Group Title: Citrus grower (Orlando, Fla.)
Title: The citrus grower
Full Citation
Permanent Link:
 Material Information
Title: The citrus grower
Uniform Title: Citrus grower (Orlando, Fla.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30-44 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
Place of Publication: Orlando Fla
Publication Date: January 15, 1939
Frequency: weekly (semimonthly july-sept.)[<1939>]
semimonthly[ former 1938-]
normalized irregular
Subject: Fruit-culture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruit industry -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Nov. 15, 1938)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1942?
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 4, no. 9 (May 15, 1942).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086640
Volume ID: VID00005
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 03227648
lccn - sn 96027371

Full Text


MAR 3- 1939
$ S, o.:;'i r A i tc






and the energetic, judicious personality directing the activities of the Legisla-
tive Committee of Florida Citrus Growers. Inc., lays down the policy for the
Growers' Legislative program in the lead story (page 4) of this issue.

. .




WE WILL IMAGINE that there is no citrus in-
dustry in the United States, and you and I are
charged with the job of investigating conditions
and locating such an industry. We would have our
choice of all the possible areas-California, Arizona,
Texas, Florida. We would have been told that this is
a business proposition. The object is to put the mon-
ey into the venture where there is the greatest promise
of profitable return. In this unexplored field we would
be forced by good judgment to pick Florida on account
of its nearness to the largest consuming centers. The
producer would be most favorably located, near to his
But we are not in an uncharted field. A long his-
tory has proved that Florida has other outstanding ad-
vantages in addition to this self-evident one of near-
ness to markets. Compared with other producing areas
the quality of the fruit is much higher, the skin is thin-
ner, the juice content greater. Added to this is our
plentiful average rainfall, mild climate, and other fac-
tors that make cost of production lower.
In spite of these tremendous advantages, the Florida
grower is probably worse off than the average grower
of the other citrus sections of the United States. Is it
at all reasonable to believe that things must stay that
way? The hearty support that our organization is
receiving from growers and other constructive forces in
the industry indicate how strongly most of us believe
things do not have to remain this way. We are out
to correct this distressed situation that exists contrary
to all sound reasoning. To this general proposition
of putting the Florida citrus industry on a more pros-
perous basis, to set it in line to get the benefits of its
special advantages, there is not and will not be a word
of objection. That is, there is no objection so long
as it remains a general proposition. On a general bet-
terment plan everybody agrees with us.
It is only when we begin to take definite specific
steps that objections arise. Our marketing agreement
committee has had strong opposition to specific parts
of its marketing program. In this issue of our maga-
zine Chairman E. G. Todd, of the legislative commit-
tee, has outlined a comprehensive legislative program,
with some suggestions of specific things that will like-
ly require legislative action. He has stated in his article
the declared policy of this organization, that every
effort is going to be made to discover the facts and base

legislative recommendations on thorough investigation
and sound advice from all interests concerned. Still I
agree with Mr. Todd that every step of this legislative
program, when finally agreed upon and mapped out,
will receive opposition. It is when we start to take
a specific step that opposition develops.
A moment's reflection will show why this is true.
Of course no one really wants anything but a pros-
perous Florida citrus industry. But in order to get
this, what we know already shows that some changes
must be made in our habits of doing business, in our
packing and shipping practices, in more economical pro-
ducing programs. We must remember that the old
practices did not come about by accident. These prac-
tices are now in use because someone wanted them that
way. They came into being because this or that par-
ticular method means more profit in the pocket of some
individual or group of individuals. These individuals
and groups make strenuous objections when changes
are proposed that affect them.
The only basis on which we can hope to improve
is to strive to make changes that will greatly benefit
everyone with as little inconvenience to anyone as pos-
sible. Our loyal committee chairmen, supported by
loyal committee members, are thoroughly covering the
ground. They are calling outside men of broad ex-
perience and recognized good judgment in striving to
find the correct course of action.
Any member interested in any one or several phases
of the legislative problem is urged to confer with the
chairman of the committee handling that problem in
his county. This, and answers to questionnaires will
give the state committees the wholesome benefit of
broad grower discussion and thought. Every county
organization will participate in the final conclusions,
and the grower can know that the recommendations
made to the legislature have been made by growers, or
specialists in whom growers have complete confidence.
This the grower owes to himself to bear in mind
when the opposition makes flank attacks, and should
analyze and seek for himself the real reason for these
And, when our committees have shown us the proper
steps to take, we must have the courage to take those
steps, even though they do arouse opposition. Other-
wise we must admit we cannot find a way to benefit
by the unusual natural advantages the Florida citrus
producing area has.

Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.




The Citrus Grower

Official Publication of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.


JANUARY 15, 1939


State C. of C. Supports Growers
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., seems to be kept busy
in that altogether pleasant duty of thanking its friends.
This time thanks are appropriate for recognition of our
grower organization and the proposed marketing agree-
ment, drawn by its committee, as "the two most impor-
tant factors within the citrus industry for bringing
about improvement." And the recognition comes from
that outstanding organization of business men-Flor-
ida State Chamber of Commerce.
We quote below the text of the resolution passed
by the membership of that organization in annual
session at Hollywood, Fla., December 13. 1938:
"WHEREAS, the Florida citrus industry is in a
chaotic, demoralized condition, and
"WHEREAS, by virtue of the citrus industry being
a major industry of Florida, this said condition is de-
pressing the rest of Florida's industries, and
"WHEREAS, business leaders from all over the
State of Florida in meeting at Hollywood, Florida, De-
cember 13, 1938, of the Florida State Chamber of
Commerce, were advised that the Florida Citrus Grow-
ers, Inc., and the Growers Marketing Agreement for
improving and stabilizing citrus markets were the two
most important factors within the citrus industry for
bringing about improvement.
the Florida State Chamber of Commerce, in annual ses-
sion, Hollywood, Florida, on this 12th day of De-
cember, 1938, A. D., in their determination to improve
the citrus industry, thereby improving general business
conditions in Florida, do hereby pledge to support the
right of the growers to vote on the type of marketing
agreement which the growers want and should have.
"BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that in addition
to releasing this to the press, copies of this resolution
be forwarded to the Agricultural Adjustment Ad-
ministration, the Florida Citrus Producers Trade As-
sociation, the United Growers and Shippers Associa-
tion, and the Florida Citrus Growers."




Distinguished Visitor
The Florida citrus belt had as its guest during the past week one
of its greatest and least heralded benefactors, in Dr. A. R. C. Haas.
associate plant physiologist, California Agricultural Experiment
Station, a division of the University of California, and located at
Riverside. Dr. Haas is a specialist in nutrition of citrus and is
regarded as one of the world's leading authorities.
Of interest to Florida is that Dr. Haas is a pioneer in investi-
gation of mineral deficiencies in soils, such as magnesium, calcium,
manganese, boron, zinc, cobalt, iron. These deficiencies are not
of such great importance in California, and Dr. Haas, so far as
the citrus industry in that state is concerned, has pursued his
studies almost on the basis of pure science. To the industry,
however, the work in which he has been a leader, has immense
practical value, has meant millions of dollars to citrus growers here.
and promises even greater benefits.
While here Dr. Haas called upon Dr. Wilmon Newell and Dr.
Harold Hume, at the Gainesville station, spent two or three days
in the field with E. L. Mathews, citriculturist for Plymouth Cit-
rus Growers' Association, talked with Dr. O. C. Bryan, who has
done some outstanding work in this particular field, and Dr. A. F.
Camp, at the Lake Alfred station, who has some interesting ex-
periments in progress in this line. He also called upon an old
schoolmate in Dr. J. R. Winston, senior pathologist of the United
States Citrus Experiment Station, Orlando.
This was his first visit to Florida. Here he found over large
areas evidences of deficiencies that he had laboriously worked out
in laboratories, using a water culture method, where it was pos-
sible to know exactly what chemicals the tree and fruit would get.

Virgil H. Conner Editor Published the First and Fifteenth of each able. The publishers can accept no re-
month by The Florida Citrus Growers, responsibility for return of unsolicited manu-
J. E. Robinson Business Manager Inc., Orlando, Florida. scripts.
Entered as second-class matter Novem- Subscription Rates
PUBLICATION COMMITTEE-W. E. er 15, 1938, at the postoffice at Orlando, In United States, one year $1.00 to non-
Kemp, Chairman; Carl D. Brorein, R. Fla., under the Act of March 3, 1879. members of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.,
J. Kepler, E. G. Thatcher, W. L. Burton, Membership subscriptions, one year 50c.
C. A. Garrett, Karl Lehmann. Manuscripts submitted to this maga-
zine should be accompanied by suitcient Address all mail to The Citrus Grower,
Printed by The Chief Press, Apopka postage for their return if found unavail- P. O. Box 2077, Orlando, Florida.

This is THE CITRUS GROWER for January 15, 1939

Chairman Todd Speaks to Growers---

Inc., has thrust itself into a po-
sition of leadership in the citrus
industry. It has reached a sufficient
stature through the numbers and
character of its membership to as-
sume the responsibilities that go with
this leadership. Failure to assume
this responsibility would brand us
as just another well meaning but
ineffectual attempt on the part of the
grower to do something for him-
The industry is confronted with
many major problems which must
be solved before we can hope to real-
ize a fair profit from our groves.
Some of these problems are listed
herein together with the remedies
which seem to be indicated.
The green fruit problem with its
many ramifications must be solved.
This seems to be a matter to be rem-
edied by legislative action. The ma-
turity standards must be raised. Con-
sideration should be given to the
question of fixing a date for market-
ing to begin. Consideration should
be given to the question of different
maturity standards for different va-
rieties. The use of arsenical sprays,
solely for the purpose of defeating
the maturity standard law, must be
regulated, so as to remove the unfa-
vorable publicity attendant upon the
controversy surrounding this prac-
tice. It is apparently true that when
PROPERLY used, arsenical sprays
have a very definitely beneficial ef-
fect upon the eating quality of cer-
tain varieties and, after all, flavor is
what keeps the consumer coming
back for more. It is also apparently
true that the use of arsenical sprays
has the effect of lengthening the
marketing season, with no apparent
ill-effect upon either the trees, their
production, or the shipping quality
of the fruit. Certainly, however,
the most careful investigation should
be made on this highly controver-
sial question before any definite rec-
ommendation is made.
The abuses of the color added
practice seem to revolve around the
attempt to hide immaturity by the

addition of coloring material. On
the other hand this practice, applied
to fruit of fine eating quality, could
be established as a badge of honor.
The present law contemplated this
very thing by setting a maturity
standard higher on fruit so treated.
The probable remedy for the
abuses of this law will be a change
in the method of taking samples un-
der the maturity law. In other
words, it is true of all legislation
to eliminate the shipment of green
fruit, that the evil of mixing im-
mature with mature fruit must be
stopped and, moreover, can be stop-
ped with proper legislative action.
and determined enforcement.
The problem of shipper domina-
tion of the industry, together with
the very definite injection of politics
into the selection of members of the
citrus commission, is a matter that
is entirely in the hands of the grow-
ers themselves to remedy. While it
is true that these problems present
the grave possibility of ruinous di-
vision of opinion among the mem-
bers of this organization, yet, at the
same time, they are very definitely a
major problem which we must face
if we are to provide the strong lead-
ership which the industry so sorely
needs. We, as growers, have side-
stepped these issues too long already
and the condition in which we find
ourselves can be laid in part to our
failure to face them.
No attempt whatsoever has been
made to regulate the canning indus-
try, which now is our means of
marketing nearly half of our grape-
fruit crop. We permit the canneries
to place in cans juice from dropped
fruit, in some cases unfit for any
food purpose. My understanding is
that there is no regulation of sani-
tary provisions in the canneries, oth-
er than those required by the Fed-
eral Food and Drug Administration.
Yet this inferior fruit processed un-
der these conditions, is permitted by
us to be placed on the market in
competition with our better grades of
fruit in both fresh and canned forms.
The remedy for this situation is, of
course, proper legislation.

The problem of adjusting pack-
ing house charges is one that requires
thorough analysis. A great deal of
work has been done on this subject
by the Federal government and the
information which they have ob-
tained is in the hands of one of our
committees appointed for that pur-
pose. No one questions the un-
economic practice of numerous pack-
ing houses, with a small volume of
fruit, staffed with salaried employees,
with enormous fixed over-head
charges for their physical equip-
ment; nor of the practice of hauling
fruit to and fro about the state to
these packing houses, in some cases
more than a hundred miles, and the
growers in some way or another pay-
ing the bill for maintaining this
The remedy for this condition
may or may not lie in legislative ac-
tion depending upon the findings of
the committee making a study of this
subject; but it is certain that the
grower cannot pay the bill much
Standards should be fixed, and
enforced, to cover grading, shipping
packages and field crates. The legis-
lative committee has already brought
to light the fact that 93 shippers
are using field crates which do not
conform to the standards fixed by
law. We have obtained the names
of the offending shippers, and each
specific case of violation is being
given careful study as a guide to fur-
ther steps toward improving laws as
well as toward more strict enforce-
The question of standard ship-
ping packages is a subject which will
require close study because it af-
fects trade practices in the consumer
market. Hasty legislation on this
point would be unwise, especially in
view of the fact that the plan of sell-
ing by weight seems to be gaining
ground daily. The matter of stand-
ards in grading can possibly be best
handled by requiring all state fruit
inspectors to meet the requirements
for federal licensing.
These questions seem to be of such

Page 4

This is THE CITRUS GROWER for January 15, 1939

vital importance, to our welfare as
growers, that they merit the support
of every grower in the state of Flor-
ida. The wise solution of these
problems is going to require the sac-
rifice of time and effort of the best
grower minds in the industry. 1
believe that it has been the intention
of the president of each county or-
ganization to select members to these
state committees who are bset quali-
fied to give intelligent and construc-
tive thought to the problems before
the committees to which they are
appointed. These committee mem-
bers, when they accept appointment
to their respective committees, are
assuming responsibility to our or-
ganization and to the industry, and
we and the industry are looking to
them to devote their time, energy and
thought to finding the solutions.
There are other committees at
work now studying the problems
of advertising, traffic, research, cul-
tural methods, uniform contracts
and other significant subjects. Some
of these committees will undoubtedly
develop the necessity for legislative
action of some kind on their respec-
tive subjects. President Kramer has
stated to our organization, several
times, that all committees should
serve as fact finding committees, that
these committees should bring in for
counsel, and for the necessary tech-
nical information, persons who are
not members of this organization, in
an effort to determine the facts upon
which to base their recommendations
to this organization.
This practice is sound and cer-
tainty no one can find fault with it.
The effectiveness with which these
committees work, however, must of
necessity be dependent upon the de-
termined effort of every member of
such committees. Failure to attend
meetings and failure to perform the
assignments as members of such com-
mittees will result in ineffective or ill-
considered conclusions. We think,
therefore, that it is the obligation
of the chairman of each and every
state committee to ask for the re-
placement of those committee mem-
bers who fail or refuse to function.
I can see no other way in which ef-
fective committee work can be ac-
I have refrained as far as possible
from touching upon the work of the
marketing committee. The effective-
ness with which this committee has
functioned should stand as a shin-
ing light to all other committees and
committeemen. They have shown

us in their handling of this one enor-
mous problem just how effective our
organization can be. Their work on
the marketing agreement, however.
will soon be completed, and they
will step out of the limelight; and
the legislative committee will hold
the center of the stage for the next
several months. The legislative com-
mittee must, if we are to do our part
in helping to bring order out of
the present chaotic conditions, take
an aggressive and militant attitude
toward the many problems now and
shortly to be placed in our hands.
If the marketing agreement com-
mittee fails in all else, it has def-
initely brought out in the open those
shipper forces which are definitely
aligned against the growers. We
now know who our friends are, and
we also have become thoroughly ac-
quainted with the methods of that
minority group of shippers who
heedlessly pursue their own profits
with a complete disregard for the
growers' interest. You may depend
upon it that you will find this mi-
nority shipper group, controlling
about 15 percent of the state's ton-
nage. fighting every constructive
move for the betterment of the indus-
try. We expect to meet such opposi-
tion both before and after we go to
Tallahassee with legislation. It is our
hope that when the program of the
growers has been developed and ap-
proved by you, that it will meet
with the same solid support that you
have given the marketing commit-
Some of the questions upon which
we will attempt to secure new or
corrective legislation, will be more
or less controversial and because of
this fact, this minority shipper
group will use every means to upset
your minds, as well as those of other
growers, in a determined effort to
split our ranks and thus weaken our
organization. If we are to be suc-
cessful. at all, it will be because we
stand as a unit. It is because I fore-
see the possibility, in fact, the almost
assured probability that this condi-
tion will exist that I am making this
plea for unified support of whatever
we, as an organization, undertake.
Any legislation which is proposed
when it goes to Tallahassee must be
the legislative program of the growers
of the state of Florida and not just
the program of the legislative com-
mittee of Florida Citrus Growers.
In this and future issues of The
Citrus Grower, the legislative com-

mittee proposes to discuss some of
these controversial questions, ap-
pending thereto a questionnaire
which we hope will be widely used
by the grower. (See page 15 of this
issue in regard to arsenic sprays.)
In these questionnaires we will ask
leading questions for the purpose of
bringing to light thoughts and
angles on these problems which
may have escaped our consideration;
secondly, to mould and crystallize
grower sentiment on those questions;
and thirdly, with the hope of bring-
ing to the grower an educational
campaign so that they may more
thoroughly understand the problems
confronting them. So regardless of
whether you think that your opin-
ion on these questions is of any par-
ticular moment we want you to re-
ply to these questions and give us
the benefit of your thoughts.
It will be the policy of the legis-
lative committee to follow the plans
suggested above by President Kram-
er of truly acting as a fact finding
committee. When we believe that
we have all of the facts about a cer-
tain subject, we will determine what
course of action we think should be
followed and this will be reported
to you for your approval, modifica-
tion, or rejection.
Not until we have your instruc-
tions to attempt to secure legislation
on any of these questions will we
proceed to prepare the bills for pres-
entation to the legislature. I say
again that when submitted to the
legislature this will be your program.
Rest assured that no member of
the 1939 session of the legislature
will be able to say, what has been
said to me by members of former
legislatures who are now members
of our organization-that when
they served at Tallahassee the only
persons appearing before a legislative
committee were shippers; that the
laws now governing our industry
were largely framed by shippers, sup-
ported by shippers, and enacted by
legislators whose information as to
the needs and desires of the industry
was largely furnished by shippers.
We can assure you that, thanks to
our thriving young grower organiza-
tion, the growers' interests will not
suffer in the next legislature from
the mere fact that no one is there
to present the growers' case.
I am not condemning all ship-
pers-far from it. There are those
shippers in the industry who have
always supported any constructive
program and who will continue to

Page 5

This is THE CITRUS GROWER for Jan'uary 15, 1939

The Cash Buyer's Business is Good---


that growers will be asked to
vote upon a proposed market-
ing agreement within a short time
has caused the publication commit-
tee to feel that every opportunity
should be given the grower readers
of this magazine to acquaint them-
selves with every phase of the mar-
keting agreement question.
Grower Fred T. Henderson, mem-
ber of the growers' committee that
drafted the marketing agreement on
which hearings were recently held at
Lakeland, was unable to attend all
the sessions of the hearings, conse-
quently he briefed a part of his tes-
timony and submitted it in writing.
This testimony is very revealing.
It shows the grower's position. Its
genuineness may be tested by the
fact that Mr. Henderson is himself
very heavily financially interested in
growing citrus. Its soundness of
argument may be judged by the fact
that Mr. Henderson has been inti-
mately associated over the past 20
years with practically every effort
that has been made to introduce sane
and beneficial regulation into the cit-
rus industry.-Editor's Note.

do so. They have permitted them-
selves, however, just as we growers
have permitted ourselves, to be dom-
inated by an active minority who
seem to have no objective except to
serve their own selfish ends.
It is our duty to ourselves and to
the industry, and to the thousands
of businesses dependent upon the cit-
rus industry for support, to throw
the weight of our organization on
the side of this majority group of
shippers. It is our duty to support
them in word and in deed, so that
our forces, leading and supporting
them, may turn the whole picture
to constructive side, and give us much
needed legislative relief.
The growers are not approaching
this colossal legislative problem
with a belligerent or chip-on-the-
shoulder attitude, but we do ap-
proach it with an eagerness to be
right, with an attitude to listen to
everybody who has an interest in
the matter, and certainly with the
greatest firmness to hold our course
once it has been plainly charted.

Chief Hearing Clerk
United States Department of Agriculture
Washington, D. C.
I should like to submit the following
statements for the consideration of the Agri-
cultural Adjustment Administration and the
Secretary of Agriculture. It was impossible
for us to attend all of the sessions of the
Lakeland hearing.
My interests are entirely grower. I pro-
duced this season about sixty thousand box-
es. I am both cooperative and independent.
One of my crops is shipped through the
Florida Citrus Exchange and the other is for
sale on the tree. The latter crop is by far the
greater in volume. I have been growing fruit
for the past nineteen years and have operated
both cooperatively and independently. There
are many growers whose experiences would
be similar to mine. I am able, willing and
ready to make whatever alignments the pro-
posed marketing agreement will necessitate.
I believe most growers would do likewise.
The purpose of the above statements is to
answer the question asked at Lakeland as to
whether the alignments or the agreement
should come first. Past history here has shown
that growers do not make these alignments
unless there is an incentive. If the alignments
had been made the proposed agreement
would probably not be necessary. The align-
ments may come without an agreement if
conditions get bad enough, but by that time
many producers will be broke and conditions
in this Rtate will be chaotic. Business will
probably continue to be good for the cash
buyer, but not for the producer. We growers
believe this Act was passed to protect us
from such conditions, with our cooperation
of course.
Much has been made of the statement that
this agreement will put the cash buyer our
of business. I do not believe it will. It will
tend to eliminate the speculator by maintain
ing a more stable price level. To get fruit
under control one must have either fruit, the
money to buy fruit, or the confidence of the
grower to turn his fruit over for handling.
The only testimony on that point was that
current control would put the grower in the
bargaining position. Since it is his fruit there
can be nothing unfair or inequitable in that.
However, that is the real objection to volume
regulation by the group opposing it. They
were willing to go along with volume regu-
laion on a past performance base.
Mr. Fosgate testified that he was opposed
to volume regulation. He said his business
was good. That his volume had increased
over last season. His statement showed that
he grew about ten percent of the fruit he
shipped. That he handles twenty or more
cars a day. He said volume was what inter-
ested him. Let's analyze that.
Business good for Mr. Fosgate, cash buy-
er. Volume increasing. Opposed to any vol-
ume regulation. Markets demoralized. At
present price levels, which are below the cost
of production to the grower, Mr. Fosgate is
making money and satisfied. Still he buys at
the market and sells at the market. Buying
eighteen of his twenty cars each day amounts
to about 7200 boxes. If he makes a net
profit of only five cents per box, that
amounts to $360.00 per day. At present

prices his dollar will buy two or three boxes
of fruit. With a given capital he can handle
two or three times the volume he could at
a price of a dollar a box. Naturally, he is op-
posed to volume regulation. That's plain,
isn't it?
Mr. Kilgore was opposed to volume regu-
lation. If you will read his testimony it was
for volume regulation, but he called it Grade
and Size. Andrew Spada would also try to
regulate volume with the Grade and Size
Volume regulation is essential in solving
this Florida problem. Conditions are almost
made for its successful trial on Valencia and
late bloom early and mid-season oranges.
Growers are willing and sufficiently organ-
ized to assure its success. The Growers Ad-
ministrative Committee will enter this pro-
gram with a will to make it work.
Previous experience with grade and size
both here and in Texas have shown that it
alone is not the answer. Under it the shipper
will be in the bargaining position. It will not
effectuate the declared policy of the Act in
itself. If a grade and size program bogged
down, it would be hard to restore the inter-
est and confidence of the average grower in
any future effort.
The proposed agreement should be cor-
rected to eliminate the idea of a pre-season
fixed base. That confusion was unfortunate.
It was not the intent of our committee to
convey that meaning.
I believe the agreement should also be re-
vised to include the late bloom early and
mid-season oranges, and to include all or-
anges shipped after March 1st.
I know that it is the opinion of Mr.
Smith and others that to assure the success
of volume regulation, about ninety percent
of the fruit should be under control B1fore
the variety starts moving. From a practical
viewpoint I do not concur in that belief. I
think that would be an ideal situation, but
not absolutely necessary to the mechanical
success of the prorate. If only fifty percent
were under control at first, it would only in-
crease the rate of movement of that fruit un-
der control. There is little likelihood of the
week's volume being undershipped. Our
troubles in the past have always been over
shipments. I believe the biggest objection to
less than ninety percent control is the in-
equity that might be involved if less than
the total crop was shipped. I feel that that
equity could be preserved by using the grade
and size provision for the elimination of a
part of the total.
I have purposely raised this question of
the amount of fruit under control because 1
believe it will tend to take care of itself. It
has always done so in the past. There are
now, and probably always will be, those
growers who for various reasons ship early
or hold late. Sometimes they move early be-
cause of cold locations. Fruit on young trees
tends to dry out. Certain rootstocks hold
fruit better than others. The maturity laws
of the state govern the movement in the early
season. Sometimes it is the grower's belief
that the early markets will be better than the
late, etc. All of these things coupled with the
economies of picking and packinghouse

Page 6

This is THE CITRUS GROWER for January 15, 1939

Another Angle of the Box Question---


LARGE CROPS demand greater
selling effort and more intelli-
gent distribution. More sales
effort and distribution call for mod-
ern merchandising. The citrus in-
dustry should streamline itself, co-
ordinate and simplify the various op-
erations. Simplification means the
elimination of as many things as
possible, and results in lower costs.
Too many operations add to the ex-
pense of processing. Grades and
packs should be simplified and stand-
ardized. Only by intelligent stand-
ardization of packing and distribut-
ing operations will it be possible to
develop modern merchandising.
Modern distribution calls for a sim-
plified and flexible freight structure.
The Florida citrus industry today
is being penalized to the extent of
millions of dollars (which the grow-
er pays) because of the lack of meth-
ods which encourage or even retain
what little vestige there may be of
a simplified packing, distributing and
merchandising program. As our op-
erations become more and more clut-
tered with a multiplicity of factors,
there is a corresponding decline in
confidence not only of the jobber
and retailer, but of the consumer.
Neither space not time permit the
mention of all of the factors that have
a direct bearing on the demoralized
marketing machinery, which include
the various steps from the time the
fruit enters the packing house until

operation are factors that would prevent an
absolute apportionment of each grower's fruit
in the several weekly pools or prorates for
any variety. It is impossible to change these
habits and practices in one season. However,
growers are being told and do realize that
they should only expect an average price for
any of the varieties. I am sure they are not as
complicated problems as they appear to you.
They have been largely solved here by the in-
dustry itself. I believe the equity is provided
when the opportunity to get their fruit un-
der control is offered. Because a farmer does
not apply for the Soil Conservation pay-
ments does not destroy the equity of that
The growers of Florida want the proposed
Marketing Agreement. We want the volume
regulation article, properly clarified. We do
not believe a speculative group of shippers
should be allowed to stop or obstruct a sen-
sible grower program. The Act was an hon-
est effort to help the producer make a profit.
To make his business good. He produces the
fruit, not the cash buyer. Anything less than
the proposed agreement will be a victory for
the speculator and would be another hard
b!ow to the already bewildered grower.

(EDITOR'S NOTE: The accompanying
article by Mr. Randall Chase, of Chase b3
Co., Sanford. presents one phase of the ship-
ping box question.)
In a discussion (Dec. 1. issue of The
Citrus Grower) of how weights of con-
tainers do or should affect freight rates on
citrus shipments, Mr. Henry L. Pringle,
chairman of the traffic committee of Florida
Citrus Growers. Inc.. asked two questions
in order to state the approximate positions
taken by one group, generally known as the
standard or nailed box people, and the other
group, generally known as the Bruce box
By the nailed box people:
"Should one container of the same cubic
capacity be given an advantage over another
container of the same capacity by reason of
the lighter container being favored by a
lower estimated weight?"
By the Bruce box people:
"Should one container, which is shown
conclusively to have a lighter actual weight
than another container carrying the same
quantity of fruit, be penalized in favor ot
the heavier container by being denied an es-
timated weight in line with its actual aver-
age weight?"
Mr. Pringle further stated the position
taken by the traffic committee at the recent
hearings as follows:
"'. There must be no change in as-
sessed weights which have the effect of in-
creasing the total charge. In other words, if
the weight is to be increased, we insist that
there must be a corresponding decrease in
"2. We insist that the grower never be
put in the position where he cannot avail
himself of the most efficient package that hu-
man ingenuity may at any time develop for
his use, be it nailed box, the Bruce box or
the product of some superior intelligence
which may in the future show itself.
"3. We took the position that any con-
tainer should stand upon its own individual
merits and if a disadvantage of weight could
be overcome through better carrying quality,
better trade reception, packing house econo-
my, then that container should be able to
stand the penalty of its higher weight and
return to the grower a greater net profit by
reason of its higher efficiency along other
"4. We took the position that nothing
whatever be done which would prevent or
tend to prevent the grower from reducing in
any way the costs which occur between the
time the fruit is picked from the groves and
delivered to the ultimate consumer across
the counter. If we can cut those costs there
will be benefit to the grower either in a
greater net return, in a broadened market, or
it reaches the consumer, but one very
flagrant violation is the use of a mul-
tiplicity of containers.
The first fundamental step in
such program is that Florida should
adopt a standard container.

1. That alone would help regain
2. That alone would help distri-
3. That alone would help merch-
4. That alone would help reduce
operating costs.
5. That alone would help reduce
unscrupulous practices.
The selection of the standard
nailed box would be one of the first
and most important steps in laying
the fundamental ground work for a
simplified program.
The majority of jobbers in the
large key markets prefer the nailed
box. and pay more for it. It is
easier to handle. When properly
packed it affords ample protection
for the fruit. Its appearance is bet-
ter. In the event of accidental
breakage it can be repaired easily and
From a distributor's viewpoint it
greatly simplifies his problem to have
one container to sell, instead of
many. One kind of a special con-
tainer is often preferred in one mar-
ket. or section of the country, and
another kind of container in another
part, and on and on, limited only
by the number of different contain-
ers. Each different type of container
reduces the flexibility of distribution,
and the inability to distribute pro-
vides a fertile field for price cutting
and unscrupulous practices, all of
which help to destroy confidence.
The preference in different markets
for different containers is not promot-
ed by the desire to realize more mon-
ey for the grower, but because the
receiver thinks he can secure fruit
cheaper in. the type container speci-
fied. If thru unavoidable circum-
stances a shipment in another kind
of container arrives in a market using
a different sort that may be a signal
for price cutting on one pretext or
another. One standard kind of con-
tainer would eliminate many chances
for price cutting and sharp practice.
A standard box would simplify
selling. The receiver would know
what he would receive (how much
fruit he would get), and how much
the freight would be. without stop-
ping to figure out different freight
rates on different containers. Much
time, effort and expense now spent
on trying to outfigure and outsmart

Page 7

This is THE CITRUS GROWER for January 15, 1939

the other fellow, could be applied to
more sales effort, better merchandis-
ing, and the handling of a greater
volume of fruit at reduced costs.
The standard nailed box is mainly
a Florida product. It is manufac-
tured by a number of mills-no pat-
ents dictate, restrict, or add to its
cost. Competition is keen, which
assures to the highest degree pos-
sible good quality and reasonable
price. Thru the increased volume
resulting from the adoption of the
standard nailed box manufacturing
costs could be reduced. Packing
house costs would be reduced because
of smaller inventories, and less mon-
ey tied up. Workers become more
proficient in handling one type of
package, rather than many. The
standard nailed box is made and
closed by machinery. Packing houses
are all built for handling nailed
boxes. Every time containers are
changed in the packing house time
and labor is required to adjust the
machinery to handle that particular
type of container.
Several years ago when Florida
used almost exclusively one standard
container, the nailed box, the d;f-
ference in price between California
and Florida was much less than now.
for instance on December 27. 1930,
it was 20 cents per box in favor of
California. In later years Florida
destandardized its containers. Dur-
ing this time California has adhered
to her standard nailed box, wrapped
fruit, she retained the confidence of
the trade, until today we have, on
December 31. 1938, a price dif-
ference of about $1.10 per box in
favor of California. We have be-
come the victim of high pressure rep-
resentatives of manufacturers of var-
ious containers, each one sincere per-
haps, but each claiming some sort
of advantage for the particular type
he was selling.
Ten years ago we had the largest
citrus crop up to date, amounting to
about 23,000.000 boxes. We were
standardized on the nailed' box. To-
day, with a crop of 50,000,000
boxes we have replaced that stand-
ardization with demoralization.

Lawyers do not know who is re-
ferred to in the following clause from
the citrus cost-of-production law:
* and after the Citrus Com-
mission shall have procured from the
producers, shippers, or handlers of
citrus fruit, not subject to the pro-
visions of this Act, binding agree-
ments to conform thereto and abide
by its terms, * "


In the following letter, state direc-
tor John M. Criley, of Manatee
County, gives a true picture of the
decision the grower is called upon to
make, or refuse to make, in the pres-
ent crisis in the citrus industry. This
is a convincing plea that the grower
use intelligence to avoid the disaster
he can expect if nature takes its


The Editor
Citrus Growers
Orlando. Fla.
Dear Sir:

Avon Park, Florida
January 6, 1939

I am a small grower, and I want to say
right here that no one values the privilege of
being able to sell my fruit when, where, and
in what quantities I will more than I do. It
is a most desirable privilege and not lightly
to be surrendered.
But, I am not willing to purchase that
privilege at the price of selling my fruit at
less than half the cost of production.
I can't afford to pay that price, and I
don't believe there are many growers who
can. Some can stand it longer than others,
and some can even stand it long enough to
see the small grower put out of business and
after that enjoy a good profit on their pro-
duction. But, I am not one of them-not
many of us are.
The citrus industry has reached a crisis
and its problems must be solved either by
intelligent cooperation between grower and
shipper or be allowed to solve themselves as
they will, for nature always has a way of
curing such-a hard cruel way-the sur-
vival of the fittest.
One of our troubles is that we are grow-
ing and attempting to market in a hit or
miss way more fruit than the market can
consume under present chaotic distribution
There are only two solutions:
First: Orderly Marketing-Market con-
trol thru cooperation which involves with-
holding a portion of the fruit from the mar-
ket-perhaps 25% under present conditions,
and second: Letting nature take its course
and put about 25% of the growers out of
business. Either way will do if you are not
concerned about the human side of the prob-
Market Control-We might as well face
the facts-involves volume as well as grade
and size prorate, for without it control is

impossible. A majority of both growers and
shippers favor it. A minority of shippers
oppose it and contend it will put the cash
buyer out of the picture.
I am no enemy of the cash buyer. He has
frequently served me well in the past, and we
both made a profit; but it is a matter of in-
difference to me whether he is in or out of
the picture, unless-mark you-unless he is
able to pay for my fruit a price that will
cover the cost of production and a fair profit
on which to live.
If he can't I must go down in the fight
and in my expiring moments it will be no
comfort to see that the banner is still flying
over the ramparts of the cash buyer.
However, I don't think these gentlemen
will be put out of business. They are very
capable and resourceful men, and in the past
have adjusted themselves to conditions al-
most if not quite as difficult as the present
ones, and I believe they can do so again; but
be that as it may, this I do know, it will be
far less difficult for the cash buyer to adjust
himself to volume prorate than for the grow-
er to adjust himself to a 25c or 30c price for
fruit. It simply can't be done.
Yours very truly,
John M. Criley
Terra Ceia, Florida

Start With

Quality . .

By this we mean feed your trees
TILIZER and insure quality fruit
at harvest time.
This year get the most out of
your soil by making sure it is
properly balanced. Your soil test-
ed free at your request.

The American


Chemical Company
Pierce (Polk County) Florida

Irrigation and Spray Equipment

Ames Lock Seam Slip Joint Pipe

The Cameron & Barkley Co.

Citrus Canning and Packing Supplies

Page 8

This is THE CITRUS GROWER for January 15, 1939

Selling Fruit Constructively
What part of our troubles as growers arise from our
lack of thorough knowledge of our own interests?
What part from an unwillingness faithfully to heed
this knowledge, to use it as a basis of reason and fore-
sight, as a guide in present transactions with a view to
their future effect? The answers to these questions al-
most tell the whole story. This matter of correct infor-
mation and its use is the whole story. This matter of
correct information and its use is the whole task of our
Probably in no respect, however, has this absence of
reason and judgment been so glaring and with such dis-
astrous results as in the selling of fruit. In all other
businesses that we know of there are practices that put
a premium on integrity, honesty, and other desirable
traits that inspire confidence. We have been distressed
and saddened to hear men high up in Florida citrus in-
dustry say they would not believe anybody when it
came to this business. It is not uncommon also to see
a grower who has dealt with one buyer and go to an-
other about whom he knows all too little, and he will
make this change for a small consideration of one or
two cents per box.
Perhaps the man switched to will stay in business
and perhaps not. It is certain, however, in such a case
a reliable buyer has lost a grower's support and cer-
tainly without sufficient reason. The grower has thus
increased the possibility that a reliable and honest ship-
per may be driven out of business. Until the lately fa-
vored shipper has proved himself, the grower does not
know whether or not the shipper is doing business on
an ethical basis, whether or not he can continue as a
buyer, whether he will give a fair grade, or has the
right size field boxes. In other words, why can he
offer a higher price?
If the grower has been taught to look deeply enough
into his own welfare he will readily see that he cannot
afford to desert a really constructive cash buyer for so
small a consideration. The immense losses under our
inadequate buyer's bond and license law show how
much may be lost in money, and recent experience
shows the solid support given by constructive shippers
to the proposed marketing agreement how valuable such
shippers are to the industry. There would be much
less need for bond and license laws and marketing agree-
ments if the grower had heretofore exercised foresight
in picking the buyers to whom to sell his fruit.
How can the honest and capable cash buyer stay in
business under a marketing agreement or with no mar-
keting agreement? He can do so if he can get the sup-
port of growers who have fruit to sell. Current con-
trol is the right basis on which to calculate volume
prorate, but past performance is the real test of a cash
buyer. If a cash buyer is known to be honest, capable,
and anxious to give growers a fair deal, (and, for-
tunately, many of them have been able to survive past
chaotic conditions) why should a grower hesitate to
give a buyer some control of his fruit? Is it likely any
serious question would arise about price at the time
of shipment, or that the shipper would not give the
grower every possible consideration in the way of pick-
ing at a specified time? This is not theory. It has
been worked out in practice, and many growers now
actually sell their fruit to cash buyers on a basis contem-
plated in the proposed marketing agreement.
Therefore, there are shippers who deserve such con-
fidence. They are proof it will be possible for pro-
(Continued on Page 13)

Page 9

Forward Growers

You are on the right road.
Keep going. Make your or-
ganization 100 %--Then stand
together. Stand up for your

Once you put your heads to-
gether and study the problems
confronting you-you will find
a way out-and will discover
new and larger fields ahead.
This is your opportunity No. 1.
Don't miss it.

Opportunity No. 2



The Bacterialized
Plant Food

your second line of defense, and
almost as essential as No. 1-
Fruit grown with ORGANO
will stand up longer-can be
held on the tree or in Northern
markets longer, and once the
Northern dealers find this out
-they will think more of
Florida fruit-Marketing prob-
lems will be easier.

Investigate now and get your
trees ORGANOized in time for
the good years ahead.

PHONE 3842



138 N. Orange Ave.

This is THE CITRUS GROWER for January 15, 1939


The various groups that gave tes-
timony at the recent hearings for
and against the adoption of the pro-
osed citrus marketing agreement
ave all summed up the evidence and
presented briefs of arguments in the
matter to the AAA officials who now
have the evidence under considera-
The brief of the grower organiza-
tion was prepared by the marketing
agreement committee, J. J. Banks,
Chairman, Arthur G. Porcher and
Fred T. Henderson, and was trans-
mitted to the Washington authori-
ties by Mr. Banks. It sums up the
growers' case and clarifies some of
the points about which there was
possibility of misunderstanding.
We quote below the important
highlights of the brief:
"The Citrus Growers of Florida want and
need the benefits of orderly marketing.
Through their organization, whose exclusive
grower membership produces approximately
62% of the citrus fruit grown in Florida.
they, together with a group of handlers, sub-
mitted a proposed Marketing Agreement up-
on which a hearing was granted. There was
filed at this hearing a sworn statement show-
ing the names of handlers who, by their own
signatures to the petition, expressed their
willingness to support the Agreement as sub-
mitted and to continue that support pro-
vided there was no material change in the
final draft after the hearing. As shown by
this statement, the tonnage handled by these
shippers is in excess of 64% of the total ton-
nage of the State. This 62% producer sup-
port and this 64% handler support clearly
indicates, not only the urgent need of an or-
der containing all the essential principles em-
bodied in the proposed agreement but also a
clearly expressed desire and willingness to
abide by and support its terms and condi-
tions, and to make such adjustments in trade
habits and practices as are essential to make
it operative.
"When these essential terms were agreed
to after long and careful consideration upon
the part of this majority, we feel that the
elimination of any essential provision would
seriously handicap the industry in its orderly
marketing program. It is our conviction that
this was clearly brought out by the testimony
at the hearing. We do believe, however, that
the information developed at the hearing
indicated where improvements could be made
in certain details of the Agreement. As this
information was in most cases clear and am-
ple, we feel that further discussion would
serve no useful purpose. There remains,
nevertheless, a relatively few points upon
which we may give additional and, we hope.
constructive help.
"We believe that the testimony at the
hearing clearly showed that the surplus prob-
lem in Florida could best be controlled
through the use of the grade and size regu-
lation as provided for in Article Four rather
than through the choking down of the flow
of fruit from the State by volume control to

We give below good reasons why
Florida needs a marketing agreement,
as wired to the Washington authori-
ties by Arthur G. Porcher, member
of the growers' committee that
framed the pact upon which the re-
cent hearings were held in Lakeland.
Regarding effects control move-
ment California navels in compari-
son with uncontrolled movement
Florida oranges this season. Refer
you to averages since December first
California navels showing better
than dollar higher over last year
compared with averages Florida or-
anges since December first average
considerably under last year, general
average approximately .65 lower.

that point at which an existing surplus of all
grades and sizes would of necessity be forced
to remain unshipped at the end of the ship-
ping season. Our support of this position is
taken because of the fact that, in dealing
with a surplus problem, it is better to hold
back or eliminate the lower and less valuable
grades from the markets in order to elimi-
nate such grades from competition with the
better and more desirable grades when such
better grades are of sufficient quantity to meet
market requirements. Obviously, this can be
better and more equitably accomplished
through grade elimination than through
elimination by volume control.
"Therefore, having in mind that surplus
control should be brought about through
Article Four, we believe that it is essential to
a sound marketing policy to control the week
to week movement of fruit permitted to be
sold in interstate commerce under its regula-
tion by volume control in order to create an
orderly flow into the markets outside the
State of Florida."

great need for superior types of early or-
anges of extremely fine flavor and those
which average 176's whether seedless or
seedy, than are now grown.
Also. is needed an early-maturing, high-
flavored Grapefruit large in size and seed-
These two types of fruit are sorely need-
ed to discourage certain bad practices, and
restore confidence and build up trade.
Also, a late Tangerine which will ex-
tend season into April or May would be an
asset. A summer Navel Orange would al-
so be a welcome addition to a new list of
badly needed fruits in Florida.
I have discovered just such types of
early oranges and grapefruit, and have
high hopes in a strain of Tangerine which
I have found which shows a tendency to
remain prime into late April.
I am now seeldng a man of deep vision
and imagination, whom would be interest-
ed and financially able to assist in an im-
portant citrus plant breeding experiment,
which if carried to completion will un-
doubtedly be the means to creating sev-
eral new and outstanding fruits of great
commercial value. Objectives being seed-
less fruits of satiny skins and highest
flavors, in early and mid-summer Navels,
and several new forms of Seedless grape-
fruits of delicious flavors surpassing pres-
ent type.
I have between 40,000 and 50,000 seedling
crosses and hybrids grown from carefully
selected cross-pollenized fruits of numer-
ous varieties of citrus, which should and
surely will result in some startling new
fruits of value.
Just One exceptionally fine fruit could
mean millions to the industry.
Among other things I have several valu-
able new kinds of rootstocks and more
coming equal to sour rootstocks, yet with
features more desirable.
Thru the results of this research it may
be possible to help solve many of our prob-
lems by revamping our varieties, thus
curtailing yields and improving types to
meet competition most effectively.
Private Citrus Plant Breeder & Propagator
Orlando Florida

Calcium Nitrate

(Nitrate nitrogen and water-soluble calcium)
Two necessary plant-foods for the price of one, and the ideal ap-
plication just before blooming time.
CALCIUM NITRATE promotes vigorous bloom, a heavy set, and
uniform maturity.
CALCIUM NITRATE is very economical and it releases plant-
foods in the soil not otherwise available. It improves the quality
of fruit, too.
MODERNIZE your fertilizer program, and reduce your cost per box.
Write for beautiful booklet and information


Tampa Florida

Page 10

This is THE CITRUS GROWER for January 15, 1939


MELANOSE WAS FIRST recognized as
a disease of citrus in 1892, but its cause
was not determined until 20 years
later. Since that time melanose has spread
throughout the citrus belt, and is now con-
sidered the most important factor that im
pairs the grade of citrus fruits. Although the
relative importance of melanose in any lo-
cality may vary from year to year, it may
cause serious damage every year in old groves
unless direct action is taken for its control.
Under conditions favorable for its develop-
ment, melanose has reduced the grade of all
varieties of oranges by 28 percent and of all
grapefruit by 35 percent.
Melanose is caused by a fungus that has
two stages in its life history, imperfect and
perfect. The imperfect stage, known as Pho-
mopsis citri, produces its spores on dead
twigs and branches in citrus trees, and these
spores cause a major portion of the melanose
blemishes on the fruits, leaves and twigs.
The perfect stage of the fungus is known as
Diaporthe citri, and it produces another kind
of spore on dead wood that is on the ground.
Although these spores will cause melanose
when placed on the leaves and fruits under
favorable conditions, indications are that
they are relatively unimportant in the oc-
currence of melanose under grove conditions.
Melanose attacks all varieties of citrus
grown commercially in Florida, but some
varieties are slightly more resistant to its at-
tacks than others. It is characterized by su-
perficial, light to dark brown eruptions on
the surface of leaves, shoots, fruit stems and
fruits. The disease may appear on the leaves
soon after they unfold where it shows as
minute, round, water-soaked specks on
either surface. As the leaves grow older, the
spots become darker, distinctly raised, with
irregular margins and variable in size. The
spots may occur singly and widely separated,
in more or less circular patterns, or they may
be so close together as to form areas of solid
scar tissue of various sizes and shapes. In-
fection of the latter type may cause distor-
tion of the leaves, loss of green color and
premature shedding.
On the young twigs the disease is at first
very similar in appearance to that on the
leaves, and it may appear concurrently on the
young leaves and twigs. As the twigs grow
older, however, the outgrowths become more
raised than on the leaves or fruits. If the in-
fection is severe, the bark of the twigs be-
comes more or less completely covered with
the scar tissue and the twigs may shed their
leaves and die. Futhermore, the sudden dying
back of mature twigs in the Spring is due in
some cases to the melanose fungus.
Melanose blemishes on the fruits are simi-
lar in color and texture to those on the
leaves. The raised condition of the blemishes
gives the surface of the fruits a roughness
which serves to distinguish melanose from
other surface stains caused by anthracnose
and rust mites, The specks may be arranged
in lines, tear-streaks and blotches or as a
solid crust over the entire fruit surface. In
the latter case, shallow cracks of more or less
regular pattern may develop in this scar tis-
sue, producing the so-called mud cake type
of melanose. Later in the season some of this
scar tissue may peel off, giving the surface a
flaky appearance. If severe infection occurs
while the fruit is very small, it is likely to
cause stunting, malformation and dropping
of the fruit. Fruits are most susceptible to in-

fection when first formed, and become pro-
gressively more resistant with increasing age
until they become practically immune in five
to eight weeks. During this period oranges
will have attained a size of approximately
S'/2 inches in diameter and grapefruit ap-
proximately 2/2 inches. However, after the
fruits are picked the melanose fungus attacks
them through the stem or "button" and
causes a stem-end rot.
Since the fungus produces spores only on
dead wood, melanose is of minor importance
in non-bearing or young-bearing trees, un-
less cold, scale attacks or other injury is se-
vere enough to cause an accumulation of dead
wood. As trees grow older the disease in-
creases in severity because even with the best
care, dead wood tends to become more
abundant through natural causes. Also pro-

Page 11

longed droughts, malnutrition due to inade-
quate or improper fertilization, root pruning
through deep cultivation, severe scale infes-
tation and any other factors which cause
death of twigs and lower the vitality of the
trees favor the development of melanose.
This weakened and dead wood is attacked
by the melanose fungus where it produces
abundant spores which infect young foliage
and fruit, and it will retard recovery of the
tree if allowed to remain on the tree.
In addition to a supply of spores a cer-
tain amount of moisture must be present
during the susceptible period for melanose to

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Where Supply and Demand Meet Every Day"

In all of our ten terminal markets there is a scene each morning with
which all Growers and Shippers should be familiar.
At one time and place, the entire buying power of each market
gathers daily. The supply has been centralized. Each buyer is on
his own and must bid openly to secure needed supplies.
In orderly rotation each lot in its turn is actually offered to each
buyer present; active competition prevails and the wide distribution
obtained creates extensive consumer demand.
Our ten member Auction companies provide a proven service to all
Growers and Shippers.



Fruit & Produce Auction Association, Inc.
66 Harrison Street, New York, N. Y.

American Central Fruit Auction Co.
St. Louis
Baltimore Fruit Exchange
Consolidated Fruit Exchange, Inc.
Detroit Fruit Auction Company
Fruit Auction Sales Company

H. Harris 8 Co.
New York Fruit Auction Corp.
New York
Philadelphia Terminals Auction Co.
Union Fruit Auction Company
United Fruit Auction Company

This is THE CITRUS GROWER for January 15, 1939

become severe. Fogs and dews are sufficient
for light infection, but severe outbreaks of
the disease can be traced definitely to rainy
periods. As a rule, there is an ample supply
of spores in old groves every season but the
severity of the disease on the fruit and leaves
varies from year to year because of the varia-
tion in amount of rainfall during the sus-
ceptible period. If there is little rain and
cloudy weather during the period the fruit
and leaves are susceptible, melanose will be of
minor importance.


Before the cause of melanose was known.
spraying with bordeaux was found to reduce
the extent of damage. However, no attempt
was made to work out a definite spray pro-
gram until after the cause of the disease was
determined in 1912. In that year experiments
were started to determine what effects spray-
ing and removing the dead wood from the
trees would have in preventing the disease.
Results of these tests showed that by thor-
oughly removing the dead wood from the
trees the severity of melanose could be greatly
reduced. However, in old trees it was found
impracticable to remove all small twigs that
may serve as places for the fungus to grow
and produce spores.
These early spraying experiments showed
that one or two applications of bordeaux
mixture gave good protection against mela-
nose blemish on the fruits when properly
timed, especially when the spraying was
used as a supplement to pruning. Unfortun-
ately, however, it was found that the use of
bordeaux resulted in an increase in the scale
population, which necessitated an extra ex-
pense for keeping them under control. This
difficulty was partially overcome about 1920
by mixing an oil emulsion with the bor-
deaux, but the combination bordeaux-oil
mixture frequently injured the young fruits
and foliage. Because of this potential danger
of injury many growers refused to use the
spray. Also under certain grove conditions
it was still necessary to make an additional
application of oil during the summer to keep
the scale under control.

Recognizing these difficulties and the in-
creasing need for control measures, experi-
ments were started in 1932 and continued
for five years in an effort to develop more
practical and efficient means of control. These
tests included various forms of copper and
sulphur used in different amounts and com-
binations and number of applications in con-
junction with commercial pruning. In ad-
dition to these tests, numerous observations
have been made in commercial groves where
various spray schedules were in use. Results
of these experiments and observations have
shown that melanose infection on the fruit
may be prevented by removing the dead
limbs and supplementing with the applica-
tion of an efficient copper fungicide. The
winter months are probably the best time for
removing dead wood to obtain maximum
benefit in melanose control, but in practice
it seems advisable to do the pruning at a
time when it will result in least damage to
the fruit. In seasons and in groves where
there is delay in the bloom of some trees
or a succession of light blooms, so that a
large percentage of the crop is still suscep-
tible when the summer rains begin, or when
an extremely rainy period follows the appli-
cation of the spray after a normal bloom,
two applications of a weak copper spray

should be made to insure a crop of bright
With varieties of citrus that are suscepti-
ble to scab and require spraying for scab con-
trol a dormant application of 6-6-100 bor-
deaux or its fungicidal equivalent of other
forms of copper with suitable spreader
should be used. Where melanose is also an
important factor an additional spraying two
or three weeks after the petals fall with a
weak copper fungicide will generally give
good protection from melanose blemish and
scab on the fruit.
It has been found that a single application
of a 6-6-100 bordeaux gives better control
of melanose under conditions favoring severe
infections than a single application of weaker
concentrations of copper. However, in young
trees or in older trees with little dead wood
or where the dead wood has been removed by
pruning, the half-strength bordeaux has
given practically as good control as the regu-
lar 6-6-100 strength. On the other hand.
two applications of 3-3-100 bordeaux with-
out oil-emulsion, the first made two or three
weeks after the bloom and the second three
to four weeks later have given better results
than one application of the regular strength
bordeaux. Furthermore, the half-strength
bordeaux is less conducive to scale increase
than the 6-6-100 bordeaux.
In groves where the last application of the
half-strength bordeaux was applied in April,
slight to moderate purple scale infestations
were kept in check or reduced by three ap-
plications of lime-sulphur sprays timed for
scale crawlers and rust mites, without using
any oil emulsion during the season. If rust
mites are on the foliage or fruit at the time
of spraying with bordeaux the addition of
from 5 to 10 pounds wettable sulphur to
100 gallons of the spray instead of other
spreaders will give good control of the rust
mites and will probably kill many scale
crawlers, if present. By omitting the oil
emulsion from the sprays for melanose, cost
of the spray mixture is reduced by more than
half, and the danger of burning or blotching
the young fruits is greatly reduced. This
spray program also allowed the re-establish-
ment of the friendly scale fungi during the

summer months. The friendly fungi may be
further protected from the copper sprays by
spraying the trees from the outside only.
These fungi propagate abundantly on the in-
ner parts of the tree crowns which are not
thoroughly covered by sprays applied from
the outside.
Cuprous oxide, bas:c copper sulphate and
copper ammonium silicate in the concentra-
tions tested have given practically as good
control of melanose as the 3-3-100 bor-
deaux. These three forms of copper leave
little spray residue on the foliage and scale
increases have not been as large following
their use as following bordeaux. Sulphur
sprays alone have proved ineffective for the
control of melanose and should not be relied
upon for its control in groves that require
spraying for melanose.

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crop and improve the quality as well as quantity.


ready for immediate delivery

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Page 12

This is THE CITRUS GROWER for January 15, 1939

Seminole County Meeting Planned
President, Seminole County Citrus Growers, Inc.
At a meeting at Altamonte Springs, January 3, the
program of Seminole County Citrus Growers, Inc., for
the month was arranged as follows:
January 17 at Sanford. Dr. Phillips is invited to
give his lecture and demonstrate on Selling by Weight.
The meeting will be held at county court house.
January 31, a meeting will be held at Geneva at the
school house.
Other call meetings will be held where and when
necessary for the consideration of the Marketing Agree-
ment, when it is returned from Washington.
The Association has some additional members, and
the prospects for a substantial increase in membership
is assured.
The result of the Lakeland hearing, the outcome of
the grapefruit growers meeting at Winter Haven, the
recommendations of Commissioner Nathan Mayo to
the Florida Citrus Commission in relation to the pro-
posed "Grove Run Grade," and news and views pub-
lished in the press, held the interest of the directors and
members. Realizing that many things may occur to
change any program, it is felt advisable to arrange the
program month by month.
A corrected list of directors will be sent for the
next issue of The Citrus Grower as, by mistake, two
prominent growers were omitted from the directorate.
The crisis in the citrus industry impresses all grow-
ers of the necessity of the organization, and loyalty to
the splendid leaders who have made history in the past

(Continued from Page 9)
ducers to make satisfactory shipper arrangements un-
der a marketing agreement. They are also proof it
is not necessary for a grower, who does not wish to do
so. to join a cooperative association in order to make
this arrangement. At all events it is highly desirable,
under present or any future conditions, that the grow-
er find out how the shipper stands on the fundamental
questions underlying the citrus industry, and give this
knowledge due weight in deciding to whom to sell his
The producer whose sole interest is in locating the
buyer who will promise the highest price is unques-
tionably responsible for many bad practices existing
in the state today. The seller who insistently de-
mands the highest price is in exactly the same posi-
tion in the industry as the shipper who drives for low-
er and lower prices. In demanding prices higher than
the general conditions warrant, the seller is encourag-
ing poor service, he is encouraging the shipper to cut
corners to make a saving that may work contrary to
good merchandising practices.
In the old English Common Law there was a much
used Latin phrase "caveat emptor," meaning the buyer
must watch his step because the seller is under no ob-
ligation to point out to the buyer defects in the thing
sold. In our business the caution should be turned
around to say "Let the seller beware." Because the
buyer is under no obligation to the seller to point out
the type of service that follow from over emphasis on

Page 13

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This is THE CITRUS GROWER for January 15, 1939

The Citrus Grower looks with mixed feelings of
hope and uncertainty upon the present move to secure
for the grower a cost of production price for his grape-
fruit under a law passed by the legislature in 1935
(Chapter 16862, Laws of Florida, Acts of 1935.)
The sincere hope of this magazine is that the move
will succeed and that the desired result may be reached
of getting for the grower a price of approximately
30 cents per box for a substantial portion of his grape-
fruit crop. The movement got under way as a result
of a meeting called by Citrus Commissioner Harvey
Henderson at Winter Haven, January 5, which was at-
tended by several hundred enthusiastic growers. Presi-
dent L. H. Kramer of our organization presided at the
meeting and has given active leadership to carrying out
the details.
The first information was that the cost of produc-
tion would be approximately 40 cents per box. More
careful calculations show the CASH cost of produc-
tion to be nearer 30 cents per box. This does not in-
clude estimated interest or owner supervision cost. Since
the 30 cent price is about 200 percent above the low
prices now paid, it would be very desirable to raise
the price to producers to this level.
At President Kramer's disposal and under his intelli-
gent and energetic direction has been our young and
vigorous grower organization. Local meetings have
been called in practically all citrus communities. Com-
mittees have gone out with petitions. The law re-
quires that the cost of production price law can be put
into effect only after a petition for its application has
been signed by no less than 50 percent of the acreage.
Within a week after the Winter Haven meeting Mr.
Kramer and other grower leaders laid the petition with
more than the required number of names in the hands
of Governor Fred P. Cone and Commissioner Nathan
Mayo. As we go to press (Friday, Jan. 13) the dec-
laration of a state of emergency, the first step toward
putting the law into effect, is expected momentarily.
This quick, decisive grower action could not possi-
bly have been hoped for without the facilities of our
group and its broad and intimate contacts with growers
throughout the citrus belt. This is a beautiful demon-
stration of the usefulness and effectiveness of grower
organization. This is the hopeful sign that the ills of
the citrus industry are on their way to satisfactory so-
The uncertainty of the situation comes from the sug-
gestion that the law itself may be faulty. Attorney
Ed. R. Bentley, in presenting the growers' case to the
Citrus Commission on the day after the Winter Haven
meeting, did a splendid and sincere piece of work. His
frankness in indicating his lack of understanding of
parts of the law was commendable, and likewise com-
mendable was his statement that if this law. by lack
of clearness or lack of sufficient enforcement provisions,
would not serve the growers, now is the time to learn
the facts, and a law which would work should be
passed when the legislature meets next spring.
In spite of this uncertainty there is no way of esti-

mating the tremendous good which can come out of this
movement. Even a faulty law will work if it has
enough popular support. Certainly, if the grapefruit
growers of the state have sufficient fortitude to hold
steady in their demands for a cost-of-producion price,
this goal should be reached without the aid of a law.
You simply have the result of organized sellers com-
batting organized buyers. We also feel sure that in-
creasing the price to approximately 30 cents per box
would not have any noticeable effect on the price paid
by the final consumer, and, therefore, would not ap-
preciably affect the volume purchased by the consumer.
In our enthusiasm and determination, however, to
drive this movement through to the desired conclusion,
we should not lose sight of the great help the law will
be in carrying out the program, if it is found to be
thoroughly sound and workable. The hope that it is
sound and workable shows very clearly at this time
how much more this organization through its commit-
tees should devote itself to study and analysis of all
our citrus ills, how the representatives of the organiza-
tion should advise and work with legislators and law
enforcement officers, to see that laws are well thought
out ahead of time, that there are no jokers in them
and that they can and will be enforced when the oc-
casion arises.
The grower has neglected his own interests in this
important respect. If he had known all about what
should be done, and if he had had the greatest urge to
do it, he has not heretofore had the instrument of or-
ganization thru which alone he could work effectively
toward such ends. Our organization has happily rem-
edied that situation. We can face the future with a
reasonable expectation that our house will be put in
order and that by intelligent action beforehand we can
insure ourselves against these most distressing condi-
tions that have given rise to the present effort to reach
a cost of production price. The danger of such situa-
tions, as we all can see, is that masses of growers may
yet be stirred to hysterical action, from which no im-
mediate or permanent good could be expected.
In one of his first messages in our magazine, Presi-
dent Kramer called attention to the fact that the citrus
industry has taken many years to dig this hole in
which it now finds itself and that it will take a long
time to get out of it. This issue of the magazine is de-
voted largely to an outline of plans for legislative ac-
tion to help toward lifting us out. And it is still
true that our surest hope of improvement is in the plod-
ding drudgery of patient study and careful analysis
to which the committees of this organization have
set themselves. Out of this substantial work will
come sound, workable laws, of unquestioned effective-
Nothing so much as the high hope and slight flavor
of uncertainty, which every grower feels in connection
with this meritorious effort to get grapefruit cost-of-
production prices, should inspire us to give loyal and
unstinted service to our organization in preparing and
working out its legislative program which is now com-
ing up as its main immediate task.

Page 14

What About Arsenic Sprays? COMMITTEE GETS

THE SUBJECT OF the use of
arsenical sprays on citrus breaks
into the press with much un-
favorable and misleading publicity
during the early part of every ship-
ping season. It seems to be a pret-
ty well established fact that the
amount of arsenic used is, even In
extreme cases, less than one-hun-
dredth part of that permitted by the
Federal Pure Food laws, yet because
of the fact that it is used to induce
earlier maturity so that John Jones
can beat Bill Smith to the market a
few days, the controversy rages ev-
ery year.
It seems pretty well established
that arsenicals in quantities of 1
pound per hundred gallons of spray
for grapefruit and 1-4 pound per
hundred gallons of spray for tange-
rines, applied between April 1st and
September 1st, make the eating qual-
ity of those varieties so sprayed more
pleasing to the palates of disinterest-
ed samplers. It also seems well es-
tablished that this same spray ap-
plied in any effective quantity on
oranges effects some chemical change
rendering the fruit insipid and les-
sening the palability.
If the use of arsenic sprays is per-
mitted legally it will undoubtedly
have the effect of lengthening the
shipping season, which has an eco-
nomic value not to be overlooked.
On the other hand are the ad-
vantages of the practice outweighed
by the unfavorable publicity sur-
rounding it. If so, should the prac-
tice itself be stopped entirely and the
advantages thus lost, or should a
modification of the laws be sought
and the legal controversy ended and
along with it the unfavorable pub-
It has been suggested that the
present arsenic laws be repealed and
that a new law be enacted prohibit-
ing the use of arsenical sprays on or-
anges and fixing the maximum
amounts that can be applied on
grapefruit and tangerines, as well as
the time of year that these can be
applied; and further that such ap-
plications be made under the super-
vision of inspectors from the Com-
missioner of Agriculture's depart-
ment. The cost of such inspection
to be paid for by the grower receiv-
ing the service.
Jt has also been suggested that on
Agerines a maximum maturity test
io be established as well as a mini-

Growers are urgently requested to
answer all or any of the questions in
the questionnaire at the conclusion of
this article. They are also asked to
make any comments upon the subject
which they feel necessary.
Please address answers and com-
ments to
E. W. Hartt.
Growers' Legislative Committee,
Avon Park, Florida.

mum, with the thought that this
would serve as a sufficient check
against the excessive use of arsenical
The legislative committee, which
has this matter under consideration
is open minded and invites your
comment on this highly controver-
sial question, and to that end have
developed the following question-
naire; however, you need not restrict
your comments to the questions
1. Should existing legislation be
2. Should a permissive law be en-
acted applying to grapefruit and
tangerines only?
3. Should maximum quantities
of arsenicals be fixed by law?
4. Should all arsenicals be applied
under the supervision of Depart-
ment of Agriculture inspectors at the
growers expense?
5. Should the whole matter be
left as it now stands?
6. Should the matter be left oth-
erwise in its present status and per-
missive legislation be enacted on tan-
7. Should excessive use of arsenic
on tangerines be regulated by fixing
maximum maturity test ratio?
8. What solution of the problem
do you suggest?


The following is a tentative pro-
gram for the annual meeting of the
Lake County Horticultural Associa-
tion, affiliated with Florida Citrus
Growers, Inc., to be held in the Com-
munity Building, Mt. Dora, Friday,
January 27th:
10:30. Opening of the Fifth An-
nual meeting, L. C. H. A., Clifford
R. Hiatt, president.

At the request of the Legislative
Committee of Florida Citrus Grow-
ers, Inc., Commissioner of Agricul-
ure Nathan Mayo has forwarded to
the committee the list of those pack-
ing houses who have been found to
be violating the regulations concern-
ing field crate sizes.
While this list shows 90 viola-
tions, a careful analysis shows that
in only a few instances are the vio-
lations of serious proportions.
The list of violators is on file at
the office of our organization's state
secretary and may be seen on request.
The legislative committee is of the
firm conviction that this field crate
law needs to be made more clear in
its terms and possibly strengthened.
10:40. Announcement of com-
10:45. "The Results of an Ex-
perimental Selling of Citrus Fruits
by Weight Program," by E. F. De-
Busk, Extension Citriculturist, Ag-
ricultural Extension Service.
11:05. Musical program (singing
led by Wilmer Bassett, assistant Lake
County Agent with Miss Tommy
Ruth Blackmon at the piano.)
11:15. "The Function and Meth-
ods of Operation of the Federal-
State Horticultural Protective Serv-
vice," by Dr. Eckley S. Ellison, di-
12:00. Intermission.
12:15. Dinner and Announce-
ments-Karl Lehmann, Secretary
Lake County Chamber of Com-
merce, master of ceremonies.
Greetings from Lou Kramer,
President Florida Citrus Growers.
Greetings from other county cit-
rus growers associations.
1:15. "The 'Home Use' of Cit-
rus Fruits," Mrs. Lucie K. Miller,
Home Demonstration Agent, Lake
2:00. Musical program.
2:15. The Citrus Marketing
2:25. Business meeting-Clifford
R. Hiatt, President L. C. H. A., pre-
The invitation to attend this
meeting is extended to all officers and
directors of both the state and coun-
ty organizations of Florida Citrus
Growers, Inc. Those who plan to
attend should notify Clifford R.
Hiatt at Tavares by the 25th in or-
der that proper reservations for din-
ner may be made.


The Florida Citrus Exchange sys-
tem offers a complete grower care
of the grove through marketing.
And all of these operations are at
a cost lower than comparable serv-
ice can be obtained elsewhere.
Consider, for example, sales. The
selling charge this season as set by
the Board of Grower Directors is
9c per box on oranges and 5c on
grapefruit at the current market.
From these revenues the Exchange
provides the most wide-spread and
hard-hitting sales organization
available PLUS a substantial ex-
penditure for merchandising help
beyond the carlot sale-dealer serv-
ice, advertising, sales promotion,
by-products development, et cetera.
Ask the man who is a member.


We are happy to welcome Florida Citrus Growers,
Inc., into active participation in industry affairs in
the interests of growers. Grower problems can be
-must be-solved by growers.

No one else is concerned.

Under such circumstances, it is a pleasure to coop-
erate with a grower group which already has dem-
onstrated its appreciation of the problems involved:
it overwhelmingly supported the proposed mparket-
ing agreement. It has interested itself in the details
of the industry's advertising program. It has con-
cerned itself with the unfair practices of certain
operators in the use of the over-sized field box.

These and other matters of similar vital importance
to the welfare of the industry and the grower also
have been the concern of us grower-members of the
Florida Citrus Exchange. It is natural that we
are encouraged with the opportunity of cooperating
with a similarly minded group of growers.




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