
as the intermediate and retail trade
sees their fruit as it is displayed for
sale to the ultimate consumer.
petition was found necessary in se-
curing the governor's approval for
the state agricultural commissioner
to call an emergency invoking a 'for-
gotten' citrus law which permits
setting a minimum fruit price to
guarantee producers at least cost. The
grower organization came to the
fore, its close affiliation providing
means by which petitions represent-
ing more than 200,000 of the state's
314.000 citrus acres were secured in
the record time of but a few days.
Means of Action
"Coming almost at the same time,
n'ws that the federal department of
agriculture approves a grade and size
marketing agreement for Florida, in
formation of which the grower or-
ganization played a key part, should
supply skeptics final proof of this
"Both these items of 'big' news
in the fruit industry point to another
beneficial condition. For they mark
a situation in which all branches of
the industry- producer, packer,
shipper, merchandiser, and canner-
are in closer accord than for many
years in citrus history. If, through
this emergency, the industry as a
whole can learn the value of cooper-
ation and find common grounds for
future action, the losses sure to be
suffered by some will be justified.
California's citrus industry is based
on and owes its success to complete
cooperation-made necessary by
definite emergencies which had to be
met before the industry could devel-
op."--Editorial, February Florida
We are vitally interested in citrus growers receiving a
fair return for their fruit. This company and its officers own
groves producing over 100,000 boxes annually.
The proposed marketing agreement containing possible
grade and size restrictions of shipment is a step in the right
direction. At least it will give us an agreement-a founda-
tion to work from. But we believe that for the growers to
again be prosperous we must have a marketing agreement
carrying VOLUME pro-rate privileges for shipments out of
H. E. CORNELL, President
Glen Saint Mary Nurseries Co.
56 E. Pine St.
1st Natl. Bank Bldg.
THE CITRUS GROWER, February 15, 1939
A recent meeting of the members
of the DeSoto county unit of Citrus
Growers, Inc., was well attended and
there were some interesting discus-
sions of matters of general interest.
Chief of these, of course, were
the proposed marketing agreement,
which was to be voted on by the
growers the following Tuesday, and
the effort of the state, under a 1935
law, to peg the price of grapefruit at
32 cents a box.
As for the marketing agreement,
there seemed to be a unit of feeling
that it was not as extensive in its
operations as had been hoped for,
but was something in the right di-
rection and deserved the support of
the growers. As an expression of
sentiment the assembly voted unan-
imously in favor of the agreement.
Explanations were made as to the
places of voting in the county, there
being two polling places-one at
Fort Ogden and the other at the
city hall in Arcadia.
As to the 32c per box minimum
price of grapefruit the fact was
stressed that this is to be the price on
the tree, and that the grower was to
receive 32c net per box for the fruit.
In response to a question it was
brought out that the grower could
not be punished for selling his crop
for less than the minimum price, but
that the buyer could. It was also
stated that both the buyer and the
seller would be equally guilty in the
effort to break down the price.
Not Entirely to Blame
In opening the meeting, President
T. M. Johns took occasion to deny
the oft-repeated statement that the
trouble with the citrus business was
all the fault of the grower, and that
it was entirely up to the grower to
find a solution to the troubles. He
pointed out that the producer of no
product of the land has ever been
able to control the selling price. This,
he declared, is invariably fixed at the
point of consumption. Mr. Johns
admitted there were many things
the grower could do to help condi-
tions, but said he could not do it all.
In making reports for standing
committees, Roy Buchan said the
sale-by-weight committee had no re-
port to make on recent activities, but
reiterated his belief that weight was
the only way to dispose of the fruit
and that it provided the only real
test of quality.
Hugh G. Jones, a member of the
state legislative committee, read to
the meeting a resolution he had
drawn up for submission to the com-
mittee, seeking to block the shipment
of green fruit in the early season.
He said the committee had a number
of legislative matters in preparation
but not yet ready to present to the
Look to Growers
In this connection President Johns
said the legislature was looking to
Citrus Growers, Inc., to outline a
program for helpful legislation for
the citrus industry.
There was considerable discussion
as to whether the grower was going
to be able to sell his grapefruit at the
pegged price, but it seemed to be uni-
versally agreed that this was the only
hope of getting any profit out of it.
Joe Burtscher, who has kept up with
the course of events very closely,
declared it was better to sell only a
part of the crop at a fair margin of
profit than to dispose of all of it at
a loss. Stating a concrete example,
President Johns said it would be bet-
ter to sell 100 boxes for $32 than to
sell 300 boxes for the same amount.
Explaining some of the details of
the election, at which the growers
were to express their stand for or
against the marketing agreement,
County Agent Ed H. Vance urged
DeSoto County Growers Meet
all to vote, whatever their stand
might be. Washington officials, he
declared, should be given to under-
stand that the growers were inter-
ested in what was being done on
their behalf, and that a big vote
would be the best means of demon-
strating this fact. He said there were
about 385 growers in DeSoto coun-
ty, according to records in his office.
Mr. Vance explained that 67 per-
cent of the growers, or the same per-
centage of the tonnage, is required
to make the marketing agreement
effective, and 50 percent of the ship-
Need Best Men
In closing the meeting President
Johns expressed the belief that the
growers would vote overwhelmingly
for the agreement, in the hope that
it may later be amended so as to pro-
vide volume control. While the
agreement as it was being submitted
goes only a small part of the way,
he said, it was in the right direction
and might be extended in coming
years. Mr. Johns declared that the
real test was coming in the enforce-
ment of the agreement, and expressed
a hope that the industry might select
its very best talent for membership
on the board of eight to whom this
task is to be entrusted. "These eight
men will certainly be under fire,"
The president stated that owing
to conflict with other accepted cor-
porate names it would be necessary
for this unit to make a change in
its official name. This matter was by
vote left to the board of directors.
If Your Trees Are Hungry
(NITRATE NITROGEN PLUS WATER-SOLUBLE
for immediate Results
JACKSON GRAIN CO.
THE CITRUS GROWER, February 15, 1939
Ninety-six percent can reasonably be termed an over-
whelming majority. This is the percentage of growers
who are reported from Washington to have voted for
the proposed grade and size marketing agreement.
In this publication we have expressed some misgiv-
ings to the effect that grade and size proration will not
accomplish the results we feel sure would come from
Yet with this sort of grower support a marketing
agreement with some very evident weak spots is cer-
tain to be a greater success than the best of marketing
agreements without this kind of cooperation.
We feel sure that growers can obtain much benefit
from the grade and size marketing agreement properly
administered. We believe that this is a basis on which
can be built a structure for a better rounded program.
It will help us more clearly to see the necessity for an
agreement such as was drawn and proposed by the
marketing agreement committee of this organization
and which the Department of Agriculture did not con-
sider applicable to the Florida situation at this time.
Careful thought must be given to selection of the
men who will administer this agreement. This will be
the No. 1 matter of concern to the growers as soon as
an election is called to select these men. As we go to
press (Saturday) we expect the election to be announced
at any time.
Hope for Best
As we have said, the agreement will most likely not
have the effect of raising prices. It has other weaknesses
and loopholes that will permit abuse of the growers'
interest. We expect to discuss these more fully in future
But we are sure we can expect most earnest and care-
ful cooperation in the enforcement of this agreement
from the officials of the United States Department of
Agriculture because it is their program. And, with the
evident intention of almost unanimous grower cooper-
ation we feel very happy to state that we have the best
of prospects to make the most out of a situation that
is not altogether as we would prefer to have it.
County organization presidents are asked to turn
to page 16 of this issue and see the splendid report of
recent events in DeSoto County, This report was
prepared by Mr. Nate E. Reece, Sr., editor and pub-
lisher of The Arcadian. Mr. Reece advises us he sends
the report at the request of County Unit President
T. M. Johns.
We hope other county unit presidents will look
around and find talent nearly as good and willing to
do the county and state organizations this highly im-
Safe Cultural Economy
Many growers undoubtedly will welcome the appear-
ance in this issue of an authoritative article suggesting
safe methods of reducing grove cultural costs that may
be followed temporarily during the present emergency.
The article appears on page 8 of this issue, of which
R. H. Howard, assistant economist in Farm Manage-
ment Agricultural Extension Service, is the author.
WE PUT MORE
Yet your prices are no higher than those
offering much less.
That coupled with Superior Field Service
accounts for our steadily increasing vol-
ume of business in the face of a large
decline in the total state tonnage.
Growers everywhere are finding that
"EXTRA VALUE" is not just another
meaningless slogan and that Superior
Field Service is really "SUPERIOR."
THE CITRUS GROWER, February 15, 1939
Legislation Coming Up
T IS NO longer necessary to say that Florida Citrus
Growers, Inc., represents the first far reaching col-
lective effort that growers have made to protect them-
selves and improve the industry. Such an organization
was long overdue. It came into being under acute con-
ditions requiring its immediate and urgent services. Its
accomplishments have been spoken of as "more sub-
stantial than spectacular" but, naturally, it has not
been able fully to meet the great demands put upon it.
One of the most important of these demands is
marshalling all of those forces standing ready and will-
ing to be used. We greatly appreciate the insistence of
our friends to be so helpful to us and we know they
will be patient until we can analyze and properly for-
mulate plans for using their help.
We Are Late
From several directions we have recently had offers
of assistance toward the growers' legislative program
for the 1939 session. We appreciate the anxiety that
some of our friends are showing on account of the fact
that our program is not completed and blueprinted now.
We know we are late and to this we can plead the youth
of the organization and the pressing matters it has been
called upon to handle. However, on something as
important as revision of citrus laws we want to be sure
of ourselves and we do not want to go off half cocked.
Consequently the matter is receiving careful and labor-
Committee Set Up
We have a general legislative committee of which
Mr. E. G. Todd. of Avon Park, is chairman. The
various questions that may come up for legislative
action have been parceled out by Mr. Todd to several
sub-committees. Mr. George I. Fullerton, of DeLand,
is chairman of the sub-committee on fruit coloring
practices and bond and license laws. Mr. John M.
Criley, of Terra Ceia, is chairman of the sub-committee
on green fruit legislation. Mr. E. W. Hart of Avon
Park, is chairman of the sub-committee on arsenic
spray. Hon Doyle W. Carleton, Tampa, is chairman
of a sub-committee studying ways of strengthening the
cost-of-production guarantee law, and some other im-
portant legislative matters.
Other Committees Contribute
Cooperating with the research committee, of which
Mr. W. L'E. Barnett is chairman, and with the large
and prominent group of the state's leading attorneys
who are in our organization, these committees are thor-
oughly sifting all of the available evidence on these
subjects and are endeavoring to prepare bills to be rec-
ommended to the legislature that will work as little
hardship as possible on anyone and still protect the
industry from bad practices.
These sub-committees have about completed their
work and will bring their report to a meeting of the
general legislative committee that will have been held
by the time this article is published. At that meeting
all phases of all of these subjects again will come up
for discussion. The decisions of the legislative com-
mittee will then be placed before the next meeting of
the state board of directors for action. Presuming that
the state board of directors agree upon a legislative
program, this program will then be referred to the
21 county organizations where it will be thoroughly
discussed by the individual groups in the various sec-
tions of the state. We believe by this process that a
workable, in fact, almost foolproof legislative plan
will be made.
Route Long But Necessary
To our good friends this may seem like a long
route, and, with only a short time ahead of us, we
cannot blame them if they get a little impatient but
the organization will function as rapidly as possible.
Perhaps it is best also to mention that any plan that
has not stood careful examination by the growers does
not deserve and probably will not get hearty grower
support. By the above outlined method we know we
will get a program that the growers will support and
it will be difficult, indeed, to prevent a grower sup-
ported program from being enacted into law and such
enactment will likely be made without crippling
We feel this explanation is due to our many friends
who are clamoring for an opportunity to help us.
Perhaps more than in any previous season $25.00
per box looks like a lot of money for citrus fruit this
year. These are the prizes offered for the best box of
oranges and the best box of grapefruit ($25.00 each)
by the Central Florida Exposition, at Orlando, Feb-
ruary 27 through March 4.
K. C. Moore, Agricultural Agent for Orange Coun-
ty, is in charge of the citrus section.
The industry committee for Florida citrus is to be
commended for the strenuous efforts it is making to
get the government citrus purchasing program into
The Federal Surplus Commodities Corporation.
which does the actual buying for relief purposes, aooar-
ently has created the impression it is opposed to Flor-
ida measures to stabilize prices. As we go to press a
representative from Washington is expected here with
prospects of cleaning up the situation.
The price offered by the government for oranges is
a complete disappointment and the government seems.
so far, to be unwilling to pay the established cost-of-
production price for grapefruit. It appears this un-
happy situation is about to be replaced by one showing
the government's keen desire to be helpful.
FAMOUS DUMMITT GROVE
(Continued from Page 13)
grove were planted 20x20 feet, and
at that time were producing about
ten to twenty boxes of fruit per tree
. . Andrew Jackson said that he
heard Captain Dummitt say he got
his first budwood from a man by
the name of Mr. Jones, who lived
between New Smyrna and Port Or-
ange on Fowler's Bay, and budded
some sour orange trees that were
growing wild where the old grove
now stands, and from those buds he
started his grove. The old Jones
trees were killed by the frost of 1835
and the grove was never re-planted.
From the buds Captain Dummitt
got from Mr. Jones came the begin-
ning of the old Indian River va-
riety of orange that has been planted
so extensively on the east coast of
Florida. At one time this was con-
sidered the best variety of oranges to
plant in Florida, and thousands of
trees have been budded from bud-
wood taken from these old Dum-
mitt Grove trees. The history of
this grove as given by Andrew Jack-
son has been verified by Mr. C. H.
Quarterman, a pioneer settler who
was acquainted with Captain Dum-
In 1926, about fifty of the orig-
inal trees that were planted out by
Captain Dummitt remained alive-
producing an average of six to ten
boxes per tree-healthy and prom-
ising many more crops to come. Says
Mr. Bass: "I measured three of the
trunks; these measured respectively,
42 inches, 50 inches and 54 inches
in circumference one foot above the
ground. They average from 25 to
30 feet high and have about an aver-
age crown soread of 16 feet." To-
day, due chieflyy to encroaching cat-
tle, forest fires and neglect, only six
of the original trees remain, but these
trees that have survived have im-
proved in vigor, are showing new
growth under revived care, and bear
a larger crop of bright fruit this sea-
son. There are about 2000 trees
of varying ages in the grove at pres-
ent-practically all budded varieties.
It has been said that Captain
Dummitt's scientific development of
the orange more than rewarded his
efforts. For "as his stock increased.
he was able to supply from his nur-
series budding stock to the rapidly
increasing pioneers of the Indian
River country south of Titusville,
and his stock is the parent of the
magnificent grove development all
along the Indian River, providing
for commerce in ever increasing
quantities that famed aristocrat of
all citrus fruit-the Indian River
"From this have stemmed other
varieties of more or less excellent
quality, but none exceed in bouquet,
juiciness or delicacy of fiber this su-
perb fruit as grown from the first
efforts made by Captain Dummitt
in 1830, who paved the way to the
leading industry of the coast of Flor-
ida, from New Smyrna, located at
the head of the Indian River sweep-
ing through Ponce de Leon Inlet
(once Mosquito Inlet) down to Ju-
piter, where Indian River runs out
into the Atlantic." Fruit from the
old Dummitt trees is still selling as
"fancy fruit," and this special va-
riety is still displayed among fruit
exhibits featured at regional and na-
MR. CARLTON WRITES
ABOUT MARKETING COST
Editor, Florida Citrus Grower,
I am interested in Florida citrus as a state
industry. Last season we marketed 40 mil-
lion boxes under our present system, mostly
through packing-houses to approximately
ten markets, from which the fruit had to be
resold, rehandled and reshipped for distri-
bution. Approximately 10 million con-
sumers were able to pay the retail prices
under these conditions, while another 90
million prospective consumers could not af-
ford to buy it, at the price it was sold to
If we open the markets to trucks and
bulk transportation direct to the consuming
markets we can market 100 million and
more and people who want it can buy.
Canners have been paying from 8c to 20c
per box for culls, drops, and fruit almost
rotten and canning it to sell in competition
with good fresh fruit, thereby setting the
price on good fruit at like prices to the
Our fresh fruit is washed, polished and
processed in a manner that greatly damages
the quality of endurance and breaks the peel
and juic- cells, ruining the taste of the fruit
and merging the distasteful outside acids and
peel, and the decomposed broken juice cells
into the naturally palatable juices. It is
waxed, to expel the oxygen taken from the
air, holds in the fruit all the distasteful acids
and fumes thrown off by nature and merges
them into the juice of the fruit, making it
taste bad and in some instances causing a
dangerous combination in the stomach of
the user. It is then pressed into the bulge
packed container, and closed by pressure
which mashes the fruit, breaks the peel and
juice cells, causing decay to set up inside the
fruit and ruins it for consumption, and de-
stroys its keeping qualities.
We estimate the cost of marketing and
ultimate cost to the consumer as follows:
Picking and hauling average, 20c.
Packing house charges average, 65c.
Stamps and inspection average, 15c.
Sales commissions average, 25c.
Freight, carloads average, 75c.
Auction costs average, 25c.
Loss from processing average, 50c.
Re-sale and shipping average, $1.25.
Added distributor's profit, $1.25.
Making a total cost of marketing approx-
imately $5.25 per box.
Add grower's cost production and in-
vestment 75c, and for the grower to get
his cost and a small return on his invest-
ment the consumer must pay per box, $6.00.
Opening the markets for sale at the grove,
in bulk or pack of good fruit, and barring
culls from all sales, we can market at ap-
proximately the following cost per box:
Picking and grading, 20c.
Stamps and inspection, 15c.
Freight (trucks). 35c.
Distributor's profit, 75c.
Grower's cost, $1.00.
If sold in bulk cost to consumer per box,
If sold in containers add 20c, giving the
grower a fair price on the tree and the con-
sumer a price he can and will pay for the
fruit and consumer will get fruit he can
use, and use before it spoils.
Artificial coloring and color added from
any process should be prohibited. Then the
matter of immature fruit will be solved.
To this end, I suggest laws providing and
Grower register his grove, crop, and va-
rieties with the Commissioner of Agricul-
ture on or before July 31st of each year,
stating method of sales or marketing he ex-
pects to use, and receive permit with serial
number, to sell.
Trucks or other means of transportation,
except railroads, express companies, and ship
lines, register with the commissioner aid re-
ceive permit with serial number, describing
truck or other means of transportation, ten
days before beginning such transportation.
Fruit sold at the arove to be paid for
by purchaser and bill of sale from grower
given, showing paid in full, quantity, va-
riety, and both the grower's and buyer's
serial number of permits; one copy of bill
of sale forwarded to commissioner, one re-
tained by grower and original held by buyer
until the load or purchase shall have been
disposed of, then the original to be for-
warded to commissioner, with date of final
I have contacted many persons from out
of Florida, who verify the necessity of the
foregoing regulations. They want Florida
citrus, but will not use it at the price
and in the condition it reaches them. I
stand ready to go into detail in this at any
time, and state my evidence.
I am for the state organization 100 per-
cent and feel that we are on the right track.
A. B. CARLTON.
P. S.-I am president of the Lutz Citrus
Growers Association.- A. B. C.
We Offer Growers
A Market for Their Fruit
Cash on the Tree
Top Market Prices
At All Times
M. C. Britt Produce Co.
WINTER GARDEN, FLA.
Phone 56 or 101
Wilkins, L K ,Chief
"erio:ical Div U S Dept Agr .
W 1iv ton D C
Here is Something We Can Do Now!
WE ARE WAITING for the U. S. Department of Agriculture to put into effect the marketing
agreement for which the growers voted by a majority of 96%.
WE ARE WAITING for the U. S. Department of Agriculture to get its house in order so that
it can begin spending the $5,000,000.00 set aside to purchase fruit in Florida for relief purposes and
thereby serve to help relieve the disastrous situation caused by an immense surplus of citrus fruits and
IN THE DISTANCE we see the bright hope of our present planless, chaotic and economically
unsound industry being turned into a well ordered and profitable one. Our organization with its edu-
cational program offers assurance that we will not for long continue to be harassed by the effects of
green fruit shipments, bad coloring room practices and other ills that now beset us.
But all these things are in the future
HERE IS SOMETHING WE CAN DO NOW. Even at these distressingly low prices some
shipper is going to make a profit out of packing and selling our fruit. We now have the privilege and
duty to ourselves of seeing that this shipper is a constructive shipper, that he works for the good of the
industry. Many of the ills we now have are directly traceable to a minority of shippers who think
only of their own profits and prefer that the industry continue in its present unhappy condition be-
cause they can make more profits that way. To such people a grower should not sell his fruit.
THE BUSINESS OF THE GROWER with the shipper deserves far more attention than the
fifteen minutes required to make a trade on fruit. This relationship should be considered on the basis of
all the matters that come up during the entire year. The shipper renders an important service to the grow-
er. The grower should discuss this service with the shipper. He should find out what the shipper
thinks about the important marketing service which he handles. The shipper may be one of those
whose marketing practices are tearing down the Florida citrus industry. If the grower has a logical
mind he would never permit such a man to make a profit off the growers' fruit. He should give no
more encouragement by selling to him who tears down the markets than he would encourage some per-
son to come in and tear down his orange trees.
WE CAN, BY TAKING thought, sell fruit constructively. This something we can do now. We
can support our friends instead of those who work against our interests.
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
P. 0. BOX 2077