Group Title: Citrus grower (Orlando, Fla.)
Title: The citrus grower
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: The citrus grower
Uniform Title: Citrus grower (Orlando, Fla.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30-44 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
Place of Publication: Orlando Fla
Publication Date: February 1, 1939
Frequency: weekly (semimonthly july-sept.)[<1939>]
semimonthly[ former 1938-]
normalized irregular
Subject: Fruit-culture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruit industry -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Nov. 15, 1938)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1942?
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 4, no. 9 (May 15, 1942).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086640
Volume ID: VID00006
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 03227648
lccn - sn 96027371

Full Text

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MAR 3 1939
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W. L'E. BARNETT. Chairman
of the Research Committee. of Florida Citrus Growers. Inc.. outlines the green
fruit problem in an article in this issue.





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F OR THE FIRST TIME in history the growers
of Florida are thinking about the desirable citrus
laws at the right time. In the past they have
thought at the wrong time. Heretofore growers have
done their thinking when they have read the papers,
only to find out they were taking a licking in the legis-
lature. They have done their thinking, for instance
when they have read that a good green fruit law has
been mangled in committee rooms or by amendments
and made into a poor green fruit law. They have
also done their thinking far from the scene of action.
Unorganized and helpless individually they have only
hoped their interests will get some slight consideration
in Tallahassee. Too often they have been disappointed.
This year they are not only thinking, but numerous
committees are working hard to gather information
that will enable them to recommend the best law pres-
ent conditions will permit. These several commit-
tees are working in conjunction with the legislative
committee, and it is the duty of the legislative com-
mittee to seek desirable new laws and desirable changes
in old laws given the approval of the legislature.
The grower will have his own friends on hand to
give advice and information to the legislators in the
coming session. This is something that has never
happened before. Many legislators have told me that
when citrus legislation has been up for consideration
in the past. only shippers, or canners, but no growers.
have been there to promote their case with legislators.
This year it will be different. When a legislator wants
to know what the growers think about a proposed law,
there will be someone there able to tell him. Florida
Citrus Growers, Inc., is the machinery the growers
have set up for that and other services.
In the last issue of the magazine Chairman E. G.
Todd, of the legislative committee, gave an outline of
the subjects that are expected to come up and that the
growers will bring up for action in the coming session.
In this issue we are following up Chairman Todd's
outline with an enlightening discussion of what we
should have in the way of a green fruit law by Mr.
W. L'E. Barnett, chairman of the Research Committee.
The research committee is composed of men who have
had experience in many of the research problems of
the industry, have studied past green fruit laws. and
are working with the maturity test sub-committee

(Mr. John M. Criley, chairman) of the legislative
committee to frame a good green fruit law, one that
will do no damage to anybody and one that will
stop as much as possible the losses now be'ng suf-
fered by growers on account of green fruit being sold
to our customers in the North.
We want the advice of growers and other interested
parties in preparing these proposed laws. We want
any legislative program sponsored by this organiza-
tion to be the program of all growers. We want all of
it to be well advised, well thought out and for the
good of the entire industry. The text of these laws
must be written within a short time now, and growers
are urged to express their views in answer to ques-
tionnaires in each issue of the magazine.
As to the green fruit law discussion in this issue-
I believe if every grower were asked which he thought
more important to help raise Florida fruit prices, a
marketing agreement with colume control in it, or a
green fruit law with teeth in it. at least a majority
would say we need a good green fruit law more, and
we need it enforced. This may be just the growers'
idea, but the growers of Florida have suffered untold
millions in losses on account of abuses of our cus-
tomers' taste and good will.
The effect of shipping green fruit lasts for a long
time. It lasts as long as the memory of the customer.
The large number of varieties in this state, the dif-
ferent root stocks, the differing cultural and climatic
conditions, make it awfully hard to arrive at a fair
maturity test that will really protect the customer.
The committees are giving every consideration to these
difficulties. In all these matters, I agree with Mr. R.
H. Prine, chairman of the research committee on grape-
fruit maturity tests, that the customer must receive
the first thought. Otherwise we will have no busi-
Someone recently asked a representative of another
citrus producing area how he was able to take one
customer after another away from Florida shippers.
The representative said. "That is easy. Florida dis-
appoints the customer, and we move in." He was
speaking of our immature fruit shipments.
We want the cooperation of all growers. We must
have that customer confidence that only good uniform
quality can give us.

Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.

.../ K.'


The Citrus Grower

Official Publication of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.


Accepted With Regret

On January 20th the directors of Polk County Cit-
rus Growers, Inc., most reluctantly agreed to the re-
quest of L. H. Kramer that he be relieved of the duties
of the presidency of that unit. The directors agreed
only in consideration of Mr. Kramer's statement that
the time required by his activities as president of the
state organization made it practically impossible for
him to give the attention to the county work that it
demanded and deserved.
The Board of Directors filled the vacancy left by
Mr. Kramer's resignation with an able man in Fred
T. Henderson, of Winter Haven.
On January 24th directors of the Highlands County
Citrus Growers, Inc.. accepted the resignation of their
unit president, E. G. Todd, for reasons similar to
those given by Mr. Kramer. Mr. Todd is treasurer
of the state organization and chairman of its legislative
committee. This committee is entering several months
of intensive work.
Mr. Todd has been succeeded by A. K. Hallett. of
DeSoto City.
It is fortunate these two units had good men to
step into the vacancies. The state organization is also
fortunate in that the state duties of the two resigning
presidents will receive all of the time they have so gen-
erously divided in the past between two or more im-
portant tasks.
To say that Mr. Kramer and Mr. Todd are out-
standing leaders in Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., is
putting it mildly. They are two of the reasons why
the head of another branch of the citrus industry asked
our president recently why the grower organization
could get so much done from men who worked with-
out pay. He said the grower organization could get
more done for nothing than his organization could
get from men who were hired.
One answer is, of course, every grower, from the
greatest to the smallest in this organization, is work-
ing for himself, as well as all the others.

F *' ETT R H


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President's Message

..Inside Fro

An Effective Green Fruit Law ...

Maturity Questionnaire ...-- -

The Citrus Situation and Outlook.

The Traffic Committee and Boxes ....

Lake County Demonstration Groves


nt Cover


..... ... 4 I

. ... 6


.......... 9

.... 1 1

Reception of the Marketing Agreement ......-12
Reveals Story on Advertising .. __.--.... ---- 14
The Growers and Shippers League ..-,-.-: -16
With the Editor..-.. .....------..----------- 18

Texas Visitors

Elsewhere in this issue we are printing an encourag-
ing story about grapefruit bread, brought here by the
Texas citrus degelation who came here on an epoch
making journey to talk grapefruit prices. We are tak-
ing this opportunity to hope these gentlemen enjoyed
their stay in Florida as much as the Florida industry
was pleased to have them be here.
Their names are: Judge F. B. Holland, Mission.
chairman of the growers industry committee; Carl W.
Vandervort, Weslaco, secretary of the above committee;
W. D. Woodruff, Edinburg, administrator of minimum
price regulations; C. E. McCormick, Harlingen, direc-
tor of the state department of agriculture, bond and
license division: and W. R. Montgomery, Edinburg.
The value of cooperation between producing areas
has been so completely realized that at last, it has ma-
tured into this visit of the Texas delegation. The ac-
tivity of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., is freely credited
with bringing about the circumstances that brought
these gentlemen here. It marks the beginning of bet-
ter understanding that will benefit all of us.

Virgil H. Conner Editor Published the First and Fifteenth of each able. The publishers can accept no re-
month by The Florida Citrus Growers, responsibility for return of unsolicited manu-
J. E. Robinson Business Manager Inc., Orlando, Florida. scripts.
Entered as second-class matter Novem- Subscription Rates
PUBLICATION COMMITTEE-W. E. ber 15. 1938, at the postoffice at Orlando, In United States, one year $1.00 to non-
Kemp, Chairman: Carl D. Brorein, R. Fla.. under the Act of March 3, 1879. members of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.,
J. Kepler, E. G. Thatcher, W. L. Burton, Membership subscriptions, one year 50c.
C. A. Garrett, Karl Lehmann. Manuscripts submitted to this maga-
zine should be accompanied by sufficient Address all mail to The Citrus Grower,
Printed by The Chief Press, Apopka postage for their return if found unavail- P. 0. Box 2077, Orlando, Florida.


This is THE CITRUS GROWER for February 1, 1939

We are Working Toward--

the general legislative commit-
tee of our organization, gave in
broad outlines in our last issue im-
provements in citrus laws the grow-
ers will work for in the next session
of the legislature. Mr. Todd stated
it is highly desirable that the pro-
gram of legislative action wh;ch this
organization sponsors shall be the
program of all growers, protecting
the interests of and answering the
needs of all growers, and not con-
fined to the interests and needs of
the members of this organization
Consequently, by questionnaires
in our magazine we are going to
strive as nearly as possible to find
what all growers, within and with-
out the organization, want in the
way of legislation.
It is the purpose of this article
partially to introduce to the grow-
ers one of the most important items
mentioned in Mr. Todd's program,
that of an adequate and effective
green fruit law. In the general leg-
islative committee Mr. John M.
Criley is chairman of a sub-commit-
tee which is cooperating with the
Research Committee to ascertain
what changes are necessary in the
present laws to better protect grow-
ers by preventing immature fruit
from going on the market. In this
issue of the magazine you will find
a questionnaire prepared by Mr. Cri-
ley which is designed to get the opin-
ion of growers and other interested
parties on the most important ele-
ments of correct green fruit legisla-
tion. Let me urgently request that
our members send Mr. Criley their
answers to all these questions, also
that they take the matter up with
nonmember growers and ask that
they send Mr. Criley what they
think is the correct procedure. We
also know that on any subject which
has as many angles as fruit maturity
tests it is impossible in a short ques-
tionnaire to cover all of the impor-
tant considerations, consequently in
sending your answers to Mr. Criley
please go outside of the questionnaire
to make any comments that you
think would benefit these committees
in coming to a correct green fruit
legislative program.

Chairman, Research Committee,
Florida Citrus Growers.

Mr. John M. Criley, Terra Ceia,
Fla.. member of the legislative com-
mittee of Florida Citrus Growers,
Inc., and chairman of the sub-com-
mittee on maturity laws has prepared
a questionnaire on maturity tests
which appears on page 6 of this is-
sue. Growers and other parties in-
terested in effective maturity laws are
urgently requested to read the ques-
tions and send their answers direct to
Mr. Criley. Since these questions
cannot cover the entire subject ade-
quately, we urge that you also send
any comments on the subjects not
covered by the questionnaire.

Undoubtedly, the shipping of
green fruit early in the season gives
Florida a bad reputation with its
customers and costs the growers an
awful lot of money. Much pioneer
work has been done to stop this
practice. There are two reasons why
the situation has not been corrected
in the past. The minor reason is, we
do not know what constitutes a
measure of maturity that will apply
in all cases. For instance, our pres-
ent system of requiring that the cit-
ric acid in the juice should have a
certain legally recognized proportion
to the total solids in the juice. In
some cases fruit that will meet the
present tests can be depended upon
to be mature. But it by no means
gives a guarantee that the fruit is
pleasant to the taste or good to eat.
It is well known that soapsuds and
sulphuric acid can be combined in a
mixture that will pass this test, but
who would want to eat such stuff?
Mr. Criley brought some oranges
to a recent joint meeting of the Re-
search and Legislative sub-committee
that were full of juice and far ex-
ceeded the required ratio of 8 parts
solids to 1 part anhydrous citric acid
now set as the required ratio as a
test of orange maturity. In these
oranges the solids to citric acid were

in the proportion of 29 to 1. Still
the fruit was not fit to eat because
there was so little acid and these or-
anges had not been arsenated. The
juice tasted like sweetened water and
in the hands of a customer would
damage the reputation of Florida
fruit for palatability.
The solids in solution in the
juice, of course, are largely sugars
but there are different types of sug-
ars in citrus fruit and these sugars
have different degrees of sweetness.
There is much research work being
conducted at this time in state and
Federal laboratories in an effort to
find a real yardstick by which to
measure fruit maturity. The Bu-
reau of Plant Industry of the U. S.
Department of Agriculture and the
Federal Food and Drug Administra-
tion are making some important in-
vestigations along this line. We may
be very close to a method that will
give us a simple means of testing
fruit and one that will not permit
fruit unfit for food to be shipped to
So, in this article by no means
are we attempting to say the last
word on what law the legislature
should pass to prevent the shipment
of green fruit. We are merely dis-
cussing the question in general and
hope that we will be able to arouse
growers and other interested parties
to make helpful comments. We
might say in passing that enough is
known about the question already to
promise great improvement over
what we have now.
Mr. J. J. Taylor and his fruit in-
spection department under the di-
rection of Commissioner Nathan
Mayo prepared and submitted to the
legislature in 1937 a much more ef-
fective green fruit law than the legis-
lature finally passed. There are
those who are interested in their own
profit to the extent that they forget
the damage they are doing the entire
industry, who insist on rushing im-
mature fruit to the market in the
hope of securing a very high price
for it. These interests have been
very efficient in selling their story
to the legislators and have been able
to pull the teeth of most of the good
green fruit bills submitted in the
past. Illustrating this fact the Re-

Page 4

This is THE CITRUS GROWER for February 1, 1939

search and Legislative sub-commit-
tee on several important points have
found that their own best thought
out propositions were exactly in
line with the provisions of the 1937
fruit law as first presented to the
This brings us to the second but
major reason that green fruit laws
and their enforcement have not been
able adequately to protect the indus-
try against the fearful damage
wrought by letting green fruit get
into the consumers' hands. That
reason is, the grower heretofore has
not had an organization which
would enable him to investigate on
a broad scale and arrive at reason-
ably correct recommendations and
see that these recommendations were
not broken down by pressure groups
working close to the members of the
legislature. We believe this difficulty
has been solved by the organization
this year of the vigorous and thriv-
ing Florida Citrus Growers. Inc. The
Research and Legislative Committee
of this organization are working
closely together to see that a good
green fruit law is written and to
stay with it until it is passed by the
legislature without destructive amend-
ments. With the aid and advice of
growers, scientists and all others in-
terested and capable of giving useful
suggestions, we want it to be the
best green fruit law that has ever
been proposed or passed.
Looking beyond this year's legis-
lative session, we are going to con-
tinue to work with helpful people
to improve this law. One point on
which we would like growers to ex-
press themselves definitely at this
time is whether or not a date should
be set by the legislature before which
no fruit of the new crop could be
shipped, regardless of whether or not
it would pass the test.
Mr. R. H. Prine. of Manatee
county, chairman of our Research
sub-committee to investigate grape-
fruit maturity standards, recently
called our attention to the fact that
Manatee County has grapefruit that
passes the juice content and acids to
solids ratio with flying colors ahead
of any other citrus section of the
state, but Mr. Prine made the state-
ment that if this fruit were held off
the market for ten days or two weeks
longer it would make a far better
impression with the customer on ac-
count of greatly improved appeal to
the taste. Mr. Prine is absolutely
correct in his contention that green
fruit laws must be designed with

the idea in view first of pleasing the
taste of our customers. Special con-
ditions in the citrus belt. our anx-
iety to catch some of the high prices
with early fruit, the fact that a re-
striction would not be pleasing to
some of us, should have no weight
whatever in legally prescribing a de-
pendable and simple maturity test.
The proposition that a definite date
for first shipments be set by law has
the support of some honest and ex-
perienced people in the industry. If
the growers want this done and show
their support of such a measure by
answering Mr. Criley's question-
naire on this point we feel sure that
the legislature would enact such a
measure into law.
There is also some support of the
proposition that a date be set for
first shipment of each variety. The
objections we have heard to this are.
that it is very difficult clearly to dis-
tinguish between the various var'e-
ties. Some say a date for the first
shipment of Valencias would be
beneficial. We would like comment
on this point also.
In the matter of whether or not
present chemical tests should be
maintained-we refer you to the
above mentioned oranges cited by
Mr. Criley. We tested the flavor of
these oranges and found it to be ter-
rible yet they pass the present chem-
ical tests. To correct this difficulty
some have suggested that the law re-
quire that the juice of the fruit
should contain a minimum percent-
age of acid and that the ratio of ac:d
to total solids be modified.
The Research sub-committee in-
vestigating desirable standards for
grapefruit maturity have received the
suggestion that the present juice con-
tent for grapefruit be raised 15 per-
cent above provision of the present
law. and that the ratios of acids to
solids remain the same.
So far as the great mass of inves-
tigation up to the present has been
able to determine juice content is
one of the best indications of matur-
ity. Headed by Manatee county.
West coast and East coast grape-
fruit show a greater number of cubic
centimeters of juice for a given size
of grapefruit than is shown for the
same size of grapefruit in the inland
citrus producing sections. These
facts were shown by records of the
state inspection service. The pro-
posed juice requirement raise will
not work a hardship on any section,
even those sections showing the low-
est amount of juice for the size of

It is also called to our attention
that grapefruit produced in the coast
sections has a thinner skin than the
fruit produced in the interior. A
very slight increase in the thickness
of the rind makes a large increase in
the actual cubic content of the fruit.
So it appears advisable that careful
attention be paid to the matter of
getting the actual fruit size. At
present the inspectors gauge the fruit
size by measuring it with calipers
from the bloom to the stem end.
This makes long fruit seem larger
than it actually is and flat fruit seem
smaller than it actually is. To over-
come both the thick rind and the
method of size measuring difficulties
it has been proposed that the fruit
under test be peeled and put into a
cubical vessel that has been filled to
the top with water. The fruit is
then taken out and the amount of
water that it has displaced can be
measured exactly and this will give
the true size of the fruit. It is
thought that this method is abso-
lutely fair and dependable. It is
also expected that the juice content
in those areas where it has shown
lowest heretofore will be raised
somewhat by this method.
Another point that raises careful
consideration is the method of test-
ing fruit. Under the present law it
is required for oranges that 15 or-
anges be taken from the smallest
size of the crop being run. The
juce of these 15 oranges is mixed
together and the composite juice
mixture is that which must be up to
the legal requirements. It has been
found that unscrupulous shippers
will test fruit ahead of time, find
that one crop is better than is re-
quired. and another comes under the
requirements, but by mixing the two
together the two crops will come up
to the test. This enables the ship-
per to ship a larger quantity of fruit
early in the season and it also places
before the consumer a lot of oranges
every other one of which is not up
to the test. and some probably very
To close this gap it has been pro-
posed that the present law be amend-
ed to give the inspector authority.
and make it is his duty when he
thinks it desirable, to test a given
number of pieces of fruit individ-
ually. If a certain percentage of
these individual fruits fails to make
the test, it shall then be the duty of
the inspector to turn it down.
It is thought that if some of the

Page 5

This is THE CITRUS GROWER for February 1, 1939

other known gaps in the present law
are stopped, we will also automatic-
ally prevent some of the bad color-
ing room practices. That is if the
fruit is more nearly mature when it is
picked it will not have to be sub-
jected to drastic coloring room treat-
ment before it takes on the desired
color. The ability of the fruit to
withstand long treatment in the col-
oring rooms goes back to the way it
was fertilized and the other care it
got in course of production, but it
is not possible to subject any fruit
to severe coloring room heat with-
out breaking down some of its flavor
and reducing its ability to carry in
shipment. We know also that in
permitting bad coloring room prac-
tices we are treating our customers
very shabbily and we cannot blame
them if they buy their citrus fruit
from other producing sections or
substitute some other competing
fruit for citrus.
We would like suggestions as to
how harmful coloring room practices
should be regulated by law. In
general we would like to remind the
reader what he already knows, that
prevention of green fruit shipments
is one of the most important propo-
s;tions facing our industry. At the
present time it can be truthfully
stated that prices of Florida fruit are
affected basically by our failure in
this respect. It rivals all other bad
practices in making Florida fruit
cheaper than fruit from other sec-
tions in the markets. It shuts the
industry off from that most power-
ful selling appeal which is, good and
uniform quality. At least one-th:rd
of the advertising money we spend
for Florida citrus is made use'ess by
our failure to deliver palatable fruit
of uniform quality.
Those who have fought effective
green fruit laws and their strict en-
forcement in the past claim that low
maturity tests lengthen the shipping
season. We believe the answer to
this is that it shortens the shipping
season. When the market is loaded
down early in the season with green
fruit it immediately suffers a paral-
ysis and there are weeks of uncer-
tainty in which only a very limited
quantity of fruit is shipped, the de-
mand is dormant and prices are low.
There is now a longer time, of
course, between the first and last
shipments of the season and the
shipping season may be longer in this
respect, but with the paralysis per-
iods caused by green fruit shipments
the actual shipping season is shorter.

We want green fruit laws that will
give us a healthy, vigorous market
throughout the shipping season.
This will not shorten the shipping
season but restrict shipments to good
fruit only early in the season.
We feel sure that with adequate
green fruit regulation there will be
enough fruit to ship at any season
of the year and effective regulation
will certainly tend to raise the de-
mand and price of what we have to
On this broad and important sub-
ject we are hoping to arouse the in-
terest of growers both within and
without our own organization so
that we will be able to show our
legislators that effective green fruit
laws are demanded by large numbers
of their constituents. This is a sub-
ject of such importance that it goes
beyond the citrus grower himself
and the harm of our failures in this
respect extend to "the butcher, the
baker, the candlestick maker" thru-
out the citrus belt whose business is
dependent on the ability of the cit-
rus grower to make a living for him-
self and pay a living wage to his
Mr. J. J. Taylor, who is in di-
rect supervision of fruit inspection
under Commissioner of Agriculture
Nathan Mayo, has shown every evi-
dence of willingness to cooperate in
the enforcement of our present law.
His inspectors are enthusiastically
cooperating with the committees of
this organization in their efforts to
improve the law we have. These
men seek the support and encourage-
ment of the growers and the grow-
ers owe it to themselves to see that
these men are equipped with the
proper legal authority to protect the
industry against this terrible abuse
resulting from the shipment of un-
ripe fruit.
In preparing this limited discussion
of the question, we want to ac-
knowledge the valuable help of the
members of our own committee, of
the legislative committee, of the state
fruit inspection service, and of many
others. Particularly useful to us
has been Mr. J. J. Grossenbacher,
one of the pioneer authorities in this
field. The kind of cooperation we
are receiving indicates that this prob-
lem will not be long in solution.
Scientists appear to be on the verge
of discovering that ideal test of ma-
turity. In the meantime we can do
a whole lot for ourselves and every
one dependent upon the citrus in-
dustry by using the knowledge we

Maturity Questionnaire

Chairman, Legislative Sub-Commit-
tee on Maturity Standards.
is now studying the subject of
proper maturity standards for
all varieties of citrus fruits and finds
a general public sentiment both with-
in and without the industry in fa-
vor of fixing the standards in such
manner that the shipping of green
and immature fruit will be made
more difficult and less disastrous to
the interests of the industry.
In the leading article in this is-
sue of the magazine, Mr. W. L'E.
Barnett, chairman of the research
committee, gives a broad outline of
the general problems confronted in
arriving at a simple maturity test that
can be enforced, as nearly as pos-
sible, without hardship on any sec-
tion or group. A great many solu-
tions of all of these questions have
been offered. Some of the sugges-
tions we regard as constructive and
practical, some not so good. Also
the restrictions which may be placed
are considerably limited when due
regard is given to the probable con-
stitutionality of laws that may be
be passed.
The reader is urgently asked to
make replies and comments and that
he address his communications to
Mr. John M. Criley, Terra Ceia,
I. If constitutionally possible,
should a date be fixed before which
no fruit can be shipped?
2. Should such a date or dates
take into account the variation in
maturity of the different varieties?
3. Should the present chemical
tests be maintained?
4. Should the present chemical
tests be raised or lowered?
5. Should the present juice con-
tent for grapefruit be raised or low-
ered or should this test be eliminated
6. Should a volumetric test be
established for grapefruit wherein,
after all of the outer peel has been
removed, the fruit be required to
contain a juice content equal to a
given percentage of the volume of
water displaced by such peeled fruit?
7. Should a test be provided re-
quiring that fruit be tested individ-
ually and if in a given sample more
than ten percent of the individual
fruits are found to be immature the
lot be confiscated and destroyed?
8. What regulation do you sug-
gest which would control or pre-
vent harmful coloring room prac-

Page 6

This is THE CITRUS GROWER for February 1, 1939 Page 7

Trend in World Production--


THE AVERAGE production of
all fruits during the next five
years will be larger than for
the past five years, if the present sit-
uation of plantings in groves and
orchards can be relied upon as in-
dicators. The largest increases are
expected in citrus fruits, and of the
citrus fruits, grapefruit promises to
increase the fastest.
The trend in world production
of oranges and mandarins is decided-
ly upward. The estimated world
production in 1936-37 was around
228,000,000 boxes, compared with
an average of 159,000,000 for the
5-year period 1927-31. In 1936-37
the leading countries reported the
following production:
United States, 55,129.000 boxes.
Spain, 44,823.000 boxes.
Brazil. 36.500,000 boxes.
China. 15,000,000 boxes.
Japan, 15,000,000 boxes.
Italy, 13,188,000 boxes.
These six countries accounted for
about four-fiths of the total world
production at that time. The re-
maining one-fifth was produced in
26 other countries.
On July 1, 1938, the estimated
number of bearing trees five years of
age and over in the United States
was 37.100,000 of which 13,452,-
000 or 36 percent were in Florida.
On the same date the estimate for
bearing tangerine trees of similar age
was 1,766,000, 90 percent of which
were in Florida. It was further es-
timated that 44 percent of these
bearing orange and tangerine trees
were under 16 years old.
World production of grapefruit
has increased at a more rapid rate
than oranges in recent years. The
estimated total world production in
1936-37 was 34.251.000 boxes
compared with 14,316,000 boxes
for the five-year period 1927-31.
Although the United States con-
tinues to produce approximately 90
percent of the total commercial
grapefruit crop of the world, pro-
duction in Palestine, Union of South
Africa. Brazil, and in several of the
West Indies Islands has been increas-
ing rapidly in recent years, also.
Production in Puerto Rico has been
on the decrease, however.
On July 1. 1938. the estimated

Agricultural Economist. Florida
Agricultural Extension Service.

number of grapefruit trees five years
of age and over in the United States
was 13,123,000 of which approxi-
mately one-third were of the "seed-
ed" or early varieties, and two-thirds
of the seedlesss" or late varieties.
Florida had about 40 percent of
these bearing trees of all varieties.
Of the early "seeded" varieties.
however, 83 percent were in Florida.
It was further estimated that about
two-thirds of all bearing grapefruit
trees in the United States were un-
der 16 years of age. More than 80
percent of the bearing late or "seed-
less" varieties were below the age of
full production, whereas 35 percent
of the early or "seeded" varieties
were under 16 years old.
Complete information is not
available for citrus plantings in the
United States as a whole for recent
years. That is, trees not of bearing
age (1 to 4 years), cannot be easily
estimated. Statements are current
that new plantings have been declin-
ing during recent years. In Florida,
there is a very reliable source from
which to obtain trend in plantings.
however. All movement of nursery
stock to groves must be reported to
the nursery inspector of the Florida
State Plant Board and on the basis
of these reports charts have been pre-
pared to bring out the trend in move-
ment of trees to Florida groves dur-
ing the past ten seasons. There was
a decided downward trend in move-
ment of all citrus from 1928-29 to
1934-35. reaching a low of 528.000
trees on that date, but since that
date the movement to Florida groves
has increased very rapidly and for the
year ending on June 30, 1938, over
a million trees were reported. It is.
of course, not known what propor-
tion of this heavier movement since
1934-35 was used to replace trees
killed by the cold weather of that
The trend in movement of differ-
ent kinds and varieties of citrus has
been quite different. Oranges have
accounted for most of the increase in

movement since 1934-35. Plantings
of Valencias and Hamlins have in-
creased much more rapidly than oth-
er orange varieties, and the plantings
of Hamlins have exceeded Valencias
for the past three seasons.
Grapefruit plantings have shown
no definite trend since 1931-32, the
low point of the past ten years.
However, the proportion of Marsh
Seedless plantings relative to other
grapefruit varieties has increased
since that time.
Movement of all varieties of man-
darin trees in 1937-38 was less than
10 percent of the movement ten
years earlier. The outstanding ex-
ception in this group is that Temples
have shown a slightly upward trend
during the ten-year period.
Lime plantings increased very
rapidly from 1928-29 to 1936-37,
but showed a decided decrease in
1937-38. Lemon plantings also
showed a general upward trend thru
1935-36, but have been decreasing
since that time.
From this brief summary of the
citrus situation it would well be
concluded that the outlook for the
citrus grower is none too bright.
However, there is another side to
this picture which will call for all
the ingenuity of citrus growers, ship-
pers and all others interested in the
citrus industry. Definitely, there is
not an over-supply of citrus fruits.
The average per-capita production of
all citrus for the five-year period
1934-38 was but 58.7 pounds, or a
little over one-half a box. This in-
cludes oranges, tangerines, grapefruit
and lemons. The figure for oranges
and tangerines was 36.6 pounds,
slightly over one-third of a box;
for grapefruit 16.9 pounds, or about
one-fifth of a box, and for lemons
5.2 pounds. Certainly there must
be some method of reducing costs of
production and marketing, or in-
creasing consumer price that can be
worked out so that consumers may
be able to obtain an adequate sup-
ply of these healthful foods and the
grower at the same time will receive
a reasonable return for his fruit. The
most promising factor at the pres-
ent time is the steady improvement
in general business conditions which
has been in progress since July of
last year and shows signs of con-
tinued improvement. This con-

This is THE CITRUS GROWER for February 1. 1939

tinued improvement in business con-
ditions will increase consumer pur-
chasing power and should increase
the demand for citrus.
The concessions on citrus made by
Canada and the United Kingdom in
the reciprocal trade agreements which
became effective on January 1, 1939.
should improve our export outlets
to those countries. Canada will ad-
mit oranges duty free from Decem-
ber through April instead of Janu-
ary through April. Canada also re-
duces the tariff on grapefruit juice.
The United Kingdom will admit
canned grapefruit and grapefruit
juice free of duty. whereas the pres-
ent rate of duty is 15 percent ad
The two factors above mentioned
will have a tendency to increase de-
mand for citrus both in this coun-
try and abroad without additional
effort on the part of those connected
with the citrus industry. Of course,
much effort must be put forth by
citrus interests to broaden market
outlets. Perhaps the most effective
method for advertising citrus is to
see that only high grade fruit reaches
the market. This applies to both
the fresh and the canned product. No
kind of an advertising campaign will
succeed that is not backed up at all
times with quality product. This
brings up the question of salvaging
the low quality fruit and the refuse
of packing and canning plants.
One of the most promising out-
lets for low grade fruit as well as the
refuse from processing plants is the
manufacture of citrus pulp for feed-
ing dairy cattle and other animals.
Thorough tests have been made of
this product in dairy rations at the
Florida Experiment Station and
these tests indicate that dried citrus
pulp can well be substituted for
dried beet pulp in the dairy ration.
The principal consideration will rest
with the comparative price of the
two feeds. Reference is made to
Florida Press Bulletins 466 and 521
for further details concerning the
value of citrus pulp as a feed. The
manufacture of this feed has been
increasing rapidly in this state. At
least six dryer plants were in opera-
tion during the 1937-38 season,
with an estimated total production
of 10.000 tons of dried pulp. Texas
also entered this field in a large way
in 1937-38 when two plants oper-
ated with approximately the same
tonnage output as Florida. It should
be noted that the citrus grower could
not well afford to produce fruit pri-
marily for this purpose, but if he is

able to salvage his low grade fruit
in this manner with a very low mar-
gin of profit, the greater advantage
will come from the enhanced price
that he should receive from his high
quality fresh and canned product.
Many other by-products are be-
ing explored in order to determine
whether or not their manufacture is
economically practical, such as break-
fast foods, citrus oils, pectins, gluco-
sides, and others. This work should
be continued energetically in order to
find broader and broader outlets for
our rapidly growing citrus crops.


The Citrus Grower has been ad-
vised that T. E. Edenfield, of Inver-
ness, has resigned from directorship
in the Citrus-Hernando unit of Flor-
ida Citrus Growers, Inc., and has
been succeeded by F. H. Leslie, also
of Inverness.
W. C. O'Hara, of Brooksville,
secretary-treasurer of the unit has al-
so resigned and has been succeeded
by E. A. O'Neal.



Use These Recommended Peruvian Guano Formulas
Especially Prepared To Meet Current Conditions

We have made an earnest effort to
help you find a solution to the unusual prob-
lems that now confront you. Fortunately we
have ample supplies of Genuine Peruvian
Guano available. And we have used this
famous quick-acting, long-lasting organic as
the base of each of these special formulas for
your economy program. Completely balanced
for proper plant feeding, they will supply
immediate nourishment plus a maintenance
reserve to carry your groves through the
Spring months.
instant popularity because of its obviously
superior qualities .. and anyone can see the
savings offered by the recommended double-
strength brands.
Use these Genuine Peruvian Guano
formulas for your Spring application. Our
field representative in your section is at your
service for information or advice. Get his
recommendations for your grove.

Eodenton R H ,Prin. Manager
Fort Myei F L Belterlon, Manager
economy is your watchword this year F- wa.e w. L U-inne. Manage
S. and these special formulas containing M... (C..i G.biik M T Mece. Manager
Genuine Peruvian Guano offer you a sensible Orlond H N ve.y. MonUq,
way to spend less, yet set and hold a healthy "..n C H DeC ell,,d Man", /.
bloom and keep up your grove condition, yield a G av HC N Moie, Mno.:,
and quality. w,.It, H...n C H. Manager ,'.

WRITE FOR FREE BOOKLET -s..d if, .,,. ,Spring oo.le,
"Economs. in teh Ctrut 0 ve" by layard F Floyd, Horticulturist, ..d Dr Ralph L. Mller. Entomloglst.

Page 8


This is THE CITRUS GROWER for February 1, 1939

Standard Container Question--


January 15th carries an instruc-
tive article by Randall Chase
with reference to the use of various
types of containers and our editor
inserted into the page part of the dis-
cussion of this suggestion which had
previously been printed from the re-
port of the chairman of the traffic
committee. It seems entirely in or-
der that there be some further d's-
cussion of the exact position of the
traffic committee on the box ques-
tion and a further consideration of
various factors which must be kept
in mind in considering the whole
subject of weights, rates, total
freight charges and selling factors.
Mr. Chase states that the Florida
citrus industry is being penalized
because of lack of methods which
encourage a simplified merchandising
program. Mr. Chase is absolutely
correct. I believe I am correct in
stating that the railroad tariffs con-
tain freight rates on 32 different
packages in which citrus fruit can
be shipped. This fact is of itself
sufficient evidence of a chaotic meth-
od of selling, but even then we must
remember that there are numerous
varieties of citrus fruit and not all
of them can use the same package.
For instance, lemons, limes, tange-
rines, grapefruit and oranges each
have different packing characteristics
and there must be some variation in
packages on that account, but there
is certainly no excuse for 32 different
It is perhaps true that Florida
should adopt a standard container
but that is a question upon which
this writer is not qualified to pass
an opinion and which is certainly no
concern of the traffic committee. In
our prior report we tried to make it
clear that the merits of various pack-
ages was specifically ruled out of the
Interstate Commerce Commission
hearing. That decision was un-
questionably correct because we have
never yet heard it successfully heard
and argued that freight rates or es-
timated weights should be used as
a means of forcing standardization
on one package. There may be
those who feel that any means would
justify the end but the powers that
be, to-wit: the Interstate Com-
merce Commission, does not feel
that the merits of any package have

Chairman Traffic Committee,
Florida Citrus Growers. Inc.
any place in a hearing on estimated
weights and it therefore rather con-
clusively appears that they do not
believe that there is any question be-
tween estimated weights and the
merits of packages, even from the
point of view of their acceptability
as railroad containers.
The traffic committee takes a
stand neither for nor against stand-
ardization of packages. We have
enough to do within our own field
and this committee is not asking
for additional work. The question
raised by Mr. Chase is one of great
importance to the industry and a
great deal of work has been done on
this particular subject. Sometime
ago there was a Federal appropria-
tion of a considerable amount of
money for a study of citrus packag-
ing. If I remember correctly the al-
location to California was about
four times the allocation to Florida,
but just why there should have been
that difference was never entirely
clear unless it was perhaps that
California was in the politically
doubtful column.
I might suggest that President
Kramer could appoint a committee
on citrus packaging and that that
committee could do a most helpful
piece of work for the Florida grow-
er in making a study and survey
whose only bias would be what is
best for the grower. It is indeed
unfortunate that the present box ar-
gument is beclouded by the interest
of special groups, to-wit: the stand-
ard nailed box people, whose cause
is championed by the National
Wooden Box Association; and the
wire bound box people, whose cause
is championed by the Package Re-
search Laboratories, which in turn
is supported by the holder of the
patents on the bruce box, so that as
a matter of fact, none of the ma-
terial and reports with which this
writer is familiar emanate from un-
biased sources. This writer has read
numerous reports from both these
sources and is reminded of the old

gag that figures don't lie but that
liars will figure. Now don't mis-
understand me. I haven't called
anybody a liar and I am not going
to, but there are ways, and still
other ways of presenting facts and
the grower should be interested in
knowing the whole truth about this
package situation. The writer re-
cently saw a carload of one type of
package unloaded and it certainly
left considerable to be desired. Per-
haps the loading was faulty, but on
the other hand, perhaps the package
was to blame, and the grower should
It would appear that Mr. Chase's
statement that standardization would
help distribution merchandising
could not be questioned but whether
the help given would off-set the un-
doubted increased cost of using the
nailed box as against using the bruce
box is something of a question. Ex-
amination of the general auction av-
erages today indicates that the nail-
ed box is outselling the bruce box
but general averages mean very lit-
tle. After all, what counts is
whether or not the salesman with a
particular lot of fruit to sell can get
enough for fruit in the nailed box
to pay the additional costs. It def-
initely appears that a rather large


$ and c
By paying cash for fertilizer.
spray materials, etc.
By borrowing from a grow-
ers' cooperative organization
-operated by and for the
growers who use it;
By paying interest only for
the time you have actual use
of the money;
By repaying your loan when
you sell your crop.
We will be glad to serve you.
Write us for further details.


P. O. Box 1592 Orlando, Fla.

Page 9

This is THE CITRUS GROWER for February 1, 1939

group of salesmen think they are
getting more for certain volume in
a bruce box than they could in a
nailed box. Maybe they are wrong
and maybe the ultimate effect on the
industry is such that one box or
the other should be definitely out-
lawed and we should concentrate on
the use of just one box, as Mr. Chase
and many others suggest.
But in order to keep the records
straight, let me again ask, what does
all this have to do with the work of
the traffic committee? Our job is to
see that the Florida citrus grower
gets the best possible deal from rail-
roads and other transportation agen-
cies and we thought, and a majority
of the committee still think, that it
was not a fair deal to assess oranges
in the bruce box at 100 pounds
when the actual average estimated
weights were near 90 pounds. We
further objected to the proposition
of the railroads increasing the esti-
mated weights on oranges in the
nailed box from 90 to 100 pounds,
thereby increasing total charges 11
The fundamental consideration in
the establishment of railroad rates is
the railroad revenue per car mile and
the breaking down into rates per 100
pounds and the use of estimated
weights is a mere matter of conven-
ience for the shipper and railroad
alike. When the Interstate Com-
merce Commission in effect ordered
the use of estimated weights in line
with actual weights, the traffic com-
mittee does not believe that the In-
terstate Commerce Commission in-
tended to authorize and instruct any
increase in per car mile charges to
the Florida citrus grower, therefore
we protested both the increase in
weight of the standard box without
a corresponding decrease in rates and
also protested the assessment of an
estimated weight for the bruce box
out of line with its actual average
Frankly, the traffic committee sees
an opportunity for the grower to get
a reduction in freight rates by keep-
ing the charges on the standard box
exactly where it is but securing a
reduction in rate to counter balance
the increase in weight, and then
by applying this lower rate to a
lower estimated weight for citrus
fruit in the bruce box, the net re-
sult would be a reduction in freight
charges of approximately 10 per-
cent. Now, if the standard nailed
box is as much better than the bruce
box as its proponents claim it is,
those who wish to use it can well
afford to pay the additional freight.

If it is not as much better, then
possibly the whole industry will
swing to the use of the bruce box.
In the long run, the railroads are
going to be paid for every pound of
freight which they carry and if the
Florida citrus grower can transport
the same poundage of fruit but re-
duce the freight weight assessment he
should be permitted to cash in on
that saving. If good business dic-
tates that he must use a heavier box,
he must face the proposition of pay-
ing on a greater poundage. If the
heavier package is a safer container
from the point of view of railroad
claims, it should be granted a lower
rate, and the difference in railroad
claims should be reflected in rates and

not in weights. That is the prob-
lem of the traffic committee as agreed
to by a majority of that committee.
Mr. W. L. Burton, Secretary,
Florida Citrus Growers. Inc..
Orlando. Fla.
Dear Bill:
I have a letter today from my good friend,
K. J. T. Ekblaw, a non-resident citrus
grower. He has the following to say:
"This morning I got a copy of the first
issue of "The Citrus Grower," the official
organ of the new Citrus Growers' Organiza-
tion, and I am tremendously encouraged by
the frank and inspiring news contained there-
in. I sincerely hope that it will make real
progress: indeed, it has a wonderful field in
which to operate and I am hopeful that the
results will be uniformly good."
Yours very truly,
Leesburg, Fla. H. L. Pringle

"Sell Fruit and Produce the Auction Way,
Where Supply and Demand Meet Every Day"

Students of produce marketing agree that Growers need all existing
agencies to secure the ultimate in distribution.
Jobbers, Brokers, Independent Retailers and Chains all have equal
privileges in buying at Auction. None have preference.


Fruit & Produce Auction Association, Inc.
66 Harrison Street, New York, N. Y.
American Central Fruit Auction Co. H. Harris 8 Co.
St. Louis Boston
Baltimore Fruit Exchange New York Fruit Auction Corp.
Baltimore New York
Consolidated Fruit Exchange, Inc. Philadelphia Terminals Auction Co.
Cleveland Philadelphia
Detroit Fruit Auction Company Union Fruit Auction Company
Detroit Pittsburgh
Fruit Auction Sales Company United Fruit Auction Company
Chicago Cincinnati

Page 10

This is THE CITRUS GROWER for February 1. 1939

Seasonal Operations In--


THERE ARE, IN ALL, about a
hundred demonstration citrus
groves in Lake County. They
are owned by growers who want to
see in operation the methods of grove
fertilization and management rec-
ommended by the State Agricultural
Experiment Stations, the State Agri-
cultural Extension Service and other
leading authorities and agencies.
These groves are located in every
section of the county-some on good
soil, some on fair soil and some on
marginal soil. Some are in areas
well protected from cold while oth-
ers are not. Some of them have ir-
rigation facilities and some have not.
Some are on one type of rootstock
and some on others.
With so many groves, under
such varying conditions, it is possi-
ble to set up these demonstrations so
that growers may watch their prog-
ress under different situations and
adopt practices that prove effective.
Before a demonstration is started,
the plan is carefully worked out by
the owner or operator and the coun-
ty agent. A section of the grove is
selected for the demonstration and
the owner carries out the recom-
mendations. All records are kept in
the county agent's office and any
grower in the county may check over
them at any time.
Most of our grower-demonstra-
tors are confronted this year with an
economic situation that commands
the strictest economy of operation
in their groves.
Irrigation, fertilization and scab
control are the principal factors for
consideration at this time, however.
In our demonstration groves
where irrigation facilities are avail-
able growers thoroughly soak the
root zone of their bearing trees if
rainfall has not provided sufficient
moisture to do this. This irrigation
water should be applied about 2 to
4 acre inches at a time, from January
to June to supplement rainfall so
that the groves get about an acre
inch of water every 10 days until
the June rains.
Late January or early February is
the time for the spring fertilizer ap-
plication. The spring application,
together with plenty of moisture in
the soil, are of greatest importance

Lake County Agent
in setting a crop of fruit. In most
of these groves some soluble form
of nitrogen (in the form of a top-
dresser) will be applied in accord-
ance with the recommendations of
the materials program published by
the State Agricultural Extension
Service. These materials, in the
main, include nitrate of soda, cal-
cium nitrate of soda, calcium nitrate,
nitrate of soda-potash or a satisfac-
tory commercial top-dresser. The
first three will be applied broadcast
at the rate of about one-fourth
pound of material per foot of tree
spread. The grove will not be disk-
ed when this application is made in
groves where irrigation water was
available or where rain is in prospect
in the near future, since the materials
are soluble forms of nitrogen and it
is not advisable to over-stimulate the
tree and cause heavy growth too
early in the season.
On late varieties, such as Va-
lencias, if the fruit is running rather
large and the trees are in need of
fertilizer, a half application of a
top-dresser containing potash is ap-
plied and the other half delayed un-
til the crop is harvested. In cases
where the fruit will be picked within
a couple of weeks of the time the
fertilizer is applied, no consideration
is given to fruit size. and in cases
where the trees appear to be in good
condition and the fruit large, the
entire application is delayed. How-
ever, under normal conditions the
top-dresser is applied similarly on
early and late varieties in the spring.
In groves where the soil is dry
on the surface and no rain is in
prospect and where irrigation water
is not available, the spring applica-
tion will be disked into the soil.
One thing worthy of mention is
the soil reaction (or pH) within the
grove. Most research workers in
Florida agree that the optimum pH
on our sandy soils is about 6. At
this point we receive the greatest ef-
ficiency from our fertilizer mater-

ials. In Lake County demonstra-
tion groves we will be careful to
make our periodic check-up on the
pH in our soils and if we find that
it is between 4.5 and 6.0 we will ap-
ply 500 to 700 pounds dolomite as
needed to bring the pH up and to
supply magnesium which is deficient
in many of our soils. Observations
in our demonstration groves indi-
cate that while dolomite is effective
it is rather slow acting, and in con-
ditions where bronzing (magnesium
deficiency) is found, and the grow-
er desires to correct this condition as
quickly as possible, the application
of dolomite will be supplemented in
May or June with 2 to 3 pounds of
magnesium sulphate to the tree.
In cases where the pH is about
6 and bronzing is present, lesser
amounts (200 to 400 pounds) of
dolomite will be used, and mag-
nesuim sulphate will be applied in
May or June to supply the major
portion of the magnesium.
Available research data and our
local observation indicate that dolo-
mite may be applied at any season
of the year. As we have pointed
out, dolomite provides the lime nec-
essary to raise the pH, it provides
magnesium to combat bronzing of
citrus leaves, and in addition, it
provides calcium (as do other ma-
terials) which is a constituent of
many of the compounds assimilated
by the tree as it takes up nutrients.
In analyzing fruit, we find that cal-
cium ranks third in the total amount
of minerals present, following potash
and nitrogen and ahead of phos-
In some of our groves on light
soils ,where the pH is low, a number
of mineral deficiency symptoms are
apparent. These include die-back or
ammoniation, for which copper is
the remedy, frenching, corrected by
zinc, and manganese deficiency.
Work by Dr. A. F. Camp at the
Citrus Experiment Station indicates
that these deficiencies may be quick-
ly corrected by a spray containing
all these minerals. This spray is
usually applied about two weeks
before the bloom appears. It is not
generally recommended because of
the scale build-up which may fol-
low, but in severe cases it will be
applied. We will follow it with an
(Continued on Page 13)

Page 11

This is THE CITRUS GROWER for February 1, 1939

The Growers' Reception of The
Marketing Agreement

with mixed feelings the marketing agreement re-
turned to the industry for a vote, and which did
not include volume control. It was taken up at the
state directors' meeting at Lake Wales January 20.
Chairman J. J. Banks, Jr., of the Marketing Agree-
ment Committee discussed the grade and size agree-
ment which the government had sent to the Florida
industry and then lead the discussion as to the attitude
which this organization should assume in relation to
it. This discussion disclosed the disappointment felt
in the government refusing to include volume prora-
tion. While recognizing the value of grade and size
in its association with government relief purchases and
its benefits in keeping poor fruit off the market, there
was an unanimous expression that, under present sur-
plus conditions, a grade and size agreement in itself
would have very little, if any, influence in raising price
levels. Likewise, it was the unanimous expression of
those voicing opinions that this agreement, while in-
complete, was a step in the right direction for reasons
heretofore stated; and further that it would give to the
Growers Administrative Body leadership in the indus-
It was felt that the majority of the growers in the
state would want this agreement in its incomplete form
rather than have no agreement of any kind. There
was an unanimous expression to the effect that this
organization should do everything in its power to
have the grower show an interest in his industry and,
in this particular case, to evidence this interest by vot-
ing on the agreement.
In accepting this agreement from the Department of
Agriculture and in utilizing the facilities of this or-
ganization to have the growers of the state vote, and
in expressing the belief that it was a step in the right
direction, there was also pointed out the danger which
might be incurred should this organization too en-
thusiastically sponsor this agreement and thereby lead
the growers of the state to expect substantial price ad-
vancements, when such expectations were not justified
from past experience with grade and size agreements,
both in Florida and in other producing areas.
The resolution passed by the state directors ex-
pressed the firm conviction that the principles con-
tained in the original agreement, as drawn by the
growers' committee and presented at the hearing, should
have been embodied in the agreement submitted for a
vote of the industry, that the agreement submitted
does not contain all of those essential principles, and,
"while deeply deploring the inadequacy of the pro-
posed agreement with respect to its provisions for es-
sential control," the directors "are in accord with and
approve in principle all the other provisions which
have been submitted for referendum."
The directors further assured their full cooperation
"to make the government's program workable and pro-
ductive of ultimate good to the industry."
The directors further requested the marketing agree-
ment committee to "continue its effort to the end that
the citrus industry may at the earliest possible moment
receive an amendment to the marketing agreement per-
mitting the use of volume control in the movement
of fruit into interstate commerce."

No Matter How

We Ship

Growers, as Growers, have things in
common and belong together in one
big Growers Club. Should pull to-
gether. Fight together for their
common good.

No army ever licked an enemy scrap-
ping amongst themselves, but let an
army of trained soldiers go over-the-
top together for one common pur-
pose-Boy OH! Boy.

Same way with soil bacteria. Too
many enemy forces may get the up-
per hand and keep your real work-
ers from doing their best. They need
fresh troops of friendly fighters and
a fresh supply of wholesome food.


The Bacterialized Plant Food

is that kind of reinforcement. It is
rich and wholesome. Rich in the
things our Florida soils need. Rich
in Hormones. Rich in Enzymes.
Inoculated with selected bacteria.
Organisms selected for their ability
to do things. Organisms selected
for team-work. One common goal;
to make trees healthy and happy. To
make fruit the Inspectors will smile
at, and the Yankees will love.


PHONE 3842



138 N. Orange Ave.

Page 12

This is THE CITRUS GROWER for February 1. 1939


We particularly appreciate this
letter from Mr. C. S. Whitfield. of
Whitfield Groves. Orlando, Florida.
We hope other growers read the ar-
ticle in the January 15th issue.
This season, with such an abun-
dance of fruit and low prices pre-
vailing, cash buyers have been de-
luged with grower requests to ship
fruit on consignment. The best
service these reliable shippers could
give was naturally given to their
established grower friends.
Another important point of cur-
rent interest is, that growers must
make some kind of shipper connec-
tion, or form a grower selling group
in order that a volume control mar-
keting agreement may be made to
work effectively. As these satisfac-
tory connections are made by grow-
ers with constructive cash buyers.
who are satisfied with a normal
packing house profit, and, as the
grower selling groups are formed.
as they grow larger, and then fur-
ther extend their powers and bene-
fits by working together with other
grower selling groups, we approach
the condition under which a real
marketing agreement will work most
successfully. We also approach the
condition under wh:ch a marketing
agreement will hardly be necessary.
In fact, as this situation works
itself out to its logical conclusion,
we approach the ideal of organized
selling, which is the only means of
offsetting the power of organized
"Editor, The Citrus Grower,
"Attention: Mr. W. L. Burton.
"I want to congratulate you upon
the last issue of our magazine and,
particularly, to tell you that I ap-
preciated very much your article en-
titled "Selling Fruit Constructively."
Let us have more comments along
that line. It is high time that we
growers paid more attention to the
packing house connections through
which we merchandise our fruit. We
might as well quit kidding ourselves
-there is a weeding-out process
coming, and it is time that we iden-
tified ourselves with the right kind
of packing house connections.
Very truly yours,
Orlando, Fla., Jan. 24, 1939.
The Louisville 8 Nashville and
the Southern Railways are going to
reduce their price on grapefruit and
grapefruit juice served in their diners.


(Continued from Page 11)
oil spray in May or June. This oil
spray is made with 3 pounds of blue-
stone, 4 pounds of zinc sulphate. 4
pounds of hydrated lime, and 10
pounds of wettable sulfur to 100
gallons of water. The wettable sulfur
will help to control rust mites and
scale crawlers if present. The spray
should be applied thoroughly as only
those leaves in which the spray
comes in contact will lose the symp-
toms of the various deficiencies.
These minerals may be applied on

the ground if sufficient organic mat-
ter is present, but their action will
be slower.
If a dormant bordeaux spray was
applied earlier for scab control, the
copper will be omitted from this
spray and the amount of hydrated
lime reduced to 4 pounds.

Sr Lucie County Citrus Growers.
Inc.. monthly meeting. first Friday
of each month. County Court
House. 8 P. M.



T O SECURE quick action, readily-
available plant food is used in citrus
Due to delayed application of the su m-
mer fertilizer, spring top-dressers must
frequently continue to supply plant
food to the trees and to the developing

fruit fr
cause of
ties, UR

organic form of nitrogen, furnishes ni-
trogen to meet these requirements. It
goes to work quickly and keeps working.
See that considerable Urea Nitrogen
is used in your spring top-dresser. Where
nitrogen only is used as a top-dresser,
"IlRAMON" or a "URAMON"-dolomite

ur ferti-

Ammonia Department Wilmington, Delaware Orlando, Florida

om bell to bell. Be- mixture will give e
its unusual proper- results. Consult yoi
EA, a water-soluble I lizermanufactureror

Urea-Ammonia Liquor (20% Urea Nitrogen-25% Ammonia Nitrogen)
"Uramon" Fertilizer Compound (42% Urea Kitrogen)
Reg. U. S. Pat. Off.

Page 13

This is THE CITRUS GROWER for February 1. 1939



IN A RECENT issue of The Citrus Grow-
er, the story behind the selection of
media and appeals for orange advertising
was told. The careful thought given the
preparation of the advertising "copy" was
explained, and the highlights of the survey
made by the commission's advertising agency
in digging out essential facts were given.
The same careful thought goes into the
specialized grapefruit and tangerine pro-
grams. But the situation encountered in
seeking to overcome sales resistance is entirely
different, and must be met with a completely
different approach in appeal.
After questioning 600 housewives in
typical northern cities, the commission found
one use for oranges which overshadowed
everything else-juice. The story was a
different one, however, when the answers
on grapefruit were studied.
Florida oranges compete only with some
other kind of orange, but the prime competi-
tion of grapefruit is with all other fruits and
juices which the housewife could easily use
instead. One fact brought out by the sur-
vey is the large percentage of people who
buy grapefruit for health reasons. While
Floridians have been using grapefruit and
grapefruit juice, followed by soda, for
many years as a cure for colds, the practice
is gradually spreading in the north and many
housewives said they bought grapefruit for
this purpose. It should also be remembered
that grapefruit becomes available just when
the season for colds is developing in the
The healthfulness of grapefruit is being
stressed in the commission's advertising tbij
season as a result of the survey's disclosure
on this angle.
The biggest single use for grapefruit is
halved at breakfast, and nine out of ten who
bought grapefruit said they serve it this
way. As a result of this finding, the com-
mission in its current advertising is bearing;
down heavily on the suggestion that Florida
grapefruit has a tartness which freshens the
mouth and enables better enjoyment of the
whole meal. Such an appeal is a logical one,
after determining how grapefruit is served
in most households.
There is a good-sized group of people in
the eastern and midwestern markets who
prefer Florida grapefruit, but the survey
showed clearly that much work remains to
be done to educate the remainder of the
buying public to the superiority of Florida's
product. In the eastern markets, more
than half the women questioned were not
aware that there were two kinds of grape-
fruit, and the commission's advertising will
seek to educate this group to the superior
freshening quality obtainable in Florida
grapefruit. In addition to 55 percent not
being aware of two kinds of grapefruit, an
additional 23 percent said they did not know
the difference between Florida grapefruit and
that from other areas.
In the midwestern markets, 25 percent of
the housewives said they preferred Texas
grapefruit, but 39 percent in that section
said they did not know the difference and
18 percent were not aware of the two
Flavor and juice were the outstanding
reasons given by those expressing a preference

for Florida grapefruit, these two answers ac-
counting for 67 percent. Others questioned
stated they did not like Texas pinks, con-
sidered Florida's were better quality, that
Florida's had more tang and tart. The
sweetness of Texas grapefruit was the out-
standing reason given by those who expressed
a preference for this fruit, with juiciness sec-
ond. These reasons ran 47.6 percent and
23.8 percent respectively.
A distinct preference for seedless fruit was
shown in all areas. Seventy percent of the
women in the east and 90 percent of those
in the midwest said they would rather have
seedless grapefruit, with ease of preparation
accounting for 89 percent of the answers
given as to the reason why.
Tangerines are being advertised as a deli-
cacy, to be eaten between meals, and this
appeal is made on the finding that this is
by far the most important use for this par-
ticular fruit. The survey showed that 86.3
percent of people prefer them in this man-
ner, among both children and adults. Be-
cause of their vivid color, which fits in
so well with the holiday season during which
they become available in volume, the ad-
vertisements also stress this festive coloring,
as well as the ease with which children can
peel them.

Seminole County News

By Fred Forward. President
At a meeting held under the aus-
pices of the Seminole County Citrus
Growers, Inc., at the Seminole
County Court House in Sanford on
Tuesday, January 17, Dr. Phillips
demonstrated his interesting and in-
structive lecture on "Selling Citrus
by Weight," to a representative com-


South Lake Apopka


Has Grown from 50,000 Boxes

About 3,500 Acres Are Owned I

Packing Profits Are Paid back to
has been repaid.

The Association offers a complex
own Fertilizer Plant and g


A. W. Hurley, President
Phone 61, Winter Garden

----- ----- ----- ----- ----

pany of growers, retail merchants
and other business representatives.
The meeting endorsed the lectur-
er's proposition of selling by weight
as of benefit to Florida growers.

In preparation for the referendum
date for voting on the Marketing
Agreement, arrangements have been
made to thoroughly canvass the
County to insure that every eligible
voter will know what an affirmative
vote means to the future of the cit-
rus industry.
Although the Marketing Agree-
ment is minus the Volume Prorate
the foundation it affords for future
development along the Enes of con-
trol and distribution of Florida cit-
rus, the growers are expected to take
this opportunity to secure this base
on which to build a comprehensive
marketing plan for an ever increas-
ing citrus crop.
Chairmen of Committees whose
names are not on the directorate but
who have served very faithfully and
effectively are C. Endor Curlett of
Geneva, of the Marketing Agree-
ment Committee, also J. L. Maran-
tette of Sanford, of the Advertis-
ing Committee: J. G. Leonardi of
the Legislative Committee, and 0.
R. Estridge, the efficient secretary of
the county organization; C. R.
Dawson, County Agent. whose car-
toons have carried the message of or-
ganization to the growers in a most
pointed invitation to cooperate for
successful marketing, and whose
services are invaluable in many ways.
not only to citrus growers, but also
to celery growers and truckers.

Citrus Growers Ass'n.


to Last Year's Record of 643,356.

by About 150 Members.

Growers and more than $300.000

te caretaking service, operating its
grove equipment at actual cost to


G. S. Hall, Secy.-Manager
Postoffice, Oakland, Fla.

-- -----------------------.--------- -.----

Page 14

This is THE CITRUS GROWER for February 1. 1939

Grapefruit Bread

The delegation of Texas gentlemen who came over
to talk grapefruit prices last week with the Florida
citrus industry bring a bright story about use of grape-
fruit juice in commercial bread making. In Edinburg.
Texas, a town of 5,000 people, the leading bakery has
been operating successfully with grapefruit bread for
some time. The juice is used as a substitute for milk
products. It is found the use of grapefruit juice does
not cost any more and has two overwhelming advan-
tages over the old method:
1. It checks the growth of mould.
2. It keeps the bread fresh much longer.
These are tremendous problems for the bread mak-
ing industry and there are intimations this develop-
ment is of fundamental interest to grapefruit pro-
This bakery in a town of 5,000 people has com-
petition, but it uses 3,000 gallons of grapefruit juice
per month. This would be 9.000 boxes per year.
at four gallons of juice per box.
A normal supply of bread for the eighty million
people east of the Mississippi River would consume an
estimated 144 million boxes of grapefruit per year.
and if as much as one-tenth of the bread in the United
States is made by this method, it will completely solve
the grapefruit surplus problem.
The Texas gentlemen brought a number of loaves
of the bread with them, stored in the back of their
automobile. At a week old it showed no mould and
seemed perfectly fresh and had a good taste.
It may not be time yet to begin to top work orange
and tangerine trees with grapefruit buds. but this is
indeed an interesting story to the distressed grapefruit

Late Bloom Maturity

It was reliably reported to the board of directors
of the grower organization in session January 20 at
Lake Wales that Valencia oranges already are leaving
the state branded as other varieties. The late bloom
of all varieties has also colored up so that its appar-
ance is very little different from the early bloom.
Shipment of either of these classes of fruit will un-
doubtedly give the customer some sour fruit that will
cause him to think very badly of Florida. It is doubt-
ful if the market has yet recovered from severe punish-
ment it received in the heavy volume of immature
fruit that is said to have gotten by the test earlier in
the season. The growers do not want that evil in-
fluence to come back and bite them again.
While the payment of maturity test fees cannot be
assessed under the law, so the directors were advised.
after January 1st, the Commissioner of Agriculture is
given the power and duty to check the maturity of
fruit throughout the season. The directors petitioned
the commissioner to be more closely on his guard this
year, when the late bloom is complicating the situation.
to see that no unripe fruit gets out of the state.
Some real shortage of early bloom fruit may de-
velop, but it can have only a strengthening effect on
the market, if it does.

Page 15







When volume is large prices are usually low
and merchandise of poor quality seldom finds
a purchaser. This is certainly true of citrus

It has and will continue to be our policy to
assist our customers in producing fruit of bet-
ter quality by manufacturing and selling Fer-
tilizers of EXTRA VALUE and rendering
Superior Field Service.

Ask Us About


Brands of Fertilizer


Superior Field Service




Box 1021

Tampa, Fla.

I, ,,

This is THE CITRUS GROWER for February 1, 1939

More State Organization Stories--


INCE ITS formation in Decem-
ber, 1923, the Growers and
Shippers League has enjoyed the
confidence and support of growers
and shippers, generally, throughout
Florida in the work it has done on
their behalf, particularly as related
to traffic and transportation matters.
The League was organized by
leading growers and shippers of the
state as a medium for the advan-
tageous, economic and convenient
handling, primarily, of general traf-
fic and transportation matters af-
fecting the fresh fruit and vegetable
industry, and it has functioned con-
tinuously and effectively in that ca-
pacity during the 15 years of its
The charter officers, executive com-
mitteemen and directors of the
League were:
Charter officers: L. B. Skinner.
president: L. W. Tilden, vice-presi-
dent: S. O. Chase, treasurer: J. Cur-
tis Robinson, secretary-manager.
Executive committee: L. B. Skin-
ner, J. C. Chase, C. E. Stewart. Jr..
F. L. Skelly. (deceased). W. E.
Lee, Lawrence Gentile.
Board of directors: Alexander 8
Baird, American Fruit Growers, Inc..
Chase 8 Company. Citrus Fruit
Company. Florida Citrus Exchange,
Fugazzi Brothers, Gentile Brothers,
W. E. Lee 8 Co., Manatee County
Growers Association. Manatee Fruit
Co., J. J. Parr'sh, H. W. Peterson
8 Co., Roberts Bros., Sanford-
Oviedo Truck Growers, L. B. Skin-
ner. Standard Growers Exchange.
John S. Taylor (deceased), W. L.
Wilson, Winter Park Fruit Co.
Present officers, members of the
executive committee and directors of
the League are:
Officers: R. B. Woolfolk. presi-
dent; Randall Chase. vice-president-
treasurer; J. R. Crenshaw, secretary-
traffic manager: Jane B. Hunter, as-
sistant secretary.
Executive committee: R. B. Woo'-
folk, Randall Chase. W. L. Tilden.
J. C. Chase, L. D. Aulls. R. D.
Keene, J. C. Hutchison, A. S. Her-
long, Sr.. W. H. Mouser and W. M.
Board of Directors: Adams Pack-
ing Co.. Alexander 8 Baird Co.,
American Fruit Growers. Inc.. Or-

Growers f Shippers League

lando Division. American Fruit
Growers, Inc., Sanford Division,
Bryden 8 Raoul. Chase 8 Com-
pany. Jos. Eichelberger Co., Florida
Citrus Exchange, Chester C. Fosgate
Company. A. S. Herlong 1 Co.,
Holly Hill Fruit Products Co.. J. C.
Hutchison 8 Co.. International
Fruit Corporation. R. D. Keene,
Inc., Lake Charm Fruit Company,
Lee County Packing Co., Leesburg
Truckers' Association. M a n a t e e
County Growers Assn., Manatee
Fruit Company, L. Maxcy. Inc.. W.
H. Mouser 8 Co.. Nelson F Com-
pany, Palmer Farms Growers Cooo-
erative Assn., J. Curtis Robinson. L.
W. Tilden. W. L. Tilden. Waverly
Growers Cooperative.
Headquarters of the organization
are in the Florida Bank building at
The present membership in point
of production and volume shipped.
is about the largest in the history of
the organization.
The first major undertaking of the
League were the filing and success-
ful prosecution, in cooperation with

the Florida Railroad Commission, of
formal complaints before the Inter-
state Commerce Commission seeking
general reductions in the line-haul
rates on citrus fruits and vegetables
from Florida to interstate destina-
tions. Subsequently, the League,
ably assisted by the State Railroad
Commission also was successful in
securing downward revisions of re-
frigeration charges on Florida fruits
and vegetables in proceedings before
the ICC. It again took the lead in
securing the establishment and con-
tinued maintenance of the present
reduced truck-competitive and emer-
gency rates on citrus fruits and vege-
tables from Florida and it has been
the leading instrumentality of the
growers and shippers in effecting
many other needed improvements in
freight rates and transportation serv-
ice for the industry.
The League's vigorous opposition
before the ICC during the early part
of last year against granting of ap-
plications made by the railroads for
authority to make a general increase
of 15 per cent in the rates on fruits
and vegetables, was a major factor
in having the proposed increase held
to five per cent.
Recently the League conducted the
opposition of the growers before the
Florida Railroad Commission against
granting of applications of the car-
riers for authority to make an up-
ward revision of rates on fertilizer
materials in Florida, which applica-
tions were subsequently denied by
the commission.
In the matter of estimated billing
weights of Florida citrus and vege-
tables, the League has resisted suc-
cessfully to date all efforts made to
increase the weights prescribed in
the line-haul rate cases without mak-

We Offer Growers
A Market for Their Fruit
Cash on the Tree
Top Market Prices
At All Times

M. C. Britt Produce Co.
Phone 56 or 101

Page 16

This is THE CITRUS GROWER for February 1, 1939

United Growers And Shippers

Association An Active One

pers Association, with headquarters in
Orlando, was organized during the
summer and fall of 1937. This organiza-
tion was conceived by a group of independ-
ent shippers, principally cash buyers, many
of whom are also substantial producers.
These shippers had never before been
able to effectuate a cohesive organization,
this being mainly due to the fact that, by
the very nature of their business, they had
previously felt it necessary to remain abso-
lutely independent, and had felt their ideas
ing provisions for concurrent reduc-
tions in rates to off-set increases in
transportation charges incurred.
Hearings conducted by the Inter-
state Commerce Commission in the
Citrus Estimated Weight case were
concluded with the Florida hearing
held in Orlando during the month of
October 1938, but it will be some-
time yet before the case goes to the
commission for decision. In the
meantime the present estimated
weights, which have been in effect
for many years, will continue to ap-
ply under the commission's order
of suspension in the proceeding.
The Growers and Shippers League
is the only organization in Florida
equipped and prepared to handle suc-
cessfully general traffic and transpor-
tation matters for the fruit and
vegetable industry as a whole. The
success achieved in this work to date
may be illustrated by comparing
freight rates and per car charges that
were applied on Florida citrus prior
to November 1928, and on Florida
vegetables prior to October 1931, be-
fore the League had won its line-haul
rates cases before the ICC, with the
rates subsequently established and
presently applied, together with re-
sulting reductions in transportation
charges. Comparative tables which
have been prepared show that freight
savings of many thousands of dol-
lars are accruing annually to the
Florida growers and shippers as a re-
sult of the League's activities.
The organization has been oper-
ated at surprisingly low cost to the
membership-only about $300,000
(which includes heavy litigation ex-
penses in the conduct of many cases
before the Interstate Commerce
Commission) having been invested
in its continuous operation over a
period of 15 years. The return in
freight savings alone on this in-
vestment now amounts to better than
$28.00 annually for each dollar

were so different it would be difficult to
work along lines of common thought and
But they had found it impossible to par-
ticipate in industry affairs as individuals:
upon mature consideration, therefore, it
developed that, after all, each was working
toward the same end-improved conditions
for both growers and shippers. Numerous
Cash-on-the-Tree growers were interested in
the same ideals and saw fit to throw in
their lot with these shippers and to assist
in the formation of what was eventually
to become a potent factor in the industry.
Chester C. Fosgate, prominent Orlando
grower-shipper, was elected president, sup-
ported by a strong board of directors in-
cluding other progressive industrialists to-
gether with two leading growers. Murl E.
Pace of Tavares was elected general manager
and assigned the duty of perfecting the or-
ganization and generally supervising all ac-
The objectives of the group include ac-
tive participation in all matters looking to-
ward the advancement of the general inter-
ests of the industry with particular em-
phasis directed toward matters affecting cash
buyers, grower-shippers and "Cash-on-the-
Tree" growers. It was, and is, the duty
of the employed personnel to handle public
relations and departmental relations, com-
pile and furnish industry activities.
United has steadily increased its influ-
ential membership, now numbering approxi-
mately 100 organizations handling last sea-
son approximately 1-3 of Florida's citrus
Beginning its second year last June, Unit-
ed unanimously re-elected Chester C. Fos-
gate as President, with other Directors and
officers as follows:
Barnard Kilgore, Vice-President, Clear-
water; Chas. A. Stewart, Treasurer, Au-

burndale; C. V. Griffin, Howey-in-the-
Hills. Directors: M. C. Britt. Winter Gar-
den; Parks Williams, Leesburg; Carl Coik-
lin, Eustis; W. H. Mouser, Orlando; W.
E. Richardson, Orlando; Phillip Caruso,
Winter Garden; G. J. Egan, Clermont; E.
J. Burrell, Eustis; John S. Barnes, Plant
Other officers are Murl E. Pace, general
manager, Madge Currington, secretary, and
John S. Lavin, general counsel.
Mr. L. H. Kramer, President.
Dear Mr. Kramer:
I thank you very kindly for copy of the
first issue of The Citrus Grower, and I want
to compliment you on its fine, attractive
"make-up," which speaks for itself. Surely
you and your associates are at least entitled
to a hearty vote of thanks for the magnifi-
cent work you are doing in bringing order
and ultimate success out of chaos in the
marketing problems which have confronted
the industry for these many years. May ev-
ery success attend your untiring efforts.
I see the subscription price is only 50
cents per year for members, so I am handing
you my check for $1.00, which will help
pay for some other person who may not
happen to subscribe.
Again wishing you unbounded success, I
remain Very truly yours,
Frank J. Dryburgh.
Sandwich, Ill., Nov. 26th.
We regret an error made in our
last issue in the advertisement of
Superior Fertilizer Company. The
advertisement, as printed, of their
Super "X" Top Dresser showed it
contained "30% Copper Oxide,"
whereas it should have shown
".30% (thirty one-hundredths of
one percent)-- Copper Oxide." We
apologize to our advertiser for this


Practical and Economical

Give your grove a chance to produce a crop at a cost per box that
will make you money. Now is the time to prepare for the coming
crop and improve the quality as well as quantity.


ready for immediate delivery

Farm & Home Machinery Company

Orlando, Florida Phone 5791

Page 17

This is THE CITRUS GROWER for February 1, 1939



* *

Success Is Up To Us

A NEW ERA IN THE citrus industry of the nation
was made last week when a delegation of Texas
growers came to Florida for the purpose of mak-
ing an agreement with the Florida industry on grape-
fruit. The Texas industry had already set the price
of grapefruit to canners at $3.50 per ton, net to the
grower, before the Florida Citrus Commission had an-
nounced the average cash cost of production of grape-
fruit in Florida for the 1938-39 season as 32 cents per
1 3-5 bushel box, and had issued a regulation pro-
hibiting the sale of grapefruit for any puroose at a
price lower than that, net to the grower. This makes
the Florida price $7.53 per ton net to the grower, cal-
culating a box of fruit to weigh 85 pounds.
The result of several lengthy conferences between
the Texas delegation and a committee from every
branch of the Florida industry, including growers,
shippers, canners and the Florida Citrus Commission,
was that Texas raised their price to $5.25 per ton net
to the grower, for canning purposes. The members of
the conference agreed that difference in freight rates to
markets were favorable to Florida over Texas, and the
higher juice quality of Florida grapefruit, as recog-
nized throughout the country, would justify this dif-
ference of $2.28 per ton lower price for grapefruit for
canning purposes in Texas. The Texas price re-
mains $10.00 per ton, net to the grower, for white
grapefruit, and $15.00 per ton for pink grapefruit, for
fresh fruit purposes.
This epochal direct cooperation between the nation's
two largest grapefruit producing sections is pleasant
to contemplate, but does not mean the victory is won.
The growers will not get a bit of benefit from the
highly encouraging work of the past few weeks unless
they stick together and make the plan work. Reports
have come to the Citrus Commission at its two last
meetings that several schemes are already in operation
to get around the law. One canner is reported to be
thoroughly in sympathy with the cost-of-production
movement, and is cooperating in every way to make
it work, but this canner takes the ruling of the com-
mission to mean the price is 32 cents net to the grower
at the cannery platform. Another more subtle and re-
fined evasion, was that the canner pay 32 cents per
box for grapefruit, net to the grower, then afterwards
there would be nothing to prevent the canner from
contracting with the grower for the grower to pick
and haul the fruit to the canning plant for one cent
per box. Both schemes have the effect of reducing the
price to the grower by the amount of the cost of pick-
ing and hauling. The commission branded all such
schemes as violations of the law and set the price of
seven cents per box as the minimum at which it would
be lawful to contract to pick and haul fruit.
The board of directors of Florida Citrus Growers,
Inc., at its meeting in Lake Wales, January 20, strong-

ly endorsed the grapefruit cost-of-production move-
ment. The directors also reflected the intent of the
commission in making it clear that this price is net
to the grower, the purchaser to pay all charges, such
as picking, hauling and state taxes.
There is no power, except the combined influence
of the growers that will make it possible to enforce this
law effectively. The law enforcement agencies are
with us to the limit, but it will be impossible for them
to check violations and punish violators unless they
receive the help and hearty support of the growers.
The law is not a bit stronger than the sentiment be-
hind it. The movement is the growers' baby, it would
never have advanced nearly so far nor so fast as it has
if it had not been for the driving force of our organiza-
tion behind the idea. It is still the grower's task to
follow the spirit and intention of the law himself and
rally his fellow growers to do likewise.
It is only natural a lull in buying would follow a
rise in fruit prices put into effect by legal means. A
certain percentage of the canners can be expected to ex-
tend this lull unduly. They will make the quiet period
as long as possible in order to break down the morale
of the growers, and to make the growers think an ad-
justment will not come. With early bloom grapefruit
rapidly falling off the trees in places, it is going to be
hard for the grower to make himself hold out.
We know, however, that sellers must have some
way of combatting organized buyers. This law can-
not help unless the growers stand together. It will
take a lot of fortitude on the part of some to do this.
To bolster his nerve in this trying situation the
grower would probably profit by remembering that the
canner cannot make money unless he operates his plant,
That the canner, as well as the grower, loses when
the fruit is lost. It was to be expected that this tight
situation would arise-the fruit ruining and the can-
nery shut down-but if the growers can only hold
together over the hump, the situation is bound to ad-
just itself and we will enter a territory of definitely
higher prices.
The necessary resulting increase in price of canned
fruit products may limit to a small degree the amount
the consumer will finally buy. But the additional
price per can is too small to reduce buying much. It
will hardly affect consumer buying at all if the can-
ners accept the program and cooperate to make it
We believe the canners have used bad judgment if
they have set up their prospective prices for the season
on the basis of the ruinously low prices that have pre-
vailed up to this time. At the meeting of the directors
of our organization at Ft. Pierce on November 3, a
resolution was passed which included the following:
* That we go on record as recommending to
the members of this organization and to all growers in
the state of Florida that no orange or grapefruit drops
be sold, and that we recommend to all growers in the

Page 18

state of Florida that a minimum
price of 20 cents per box on the tree
be established for grapefruit for can-
ning purposes."
Certainly there was no indication
that this price represented cost of
production or that it represented a
fair return to the grower. At that
time grapefruit drops were selling
in large quantities to canners at 5
and 10 cents per box, which was
having a destructive effect on the
prices of quality fruit. The above
resolution was the first feeble gesture
of the new grower organization to
stabilize selling.
At one of the recent meetings of
the Florida Citrus Commission deal-
ing with the cost of production law
a prominent canner gave evidence
that this minimum price of 20 cents
per box had been used by the can-
ners in establishing their purchasing
program for the season. He also in-
dicated that the anxiety of growers
to sell had caused canners to buy fruit
at prices lower than 20 cents per
box. The canners used bad judg-
ment however, if they planned upon
a continued demoralized condition,
because they should have protected
themselves against the certainty that
any change in conditions would be
for the better and any change in
prices would be upward.
Furthermore this effort to get cost
of production for the grower de-
serves the hearty and genuine support
of canners. They have in it a large
financial stake for themselves. It
will automatically raise the price of
the millions of unsold cans of fruit
products already put up at the de-
structively low prices of the past
weeks. From here to the end of the
season the canner will have the bet-
ter opportunity to make profits that
come always with better prices. We
believe most canners will work with
In taking part in the "cost-of-
production" movement, President L.
H. Kramer, of Florida Citrus Grow-
ers, Inc., did so as an individual,
but his organization gave him en-
thusiastic support in circulating the
petitions on which the state of emer-
gency action was based. Without
the organization it would likely have
been impossible to get the petitions
signed in time to make the price
pegging action of any value. And,
when the growers' directors met on
January 20th the entire board heart-
ily endorsed and gave strongest of-
ficial sanction to the action of Mr.
Kramer. They also voted to re-im-
burse him for the four days' time

for fifteen stenographers that he paid
out of his own pocket in order to get
the thousands of names copied and
arranged by counties and districts so
they could easily be checked and
ruled upon by the governor, the sec-
retary of agriculture and the citrus
Commissioner of Agriculture Na-
than Mayo has also given strong
cooperation to make this effort suc-
cessful. He has made an outstand-
ing contribution to the success of
this grower effort to raise prices.
Weaknesses in the cost-of-production
law have been pointed out, but the
resourcefulness o f Commissioner
Mayo and of his department rein-
forced the cost-of-production law
with the bond and license law. And
buyers who violate or attempt to
evade the cost-of-production law, do
so at the risk of having their license
Commissioner Mayo and his de-
partment have given the same speedy
and effective action to this law
that they have done throughout this
season in the case of the arsenic spray
law. It would tighten enforcement
if the commissioner should see fit
to publish the names of violators.
So, through their own efforts,
growers have gotten themselves in a
strong position to demand at least
cost of production for their fruit.
They have all the machinery of our
state government with them, they
have an agreement with Texas pro-
ducers that prevents cut throat com-
petition in the national markets. It
is the first time growers have had
their own interests so squarely put
up to them. They must make this
law work.
We have seen hired disturbers at-
tempting to break the growers' reso-
lution. These disrupters say the
fruit is falling on the ground and
spoiling. It would be best to get
something for it. But the grower
should tell himself if half of it falls
on the ground and spoils, the half
on the ground is paying him 9 to
17 cents per box for fertilizer pur-
poses, and, if, by this action, he can
get 32 cents for the other half, he
will still be much further ahead of
the game than he was at prices paid
three weeks ago.


Approximately 100 offices of the
Railway Express Agency will put up
displays in connection with the
Jaycees Florida citrus drive.


The state office of Florida Citrus
Growers, Inc., in Orlando finds it-
self in a dilemma every time a com-
mittee or group of its interested
members gathers there in a meeting
inasmuch as there is a decided scar-
city of chairs. Moreover, it is felt
that such worthy growers should
have something a little more com-
fortable than a box to sit on. So a
plea is sent out that if any mem-
bers have or know of chairs to be
purchased cheaply second-hand, they
immediately notify the Secretary's
office giving description and price.
The type desired is an office arm
chair in either mahogany or walnut
finish so that they will match up
with present furniture in the office.
At least ten such chairs are needed,
but if you know of only one, it will
still be appreciated if you will tell
us about it.

Many well financed efforts to help
the citrus industry have failed in the
past. Hence much wonder that
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., prac-
tically unfinanced, has done so much.
The explanation is this organization
has the people-the growers. We
need more growers in the ranks.
Talk to your non-member neighbor
about it.
The Citrus Grower,
Orlando, Florida,
Enclosed is $1.00 for which please enter
my subscription for The Citrus Grower to
be mailed to the above address until further
notice. I have read with much interest Vol.
1, No. II. "Don't Sell Short" reminds me
of the good Scotch advice "Don't sell your
hen on a rainy day." There is much good ad-
vice in your paper. Sorry to have missed the
Vol. I, No. I. Hope you will mail it to me.
One of the worst things about the citrus
(situation) "to my way of thinking" as Al
Smith says about something in politics is
that too much fruit is rushed to market be-
fore it is ripe. The taste gives buyers the
opinion that California fruit is sweeter than
Florida fruit. Another bad practice is mar-
keting culls and third size.
Let's hope for improvement along the
In the nursery business, the best growers
have the largest bonfires.
If we would use for fertilizer those poot
fruits there would not be a surplus so great
but a market with reasonable prices could be
found in general, especially with a strong ad-
vertising campaign. Forty-five years expe-
rience in business taught me that the only
way to success in merchandising was that
everlastingly at it was the only sure way.
Yours truly,
S. G. Harris
St. Petersburg, Fla.

. -~ ~

It is by no means calamity howling to say that

:' > M i i,, p 1 EN ,\ Sf. IT

for the Florida citrus industry over existing dclmoralhed and distressed
conditions Those who make this gloomy statement indicate only a
% willingness to face the mathematical facts set our in Dr C \ Noble's
article in this issue of the magazine The world situation is changing
in evterv respect and we have no exception from this trend

There may be bad crop years that will bring temporary relief but the
figures show the present surplus will continue to grow larger for some
years to come, even if there are no additional plantings. No great ex-
pansion in markets is expected. The economics division of the United
States Department of Agriculture says there has been no marked in-
crease in the per capital consumption of citrus fruit for a long time.
Consequently, there is no immediate improvement in sight

and collectively study the means by which they can certainly overcome
this situation. We are trying in successive issues of this magazine to
indicate the many sides of the problem and to show that no single
grower could hope to conduct the many investigations necessary for
forming correct conclusions. It is a job for all growers united to-
gether Each grower owes the broad services of this organization to
himself, his fellow growers owe their services to him, in this trying
situation. You cannot afford to shirk your responsibility. Now is
the time to


Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.



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