MAL I ,- 939
MAR 3 1939
JUDQE SPE88ARD L. HOLLAND
"Friend, of G~owers"
See page 13
t C4 ALlr-culturo
H ill i
T HE MEASURES NECESSARY to improve the
citrus industry are many, and all of them impor-
tant, but over shadowing all the others in the
past two weeks has been the hearings at Lakeland be-
fore representatives of the Agricultural Adjustment
Administration on the proposed marketing agreement.
These hearings have revealed that an overwhelming
majority of all growers favor the marketing agreement,
with volume prorate provisions on a current control
basis. A majority of the shippers also favor the agree-
ment and testified strongly in its favor. Only a mi-
nority of the shippers opposed it.
It is altogether fitting that the proposed agreement
should thus be welcomed by the industry as shown
by the evidence at these hearings. It is a growers'
agreement, prepared at the request of the balance of
the industry by the growers' committee. But it does
recognize the interests of all other branches of the in-
dustry and endeavors to protect them.
We agree with the majority of those testifying at
the hearing that the committee has done a good job.
The committee is representative of the best informed
men among the growers, and they have had the bene-
fit of advice and consultation with the best minds in
the other branches of the industry. We believe the
adoption of the agreement they have written offers the
quickest and surest way for the grower to benefit. It
would be the first long and important step in lifting us
out of our present unhappy condition.
WILL MEET OPPOSITION
The grower should bear in mind, however, that
there is an active opposition to the agreement. Each pro-
vision in the agreement has been so worked out, each
provision is so completely justified by the demands of
the situation, it hardly seems possible anyone would op-
pose it. But there is opposition. Fred T. Henderson, of
the marketing agreement committee, expressed the
thought that no one would have nerve enough to op-
pose the growers' marketing program. It is so fair to
all concerned, and so necessary! But Mr. Henderson ad-
mits he was wrong about that.
Every practice that has grown up in the industry
has had a reason for growing up. Long established cus-
toms do not come about by accident. So they should
not be interfered with unless there has been most care-
ful consideration by all the interests concerned. We be-
lieve the committee has given the matter this necessary
The provisions of the agreement have been scientific-
ally drawn, and we are not going into something blind-
ly. The best part of other marketing agreements, thor-
oughly tested in other fields, is the substance of which
this agreement is made.
I urge upon every grower to give the agreement
thorough study, talk it over with the chairman of the
marketing agreement committee of the county organiza-
tion, and with his neighbor growers.
Then, if an election is called upon the agreement,
which I confidently expect, BE SURE TO GO OUT
AND VOTE, and take your neighbor grower with
If this agreement will help to raise the price level for
citrus fruit, as the experience of other producing areas
indicates it will, it is the duty of the grower to himself
to give it active support, even though it may slightly
change his methods of selling, and even though a small
minority of the shippers do not want to adjust them-
selves to the proposed restrictions.
LOOKING TO THE FUTURE
There are many knotty problems to tackle after the
marketing agreement is out of the way. For this reason,
I want to call attention to the necessity of activity
among the various committees.
The packing house charges committee has a big job
before it in the way of discovering the facts and recom-
mending action to the organization. Chairman Saurman
is active in this work and deserves the support and as-
sistance of the other members.
The research committee should grapple with the
question of proper fruit maturity tests, and Chairman
Barnett is actively working on this and deserves the sup-
port of the other members of the committee.
In my own county I expect systematically to weed
out all committeemen who, for one reason and another,
are not active, and to strive to replace them with men
who can and will put time and energy into these im-
portant organization tasks. I suggest the presidents of
other county units do likewise.
Yours for the improvement of the industry.
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
The Citrus Grower
Official Publication of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
JANUARY 1, 1939
EIGHT COMPETENT MEN
One of the least controversial parts of the marketing
agreement as evidenced at the hearing was the selection
of the administrative body. The AAA representatives.
the shippers and the growers were in apparent agree-
ment in giving the growers' committee the power to
administer whatever type of marketing agreement
might be put into effect in Florida this season.
Regardless of the type of agreement which the Secre-
tary of Agriculture will submit to the Florida industry
as a result of the hearing, a growers' administrative body
will unquestionably be required to administer such an
agreement. The producers of the state will nominate
four producers from each of the citrus commission d:s-
tricts, with the exception of Polk county, which will
select eight producers, and from these thirty-two nomi-
nations the secretary will select eight members and
eight alternate members for the administrative commit-
Now is the time for the producers of the state to be
seriously considering the representatives which they
will wish to nominate from their individual districts.
In making these selections undoubtedly they will be
considering the integrity, the experience, the interest
and the courage of the men nominated. The men accept-
ing the responsibility of these appointments must have
the courage of their convictions and should have suffi-
cient interest in the citrus industry to devote whatever
time is necessary to make the program work success-
Eight sincere, competent men with sufficient determi-
nation will make even a poor plan work. Unfortunate-
ly, the reverse is also true, that eight incompetent men
without the same type of determination, could very
easily cause a good plan to fail. Plenty of good men are
available for this work-LET'S FIND THEM, and
see to it that the growers' administrative body, will
prove to be the strongest link in the marketing agree-
FOR BETTER HEALTH
The President Speaks Inside Front Cover
Marketing Agreement Hearings Page 4
Stabilization of Movement Asked Page 9
Growing Use of pH Control Page 10
Developing a Demand For Citrus Page 12
With the Editor --- -- -- Page 14
Tractor Tag Ruling Made Inside Back Cover
Research Aims for Better
Fruit -- Inside Back Cover
FCPA Meets in Orlando Inside Back Cover
In a recent editorial comment in his Lakeland Led-
ger and Star-Telegram, Sam H. Farabee, editor and
president of the publishing company, lists Florida Cit-
rus Growers, Inc., as one of the constructive forces in
the Florida citrus industry.
This merely calls our attention to the unrecognized
contributions Mr. Farabee makes to the good of his
public. His rare lack of prejudice, his mirror-like re-
porting of the work of Florida Citrus Commission and
the other and many important citrus affairs that occur
in Lakeland, his integrity, his courage and selflessness
that enable him to speak for what he thinks is right.
his keen judgment in discerning what that right thing
is, these and his delightful personal qualifications make
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., wish to return the com-
pliment and nominate Sam Farabee, himself, as an out-
standing constructive force in the Florida citrus indus-
Truth is that element which dispels the clouds of
ignorance, it makes men understand each other better
and enables them to cooperate for the common good.
it is the force which is bringing growers where they can
see eye to eye for the good of themselves and for the
benefit of every enterprise in the citrus belt.
Virgil H. Conner Editor Published the First and Fifteenth of each postage for their return if found unavail-
month by The Florida Citrus Growers, able. The publishers can accept no re-
J. E. Robinson Business Manager Inc., Orlando, Florida. responsibility for return of unsolicited manu-
Application for entry as sccjnd-class script..
PUBLICATION COMMITTEE-W. E. r is pend ent t Subscription Rates
matter is pending. In United States, one year $1.00 to non-
Kemp, Chairman; Carl D. Brorein, R. The entire contents of this magazine are members of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.,
J. Kepler, E. G. Thatcher, W. L. Burton. protected by copyright and must not be Membership subscriptions, one year 50c.
. Kepler, E. G. Thather. W. L. Brto. reprinted without the publishers' permis-
sion. Manuscripts submitted to this maga- Address all mail to The Citrus Grower,
Printed by The Chief Press, Apopka zine should be accompanied by sufficient P. 0. Box 2077, Orlando, Florida.
Page 4 This is THE CITRUS GROWER for January 1, 1939
The Citrus Industry Explored in
The Marketing Agreement Hearings
NEVER IN ITS history has the
Florida citrus industry been
given such a careful and minute
examination as at the recent hear-
ings on the proposed marketing
agreement. Growers who attended
the hearings saw all the machinery
of their business taken apart and ex-
amined piece by piece. Many fea-
tures, long a mystery to the average
grower, but highly important to his
pocketbook, were brought into the
light of day and thoroughly explain-
ed. This was done by outstanding
men in the industry. It was done
by those growers and shippers who
are supporting the proposed market-
ing agreement, as well as by those
opposed. So both sides were pre-
sented and examined.
For the benefit of our readers who
were unable to attend the hearings,
we are reviewing the highlights of
Mr. Chester C. Fosgate said
"Show me how to merchandise fruit
out of this state and get more money
for it and I will get right on your
band wagon." We believe the great
mass of evidence given at the hear-
ings showed that the proposed mar-
keting agreement would have the ef-
fect of raising prices, but Mr. Fos-
gate further says: "Under this set-
up there is no way under the sun
that I can operate as a cash buyer.
When the growers that I am per-
sonally acquainted with, friends of
mine, want to sell their fruit on the
tree, I see they cannot do the thing
they wish to do. I will not any long-
er be able to serve them in the ca-
pacity I do now. The cash buyer
will be entirely driven out of the
picture under this program, because
of the collective bargaining element
involved in it."
Of course we do not expect Mr.
Fosgate to support something that
he thinks will run him out of busi-
ness. But the grower is very much
interested in the next question asked
Mr. Fosgate after he made the above
Q. You would have to pay a
higher price than you could pay for
A. I think so. It would be im-
practical for the cash buyer to op-
Mr. Bernard Kilgore, large ship-
per of Clearwater, expressed senti-
ments similar to Mr. Fosgate's, as
evidenced by the following from a
report of the hearings:
Q. Could you continue to operate
as you have in the past under this
A. I could answer that question
very clearly for you.
Q. What is the answer to that
A. I would have to go out of
business as a cash buyer.
Shortly after the above declara-
tion, Mr. Kilgore also gave an an-
swer that should be of great inter-
est to the growers:
"I know the growers here are in-
terested in getting more money for
their fruit. This is why they want
a marketing agreement. I know I
cannot operate under such an agree-
Of course the growers would hesi-
tate to support something that would
put their friends, the cash buyers.
out of business. But still, when it
is shown in the testimony that au-
thorities like Mr. Fosgate and Mr.
Kilgore believe the proposed agree-
ment, with volume prorate on cur-
rent control, would raise prices, the
grower could hardly do otherwise
than support the agreement. In the
course of his testimony, Mr. Fosgate
himself referred to the time honored
truth that self-preservation is the
first law of nature.
AFFECTS CASH BUYER
So, it would seem from the above
testimony of Mr. Fosgate and Mr.
Kilgore that the grower must choose
between saving himself and destroy-
ing the cash buyer, or preserving the
cash buyer and heading the grower
toward bankruptcy. From other
testimony, however, it seems the
grower is not squarely up against
this choice. The great majority of
the evidence indicated the proposed
agreement would be helpful to all
branches of the industry, especially
the grower, and that the cash buyer
would also be benefitted. Specifi-
cally along the line of the cash buyer
going out of business, we quote the
following questions by Judge Spes-
sard Holland and answers by Mr.
Q. I understand you to say in
event volume control went into
effect you would go out of business
as a cash buyer?
A. That is correct.
Q. You do not mean for the rec-
ord to indicate that you would go
out of business as a shipper?
A. I certainly do not. I feel this
way: With the average intelligence
I think I have, I could possibly ad-
just my business and become a co-
operative. I would call in a cash
buyer and say "Now you may be a
good cash buyer, but you have got
to go out and sell the growers and
see how much fruit we can get and
see if we can't line this business up."
It will change our entire organiza-
tion, but I think we have facilities
to merchandise and the growers will
be glad to avail themselves of our
Evidence of other well established
and highly respected cash buyers
show an entirely different attitude
toward the agreement from that ex-
pressed by Mr. Fosgate and Mr. Kil-
Mr. A. S. Herlong of Leesburg,
for instance, favors the agreement.
He is of the firm of A. S. Herlong
& Co., that shipped approximately
214,000 boxes last year. Mr. Her-
long testified his concern produced
about half of these shipments,
bought some, and handled some for
the account of growers. He is also
president of Florida Citrus Pro-
ducers Trade Association, an organi-
zation of grower-shippers. The
members of this organization are
said to own or control fifty percent
of all the citrus fruit produced in
Pertinent excerpts from Herlong's
testimony are as follows:
Q. Mr. Herlong, speaking for
your own organization, are you in
favor of the proposed marketing
agreement on which the hearing is
A. I am.
Q. With reference to volume pro-
rate provisions applicable under that
proposed provision to Valencias
This is THE CITRUS GROWER for January 1, 1939
only, and on the basis of current
control, do you think that would
A. Yes I do, and I think volume
prorate would be helpful on all of it.
Q. In other words you favor the
principle of volume proration as ap-
plicable to all varieties on which it
can be obtained?
A. I do.
Q. Do you think the effect of
volume control-volume prorate.
based on current control, would be
destructive or helpful to your busi-
A. Helpful to my business. It
has already proved that by experi-
Q. In what way?
A. It gives the trade more confi-
dence in buying, the trade can figure
what the movement will be after it
makes purchases. In other words it
clears up the situation. They can
do business on a more merchandis-
ing basis than on a haphazard busi-
ness of heavy shipments one week
and light the next. not knowing
what to expect.
Q. Mr. Herlong, referring to the
business of your own company in
last year. when no marketing agree-
ment was in force, as compared with
the year before, when there was a
marketing agreement involving mar-
keting control, under which arrange-
ment did you build a larger and
more satisfactory and more profitable
A. Under volume control pro-
SHIPPED MORE FRUIT
Q. Your organization shipped
more fruit, even though on the cash
buying basis, more fruit under vol-
ume prorate than with no control?
A. Yes. sir.
Q. Your experience is that the
confidence built by volume prorate
helps legitimate independent opera-
A. It has proved so in my busi-
Q. Is there any other statement
that you feel like it is appropriate
for you to make, anything you may
have observed at first hand?
A. I would say no agreement
would be beneficial unless it is en-
forced. Speaking of my experience
on the former control committee,
we did not get the benefits of that
as we would have gotten had the
agreement been enforced-in other
words, had violators been punished.
And, along that line. there has
been quite a lot of complaint I un-
derstand about the inequitableness of
the prorate. However, it was done
The Cash Buyer
By J. J. BANKS, JR.
After a voyage through troubled waters,
the first unit of our marketing program.-,
the marketing agreement-is about to come
into port. We must work tirelessly for a
safe landing. Among other hazards there is
said to be one particularly dangerous rock
between here and the shore. Upon this rock
the enemies of beneficial regulation hope to
see our good ship crack to pieces. This rock
is the supposedly bad fate of the cash buyer
under volume control of citrus shipments.
But this rock does not exist. ID is a sham
rock, so to speak. The growers, with an
overwhelming majority of the balance of the
industry, run risks only by shying away
from it. It is far better judgment to run
squarely into the issue, show it up for what
it is, and remove from serious consideration
this entirely groundless contention. This can
be done by each grower examining the ac-
tual situation in his own community at this
very moment; it can be exploded by examin-
ing the testimony of those opposed to vol-
ume control and who are now playing the
cash buyer argument for so much more than
it is worth.
The fact is, the cash buyer is not an im-
portant force in the citrus situation in times
like these. That is, scarcely at all is he per-
forming as a cash buyer. Most estimates
are that only 10 per cent of the present
crop is being bought from the growers for
cash. The largest estimates are that 15 per
cent is being handled in this way.
Most territories do report, however, that
cash buying shippers are now actively solicit-
ing fruit to be handled for the growers' ac-
count-that is, on consignment. But this is
entirely outside the range of cash buying.
This is merely offering a'shipping and selling
service that the industry must have under any
sort of marketing agreement.
This truth, that the cash buyer does not
perform as a cash buyer in times like the
present, was brought out by many witnesses
at the agreement hearings. We quote only
two significant sentences from the testimony
of Mr. Chester C. Fosgate:
"Does the cash buyer follow the
same general practice in years of large
production as in years of small?"
Mr. Fosgate-"I would say in years
of large production many of them (the
cash buyers) find it difficult to make a
profit and would solicit fruit to be
handled for the growers' account."
Now, why is the cash buyer not perform-
ing as such this season? It is because of un-
certain market conditions. He dares not risk
his capital in purchasing fruit to be shipped
into a distressed and chaotic market. He
dares buy only when there is stable and
steady demand. He buys only when there is
good chance of making a profit.
There was no evidence given at the Lake-
land hearings to deny that the proposed
marketing agreement, which includes volume
control, would not give this much desired
stability and steadiness.
Many of the cash buyers see the truth of
this reasoning. They stand for the agreement
and for volume control. Only a small mi-
nority oppose it. But this is a very active
minority and the growers should be on
their guard not to be misled by them.
, Except for some who are in favored posi-
tions, the truth is, the cash buyer, as such,
is practically out of business now. The in-
dustry faces a continuing surplus situation
that will discourage the cash buyer from
continuing as a strictly cash buyer. He needs
volume control. He needs it as much to put
himself back into active cash buying as the
grower needs it to avoid bankruptcy.
as fair as it possibly could have been
done. and others will bear me out in
my statement. About being able to
ship more stuff under prorate than
without it. I would like to say the
record will show that I shipped all
the fruit I had when I put in my
request for allotment as to my hold-
Q. Speaking generally, Mr. Her-
long, with reference to the proposed
agreement, based on your own situa-
tion as a producer and marketer, and
on your firm's experience with agree-
ments and without agreements, is it
your opinion that the proposed
agreement would help to solve the
present critical conditions?
A. I think it would do a lot of
good, although I do not figure any
kind of marketing agreement this
year would get the prices we would
like to get.
Q. But it would bring relief and
A. I feel sure it would.
Q. From the standpoint of mon-
ey to the growers?
A. That is right.
Mr. Herlong concluded his testi-
mony by making the following
statement for record:
"I think I am in a position, and
qualified to speak from the cash buy-
ers' standpoint as well as the han-
dler standpoint. I have been in the
citrus business about twenty-four
years. The fact of the matter is I
moved to Florida in 1887 and my
father had citrus groves in Colum-
bia County near Lake City. Since
that time I have been associated with
citrus fruit more or less all the time.
"For the last twenty-four years I
have given my time to it almost al-
together. I have had various experi-
iences. I buy fruit. I do not buy
much fruit at the early part of the
season. In order to take care of the
trade that I have built up, I have
to supply Valencias to them. Con-
sequently I have to buy mostly Va-
lencias. My experience has proven
definitely that I can make more mon-
ey and I can handle more fruit un-
der prorate to better advantage and
get better prices for the grower than
I can without the prorate. In our
last prorate, when the trade generally
found out that we were going un-
der volume proration and going to
try to maintain that through the
balance of the season, I immediately
got orders to buy a large amount
of fruit and those orders kept com-
ing in. Prices kept advancing all the
"When the trade got wind there
might be a possibility of prorate
being knocked out, they told me
This is THE CITRUS GROWER for January 1, 1939
not to buy anything else. The rec- ; ..
ords will show that the prices after 4~ r
prorate was knocked out declined. .'
That is my experience as a cash By A. G. PORClHER
buyer. The outstanding feature of the hearings
,ar Lakeland was the great majority of grow-
BOUGHT MORE :e4s and shippers favoring the marketing
;,areeent, as drawn by hce growers' com-
.hadltl^R*a i rn !;^i-f fflr nrneara
"The records will show I handled
more fruit that season than I ever
handled before and the percentage I
bought that season was greater than
I ever bought before, which shows.
in my opinion that it definitely
would not put out a reliable, re-
sponsible cash buyer.
"Now there may be some cash
buyers put out of business, but I do
not believe there is a reliable, respon-
sible cash buyer in the state of Flor-
ida today that would not be
benefitted by it, if he takes into con-
sideration the amount of money
coming back into Florida for the
fruit he handles."
Another grower-shipper, Mr. L.
P. Kirkland, former chairman of
Florida Citrus Commission, gives
views on volume prorate for the
record of the hearing as follows:
"Another point I want to discuss
"Volume prorate based on current
control, putting the cash buyer out
of business. My opinion is that it
will not put him out of business,
but that he can operate in a more
safe and orderly manner under vol-
ume prorate than he can without it.
That statement is based on my ex-
perience as a member of the last con-
"It is true that we had many com-
plaints from cash buyers that they
could not operate under the prorates
they were receiving. I had many
personal calls at my office in Au-
burndale and in my home from
many individual shippers and from
some tree buying corporations, com-
plaining they could not live under
what they were getting. But when
I checked the records of those who
complained most to me, the records
showed that those same people dur-
ing that year. in practically every
case. shipped more fruit than they
had in the previous season.
"In addition to that I heard Mr.
Pace's testimony the other night in
which he stated that 50% of the
fruit leaving Florida for the season
1936-37 was handled by the cash
buyer. That is the year I was on
the control committee, so evidently
it did not put the cash buyer out of
business. Since that time I have had
many shippers speak to me saying
that it not only did not put them
"a r _05-2 5`7. Ir vs
CosFear coarrol.~baes_0 Va~len~LIcias.
a$pulr4ti% -ra nl-
ogs, e r 1 ut we .
.Sure that nowhere else than in oaur own
publication n can we ind the evidence pre-
enired as it affects our interests. In our maga-
ine proper emphasis is given the testimony
those men who were grappling with the
. npdamentals of the problem. The press in
Seral could not be expected to' do this,
least not consistently.,
do -nprb e y 'as jy.er would
u mp at?
hi- 1 X
out of business but was the most
profitable year they ever had.
"The question has come up about
the small shipper. I have had sev-
eral small shippers who made the
statement to me, and I remember
one case in particular, where the
individual came before the commit-
tee. He said I am not here to com-
plain and grumble, but is there any
way something can be worked out,
whereby I can go on a current con-
trol basis and get sufficient fruit to
operate. I said to do that you will
have to be owner of the fruit which
you produce, or you will have to
purchase that fruit, or associate with
you in your organization a group
of growers who do own fruit, and
do that on a bonafide contract or
some other method whereby you can
show control of that fruit. As you
are already qualified as a shipper,
you can operate.
"That man went out to tie up
fruit. I personally knew growers
with whom he had made a contract
and followed it up to find out if they
were so called rubber stamp con-
tracts or genuine. And that man is
operating today successfully and has
no fault to find with operating un-
der volume prorate on current con-
GRADE AND SIZE?
In a subsequent paragraph Mr.
Kirkland said: "I do not believe any
grower or shipper should get the
idea in his mind that you can ac-
complish orderly movement of fruit
through a grade and size prorate. It
cannot be done." He did state, how-
ever, a grade and size prorate, prop-
erly administered would do some
good. He also encouraged the revival
of the "cull pile," now seldom or
From the testimony of C. C.
Commander, general manager of
Florida Citrus Exchange we quote:
Q. Has this proposed marketing
agreement been submitted to the
board of directors of the Florida Cit-
A. It has.
Q. What was the result?
A. It had the unanimous ap-
proval of the board.
Q. From that experience (as
member of the former control com-
mittee) and from your experience in
the industry itself and from your
knowledge of what is in this agree-
ment, do you consider this program
one that will operate practically,
This is THE CITRUS GROWER for January 1, 1939
equitably and satisfactorily among
growers and among handlers of dif-
Q. Do you see any problems at
all in that connection that may give
A. You always have a problem
when you start to restrain anyone
from doing what they like to do all
Q. What problems may arise
from your understanding of this
agreement and your past experience?
A. The problem of preventing
someone from shipping all the fruit
he wants to without regard to conse-
quences and the dissatisfaction aris-
ing as a result of controlling him.
Q. You think those problems,
however, can be met in an equitable
manner and in a practical manner?
A. Yes, I believe they can.
Q. Do you see any problems in
this agreement, so far as ability of
your organization is concerned, to
receive equitable allotment as a ship-
A. No. We have a larger percen-
tage of Valencias than early fruit
and it will affect us more than other
organizations. I see no reason why
it cannot be equitably worked out--
the proration of it.
Besides the greatly magnified ques-
tion of the fate of the cash buyer,
numerous other objections were
raised. There was the matter of
making proper estimates of each
grove on which to base the prorate.
The expense, the great probability of
inaccuracies that would work injus-
tices, the likelihood of men not be-
ing available to do the work, were
all brought out by the minority of
shippers opposing the agreement.
Shippers, and grower-shippers of
the type of Mr. Herlong, Mr. Kirk-
land, and Mr. Commander see no
cause for alarm on this score. We
quote Mr. Kirkland as character;s-
tic expressions from this group:
"in regard to the question of
proper estimating, there has been a
practice in the industry for many
years of buying fruit on the tree, on
a basis of what we call bulk buying.
In other words a grower and buyer
estimate the crop and make a trade
for a lump sum. The question of
estimating crops can be reasonably
and accurately done. In my own
business we have many different
properties and on each, before we
- .,i- .. -
u~in dru- hearihoi
.1 Qt" be 0swngd r as ro =xpiw
eet birc was. ainy vv~dr'*
ii control b~i-
S ve a .We ar #'
an&.: qx: v[*I,*. T 'l :only testimoy 2`_V_
;4 zp' uinfti EMS1 current fois*._
wsl*avput in (be bargail-
iiOArnite Iniredel just.
th bee oliosf'foc heir posicioh..
Z.- WM dnt thr:vdolue reR*#'-*
irbi4iba prcent-biiu ir@~o
C ~dD~iB~eihisi ol~iknr wQ9V
h jrA'koiSHF j~.4,`i ___ It s nol sdi -I,
start operating, we make an estimate
as to variety of different products
and our records show, over a period
of years, we have not missed that
estimate in excess of 2 percent."
Many other witnesses stated the
crop could be readily estimated. Mr.
Commander said it would cost a lot
of money but well worthy of the
Other points of objection were
brought up and exploded with sim-
ilar conclusiveness in the course of
The dominating note in the whole
five days of testimony was that the
industry needs relief. Mr. Kilgore.
who opposes the adoption of the
agreement stated: "I do not think
we are overproduced. I think we
The weight of the evidence was
that this agreement would be one of
the most effective ways of overcom-
ing that demoralization.
We quote further from testimony
of Mr. Kirkland:
"Another argument for this
agreement is actual experience under
past agreements. Gentlemen, any
type of regulation is inconvenient
and troublesome to work under if
you are not accustomed to doing it.
We all at times like to assert our
rugged individualism. But this fruit
industry has reached the place where
if we do not do something we cer-
tainlv are going to pay for it.
"While I was on the control com-
mittee the latter part of December.
1936. through pressure, the control
committee departed from a policy,
which was established at the begin-
ning of the season, and dropped
proration. When that was done the
price of fruit dropped. We, the
committee, at the request, I believe
of a large part of the industry, made
proration effective the 26th of Jan-
uary, if my mind is clear, and an-
nounced we would continue that
policy for the balance of the sea-
son. At the time that policy was
declared buyers were paying 50c to
60c. and, as an extreme top price,
65c per box on the tree. Within a
short time the market had advanced
from 65 cents to where the cash
buyer was paying $1.25 to $1.35.
"Some will say that the freeze in
California caused that advance in
price. These figures quoted you are
what actually happened on the 9th
day of January, which is the date of
the first California freeze. It is
true that from that time on mid-sea-
son fruit showed a continued rise
in price, some of that due, probably,
'This is THE CITRUS GROWER for January 1, 1939
to the California freeze, but in my
opinion a large proportion of it was
due to the fact that we had orderly
movement of fruit, we had the con-
fidence of the receivers at the other
"When the court order knocking
out proration later in the season was
issued. the market again immediately
started to decline and declined for
the balance of that particular sea-
Mr. Commander said: "I would
like to submit to you gentlemen
that the growers of this state are
ready to cooperate to put into effect
the provisions of this agreement. Al-
so the constructive shippers are ready
to cooperate to put into effect the
provisions of this agreement, and
Texas, California and other produc-
ing areas are ready and willing to
cooperate, and we hope the Federal
Government is ready to cooperate
with substantial growers and ship-
pers in this state to bring order out
of chaos and correct this demoraliz-
Mr. Charles H. Walker, of Bar-
tow. reported to be the largest in-
dividual grower in the state, said:
"I think this agreement here is abso-
lutely necessary. And we may take
steps to work out what we want. I
figure it is up to the fruit growers of
Florida to accept this and give it a
trial. We can work out various
problems this season that will bring
about, as I believe, conditions where
we can have volume prorate the fol-
lowing season. And, we will not
The only solid program presented
at the hearing was the grower pro-
gram. The opposition offered no
substitute plan. The wide differ-
ence of opinion even between the two
outstanding witnesses for the group
opposing the agreement is glaringly
shown by the two opposite views ex-
pressed on the stand by Mr. Fos-
gate and Mr. Kilgore.
To the following question:
"You think the growers' interests
are served by having the buyer in a
jittery state rather than in a state of
confidence?" Mr. Fosgate gave the
definite, single word answer "Abso-
On the other hand, in the course
of his testimony, Mr. Kilgore said:
"I join Mr. Irrgang in stating this
influence of confidence is felt. Con-
fidence is about half of the game."
In this report of the hearings we
have confined ourselves almost whol-
ly to the few points upon which the
agreement is being attacked. Upon
the grade and size provisions of the
agreement, for instance, there were
no contests, as the minority oppos-
ing the agreement are in favor of
grade and size prorate, in fact, this
minority wants grade and size only,
and no volume prorate. There was
no opposition to the sections of the
proposed agreement providing that
it shall be administered by a com-
mittee of growers, with a committee
of shippers for consultation and ad-
Consequently in reporting the
questions over which there was sharp
controversy, we have quoted largely
the evidence of shippers-Mr. Fos-
gate and Mr. Kilgore, representing
that group who say they would be
driven out of business, and Mr. Her-
long and Mr. Kirkland, who believe
the agreement would be beneficial to
the cash buyer as well as the grower.
We have also quoted Mr. Comman-
der, whose organization is a coop-
erative and should show the attitude
of both grower and shipper.
We have practically overlooked
the large number of growers who
testified. Mr. Walton Rex, grower
of Orlando, for instance, who was
one of those calling attention to the
fact that cash buyers are not operat-
ing as such this season, except, per-
haps. on a very small scale.
We have overlooked that greater
number of growers who attended
the hearings. There were more
present on the second day than had
ever attended a bearing on any sim-
iliar subject before anywhere in the
United States. This second day at-
tendance showed sustained grower
interest. Their enthusiasm was great
and annoying at times to the oppon-
ents of the agreement.
We have failed to mention the
strong support given the agreement
by handlers of citrus fruits in north-
ern markets, particularly the testi-
mony of Mr. Charles W. Irrgang,
Sr., chairman of the board of direc-
tors of the national association of
fruit auctions. These handlers want
the agreement because it will re-
store confidence to buyers. The
ideas of Mr. Irrgang were given in
an article in our last issue.
But all of these and other elements
were in the hearing-the most pro-
found investigation of the Florida
citrus industry that has ever been
County organizations are asked to
send in news to The Grower-at
least 10 days before publication date.
RESEARCH COMMITTEE TO MEET
Chairman W. L'E. Barnett, of the Re-
search Committee, expects to call a meet-
ing of the committee to be held January
5th to discuss elements and specifications
for a better fruit maturity law; also to dis-
cuss the advisability of individual test of
oranges or other fruits for minimum of
The Citrus Grower
It is of great interest to note that you
have started a movement for the selling of
oranges by weight.
WHY NOT EXTEND THIS MOVE-
MENT TO THE IDEA OF USING THE
WEIGHT TO DETERMINE QUALITY
Very truly yours.
L. E. TISDALE
Orlando, December 28th.
Growers Can Avoid
GROWERS! Courage only will finally
overcome obstacles and return the citrus in-
dustry to a prosperous basis.
GROWERS! Please remember and never
forget that you are the masters of your own
destiny and CAN maintain profitable prices
notwithstanding contrary evidence. There
is one way to do this-
BY ALL REFUSING TO SELL THEIR
FRUIT UNTIL A FAIR PRICE IS
Only by such a firm stand by majority of
courageous men, can you ever hope to gain
your objective. This will automatically
create a healthy market price.
REMEMBER YOUR GREAT AD-
Your product is non-perishable and can
be held for months. California is outselling
us only because of our weakness and failure
to usz common sense and sound business
principles. Refuse to listen to sales propa-
ganda. Use your own judgment.
HOLD FIRM FOR A PRICE
at all costs and you are bound to win any
season. The market is obliged to pay grow-
ers their price if it is reasonable under the
SHIPPERS WILL COME TO YOUR
if you maintain a firm stand. It will make
them money. The trade begs you to take
such a stand for THEIR protection.
BE WILLING TO SACRIFICE part of
your crop in order to stabilize markets dur-
ing heavy years.
(Paid advertisement by Donald J.
This is THE CITRUS GROWER for January 1, 1939
Retailers Have Their Problems
PRESIDENT L. H. KRAMER was called to Wash-
ington a few weeks ago to attend a conference
called for consideration of ways and means of
moving the present citrus surplus. One of the important
links in moving fruit from the tree to the final consumer
is the retailer. On the retailer may largely rest the re-
sponsibility of influencing the consumer's mind in the
matter of whether to choose citrus fruit or some com-
peting product when the family market basket is being
filled. The United States government and the growers
have appealed to the nation's leading retail groups to
help the citrus industry.
Of course it has not been difficult to convince the re-
tailer that the citrus grower needs the retailer's help. A
good friend of ours, who is daily in touch with mar-
keting problems, tells us. also, it was not difficult for
Benjamin Franklin to persuade the king of France that
the American colonies needed two million dollars. Ben's
real problem was to show how the king of France
would profit by helping the American colonies. The
retailers have realized their own interests in this respect
and recognize a fair and equitable price would move a
larger volume of fruit.
The discussions have revealed that the retailer him-
self has some knotty problems to face. It is difficult to
retail citrus fruits at a reasonable profit over cost, on
account of the "loss leader" practice. Retailers have long
made a practice of selling certain articles below cost in
order to attract customers into the store, and then hope
to make a profit off other articles the customer would
buy at the same time.
Advertising Age (issue of Dec. 12) carries a story
from Chicago stating that these "loss leaders" have ex-
tended to include an estimated forty-five percent of the
retail grocery business, and the other fifty-five percent
of the volume must make up the difference.
Citrus fruits are said to be in this fifty-five percent
that is marked up excessively high to take care of losses
on "loss leaders." This high mark-up discourages use of
One result of the recent conferences with retailers in
Washington was a recommendation from the retailers
themselves that the price of citrus fruit be not marked
up more than 25% of cost price (20% of sales price).
Other recommendations were also included in the re-
port with reference to desirable reforms in citrus hand-
ling, as seen from the retailers' standpoint. The follow-
ing retail groups composed this report and concurred
in the recommendations: National Association of Retail
Grocers, Voluntary Groups Institute, Cooperative Food
Distributors of America, National Association of Food
Chains, the Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company.
The report was presented to Mr. Jesse Tapp. chair-
man for the government, by Mr. John Logan, in behalf
of chain retail groups, and Mr. Hector Lazo, in behalf
of independent groups.
The recommendations cover two general subjects:
(1) Recommendations for reducing handling and
(a) A maximum mark-up of 25% above cost
(20% on sales price). A minimum that will not violate
anti-loss leader laws in any state where such laws are
(b) We endorse the request of Secretary Wallace
for reduction in common carrier transportation cost and
if granted will recommend that the lower cost be passed
on to consumers in the form of lower prices.
(c) We recommend that packing costs be reduced
and it is our opinion that any packing charges above 50
cents per box on grapefruit and 55 cents per box on
oranges, exclusive of picking and hauling, would seem
to be excessive.
(d) It is our further suggestion that the govern-
ment and growers request a proportionate reduction of
terminal market charges, such as brokerage, receiving
agents' margins, auction charges, cartage, wholesale and
jobber charges, and that such savings be applied toward
the lowering of consumer prices and the improvement
of producer prices.
(e) We approve the plan to eliminate third grade
fruit from interstate shipments and the proposal that
tolerance in first and second grade fruits be reduced to
five percent instead of ten percent.
(2) Retailers make the following recommenda-
tions for a general program to improve the marketing
and to increase the consumption of citrus fruits so as
to assure the producer a reasonable return and con-
sumer a fair retail price:
(a) Industry-wide committee be established to ex-
plore the markets for citrus fruits to ascertain areas
where per capital consumption is low and that plans be
formulated to develop the markets and increase per cap-
(b) All mechanical devices and means and personal
sales efforts be used by all retail channels and other dis-
tributors to increase consumption.
(c) Retail channels develop a program for coordi-
nation of increased sales activities.
(d) We further recommend that growers recognize
that the responsibility for the permanent development
of markets rests with them and their organizations-
and that distributors will aid in every consistent way in
the merchandising of their products to consumers with
the resultant improvement in the market position and
welfare of the growers.
(e) We also recommend that growers from the
various competing producing areas coordinate their ef-
forts toward stabilization of movement to market and
of market values, and that they endeavor to eliminate
sectional differences for the welfare of the citrus indus-
try as a whole.
This is THE CITRUS GROWER for January 1, 19 9
Important to Florida Agriculture
By CHAS. D. KIME such chemicals diverted to water pur-
t;rfit;n ofa, l oral i t- + TT 4T ;-oA
DEFINING THE terms pH, so
that it can be understood and
at the same time giving us an
accurate picture of what is meant, is
a very difficult task. Since the tech-
nical meaning of the term pH would
necessitate explaining an involved
series of mathematical and logrith-
metic computations, we will endeav-
or to arrive at a practical understand-
ing of its use and its importance
thru illustrations of the results ob-
tained by means of pH control in
industrial and manufacturing pro-
In Florida there are three major
industries using pH control. Sugar
mills find in concentrating and caus-
ing the precipitation of the raw un-
refined sugar from cane "sap" an op-
timum pH range is essential.
The manufacture of paper pulp is
carried on thru a greater part of its
process under a radical change in pH
values, from a highly acid reaction
on the one hand to a highly alka-
line residue at the end.
In the phosphate mining indus-
try, certain flotation processes for re-
covery of high-grade phosphate ma-
terial have been developed. Very
definite pH values are necessary for
the emulsions used in such processes
and unless values are maintained
within an optimum range, the emul-
sion would prove to be unstable and
would break down easily, thus de-
stroying its efficiency.
Another Florida industry using
definite pH values is the oil emul-
sion and insecticide and fungicide
field. It is a well known fact that
unless bluestone, known as copper
sulphate, is neutralized to the alka-
line side, that is above pH 7.00
burning of citrus foliage will likely
result. The use of other forms of
copper sprays for melanose and scab
control in citrus is also based on
neutralizing their acid or burning
Clear, pure water in the home is
usually taken for granted. Yet the
method used in the water purifica-
tion is largely determined by the
pH of the water supply and the im-
purities found in it. Some of the
materials used in this work are alum,
chlorine, ferrous sulphate (copper-
as). The commercial tonnage of
States is tremendous.
Other industries not often thought
of as depending on pH control for
some of their processes are:
Milk handling and cheese produc-
Canning and food products.
Beer and wine manufacture.
Fermatative and distillation pro-
Bread and cake baking.
Fruit canning and jelly making.
Bacteriology as relating to food
preservation and disposal of indus-
Chemical processes as relating to
manufacture of medicines for the
Pathological work as relating to
humans and other animals.
The glass industry.
Control of commercial process in
manufacture of synthetic fibers.
Chemical analysis of feeds, ferti-
The basic process of producing of
Handling of clays and earth used
in ceramic work, brick manufacture,
or lime for agricultural manufac-
turing or building purposes.
Tanning of skins and leather pro-
All companies engaged in such
work as listed above and many oth-
ers using processes involving chem-
ical change or the growth or pro-
duction of live organisms, are di-
rectly or indirectly employing pH
control at one or more points in
their process of manufacture.
It is not at all difficult to carry
these outstanding results illustrating
the use of pH determinations, over
into soils and fertilizer work. They
all involve approximately the same
fundamental conditions. These are:
1 Chemical reaction that takes
place between closely associated ma-
terials under conditions of definite
control and within a definite opti-
mum pH range for those materials.
2. The growth of organisms,
whether in the soil or in industrial
processes, takes place best under con-
trolled conditions and at definite
optimum pH ranges.
If the citrus grower will surround
these two types of actions in his
grove with suitable soil conditions,
a tremendous activity can be sustain-
ed especially during periods of opti-
mum temperature and moisture con-
ditions. In the case of controlled
industrial processes, the end product
South Lake Apopka Citrus Growers Ass'n.
ESTABLISHED 28 YEARS AGO
Has Grown from 50,000 Boxes to Last Year's Record of 643,356.
About 3,500 Acres Are Owned by About 150 Members.
Packing Profits Are Paid back to Growers and more than $300,000
has been repaid.
The Association offers a complete caretaking service, operating its
own Fertilizer Plant and grove equipment at actual cost to
SOUTH LAKE APOPKA CITRUS GROWERS ASSOCIATION
A. W. Hurley, President G. S. Hall. Secy.-Manager
Phone 61. Winter Garden Postoffice. Oakland, Fla.
- -- --- -I------ -------
This is THE CITRUS GROWER for January 1, 1939
may be yeast. cheese, beer, canned
corn, steel, etc. In the case of con-
trolled grove processes, we get in-
creased plant food availabilities, and
in a properly executed program, we
get improved crop yields, better
fruit quality, improved grove condi-
tions and a better grove soil.
Thru the proper relationships of
fertilizer and soil amendment ma-
terials with pH as a guide. we can
improve or tear down any grove or
truck soil. In many cases it is pos-
sible to increase the productiveness
of a soil without increasing pounds
of plant-food applied.
There are numerous occasions in
handling grove work where a def-
inite knowledge of the pH value of
the grove and the materials in use
will alter plans or procedure.
While we have made tremendous
headway on the subject of fertilizer
and soil deficiencies and know con-
siderably of their optimum pH rela-
tionships, we are led to conclude that
our present knowledge is just suffi-
cient to make the whole subject a
more interesting study today than at
any time in the past.
Under our present knowledge of
fertilizers and tree behavior the op-
timum pH range for a grove soil is
given considerable latitude. We find
for example satisfactury groves pro-
ducing heavy crops of fruit at what
may be considered by some, too low
a pH value. pH 5.5 is often quo-
ted as the point below which a grove
soil should not be permitted to fall.
On the other side of the picture, we
have examples of groves running pH
7.5, or higher, that are in good con-
As we learn more of the organic,
chemical and soil organism relation-
ships, we may find surprisingly lit-
tle discrepancy in these two extremes,
as great as they may appear to be at
In the first instance of low pH, we
generally plan grove fertilizers of a
high alkaline reserve so that their
continued use will tend to maintain
the soil pH at its same level or raise
it to a point selected as our objec-
In the second instance of a high
pH value, we can plan certain defi-
nite applications to the soil that will
materially aid in putting our plant
foods into available forms. For this
purpose acid residue fertilizer ma-
terials are used, or as is occasionally
recommended a direct application of
a straight chemical with an acid re-
action may be used. Examples being
manganese sulphate and copper or
Additional grove information be-
sides the one of the pH value of the
soil is always a help in citrus ferti-
lizing. In fact without additional
information the mere fact of a defi-
nite pH value being known, is not
sufficient information, important is it
is, on which to base grove procedure.
It is true that most Florida soils are
thin and have an acid reaction. Such
soils are generally low in buffer ma-
terial and shy of organic matter:
while a soil of high pH val-
ue will generally have a greater
amount of buffer or reserve material
on which the tree can draw during
the season. Such a conclusion as this
cannot always be drawn from the pH
value however, as many such soils
and others that may be well stocked
with buffer material temporarily un-
available to the plant; are acid in re-
action and badly need a method of
handling that will raise the pH val-
It has become rather general to
conclude that soils of low pH value
(very acid) are subject to certain
leaching actions. During periods of
heavy rainfall and high temperatures,
they rapidly lose some of their total
phosphorous content. Also their pot-
ash reserve tends to decrease rapidly
together with what calcium and
magnesium that may be present. It
is assumed also that the nitrogen re-
serve falls more rapidly in such soils.
A determination of the pH value
of such soils is the first step toward
correcting a condition that becomes
progressively worse, until tree con-
dition become serious. However, the
fact that a soil may be very acid does
not mean, in every case, that it will
lose plant foods thru leaching, or
conversely, that an alkaline soil will
not lose plant foods thru the leach-
ing channel. Under either condition
it is quite important to go further
and determine the quantity of base
materials that may be present. Where
these base forming materials are low,
plans for their applying can be made.
This test is not a pH determination
at all but one of determining the to-
tal amount of the commonly used
When a pH test shows that a soil
is already highly alkaline it is im-
portant to determine the actual
identity of the base forming ma-
A Market for Their Fruit
Cash on the Tree
Top Market Prices
At All Times
M. C. Britt Produce Co.
WINTER GARDEN, FLA.
Phone 56 or 101
JACKSON GRAIN CO.
A Rich Complete Fertilizer, made with Florida phosphate. Suitable Plant-
Food Ratio For Every Requirement.
Nitrate Nitrogen with Water-Soluble Calcium. Two Plant-Foods for the
Price of One.
TENNESSEE BASIC SLAG
Remarkable Soil Builder and Source of Plant-Food Containing the
Essential Minor Elements.
An outstanding group of technically trained field men freely at your service.
Our fertilizer program is sensible, efficient, and economical.
VALUABLE BOOKLET AND INFORMATION ON REQUEST
This is THE CITRUS GROWER for January 1, 1939
Developing a Demand For Citrus
T HERE IS A tremendous differ-
ence between what has been
done and what can be done to
increase public desire for an appre-
ciation of health giving citrus fruits.
Despite the fact that per capital con-
sumption of citrus is relatively high
as compared with some other fruits,
the surface of potential possibilities
has hardly been scratched.
The same situation prevails in
other lines, for it is said that 87%
of rural homes have no baths; 62%
of American homes have no tele-
phones and 61% of American fami-
lies are without electrical housekeep-
ing aids. There are still fertile fields
of trade open to American business
and American agriculture.
Like many other good things, cit-
rus fruits have been selling them-
selves. The boosts they have had
thru advertising, the medical profes-
sion, dealer service and other drives
have been far too meager to produce
anything better than passing interest
from the mass of our population. If
any modern manufacturer could pro-
duce an article with as much true
merit, he would have a fortune in
his lap. An organization to "tell the
world" seems to be the main thing
trial, which is an additional step.
The pH of soils of high organic
content is of particular importance
as large areas of such soils prove to
be acid in some cases and alkaline in
The place of soil pH determina-
tion is of sufficient importance to
fully justify its use and there is no
question that a careful record should
be made each year of the pH trend in
all groves of bearing age, so far as
this is possible.
The limits of this determination,
however, should be clearly recogniz-
ed. It is definitely a means to an end
and is important as one of the main
guide posts which we can use so ef-
fectively in lining up grove fertiliz-
The systematic handling of soil
samples for pH determination offers
certain technical difficulties that will
make field tests practically impossi-
ble. The delicacy of the electric in-
dicators used requires care in hand-
ling and considerable technical skill
It is strongly urged that a uniform
procedure be followed at all times,
or better yet, that samples be taken
and the pH determined according to
the procedure outlined by the Flor-
ida Soil Analysis Association.
By NORMAN C. IVES, President
American Fruit b Produce Auction
lacking to create a big increase in
citrus consumption. How many peo-
ple can you find who do not like
As to our auction markets, and
this holds true for any and all mar-
kets, it is absolutely essential that
your product give consumer satisfac-
tion. It just is not enough to sell a
car at a profit if the reaction from
the ultimate consumer is bad. The
grower and shipper has an obliga-
tion to himself as well as to the
dealer who must contact the actual
consumer. This is to pack good fruit
uniformly at all times. It is true
that the public buys by the eye but
just give it good looking oranges
which do not eat good and the cus-
tomer is lost, at least temporarily.
He usually must be coaxed back.
I have read your first two issues
from cover to cover. A spirit of op-
timism seems to permeate your or-
ganization. The will to learn and to
do is there. This in itself is a big
stride in the right direction. What-
ever plans are finally formulated and
accepted by the industry will doubt-
less be for the best. We live and
learn, but not from doing nothing.
You have something to sell-
your product has real merit. Your
basic difficulties are largely at home.
At some other time I hope I may be
privileged to help by writing about
our ten auctions as they affect the
growers and shippers. The official
personnel of all our members have
come up through the ranks and have
had many years experience with all
the known methods applied to the
sale of fresh fruits and produce. In
due time they graduated into the
auction business fully convinced that
this method of sale provides all sales
agents with the most efficient, clean-
cut and adequate sales service ob-
tainable in metropolitan markets.
This, in the final analysis, is serving
Our aims are mutual. The auction
method of sale is predicated on the
basis of securing the highest possi-
ble prices for each shipment sold.
Herein lies a definite bond between
Practical and Economical
Give your grove a chance to produce a crop at a cost per box that
will make you money. Now is the time to prepare for the coming
crop and improve the quality as well as quantity.
CHAMPION b MADEWELL PORTABLE PIPE IN STOCK
DEMING PORTABLE PUMP OUTFITS
ready for immediate delivery
Farm & Home Machinery Company
Orlando, Florida Phone 5791
This is THE CITRUS GROWER for January 1, 1939
Our cover picture is that of Judge Spessard L. Hol-
land, prominent lawyer of Bartow, and needing no in-
troduction in citrus circles. He has been intimately
associated with all efforts in the past to get relief for
the industry by marketing agreements.
In chemistry there are reagents that can be poured
into cloudy, murky substances, and these substances
will become magically clear as crystal. Judge Holland
acted the part of a clarifying reagent at the recent Lake-
If a witness seemed unable to put his ideas in words.
Judge Holland knew the questions to ask that would
put that witness on firm ground. When the opponents
for sane regulation of citrus industry beclouded and
befogged important points by their testimony. Judge
Holland asked the pointed questions that lifted the
clouds and showed the truth in its clear outlines.
The constructive elements of the citrus industry ap-
preciate the services of Judge Holland. They also
thank Florida Citrus Producers Trade Association for
making Judge Holland's services available.
In addition to Judge Holland, the Trade Association
is also responsible for the helpful participation in the
hearings of its secretary, Marvin W. Walker, and its
statistician, Frank Seymour.
Among other outstanding witnesses who contributed
to the great mass of authoritative and constructive tes-
timony were: A. S. Herlong, Sr., L. P. Kirkland, Gov.
Doyle E. Carlton, Howard Phillips, C. C. Commander,
E. F. BeBusk, Doyle Timmons, and Charles W. Irr-
We are indebted to Citrus, publication of Florida
Exchange, for the following concise definition of the
marketing agreements, their history and purposes:
"The federal government provides two principal
methods of dealing with agricultural surpluses, such
as are being experienced throughout the citrus industry
this season-crop adjustments and marketing agree-
ments. The second of these procedures has proved
particularly useful to California and Texas growers, as
it has in handling other crops not covered in acreage-
adjustment programs. It makes possible agreements
between the Secretary of Agriculture and growers, dis-
tributors and processors, for the purpose of lessening
competitive wastes, improving trade practices, moving
surpluses into channels of consumption and assists in
raising grower-commodity prices. According to the sec-
retary of agriculture's report to the president released
December 16, "In 1937 marketing agreements covered
products valued at about $340,000,000 and affected
1,500,000 growers of fruit, vegetables and dairy prod-
These agreements helped to moderate price fluctua-
tions, to distribute supplies more efficiently among sell-
ing throughout the marketing seasons. In most in-
stances these agreements simply regulated the movement
of supplies so as to obviate local and season gluts and
shortages. They benefitted growers through liberal
marketing at prices calculated to encourage consump-
tion. Sometimes agreements, such as was considered
at the Lakeland hearing, December 12 to 15, tend to
withhold low-grade products from regular trade chan-
nels especially when there is little remunerative demand
The federal government has found that it does not
pay to restrict marketing supplies severely and places
emphasis on efficient unimpeded merchandising.
The tide has turned. The
1938-1939 season may yet go
down in history as the turning
point from despair to Happy
Comes the Growers awakening
to the need of team work. Some
control over marketing, devel-
opment of new fields, by-prod-
The bacterialized plant food
The answer to every grower's
Makes the soil richer through
natural elements; not poorer
through momentary stimula-
Makes trees healthy and happy,
and able to laugh at minor dis-
eases and pests.
And trees like this, whose roots
are in a field of plenty just can't
help making perfect fruit.
Would you like a copy of "Fif-
teen profits for the Grower"?
Write, phone or wire
SOUTH ATLANTIC REDUCTION
This is THE CITRUS GROWER for January 1, 1939
WITH THE EDITOR
MARKETING AGREEMENT HEARINGS
In this issue we have printed a short review of the
hearings on the proposed marketing agreement. We
also have published statements by the three men who
wrote the agreement, Mr. J. J. Banks, Jr., Mr. Fred T.
Henderson, Mr. A. G. Porcher. In his message, also
President Kramer has commented on the hearings.
We cannot add anything, except to urge again the
importance to the grower of making a decision to sup-
port this agreement, to talk it over with his neighbors,
and get out the vote to approve the agreement when
the election is called.
Since this method of control has proved its worth
in raising prices in California and Texas, growers of
Florida should not hesitate to adopt it merely because
a few shippers oppose it. These shippers offer no
substitute plan, they do not say this agreement would
not work in favor of higher prices, they merely state
they do not want it. A majority of the handlers,
however, signify a willingness to cooperate with the
growers' marketing program.
This important, constructive, workable plan de-
serves every grower's support.
A USEFUL GIFT
An outstanding gift, such as the black walnut top-
ped directors' table, which was donated to the state
offices recently by R. J. Kepler, DeLand, deserves spe-
cial recognition. The wood was taken from some
counter tops that have been in Mr. Kepler's family
for a long time. The table was made by Mr. Kepler,
himself in his own woodworking shop.
THANK YOU, HANDLERS
Much good will come out of the meetings which
have been held in Washington and in Chicago for the
purpose of decreasing the costs of getting the citrus crop
from Florida into the hands of the ultimate consumer.
These meetings have been attended by representatives
from all the citrus producing areas, representatives from
the chain and independent stores, auction market rep-
resentatives, representatives from jobbers and handlers
groups, together with officials from the federal Agri-
cultural Adjustment Administration.
Much good, we feel, will come out of these meetings
because any lessening of handling costs which will bring
about a lower price to the consumer should definitely
increase consumption of fruit, and an increase in con-
sumption will mean a decrease in the citrus surplus.
But, in order that the producers of citrus may have
a clearer understanding of the matter, we must trace this
good back to Florida and the producer himself. We
have previously admitted that a lowering of costs should
mean a lowering of consumer prices and a subsequent
increase in consumption, but what about an increase in
price to the producer who is now selling his fruit at
prices below cost of production?
Frankly, although there may be a meeting of minds
on decreasing of handling and merchandising costs, it
will be practically impossible to bring those savings
back to the producer. Such savings will go to the con-
sumer only, and will have only the one beneficial effect
of increasing sales volume of citrus fruits. With a con-
tinuation of the present highly competitive unrestricted
handling of citrus fruit in Florida, the smart merchan-
dising minds in the great consuming markets hold out
little hope for higher prices for the grower. This fact
was brought out strongly by the recommendations
passed by the national chain and independent retail
groups, which said:
"We further recommend that growers recognize
that the responsibility for permanent development
of markets rests with them and their organiza-
These groups also said Florida should put its house
in order. Florida was picked out for this comment be-
cause the Texas, California and Arizona citrus produc-
ing areas are operating under effective marketing agree-
ments, including necessary volume control.
From the time fruit leaves Florida, it is handled al-
most entirely on a percentage basis and auction markets.
Wholesale and retail handlers will make more money
if Florida producers will find some way of raising the
price of their citrus. The handlers are interested, and
would like very much to help, but their ability to help
is limited. We must help ourselves.
May we say thank you to those constructive elements
in our consuming markets that are doing their part to
move our surplus, and then, may we take on ourselves
the job of so regulating our business and so regulating
the shipments of our citrus crop that there will come
back to the producers of Florida a profitable net return?
CRAWLING BEFORE WALKING
The Florida Grower, for December, makes a timely
editorial comment on Florida Citrus Growers, Inc. It
pays a high compliment in terming the accomplish-
ments of our organization as "more lasting than bril-
liant," and mentions some may become impatient be-
cause solution of grave problems has not yet been ac-
complished. To this is added the observation that
much has been achieved in a relatively short time.
"We would congraulate each grower who has made
possible an organization which brings the citrus pro-
ducers of Florida closer together than ever before * *
Probably never before have there been as many sug-
gestions for advancement of the citrus industry, bearing
marks of serious thought and sincere desire for the com-
mon welfare," the editorial says, and continues:
"For those who demand more practical tangibles,
we can point to progress in national recognition for
Florida citrus producers. Their new unity seems to
have gained real identity in circles of national agricul-
tural administration. Work in Washington in the last
month at least opened the way for negotiation of suit-
able marketing agreements. * *
"The growers' work has just begun! Survival in a
shifting economic world seems dependent on maintain-
ing and strengthening aims and efforts of the organiza-
tion you already have started. Could we coin a new
word for Florida's agricultural dictionary, we would
create 'stick-to-itiveness' as the description term es-
pecially necessary and significant to Florida citrus pro-
N THE LAST issue of The Citrus
Grower we carried an article concerning
court action to clarify the Florida Motor
Vehicle License Law in regard to tractors
which are used incidentally on the highways
of the State in going from grove to grove
or from garage to grove. The Motor Ve-
hicle Commissioner had ruled that such ma-
chines must be registered as motor vehicles
and license tags must be purchased for them.
The growers of the state objected and
the Lake Region Packing Association. Ta-
vares, instituted a suit, which was successful
in securing a ruling from the Florida supreme
court which reads in part as follows:
"If such tractor, or tractor and trailer.
was being operated on the highways merely
as a means of passage to and from a field,
orchard or other place where the tractor, or
tractor and trailer, and their loads, if any.
were to be used for present current agri-
cultural, horticultural, or other crop pro-
ducing purposes, and the public highways
were not being used by such tractors or
trailers for distinct motor vehicle or trailer
transportation purposes, but-merely for
very short distances in passing to and from
the owner's home or farm or grove-to
such farm, grove or orchard-the tractor or
trailer and load to be there used by and for
the owner in his crop production, then in
such cases the intendments of the statute as
now framed may not be thereby violated
if such use is not unduly injurious to the
roadway or dangerous to the lawful users
of the highways."
C. E. Duncan, of the law firm Duncan.
Hamlin 8 Duncan. Tavares, who handled
the case, offers the following explanatory
"We were, therefore, successful in es-
tablishing through the above mentioned
opinion our original conclusion that farm
tractors and trailers, when hauling loads used
for agricultural productions only are not
subject to motor vehicle license laws; that
even though the statute did not except this
type of motor vehicle and trailer soecifi-
cally from the law the Legislature did in-
tend such vehicle should not be required to
pay the highway license inasmuch as it sel-
dom used the highway and then only in-
cidentally in getting from field to field or
from point of storage to field."
Mr. Duncan interprets the phrase "used
by or for the owner" as meaning the owner
or his employes or agents.
NOTE: Mr. J. B. Prevatt, manager of
Lake Region Packing Association, who
sent us Mr. Duncan's letter, says the ex-
pense of this suit was $250.00 and was
borne entirely by his association. If other
tractor users would like to contribute some-
thing toward this cost his association will
be glad to get it, also, if more than the cost
is donated, he will refund to each contributor
his proportionate share of the over-sub-
The Citrus Grower.
Wish to thank you for your letter oi
November 28th enclosing copy of first issue
of THE CITRUS GROWER. There is
certainly a field for such a publication, and
we wish for you every success in its under-
Very truly yours.
H. B. Mann
American Potash Institute. Inc..
F. C. P. C. A. MEETS IN
ORLANDO, JANUARY 7
Arrangements are complete for the
fifth annual meeting of the members
of the Florida Citrus Production
Credit Association with headquar-
ters in Orlando.
The meeting is to be held at the
Fort Gatlin Hotel in Orlando on
Saturday, January 7, 1939, at
10:30 o'clock, according to an-
nouncement by Philip Marz, sec-
retary-treasurer, who said that a
large attendance of members is ex-
pected. Citrus growers and others
interested in the citrus industry are
cordially invited to attend the meet-
ing, said Mr. Marz.
Complete and detailed reports will
be made by the officers of the asso-
ciation on its operations for the past
year. Two directors will be elected
and other important business will
be transacted. Free dinner will be
served, and a program of entertain-
ment has been arranged.
The Florida Citrus Production
Credit Association of Orlando is a
state-wide financial institution of
citrus growers, and makes loans for
crop production purposes to citrus
growers exclusively in every citrus-
producing county in the state. It is
owned and controlled by its mem-
bers, and operates under a charter
granted by the governor of the Farm
The officers and directors of the
Association are: A. E. Pickard,
President, C. H. Walker, Vice-Presi-
dent; Philip Marz, Secretary-Treas-
urer, and F. G. Moorhead, J. J. Par-
rish. John D. Clark. J. Earl Ander-
son and V. L. Bullis. Directors.
WEIGHT SELLING POPULAR
Roegains Fruit Company of Clermont
have found retail selling of oranges by
weight to be profitable to themselves and
popular with their tourist customers.
They report they are disposing of as much
as possible of their third grade fruit through
juice channels, and some is placed in bins in
public places around the town of Clermont
where those who are unable to buy may help
10 cents a word per issue. No advertise-
ment accepted for less than 10 words.
MR. GROWER: Could you use the money
someone would like pay to you for some
second hand pipe, tractors, plows, etc., you
have lying around in the way? Try a clas-
sified ad in THE CITRUS GROWER. It's
a good way to find the man who wants it.
SOMEONE wants what you have to sell;
someone wants to sell what you would
like to buy. For a small sum you can take
it up with six thousand growers in Flor-
ida. Try a classified ad in THE CITRUS
For Better Fruit
By W. L'E. Barnett,
Chairman Research Committee.
The Research Committee of Florida Cit-
rus Growers, Inc.. is concerned with fruit
improvement. Its interest extends all the way
from cultural practices that produce better
fruit, to the complicated and technical prob-
lems confronted in picking, packing, and
delivering this fruit to the consumer in the
most attractive appearing and palatable
The first meeting of the committee was
held September 22 at the Lake Alfred State
Citrus Experiment Station. The members
heard Dr. A. F. Camp. horticulturist in
charge, outline the work of the station.
They looked over some of the experiments
in the grove, chiefly those that have to do
with magnesium, zinc, copper and manga-
nese. They then heard Mr. Frank Holland
discuss the work of the Citrus Committee
of the Winter Haven Chamber of Commerce,
which is essentially the same program as the
better fruit committee of the Florida Cit-
On November 1, the committee met at
Orlando in the Citrus Laboratory of the
United States Department of Agriculture.
and heard an explanation by Dr. George
Bahrt about characteristics of different Flor-
ida soils, especially citrus soils. We then went
with Dr. Bahrt to visit some of the groves
on which he is running experiments. We
visited groves in the Ocoee area and in the
afternoon a grove of Dr. Phillips. near
Altemonte Springs, in which Dr. Bahrt is
experimenting with the rarer fertilizing
elements, and some of great interest with
iron and manganese.
The greater part of the work of the com-
mittee, however, has been devoted to aiding
the better fruit program of the Florida Cit-
rus Commission. The committee appeared
at one of the commission meetings and took
part in industry committee meetings which
discussed and approved, with modifications,
the program of the Commission's better
fruit committee. This program promises
much good to the citrus industry and is
largely the work of Commission member
Thomas B. Swan. of Winter Haven.
The principal part of the program which
has already been approved by the Commis-
sion includes an appropriation of $11,000
for a semi-commercial laboratory at the Lake
Alfred Experiment station. The appro-
priation is to cover the chemicals, soaps,
dyes and other materials, and for the pay-
ment of the salaries of the personnel to oper-
ate the laboratory.
The purpose of the laboratory will be:
1. To study the effect of grove practices
on the shipping and keeping quality of cit-
2. To assist and cooperate in the equip-
ping and operating of a small complete
packing house at Lake Alfred for the pur-
pose of carrying on these experiments.
3. Studies of the effects of soaps, waxes.
dyes and various other materials used in the
preparation of fruit for market, the purpose
of this to reduce decay and increase con-
To supplement these studies, an additional
$1,000 has been appropriated to cooperate
with the Federal Department's citrus labora-
tory personnel at Orlando to study the keep-
ing quality of fruit in transit.
The committee is now taking up a study
of proper maturity tests, and will work
with the Legislative committee toward get-
ting desirable revisions of present maturity
laws in coming legislative session.
In the words of the ancient prophet, the grower of citrus fruits says:
Come Now, Let Us Reason Together
and invites you to consider the following questions:
Mr. A advertiser
Do you think of the citrus grower as being in a bad way?
Has that caused him to be more cautious this year in the purchase of new equip-
ment and in making major repairs to old equipment?
Has he used fertilizers and insecticides as sparingly as he has dared to do?
Has he been a slow buyer in all directions? Has this reduced your business?
Have you been more careful about credit risks on account of the price situation?
Yet, do you have large outstanding accounts on your books, perhaps larger
than you ever have had before?
The Grower Knows
you have all these problems and sympathizes with you in them, and
The Grower is Optimistic
and offers you the best opportunity you will ever have to help you and your
grower customers out of this bad situation. He offers you
THE BEST MEDIUM through which to reach your grower customers, and
at the same time he offers you
A HAPPY COMBINATION of objectives-to support with judiciously
spent advertising dollars the most effective force for sound, economic revival
ever brought into the Florida Citrus situation.
THE CITRUS GROWER
Official Publication of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
ORLANDO P. 0. BOX 2077 FLORIDA