Group Title: Citrus grower (Orlando, Fla.)
Title: The citrus grower
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086640/00003
 Material Information
Title: The citrus grower
Uniform Title: Citrus grower (Orlando, Fla.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 30-44 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
Place of Publication: Orlando Fla
Publication Date: December 15, 1938
Frequency: weekly (semimonthly july-sept.)[<1939>]
semimonthly[ former 1938-]
weekly
normalized irregular
 Subjects
Subject: Fruit-culture -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruit industry -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Nov. 15, 1938)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 1942?
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 4, no. 9 (May 15, 1942).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086640
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 03227648
lccn - sn 96027371

Full Text


LIETh1
L I D I
MAP, 3 1939


PUBLIC CATI ON


CITRUS


OF THE


GROWERS INC.


MR. BARBER


See Page Three


___








The


President


Speaks


A MAN OFTEN WAKES up to the fact that he
is in a bad fix, but usually fails to wonder how
long it took him to get that way. The Florida
citrus grower is no exception. As a rule he has not
stopped to think how long he has been digging this
hole in which he finds himself. At this very time
it is important that he realize it has taken many years.
It will take time to climb out. In these years, nu-
merous practices have been worked out and accepted,
numerous habits of doing things have been developed
and confirmed. Widespread practices and habits of
long standing approach the unchangeable things. In
the citrus industry, the greater part of these practices
and habits are constructive and useful. They are fully
worthy of continuance and further development. But
some, unfortunately, will have to be changed. Here's
where the rub comes in.
The road back, we sincerely hope, will not stretch
over 50 or more years, as have our mistakes, unconcern
and ignorance that have brought us to the unhappy
situation in which we now find ourselves. We must
now realize, however, it will take time to retrace our
steps and erase some of our errors.
MUST ATTACK TASK
If the citrus industry would save itself from com-
plete economic disaster, it must boldly attack this long
and difficult task of changing its habits of thinking
and acting. It faces a completely new condition. Time
was when the grower quite generally could grow and
ship his fruit as he pleased.
All fruit offered would be taken at some price. The
market would take the punishment. Green fruit, frozen
fruit, poorly packed fruit, low grade fruit, and fruit in
quantities all out of step with demand were heaped
upon it. Although the price would sink to the canvas
sometimes, it always came up smiling. But the heroic
old fighter got groggy last year, and seems really down
for the count this year.
HAS BECOME CONSCIOUS
As a result, the grower has become conscious, has
given the matter some study, and does not believe his
champion was licked in a fair fight. The intense in-
terest in our organization is evidence of the broadly
accepted sentiment that the rules must be changed. We
face a big many-sided program.


U


U U


Some leaders in .our organization and in the indus-
try believe the over production or surplus is only rela-
tive; that apparent (but not real) over production ex-
ists because insufficient attention has been paid to pro-
ducing high quality fruit, and practically no attention
has been paid to good sense in marketing. They be-
lieve the present situation can be changed from one of
gloom to one of glowing satisfaction. But, we hope,
no one would be so foolish as to think this can be done
over-night, or without long struggles-some ending
with victory and rejoicing, some ending with bitter
defeat and determination to try harder next time.
FOR VOLUME CONTROL
We must work for volume control of fruit ship-
ments, for lower costs of tree-to-market services, for
more favorable consumer attitude toward our product.
Along the route we will meet other forces, who, like
ourselves, are striving to hold what advantages they
have and gain in others. We will have a lot of trouble
with them. But we can meet them all successfully if
the leadership of the organization has the unqualified
support of the membership.
The leadership does not expect this support to be
given blindly by the membership. We expect it only
from an enlightened membership acting upon correct
information.
GATHERING INFORMATION
And our organization through its loyal, highly com-
petent, self-sacrificing committees is rapidly gathering
this information. It is being presented to the growers
through speakers at their meetings and through this,
their magazine.
This information will form the basis from which
will arise the growers' desire to change our way of
thinking, to form in our minds a willingness to change
our habits. And, really, this is our real problem . .
to create that conscious will on the part of all of us
to work on a definite and correct program. This can
come only from the knowledge these committees are
gathering. Knowing thoroughly our own interests
will put into all of us that united will to win.
But it will take time. Patience is one of the first
lessons we must teach ourselves. Our efforts will re-
sult in substantial progress, but we must not expect
it at once. Look first, but not too soon, only for a re-
versal of our present situation-away from bankruptcy
and toward reasonable profits and solvency.
Yours for continued interest and effort.






President,
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.










The Citrus Grower

Official Publication of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.
VOLUME ONE DECEMBER 15, 1938 NUMBER THREE


SIGNIFICANT PERSONS AND NEWS:
On our front cover we are carrying the pictures of
two gentlemen who figure prominently in recent citrus
developments. One is chairman Merrill Barber. of
Vero Beach, chairman of the citrus committee of the
Florida Junior Chamber of Commerce. Mr. Barber
and his committee and organization were instrumental
in giving the Lakeland marketing agreement hearings
wide publicity, and in encouraging growers to attend
and represent their own interests.
The other picture is that of Honorable Henry A.
Wallace, United States Secretary of Agriculture and
boss of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration.
under whose authority the hearings are being held at
Lakeland, and under whose authority also the mar-
keting agreement will be administered, if put into ef-
fect.
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., expect much from
both of these gentlemen. It expects much good to re-
sult from the enthusiastic help the Junior Chamber of
Commerce is giving and Mr. Barber promises it will
give to the grower organization and its educational
program. From Mr. Wallace it hopefully expects an
effective marketing agreement. Both of them will be
interested in the following significant news:
A great crowd of growers attended the hearings on
the marketing agreement at Lakeland on the first day.
The important thing along this line, however, was
the large number that came back for the second day
of the hearings. The newness had worn off. It was
no longer a lark. Nothing but real interest brought
back the crowds the second day.
And, the AAA representatives said there was the
largest second day crowd at the Lakeland hearing that
had ever attended a second day hearing in any industry.


FOR BETTER HEALTH


EAT F


FRUIT


CONTENTS


The President Speaks Inside Cover Page
Jaycees Offer Their Cooperation - 4
Selling of Oranges by Weight 7
Auction Head Favors Marketing Program 8
Views of Lakeland Hearing 9
Citrus Commission Sentinel of Industry 10
The Citrus Advertising Campaign .12
Florida Increasing Use of Juice 13
License Law is Found Inadequate 14
Citrus Exchange Functions Explained 15
To Promote County Unit Program -- 16
Opposition to Licensing Tractors 17
With the Editor -- -- 18


BAD PRACTICE

Mr. Fred T. Henderson, of Winter Haven, wishes
to call strongly to the attention of the growers the
evils of the practice of selling grapefruit drops at 10
cents per box.

This is not money that the growers pick up that
they would otherwise be without, because the prac-
tice cuts the price of all the good fruit that hangs on
the tree. It does the consumer a dirty trick by per-
mitting an inferior product to get to him as canned
grapefruit. It robs the grove of the fertilizing value
of the drops, which has been variously estimated by
good authorities to be between 9 cents and 17 cents
per box.

Mr. Henderson is a man of long experience in citrus
marketing problems, is one of the best versed experts
in this line in the ranks of the growers. He thinks
every possible discouragement should be given to selling
grapefruit drops.


Virgil H. Conner --- Editor
J. E. Robinson Business Manager
PUBLICATION COMMITTEE-W. E.
Kemp, Chairman; Carl D. Brorein, R.
J. Kepler, E. G. Thatcher, W. L. Burton.
Printed by The Chief Press, Apopka


Published the First and Fifteenth of each
month by The Florida Citrus Growers,
Inc., Orlando, Florida.
Application for entry as second-class
matter is pending.
The entire contents of this magazine are
protected by copyright and must not be
reprinted without the publishers' permis-
sion. Manuscripts submitted to this maga-
zine should be accompanied by sufficient


postage for their return if found unavail-
able. The publishers can accept no re-
sponsibility for return of unsolicited manu-
scripts.
Subscription Rates
In United States, one year $1.00 to non-
members of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.,
Membership subscriptions, one year 50c.
Address all mail to The Citrus Grower,
P. 0. Box 2077, Orlando, Florida.


r







This is THE CITRUS GROWER for December 15, 1938


Florida Growers Secure an Ally--


Jaycees Offer Their Cooperation


AND CAIN SAID unto the Lord.
"Am I my brother's keeper?"
Cain and many others of us
have heretofore been sure that the
correct answer is "No." We have
all been sure that we have plenty of
trouble of our own, and if we look
after our own business, we are doing
everything that could be expected of
us.
The Junior Chamber of Com-
merce of Florida seems to have an-
other and better idea. Recently its
Citrus Committee. of which Mr.
Merrill Barber of Vero Beach is
chairman, offered the services of the
Jaycees to Florida's citrus industry.
By this gesture the Jaycees have rec-
ognized that the citrus industry is
the economic base of a large portion
of the state, and that if the citrus
industry does not prosper, all lines
of business are adversely affected.
They recognize that if present ten-
dencies in the citrus industry, which
threaten to bankrupt the average
grower, are not corrected, there is a
gloomy future ahead for all Florida
enterprise, especially in Peninsular
Florida.
BROTHERLY LOVE-OR-
This move on the part of the
Junior Chamber of Commerce il-
lustrates that whether or not people
are impelled by motives of brotherly
love, purely business consideration.
force enterprises in the same area and
interdependent upon each other to
be concerned with the prosperity
and well being of their neighbors.
After all, the real estate man does
not make a commission on a grove
transaction that changes hands by
the foreclosure route, the banker
cannot safely loan money to a pro-
ducer whose product is selling be-
low the cost of production-after
awhile the grower and his family
are out of the market for drugs, dry
goods, medical attention and other
items, except on a charity basis.
This of course would mean greatly
reduced income or none at all to oth-
er business in the citrus producing
area.
The word "gesture" used above
may be a proper word in describing
the calling of the meeting by the
Junior Chamber of Commerce and
asking the leaders of the distressed
citrus industry if there was anything
the Jaycees could do. If a man is


By W. L. BURTON
severely ill or happens to an acci-
dent, and, conceivably, no one but a
a good doctor and nurse can be of
any particular benefit to him, it is a
beautiful custom of the neighbors to
come in and offer their services in
any capacity in which they can be
useful. This is a laudable, neigh-
borly gesture.
NO BEAUTIFUL GESTURE
The Junior Chamber of Com-
merce, however, went beyond the
beautiful gesture stage and is tak-
ing actual steps to aid in the re-
covery of the sick citrus industry.
Mr. Barber in the course of his re-
marks before the committee at Win-
ter Haven said:
"We feel that the Junior
Chambers of Commerce, 40 of
them in the state with a mem-
bership of about 10,000 young
business and professional men,
have something to offer the
citrus industry in the way of
cooperation, and we are here
today to see just what we can
do."
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., is
particularly thankful to the Jaycees
for putting this mighty organiza-
tion into motion with two objec-
tives. One is to educate the Florida
citrus grower to his own interests.


The practical and immediate steps
that the Jaycees are taking in this
direction, is conducting a state-wide
campaign to persuade growers to
join the growers' organization. The
other and more immediate task that
the Jaycees have taken upon them-
selves is to stir up interest and in-
duce growers to attend the hearings
at Lakeland in great numbers be-
fore a representative of the Agricul-
tural Adjustment Administration in
order to show the administration
that the growers recognize the ne-
cessity of, and insistently demand,
a marketing agreement and program
that will be one of the steps toward
,restoring order in the industry and
solvency to the grower.
URGED WRITING LETTERS
Jack McKay, Winter Haven. Jay-
cee vice-president, urged "the writ-
ing of many letters to officials to ob-
tain approval of the marketing
agreement." This idea was turned
over several times and resulted later
in telegrams being sent by Jaycee
leaders to local Jaycee organizations
instructing them to enlist the aid of
commercial and civic clubs such as
Rotary, Lions, Civitans, senior
chambers of commerce, in a strong
campaign to arouse the grower to the
necessity of studying his own inter-
ests and of organizing and cooperat-
ing with other growers in order to
better the conditions of the industry.
Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., rec-
ognizes the soundness of the Jay-
cees' position, is pleased beyond
measure to see this champion com-
ing to the field for the growers' in-
terest, and believes much good will
be accomplished. The good that can
be done is shown-by the impressive
number and the importance of citrus
leaders who gathered with the Jay-
cee citrus committee at its Winter
Haven meeting.
CITRUS BIGWIGS THERE
John Maxcy, chairman of the
Florida Citrus Commission, Harvey
Henderson, Winter Haven. new
member of the board; L. W. Mar-
vin, advertising manager, and Chas.
F. Chastain, assistant secretary, at-
tended.
0. R. Hawkins. Lake Alfred, rep-
resented the Florida Canners' Asso-
ciation; L. H. Kramer of Lake
Wales, president, and W. L. Burton.
secretary, represented Florida Citrus


Page 4







This is THE CITRUS GROWER for December 15, 1938


Growers, Inc.; R. B. Woolfolk, Or-
lando, represented Growers and
Shippers League; State Senator J. J.
Parrish of Titusville, represented the
upper house of the legislature.
Among others attending w e r e
Senator A. W. Young, of Vero
Beach; Charles H. Walker of Bar-
tow; Frank R. Hammett of Orlando.
Besides Mr. Barber, members of
the Jaycee Citrus Committee were
present as follows: Grady Bailey.
Winter Haven; Paul Colton, Lake-
land; Vance Meares, Clearwater;
Dan McCarthy. Fort Pierce and Geo.
F. Sharp, Orlando.
REFLECTED IN STATEMENTS
The soundness of the Jaycees'
proposition of grower education is
reflected in the statements of some
of the above outstanding leaders.
Senator Parrish said:
"I believe the younger ele-
ment of the Jaycees will move
a little faster than some groups
of old-timers in trying to put
across a worthwhile program.
and this marketing agreement
seems to be the thing on which
they need to do some real work.
There should be brains enough
in the state to devise some
method of bringing about the
correlation between production.
outlets and consumption. Per-
haps the Jaycees have those
brains * If you will elimi-
nate the man who has nothing
but a pencil over his ear, you
will cure your troubles. That
means you should have fewer
shippers and better distribu-
tion."
Senator Parrish further stated that
every box of No. 3 oranges should
be destroyed, that "you are never
going to get anywhere until you do
it." Senator Parrish also stressed
the necessity of educating the grower
as to his own interests. Senator
Young said:
"I notice in the market re-
ports today, and in fact, ever
since last Wednesday, that Cali-
fornia, which now is winding
Top R. B. Woolfolk, Orlando;
Charles Walker, Bartow; Jack McKay. Dis-
trict Vice President of Junior Chamber of
Commerce, Winter Haven; T. M. Johns.
Arcadia; F. R. Hammett, Orlando.
Center-Back row-Grady Bailey, Winter
Haven; Harry King, President of Junior
Chamber of Commerce; Paul Colton, Lake-
land, Front-George F. Sharp, Orlando;
Murrell Barber, committee chairman, Vero
Beach; Dan McCarthy, state representative,
Fort Pierce; Vance Meares, Clearwater.
Bottom-Harvey Henderson, Florida Cit-
rus Commission, Winter Haven; L. H. Kra-
mer, President of FCGI, Lake Wales; John
Maxcy, Chairman of Florida Citrus Com-
mission; Senator J. J. Parrish and Senator
A. W. Young of Vero Beach.


Page 5







This is THE CITRUS GROWER for December 15, 1938


up her old crop and starting on
the new, is outselling our or-
anges almost 100 per cent."
Senator Young is a leading mem-
ber of Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.,
president of its Indian River County
unit, and fully realizes the necessity
of arousing the growers to look af-
ter their own interests and secure
for themselves that knowledge upon
which they can base cooperation for
their collective benefit. He gave a
brief word picture of the citrus in-
dustry and its importance to all
Florida business in the following
words:
"That the citrus industry is
sick, there can be no question.
When the grower of fruit in
Florida is unable to obtain a
reasonable return for the fruits
of his efforts and conditions ex-
ist such as do exist today, it is
time for business interests of the
state to stop, look and listen,
because they are directly and in-
directly affected by the success
of the grower of citrus fruit."
President Kramer of the grower
organization said:
"The growers' organization
has been forced into the pic-
ture by the condition of the in-
dustry. We are made up of
bona fide growers running in
acreage from two and one-half
acres up to two thousand acres.
We seek advice for the better-
ment of the industry as a
whole. We don't want to
fight. We want the cooperation
of the shippers. You can't
change the policy of the ship-
per or the policy of the grower
over-night. It has got to be
done through a process of edu-
cation and through friendly
conferences. We have an or-
ganization consisting of better
than five thousand members. It
is growing very rapidly. We
are not going to stop until we
get at least ten thousand mem-
bers. If the purposes of this
organization are maintained we
feel that the results we will get
will justify the growers who
are doubtful to come in and
join us."
President Kramer then outlined
extensive work by the organization's
committees in gathering important
information that is necessary for
the grower to have as a basis for the
will and for the ability to cooperate
with other growers, and with those
outside the organization for the ben-
efit of the industry.
Mr. Woolfolk spoke in favor of


eliminating poor fruit from the mar-
kets.
IS LARGEST GROWER
Mr. Walker is reportedly the
largest individual grower in the
state. He stressed and pleaded for
a program of education for the grow-
er, of the importance to the grower
of organization, and of the im-
portance of the grower organization
taking an aggressive part in the af-
fairs of the industry.
Frank R. Hammett, well known
citrus leader, made an effective pres-
entation of the sins and blessings of
the Florida citrus industry, and as a
major part of the corrective work.
stressed grower education and grow-
er participation in the industry.
Mr. Bailey for the Jaycee organi-
zation said his group was interested
in a nine-point program for the cit-
rus industry, the highlights of which
are: elimination of green fruit by
delaying first shipments to Novem-
ber 1st; elimination of arsenical
sprays: election of members of the
Florida Citrus Commission; regula-
tion of shipments to terminal mar-
kets; elimination of the use of "col-
or-added" after December 15th;
creation of a clearing-house for good
ideas for the trade; raising the mini-
mum bond of citrus buyers to
$5000; standardization of contain-
ers; reduction of freight rates.
APPRECIATE ATTITUDE
We profoundly appreciate the at-
titude of the Junior Chamber of
Commerce in looking upon Florida
Citrus Growers. Inc., as the logical
branch of the industry to take the
lead in bringing about many neces-
sary reforms. We look with es-
pecial satisfaction upon the central
thought of the Jaycee proposition:
that the main problem facing us is
that the average grower does not
realize how important it is that he
should know how all these various
points affect his pocketbook. We re-
gard it as the special mission of Flor-
ida Citrus Growers, Inc.. to give the
grower this information. Through
the research activities of its various
committees and the publication of
their findings in our magazine, and
through speakers at grower meetings,
this information is made available to
the grower. Consequently, realiz-
ing as clearly as we can the enormity
and complications of the task, we
accept the responsibility of this lead-
ership, and welcome the Florida Jun-
ior Chamber of Commerce as a pow-
erful ally whose assistance and coun-
sel we expect to have occasion to
call upon a great deal.
We know also that the Junior


Rapid Pace Set

By Grower Group
By D. C. Williams, Chairman
Membership Committee
IT IS ALMOST beyond belief that just a
bit over six months ago Orange County
formed the first unit of citrus growers.
then Brevard followed on June 1st. Then in
quick succession several others, so in July the
movement merged into a state organization.
"The Florida Citrus Growers, Incor-
porated."
Twenty-three counties have joined the
movement, 17 counties with separate units
and 6 counties with joint units, two coun-
ties in each unit.
IMPORTANT MOVEMENT
To get the full import of this movement
get a road map. Start on East Coast at north
Volusia, Brevard, Indian River, St. Lucie;
West Coast starting north Citrus, Hernando,
Pasco, Hillsboro, Pinellas, Manatee, Sara-
sota. Lee; Center starting north Marion,
Lake. Seminole, Orange, Polk, Osceola,
Hardee. Highlands, DeSoto. Hendry. Dade
County is working hard to get a sufficient
number of growers to have their unit.
These counties comprise the citrus belt
of Florida. Over 95 percent of citrus is pro-
duced in these counties. The writer has more
or less assisted in the formation of units in
twelve counties. The job was no easy task
but I found by contacting 25 or more grow-
ers in each county. I had enough men with
latent business ability to spring into action
and carry through the movement in their
county.
If any adverse citrus interest in Florida
underrates the determination of these men
to carry on this slogan. "To give the Citrus
Growers of Florida identity in the Citrus
Industry." they have another think coming.
HUGE INDUSTRY
Outside of our winter residents and visi-
tors from the north, the citrus business is
one of the largest investments and gives em-
ployment to thousands the year around. So
let me ask everyone to recognize the citrus
growers' right to an integral part in his busi-
ness and his desire to create confidence and
good will between those responsible for the
various activities from production of the
fruit to the consumer.
It was a pleasure to meet so many fine men
and women in the cities and counties of the
citrus belt in the past five months. Memories
of those acquaintances will be dear to me
for the rest of my life.
If there remains any county in Florida
that has as many as 100 citrus growers, if
any person will write me, I will be pleased
to give full particulars as to how you can
join in the movement; or if you have 25
to 99 in the county, will advise you as to
how you can unite with others to form a
unit.
Chamber of Commerce would not
have looked upon the growers' or-
ganization as the spearhead of the
drive for better conditions in the
citrus industry unless they had had
good reason to do so. The Jaycees
arrived at this attitude from what
was said by the citrus leaders at the
Winter Haven meeting. For con-
veying this impression to this force-
ful organization of young business
men we wish to thank Messrs. Par-
rish, Walker, Hammett and others
of their distinguished guests.


Page 6







Page 7


This is THE CITRUS GROWER for December 15, 1938


Grower-Shipper Gives His Experience--


Selling Of Oranges By Weight


F OR THE LAST few seasons
there has been much discussion
of the sale of oranges by the
pound, both by the growers and by
the Florida Citrus Commission. So
far very little has been done except
by a few individuals in the state.
who have proved to their own satis-
faction that this is the logical way
to approach the consumer of Flor-
ida citrus fruit, and to bring to his
attention how very cheap these fruits
are now in comparison with other
fruits and vegetables on the market.

SOLD IN NORTH
For two seasons Dr. Phillips has
been selling oranges by the pound
in isolated districts of New England,
Northern New York State and the
Middle West. Mr. DeBusk of the
University of Florida proved in his
marketing experiments in the Caro-
linas and Virginia that this method
appeals to the housewife. The Flor-
ida Citrus Exchange is making ex-
perimental sales of fruit by the
pound in the Louisville, Kentucky,
district.
Only in the last few weeks has
the industry been acquainted with
the real merit of this plan. Dr.
Phillips has been holding a series
of meetings for shippers primarily,
acquainting them with just what
this sale by the pound means to the
industry. He has approached the
problem from the angle of the grow-
er, the shipper, the receiver, the
wholesaler, the retailer and the con-
sumer. In order to present his point
fully to those who have heard him,
he has assembled a complete exhibit.
giving a visual presentation that is


more eloquent than volumes of writ-
ten words or hours of speech.
TO ULTIMATE END
Too many growers have consid-
ered the problem only from the
standpoint of getting their fruit off
the trees and into the shippers' hands
by the pound. They feel that is all
that has to be done in order to put
the matter over. Such is not the
case, and it is becoming increasingly
apparent to the thinking growers
that they have to carry the problem
on to the ultimate consumer. To
achieve that end, Dr. Phillips has
prepared this exhibit, a photograph
of which is made a part of this ar-
ticle.
This method of selling fruit is
so simple from every standpoint, is
so basically right, that there should
be no argument concerning its adop-
tion by the industry. Arguments.
however, have arisen and many ob-
jections have been interposed by
those who are either ignorant of
the plan in detail, or who for their
own reasons do not wish to see it
adopted.

HARD TO BREAK
Trade customs are always hard
to break up, and the trade general-
ly is accustomed to buying by the
box and selling by the dozen. Flor-
ida has continued to cater to trade
custom in every aspect of the citrus
industry. The trade custom is not
now bringing us sufficient for the
fruit we grow to warrant our fore-
going the advantages of pound sell-
ing in order to bow to trade custom.
When pound selling is carefully ex-


plained to the trade, it receives well
nigh universal acceptance because
there is a decided advantage which
can be secured by those intermedi-
aries of distribution which the Flor-
ida citrus industry finds so necessary.
Consumers find necessary a little
readjustment of their buying habits
on oranges to buy by the pound, but
this comes very quickly and with
practically no sales resistance. The
chief problem seems to be to sell the
fruit people of Florida themselves
on the idea so that it can be put
into immediate operation. During
the meetings that Dr. Phillips has
held, the exhibit prepared by him
has done more to accomplish this
than anything else so far presented
in Florida, and to that end the Flor-
ida Citrus Growers, Inc., gives its
members a picture of this exhibit.
The facts developed by this ex-
hibit have done much to influence
some of the largest factors in the
citrus business in Florida to urge on
the Commission that it pursue fur-
ther the sale of fruit by weight.
-------------

Thank You, Senator Young

November 22, 1938.
Mr. W. E. Kemp, Chairman
Publication Committee.
Congratulations on the first issue of THE
CITRUS GROWER! At last we have a
magazine dedicated to the exclusive interest
of the citrus growers.
A valuable service was rendered in plac-
ing before the growers the complete infor-
mation regarding the proposed marketing
agreement.
Yours truly,
A. W. YOUNG,
President, Indian River County
Citrus Growers Association.







This is THE CITRUS GROWER for December 15, 1938


Psychology Plays Important Part--


Auction Head Favors Marketing Program


T HE MATERIAL conditions
that prompt trading must ex-
ist, or trading cannot go on.
But, after all, it is the buyer's mind
that makes the immediate decision,
and seals or blasts the trade, by say-
ing "Yes or "No." The actual act
of trading is a matter of psychology.
On this matter of trading psy-
chology no one is better fitted to
speak than Charles W. Irrgang, Sr.,
vice-president and general manager
of Fruit Auction Sales Comoany,
Chicago, and chairman of the board
of directors of the American Fruit
and Produce Auction Association.
Mr. Irrgang is thoroughly persuaded
that no matter how good a value
for the money a product may offer,
the buyer must be conscious of that
value, and conscious that the value
is stable enough to suit the pur-
poses of the present trade, or no
trade occurs. Mr. Irrgang also qual-
ifies as owner of a large citrus grove
in Orange County. This connec-
tion, together with his general repu-
tation throughout the years, qualify
him as seeing the picture from the
standpoint of the growers' interests.
Mr. Irrgang says present demoral-
ized conditions in citrus fruit prices
are a matter of psychology, and if
this psychological obstacle is re-
moved prices of fruit will rise. The
key to removal of this condition is
the adoption of a marketing pro-
gram in Florida.
The average capital of a fruit
dealer in the Northern markets, Mr.
Irrgang says, is not over $5000.00.
If this dealer buys fruit for resale
and stacks it in his warehouse and
the prices declines ten cents per box
per day, it does not take long for
$5000.00 to melt away. He says
these dealers have bought fruit this
season because the price was low,
but before they have been able to
sell it the price has dropped more,
and they have bought again to av-
erage their costs. But the price has
dropped again and again this sea-
son and still no bottom in sight.
Naturally the dealer has become
frightened and is not buying. It
is absolutely necessary to dispel this
fear on the part of the dealer or
prices cannot go up.
It is known that the business ac-
tivity index of the country has stead-
ily risen in the past few months. It
is anticipated that it will go higher


and attain a normal level early next
year. Hundreds of thousands of
men in industry are getting back on
the payroll and the buying power of
the country is increasing. There is
no doubt in Mr. Irrgang's mind
that the markets for citrus fruits are
physically able to absorb the entire
crop of the current season, viewed
from the angle of purchasing power.
But the dealer who buys in the auc-
tions cannot buck the tide and con-
tinue to buy on a declining market.
Something first must be done to re-
store his confidence to the extent
that he will be willing to put his
money into fruit.
To show the workings of the psy-
chological factor, Mr. Irrgang cited
the fruit crop of 1936-37. In that
year it had been heralded through-
out the northern markets that Flor-
ida had an immense croo and all
wise traders had their minds made
up that Florida oranges would drop
in price from 75 cents to one dol-
lar per box. But the California
freeze came along and it was broad-
cast through the press that the crop
of that state had been badly damaged
and the volume of fruit to be sold
had been drastically reduced. This
had a lifting effect upon the market.
Within a few weeks however, it
was discovered that scientific frost
protection in California had held
losses to a fraction of first estimates.
But this fact was not given such
wide publicity. Consequently prices
for both Florida and California
fruit held the higher levels attained
on the freeze news, and these good
prices were maintained throughout
the season, in spite of the fact that
the largest quantity of citrus fruit
was marketed that year that has
ever been marketed in the history
of the industry. Price is a matter
of what the buyers think. It is psy-
chology.
To this instance of control of
fruit by natural causes, Mr. Irrgang
added one brought about by fore-
thought and design. He told of an
instancee in 1934 when 300 cars of
fruit were headed for the New York
market to be sold Saturday, Sunday.
Monday and Tuesday. This im-
mense volume was calculated to
crack the market and lop off a dol-
lar per. box. The traders were set
for this decline as a certainty.
At this very moment, however,


the 1934 marketing agreement in
Florida was announced as going in-
to effect. This was the determining
factor that gave dealers confidence.
They knew their interests would be
protected from the disastrous effects
of uncontrolled volumes of fruit be-
ing dumped upon their market. In-
stead of $1.00 lower, the auctions
opened on Monday only 15 to 25
cents per box lower than the pre-
vious week. By eleven o'clock in
the morning the price was up to the
week before and rose higher as the
week advanced. There was not a
bit less fruit in sight than there had
been before the agreement had been
announced. But there was in the
picture that regulatory factor that
gave the buyers confidence.
It is needless to say that Mr.
Irrgang is watching the marketing
agreement hearings in Lakeland
with much concern. He says the
adoption of the agreement would
change the picture in the North very
fast. It would give the jobber con-
fidence in place of the awful fear
that now possess him. He believes
in grade and size and volume con-
trol, working together as good judg-
ment would dictate. He also be-
lieves in a complete marketing pro-
gram, of which the marketing agree-
ment is only a part. Such a pro-
gram will let the jobber know where
he stands. He further believes more
fruit will be moved at a profitable
price, under correct regulation, than
could be moved at any price with-
out regulation.
The above is what a man thinks
who knows thoroughly the buyer's
end of the citrus industry.
---

Schedule of Meetings
INDIAN RIVER COUNTY
Indian River County Citrus Growers'
Association, second Tuesday, each month,
Chamber of Commerce Building at 8 P. M.
Meeting of Board of Directors and chair-
men of committees. Third Tuesday, each
month. County Court House, 8 P. M., meet-
ing of members, open to the public.
POLK COUNTY
Bartow Growers Unit, December 27,
2:30 P. M. in City Hall.
Ft. Meade Growers Unit, December 20,
7:30 P. M. in City Hall.
Polk County Citrus Growers, Inc., Di-
rectors meeting on December 20, 8:00 P. M.
Court House, Bartow.


Page 8









This is THE CITRUS GROWER for December 15, 1938


-w


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,-
; '$ *


/


Top-Representing the interests of the Florida Citrus Producers Tr-de Association and Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., was this group. Left
to right are Doyle E. Carlton, Tampa; James J. Banks, Orlando; Senator Spessard L. Holland, Bartow: and Marvin Walker, Lakeland.
Bottom--Department of Agriculture representatives included in this group. Pictured left to right are H. B. Davis and William E. Leigh.
field representatives of the department in Florida; Floyd F. Hedlund. general crops section economist; Budd A. Holt, assistant director of the
division of marketing and marketing agreements: Donald R. Heggy. senior attorney: and Edward E. Gallahue, representing consumers coun-
sel. Inset-Presiding officer Glen J. Gifford. designated by Secretiry Wallace. SEE EDITORIAL. PAGE 18.


Page 9


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ii







Page 10 This is THE CITRUS GROWER for December 15, 1938


Composed of Eleven Practical Men--



Citrus Commission Sentinel of Industry


C OMPOSED OF eleven practical citrus
men, the Florida Citrus commission
stands as the sentinel of the industry,
alert and watchful and foster-parent of any
activity which might be of benefit. The
commission's duties are so widespread, cover-
ing just about every phase of the far-flung
industry, that it is difficult to enumerate
them all.
The law itself requires the appointment
of "practical" citrus men on the commission.
To quote:
"* * there is hereby created and estab-
lished a State Citrus commission to be
known and designated as 'Florida Citrus
Commission' to be composed of 11 practical
citrus fruit men, resident citizens of the State
of Florida, each of whom is, and has been
actively engaged in growing, or growing
and shipping, of citrus fruit in the State of
Florida for a period of five years immediate-
ly prior to his appointment to said Com-
mission and who has during said period, de-
rived the major portion of his income there-
from. or has been the directing or managing
head of a corporation, firm, partnership or
other business unit which has during said
period derived the major portion of its in-
come from the growing, or growing and
shipping of citrus fruit.
SHALL BE GROWERS
"At least seven members of said Com-
mission shall be growers not connected with
any packing, shipping or marketing agency
or association, either as officers or as paid
employes."
Three members of the commission repre-
sent the state at large, while the other eight
represent certain districts. They serve two
years, and receive no salary although allowed
$10 per day spent in actual attendance at
meetings of the commission.
Among the duties of the commission is
the establishment of standards for state
grades of citrus fruit and for containers:
prescribing rules and regulations governing
the marks or tags required on fruit or con-
tainers. to show the name and address of the
person marketing the fruit, and also the
grade, quality, type, variety or size of the
fruit and similar information concerning the
container.
ASSESSMENT
The enforcement of these regulations is
in the hands of the commissioner of agri-
culture of Florida, and financed by an as-
sessment of one cent on each box. The com-
mission also has the duty of establishing the
requirements for maturity, although mini-
mum requirements are established by state
law.
One of the major efforts of the commis-
sion is handling of the advertising campaign
which is financed by the assessments on
oranges, grapefruit and tangerines of one,
three and five cents per box, respectively.
Advertising campaigns have been conducted,
in newspapers, magazines and other media
in the North, for the last three seasons and
another is just beginning. Carefully worked
out tables are used, which show where such
advertising can be most effective, and the ap-
peals which should be made. A campaign
also is conducted separately on canned citrus,
the assessments collected on fruit used by the
canneries being spent on this.
English advertising for the last two sea-


JOHN MAXCY
Chairman, Florida Citrus Commission

sons has proved very productive, and more
is scheduled this season. The advertising of
canned citrus products is timed to reach a
peak during the summer when fresh Florida
fruit is not available and when canned citrus
sales are the highest.
ADMINISTERS LAW
The commission also administers the
"color-added" law, which prohibits the use
of any coloring matter which has not been
inspected and passed upon by the commis-
sioner of agriculture and certified to be non-
injurious to the quality of the fruit or to
health. It also handles the bond and license
law, which requires the licensing and bond-
ing of citrus fruit dealers. Five hundred and
fifty-six fruit dealers licenses were issued dur-
ing the 1937-38 season, and 537 posted
surety bonds and 19 posted cash bonds. The
field crate registration law also comes under
the jurisdiction of the commission, and pro-
vides for the registration of brands by the
secretary of state.
It can well be realized that the ramifica-
tions of the citrus industry create plenty of
work for the citrus commission. It is con-
ducting research projects examining the med-
ical and nutritional aspects of citrus fruit at
the present time. Advertising material will
be obtained through additional information
thus revealed. It is constantly trying to im-
prove the quality of all varieties of citrus,
and to educate the buying public on the
merits of Florida fruit and its superior juice-
content and other factors as compared with
other areas.
COOPERATIVE PLAN
As part of its far-flung advertising activi-
ties. the commission has just been able to


work out a cooperative arrangement with
competitive areas sponsoring a national cit-
rus sale, in which 250,000 retail outlets
will cooperate. This is the biggest promotion
of an agricultural product ever attempted,
and will consist of three 10-day sale periods,
starting November 25, January 26 and
March 2. Every means of calling citrus fruit
to the attention of the public will be utilized,
and even shoe stores, clothing stores, etc., are
cooperating. Their help will consist of ap-
propriate suggestions, tactfully made, to their
own customers.
Organizations cooperating in the drive
are: Independent Food Distributors council,
representing 153.000 grocery stores; Na-
tional Association of Food Chains, with
37,000 retail units: Super Market institute,
having a membership of 400 stores; Na-
tional Restaurant association, with 5800
outlets: National Association of Chain Drug
stores, 4000 stores; National Association of
Retail Druggists with 28.000 members; the
Limited Price Variety Stores association
representing the nation's 5 and 10 and 25
cents to $1 stores, about 6000, and the In-
stitute of Distribution, consisting of all im-
portant chain groups in the mail order, shoe,
variety store, wearing apparel, specialty shop,
hat, general merchandise, auto accessory and
other fields, numbering about 9000 outlets.
DOING RESEARCH
World-famous institutions, such as Co-
lumbia University, the University of Mary-
land, anit the Federal Bureau of Standards
are conducting the commission's research
work. Eminent authorities, such as Pro-
fessor H. C. Sherman, head of the depart-
ment of chemistry at Columbia and active
in research on vitamins and the mineral ele-
ments in nutrition; Professor Arthur W.
Thomas, head of the chemistry department
of Columbia college of pharmacy, and a
high authority in food analysis and food
technology; Dr. Solomon Farley Acree,
principal chemist and section chief of the
National Bureau of Standards; Dr. L. H.
James, head of the department of bacteri-
ology at the University of Maryland; Dr.
Harold F. Pierce, research physician and for-
mer associate professor at Johns Hopkins
University; and Dr. Sterling V. Mead, den-
tal authority and author of many standard
dental works.
FIVE PHASES
There are five phases to the study these
men are making: compilation, digestion and
publication of known facts about citrus
fruits as found in medical literature; original
research into nutritional aspects; continuance
and broadening of technological research;
deo!tal and oral hygiene; and hospital and
clinical experimentation. The first step is
well advanced, and its completion will mark
the first time all existing information on cit-
rus fruits will be collected into one source
for easy reference.
The nutritional studies will explore and
develop the important problems which need
clarification on the nutritional value of cit-
rus.
The third step will continue research car-
ried on for the last two seasons on vitamin
"C," juice content, totals of solids and ash
in citrus products from Florida and competi-
tive areas, and expansion of work to in-
clude the determination of calcium-phos-







This is THE CITRUS GROWER for December 15, 1938


phorus ratios, as well as the carotene content
in tangerines.
Another phase of the work will seek to
establish the local and internal effects of cit-
rus upon mouth environment, or buffer
values of saliva and the bacteriostatic effect
on mouth flora, particularly in caries and
"trench mouth."
FRUIT USED
Fruit as it is sold in th northern markets
is being used for these studies, so the results
can be announced as coming from a type of
fruit just as the consumer would get it.
Hospitals and clinics will cooperate in mak-
ing case studies, to determine the value of
grapefruit as a dietetic aid both in preven-
tive work and for convalescents. An elaborate
'pH" study also will be made. The symbol
"pH" is the method of expressing acid or
alkaline strength.
Research of this kind is necessarily a slow
and painstaking process, but it is hoped to
establish citrus fruits so firmly as a diet es-
sential, that hitherto untapped markets will
be opened. One step, establishing grapefruit
as the equal of oranges from medical and
nutritional standpoints, would assist greatly
in moving the increasing quantity of this
fruit being produced yearly in Florida.

AFTER SPACE
The commission is not overlooking any
possibilities to get free space in northern
newspapers and other publications, and num-
erous stories, menus and articles specifically
designed to meet the requirements of women's
pages are going out all the time. A report
was received only a short time ago from the
commission's publicity agency. Pendleton
Dudley and Associates, which shows that
news stories and articles on canned citrus
products represented by clippings actually re-
ceived reached a circulation of approximately
75,250,000, with a linage of 272,850.
While this space in the news columns cannot
be purchased at any price, as it is not for sale.
figured on a conservative basis and compared
with a similar linage of paid advertising, it
had a monetary value of $54,570. In ad-
dition, it is estimated that not more than
one-third of the material which actually got
into print is represented by the clippings.
Another valuable angle of this type of effort
is that the public generally accepts as true.
statements which appear in news columns of
daily papers, magazines and other reliable
publications.

3,190 SCRIPTS
Radio also is utilized and the report
shows that 3,190 radio scripts were deliv-
ered during the six-month period covered
to a group of 145 radio stations at no cost
to growers. Each station delivered 22 differ-
ent scripts on using canned Florida citrus
products, and based on a conservative esti-
mate of 7,0,0000 listeners, there were
154,000,000 different impressions received
by housewives by means of this free air time.
Other angles for obtaining publicity also
were thoroughly canvassed. Stories go out
regularly to trade journals, impressing the
wholesale and retail trade with the fine qual-
ity of this season's crop and build up sup-
port where it is most needed to clinch final
sales.
A moving picture is being prepared now
which will shortly be ready for showing to
groups of wholesalers and retailers, visual-
izing for them just how citrus grows in
Florida, how it is handled, packed and all
the other things which are done before it is
turned over to them for actual sale. These
educational film shows will make the north-
ern trade more "Florida citrus conscious"


and should do much in helping
move the tremendous crop.
PROMOTIONAL MEN
One of the ac:ivitie; of the
commission about which little is
known generally but which is
extremely important. is the
work done by its eleven sales Red
promotional men in northern
markets. These men are in
constant touch with the Lake-
land office and give their en-
tire time to contacting whole-
salers, the retail trade, restau-
rants, drug stores, hotels and
the actual consumer, keeping a
constant check on all sales pro-
motion and advertising efforts.
To them is left the task of
distributing store display ma-
terial where it will bring the
best results, handling any com-
plaints which might come in
where the commission has jur-
isdiction: searching for and re-
porting any sales "stunts"
which could profitably be used
on citrus. In other words, they
are the "eyes" of the Florida
industry in the northern retail
centers, always on the alert for pO
new ideas and constantly mov-
ing about to keep the trade
pepped up and enthusiastic
about selling Florida citrus. So
valuable has this work proven,
that it was recently expanded
and still further additions prob-
ably will be made in the future.
RAISED CONTENT
Charged with the duty of establishing
maturity standards, where the minimum re-
quirements of the state law seem to require
a change, the commission early in September
exercised its jurisdiction in this respect and
raised the juice content requirement of grape-
fruit 10 percent above the state law mini-
mum.
John Maxcy of Frostproof has been serv-
ing as chairman of the commission for some
time. Other members of the commission
are: L. L. Chandler, Goulds; C. L. Craw-
ford, Avon Park; Harvey L. Henderson.
Winter Haven: W. M. Mosley, Fort Pierce:
Phil C. Peters, Winter Garden; W. L.
Spivey, Floral City: Thomas B. Swann.
Winter Haven: L. P. Thomas, Palmetto:
H. D. Ulmer, Clearwater; E. H. Williams.
Crescent City.

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Swift's

I Steer Fertilizers

sioloqically Neutral
Ih] iL (


LAKE COUNTY GROWERS

The Lake County Horticultural Associa-
tion held its regular monthly meeting in
Leesburg Monday afternoon, November 21.
James J. Banks, chairman of the Market-
ing Agreement Committee, explained in de-
tail the proposed set-up of the Marketing
Agreement. There was considerable discus-
sion by the growers as a whole, and they
voted they wanted a marketing agreement.
The next meeting of the Lake County
Horticultural Association will be held in
Leesburg at the Presbyterian chu-ch, 6:30
p. m., December 19. Dr. R. V. Noble,
head of the Agricultural Economics depart-
ment of the University of Florida, will be
the speaker. All growers, whether members
of the Association or not, are invited to at-
tend.

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Page 11


Crown Paper Company




SANFORD, FLORIDA

PHONE NO. 187



FRUIT AND VEGETABLE WRAPPERS ....

..... NOKUT GUARDS AND CUSHIONS








This is THE CITRUS GROWER for December 15, 1938


A Glimpse Behind the Scenes--


THE CITRUS ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN


A HOUSEWIFE in Savannah reads her
favorite newspaper and sees an adver-
tisement of Florida citrus fruit.
A street car passenger in Philadelphia
glances at the advertisements in the car and
sees a vivid, four-color display of Florida
citrus fruit.
A wholesaler rides along a main highway
entering Chicago and his attention is caught
by a mammoth outdoor poster, in brilliant
colors, advertising Florida citrus fruit. He
makes a mental note that he needs some in
stock.
SENDS IT HOME
A winter visitor in Florida picks up his
favorite local paper and sees an advertise-
ment which inspires him to send a box of
fruit to the folks back home.
The story behind the selection of the me-
dia and the "appeals" used by the Florida
Citrus Commission in its advertising cam-
paigns is an interesting one. There is nothing
haphazard about it. Everything is studied,
considered, discussed, changed and re-
changed, until a final program is worked out
-just as carefully as would any private
manufacturer embarking on an advertising
venture involving the same amount of
money.
No doubt, many Florida citrus growers,
shippers and others have wondered just how
these campaigns are evolved, and just what
are the deciding factors when a decision is
made that newspapers should get the bulk
of the funds, or that the Saturday Evening
Post should be used, or the rotogravure sec-
tion of several leading Sunday papers. The
complete story is far too long to hope to tell
here, but at least the high spots can be
touched upon and some idea of the thor-
oughness of thought which is given can be
conveyed.

NOT DIFFICULT
Spending advertising money is not a
particularly difficult thing to do, any more
than it is difficult to spend money on any-
thing. But spending advertising money where
it will bring the greatest possible return,
reaching people who will respond with
actual purchases, is something entirely differ-
ent. When the grower or shipper wants a
new tool for use in grove work or packing
plant, he shops around until he finds what
he wants at the best possible price. That is
exactly the principle used by the citrus com-
mission in placing its advertising.
In order to get a clear picture of the
thought behind the present campaign, it is
necessary to go back many months, to last
July and August, when Florida fruit was
not even on the market. The first details of
the present campaign were taking shape even
then, and while there were many things
which the commission already knew about
the citrus market, there were others that it
needed to know. It wanted to know why
people bought citrus fruit, how the fruit
was used after being bought, and also how
the public in general (meaning of course the
housewife in this particular case) felt about
citrus for her family.
ASKED BUYERS
The best way to find out why anyone
does anything is to ask them, so the commis-
sion proceeded to do just that. Six hundred
housewives, representing average families


N. F. LAVIGNE


with a total of more than 2,200 persons,
were questioned and their answers recorded.
The questions were simple ones, not of a
type to "lead" the housewife to make a
certain reply.
She was given complete freedom to make
any statement she desired and anything she
said was jotted down, good, bad or indif-
ferent. Assembled and studied, these replies,
representing the spontaneous statements of
a large group of disinterested people, brought
out some startling facts. These facts have
been put to use in the current campaign.

STRESS JUICINESS
The advertisement which the housewife
in Savannah reads probably will stress the
extra juiciness of Florida oranges, or the tart
and freshening taste of Florida grapefruit.
Possibly she may read about the "kid glove"
peeling on a Florida tangerine, or their par-
ticularly vivid color which fits in so well
with the holiday season. These "appeals"
are not haphazard either, by any means, and
all of them are the result of long experience
plus a careful study given the answers of the
600 housewives who said frankly why they
liked (or disliked) Florida fruit.
Florida has an entirely different problem
from its competitive areas in any advertis-
ing campaign undertaken. Florida fruit is
on the market only for a certain period each
year, whereas California with its year-'round
production can hammer away continuously,
a very important factor. So the first Florida
advertisements must stress the fact that
Florida fruit is once more available. It must
literally "steal" the market away from
California.

BUY FOR JUICE
Following the introductory advertise-
ments, the orange advertising program will
stress the extra juiciness of Florida's product.
This, too. is not a haphazard appeal, but is
based on the findings in the survey made
several months ago that 94% of the people
who buy oranges do so with the intention
of serving juice. While some housewives gave
several reasons, squeezing for juice towered
far above any other single reason. It can now
readily be seen that if the story of Florida
oranges and their extra juice is properly told,
it will appeal to the greatest number. Ad-
vertisements which stress the use of oranges


for salads, cut in half, or peeled, would of
course have an appeal to a certain group, and
would not be entirely wasted, but the single
appeal covering the use mentioned by nine
out of ten of the women questioned is far
more effective.
A few more figures here on the juice angle
of oranges might be interesting. Seven out
of ten of the 94% mentioned above said they
served orange juice daily or oftener. No other
use for oranges even approaches juice in fre-
quency, and the other uses which housewives
said they made of oranges on a daily basis
were almost negligible. A little more than
seven percent did say they served oranges
peeled or halved every day and approximately
two percent said they used oranges daily for
salad. Another factor of major importance
is the almost universal use of orange juice by
all members of the family. The survey
showed that 92% of children under two
years drink orange juice, 95% of children
from two to six years, 93% of children
from six to 15, and 84% of adults. In ad-
dition to the 70% which drink orange juice
daily, there is another 20% which do not
drink it daily but do drink it several times
weekly.

PREFER CALIFORNIA?
Twenty percent of the housewives said
they preferred California oranges to Florida
fruit for juice purposes, and this group offers
a big new market if the extra juiciness of
Florida oranges is properly impressed upon
them. There is another 18 percent who had
no preference, and can be won over to Flor-
ida fruit with effective advertising appeal.
Six percent said they didn't know the differ-
ence between California and Florida fruit,
and the advertising will attempt to educate
these.
It is little short of remarkable the way
orange juice has captured the public's fancy
as a healthful and delicious drink, when con-
sideration is given the comparatively short
period oranges have been used in this way.
California has the honor of doing much to
popularize this form of orange consumption,
and the first advertisement urging the use of
orange juice did not appear until 1916.
In a little more than 20 years, the public
has grown to like its oranges in liquid form
to the extent that nine out of ten housewives
now buy them with that intent in mind. If
one other use could be found which could
equal this, it would take care of the surplus
that now worries Florida, California and all
other producing areas.
In selecting a particular orange purchased
for juice, the housewives questioned during
the survey gave several interesting reasons.
Sixty-three percent stated they prefer me-
dium to large sized oranges: 36% look for a
thin skin, 23% leave it to their grocer to do
the selecting: 19% insist on firmness of the
fruit with no soft spots: 16% heft the fruit
for weight. One-half of the housewives
stated they had no color preference.
To use three terse sentences from the re-
port on the advertising campaign approved
by the citrus commission recently:
"Juice is what people want from
oranges, more than anything else."
"Juice is what Florida oranges can
deliver, better than any other oranges."
"The quickest way to increase the
sale of Florida oranges is to convince
Turn to The Citrus. Page 13


Page 12








This is THE CITRUS GROWER for December 15, 1938


"For Better Health Eat Florida Fruit"



Florida Increasing Use Of Juice


THERE has never been a better job done
in advertising Florida citrus fruits than
the work being carried on this season
by the Florida Citrus Commission under the
Knudner Agency of New York. Supplement-
ing the fine work of the Florida Citrus Com-
mission is the excellent advertising being
done by the Florida Citrus Exchange and its
several units, as well as American Fruit
Growers, Inc.

MUST SUPPLEMENT
These two wise citrus marketing agencies
have realized that to get the largest value out
of the effective advertising done by the Flor-
ida Citrus Commission for Florida citrus
fruits, they must supplement this with their
own brand advertising so that "Sealed
Sweet" and "Mor-Juc" of the Florida Cit-
rus Exchange and "Blue Goose" brand of
the American Fruit Growers, Inc., are be-
coming well known to the consuming public
throughout the country.
The people of Florida themselves need to
be using more of our own citrus fruits, and
helping to carry forward this program to
others. This season has seen two fine bits of
local cooperation in Florida develop with in-
creasing volume.
USE OF SLOGANS
First, there are slogans promoted by the
Florida Citrus Commission with attractive
designs carrying the notation "For Better
Health Eat Florida Fruit," while the Orlando
Morning Sentinel has shown its interest and
cooperation in this matter by developing
a very attractive heading on the front page
carrying the same slogan with a better look-
ing drawing than is generally used.
The Lake County Chamber of Commerce
has had this slogan printed on all of its
envelopes and the great volume of mail going
out from that office to other parts of Floridi
and throughout the North carry this attrac-
tive slogan. Many organizations and firms
are imprinting this slogan on stationery and
rubber stamping it on envelopes. Millions
of nieces of mail are going out of Florida
weekly carrying this slogan, and every one
should help because every business and in-
dividual in the state of Florida directly or
indirectly is affected by the citrus industry.
LARGE GLASS FOR 5c
Under the effective leadership of Burton
H. Schoepf, president of the Tamiami Trail
Tours, Inc., of Tampa, there has been ex-
cellent promotion this year of the campaign
throughout Florida to sell a 10-ounce glass

THE CITRUS
Continued from Page 12
more people that Florida's give more
juice."
And in those three sentences is contained
the findings of the survey, the boiled-down
research result when the answers of 600
housewives were studied, compiled and di-
gested. And those three sentences tell what
the present advertising program is designed
to do in just as effective a way as funds will
permit.
The commission believes it is on the right
track in following the findings of such a sur-
vey. It is the accented method of "big busi-
ness" and is considered "good business' any-
where.


By KARL LEHMANN
Chairman, Advertising Committee

of Florida orange juice for 5c, and increasing
numbers of people are doing it. The Roe-
Gains Fruit Co., of Clermont, has built
a stand along the side of the road where it
is selling "all the orange juice you can drink
for 5c."
Win C. Sleight, at his fancy individually
packed "grower-to-consumer" packing house
in the Sylvan Shores section of Mount Dora
in Lake County, gives away free orange juice
to people who stop at his packing house. A
number of restaurants in Lake County are
offering orange juice free with every meal.
The Friendly Inn at Eustis, for example,
serves each guest a glass of orange juice as
they sit down, and on the table is placed a
pitcher of iced juice so they may have all
they want.

A NOVEL PLAN
At Hunziker's Drug Store in Montverde
another novel plan is being worked out,
when Mrs. Hunziker is not only placing the
fruit on her counter but a hand squeezer,
and the crowd of young people from the
Montverde School enjoy not only picking
out their fruit but "squeezing their own."
Many other variations of this plan have
been developed and a tremendous volume of
Florida fruit will be consumed in our own
state this year at a price that will bring a
profit to the grower selling the fruit and the
druggist serving it.
Hundreds of drug stores, restaurants, and
drink stands throughout the state of Florida
are today serving a large glass of orange
juice for 5c,
Florida has a bumper crop to dispose of.
Good advertising and publicity is helping.
More local consumption is an aid. This is a
iob for every one, and folks are becoming
intensely interested in it.


i~ ,-~


Page 13


Baseball Officials

Like Florida Fruit

EXCELLENT PUBLICITY for Florida
oranges was obtained at New Orleans
a few days ago when the Florida Cit-
trus Commission cooperated with the Sea-
board Air Line and the Louisville and Nash-
ville railroads in distributing oranges and
tangerines to baseball officials who were at-
tending the annual convention of the Na-
tional Association of Professional Baseball
Leagues at New Orleans.
Special permission was obtained to display
several boxes of Florida oranges in the con-
vention meeting room, and these were
squeezed and served free to those desiring
juice. It was the only display in the conven-
tion room at the Roosevelt Hotel.
O. D. Lenn, SAL agent at Bartow and
himself a former baseball player, represented
the railroad. N. F. Lavigne represented the
Citrus Commission. The fruit was furnished
by the commission, the two railroads trans-
porting it to New Orleans without charge.
Wives of the more important officials were
given tangerines, while pyramids of oranges
were placed in the rooms of many baseball
leaders.
Florida is the training site for more than
30 teams affiliated with the National Asso-
ciation of Professional Baseball Leagues, and
the display provided an excellent opportunity
to contact the men who during the spring
training period, will be asked to help pub-
licize Florida citrus fruits through sports
page pictures and stories. An official an-
nouncement was made that Milwaukee would
come to Ocala next spring for its first Flor-
ida training period.
Many excellent pictures of baseball of-
ficials drinking orange juice were obtained
and these will be sent to news syndicates and
large papers for reproduction in their sports
pages. Managers, coaches, trainers, and other
executives from teams all over the country
posed for pictures.
Mr. Lavigne reported many persons com-
mented that Florida oranges were the finest
in the world, indicating unusual knowledge
on the part of these men as to the superior
juice quality and content of Florida fruit,
and illustrating the effective way in which
the commission's advertising of Florida
oranges for juice has been told.

---0
CITRUS CULTURE
Members of the State Citrus Culture
committee met in Orlando November 15.
Chairman Clifford R. Hiatt called the meet-
ing to order. Plans were made to name a
committee to approach State Experiment
Station officials in an effort to secure publi-
cation of all available data relative to citrus
culture.

BE A WISE SANTA CLAUS-
USE OUR FERTILIZER

Howard Fertilizer Co.
ORLANDO, FLORIDA
m,j







This is THE CITRUS GROWER for December 15, 1938


License Law Is


Found Inadequate


a .


T HE BOND AND license sub-
committee, of The Florida Cit-
rus Growers, Inc., general legis-
lative committee, has looked into the
matter of citrus buyers' bonds and
has been startled by the amount in
dollars growers have suffered thru
failure of buyers to pay for fruit ac-
tually taken by them, or through
their failure to carry out their pur-
chase contracts. The grower at
present is protected by a law requir-
ing that buyers be licensed and that
they post bond with the Commis-
sioner of Agriculture guaranteeing
full payment and performance of
contracts. The sub-committee, how-
ever, has reached a thoroughly con-
sidered opinion that this protection
is completely inadequate, that it has
miserably failed to protect the
grower.

At its meeting in Lake Wales,
December 6, the executive commit-
tee of the state board of directors
of our organization approved a res-
olution presented by the sub-com-
mittee, which reads in part as fol-
lows:
"That after due considera-
tion we recommend to the Leg-
islative Committee of Florida
Citrus Growers, Inc., that
Chapter 1777, Laws of Flor-
ida, Acts of 1937, Sec. 3,
known as bond and license, be
amended to require a minimum
bond of $5,000 in place of
$500, as provided in said act,
before a license may be granted
by the commissioner to any per-
son other than an Agent, as de-
fined in the act, and the elimi-
nation of the maximum bond
of $10,000 leaving it to be
covered on a sliding scale as
provided in the law above the
minimum of $5,000.
"Second, we further recom-
mend that the Commissioner
of Agriculture be given au-
thority under the law to deny
the issuance of a license to any
applicant for cause."

The sub-committee and the execu-
tive committee of the board of di-
rectors are, of course, fully aware
that this same, or very similar prop-
ositions, have been made before and
that they have met opposition. The


keystone of the opposing argument
has been that so high a minimum
bond handicaps the small shipper
and practically prohibits him from
operating. ;The committee, how-
ever, is not sure that due considera-
tion has heretofore been given to the
interests and protection of the
grower.
DOESN'T HELP
They are convinced that $500
usually goes practically nowhere in
covering growers' losses. The bond
is prorated over the several thou-
sand boxes of fruit for which the
average shipper at the time of failure
is usually indebted to one or more
growers. It should be borne in
mind also that the bond is not only
prorated over unpaid fruit pur-
chases, but is divided among all
creditors, such as crate manufac-
turers, paper, and chemical con-
cerns.
It is further justly contended that
a shipper who does not own suffi-
cient property, either in plant or
other form, or who does not have
the confidence of substantial friends,
to the extent that he can make a
surety bond for $5000, can hardly
be worthy of the confidence of the
grower-seller.
Several failures of shippers have
occurred since the present bond and
licensing law went into effect. The
records of Mr. Nathan Mayo, Com-
missioner of Agriculture, with
whom claims are filed against ship-
pers in such cases, show that bonds
have covered only 22 percent of
claims filed. Mr. J. J. Taylor, who
is directly in charge of administra-
tion of the law, and who has been
closely in touch with most of the
failure cases, says many of these in-
adequately bonded dealers owed
much more than the total sum of
claims filed, because many growers
filed no claims for their losses.
HAVE LOST MORE
Mr. Taylor's opinion seems to be
that growers have lost more than
the 78 percent of their claims shown
by the totals of his department's
figures. A list of failures furnished
the sub-committee by Mr. Taylor
showed total claims of $38,551.00,
and bond coverage of $8,600.00.


By GEORGE I. FULLERTON
Chairman of Legislative Sub-com-
mittee on Bond and Licenses.
But Mr. Taylor still does not be-
lieve this record shows the picture
in losses as bad as it really is.
Adding insult to injury, many of
these dealers and shippers were back
in business soon after these disas-
trous failures, operating under a new
bond, and having obtained a li-
cense with a slight change in the
name of the corporation or by do-
ing business in the name of a son
or some other near relative. The
Commissioner of Agriculture has no
right under the present law to re-
fuse to grant a license when the
bond accompanies the application.
TO STRENGTHEN LAW
In the face of these figures and
abuses the legislative sub-committee
does not believe it would be doing
its duty to the organization and to
the growers' interest if it did not
strongly recommend the strengthen-
ing of this law. We do, however,
recognize that this is a controversial
issue, that the strengthening of the
law must necessarily work hardships
on some now in the business, so we
would appreciate comments from
growers, either for or against the po-
sition the sub-committee has taken.

WE SALUTE YOU, CITRUS
GROWERS
Howard Grain Co.
77 W. Livingston Avenue
DRLANDO FLORIDA


Page 14







This is THE CITRUS GROWER for December 15, 1938


Another State Organization Story--


Citrus Exchange Functions Explained


By W. L. TILDEN
President, Florida Citrus Exchange

T HE FLORIDA CITRUS Exchange is a
non-stock, non-profit cooperative mar-
keting organization. It is owned by its
members which are associations of growers
and special shippers.
An association is three or more growers
who for mutual convenience, economy and
benefit combine to operate or contract their
packing facilities.
A special shipper is a grower large enough
to obtain through his own tonnage the ad-
vantage of voulme economies in the opera-
tion of his own groves and packing house.
The Exchange came into being as an
active corporate entity serving its grower-
members at a time when 5,000,000 boxes
of oranges and 1,500,000 boxes of grape-
fruit were considered an unbearably heavy
crop. It maintains salaried offices in all
principal markets. In these offices are highly
trained and experienced workers whose bread
and butter depends on getting results in the
sale of Exchange fruit. Smaller markets
which do not justify the operation of a full-
time representative and office force are ser-
viced by brokers. For over 15 years the Ex-
change has maintained a corps of dealer
service men who act in the capacity of job-
ber contact men, installing window and wall
displays and other point-of-purchase material
in the shops of the 20 to 25 percent of the
retail trade who do most of the business.

DID ADVERTISING
In addition, Florida citrus growers through
the Florida Citrus Exchange maintained the
only Florida citrus advertising program of
any consequence up to the origin of the
Florida Citrus commission and the commod-
ity campaign supported by the State excise


tax for that purpose. In all, over $5,000,-
000 were spent to sell citrus fruit to the
public against all competition, both citrus
and deciduous.
ADDITIONAL SERVICES
Through their Traffic department, the
Exchange has succeeded on several occasions
in obtaining more favorable freight struc-
tures and definite rate reductions. Through
the Law department it has originated many
of the legal measures now written into State
law for the protection not only of them-
selves but non-member Florida citrus grow-
ers.
Through its manager and directors it has
maintained favorable contacts in both Talla-
hassee and Washington for such additional
measures as have been necessary and desir-
able from time to time to the producer of
Florida citrus.
In view of the current proposal to secure
a marketing agreement, it will be remember-
ed by all concerned that the Exchange has
faithfully stood by all efforts in the past
toward constructive regulation of the in-
dustry for the growers' interest. The pres-
ent marketing agreement has the Exchange's
unqualified endorsement and support. Con-
trolling as it does, a substantial volume
of the total Florida crop, the Exchange
has recognized periods of market glut and
scarcity in times when no official regulation
has been in effect, and has voluntarily regu-
lated its own shipments, so far as it was
possible to do so, in order to steady the
market for the benefit of the entire industry.

FIELD SERVICE
The larger association units of the Ex-
change employ the services of expert horti-
culturists. They own and operate collective-
ly spraying, dusting and other necessary
grove equipment. In many instances they
own and operate fertilizer and insecticide
plants which mix the formulas their own
grove men, plus experience, have proved to
be most suited for best results on their
groves.
Still another expression of cooperative
service in the Exchange system is the joint
ownership and operation of packing houses.
Operating cooperatively to serve their own
common ends through jointly owned pack-
ing houses, cooperative growers have been
able to develop their own market insurance,
commonly known as pooling.
This cooperative method of marketing
insurance is one of the special advantages
which the cooperative system, expressed
through the Florida Citrus Exchange can
furnish to citrus growers of Florida.
Through the Growers Loan and Guaranty
company, a subsidiary financial unit owned
and operated by all members through their
packing units, growers cooperatively have
built a financial structure which today is
strong enough to meet all reasonable oper-
ating requirements of member associations
and growers. These loans are made at cost.
Additional economies through coopera-
tive action were made available to Exchange
members by the consolidation of supply pur-
chases through a second subsidiary which
was organized and is operating for this pur-
pose.
Such is the cooperative machinery built
and maintained for their own service by
nearly 5,000 Florida citrus growers.


Pasco County Directory

Not included in the first issue of THE
CITRUS GROWER, when complete county
organizations were listed, was the directory
from Pasco county. It is as follows:
Pasco County
President, Dr. F. C. Wirt, Dade City and
San Antonio; Vice President, J. A. Barthle,
San Antonio: Secretary, E. C. Futch, Dade
City; Treasurer, E. C. Futch, Dade City.
Directors: S. O. Slough, Dade City; J. R.
A. Williams, Dade City; E. C. Futch, Dade
City; N. M. Swartsel, New Port Richey; B.
E. Smith, Zephyr Hills, J. W. Sanders,
Lutz; Otis Lipsey, Dade City (Blanton);
J. A. Barthle, San Antonio: Dr. F. C. Wirt,
Dade City and San Antonio;
Committee Chairmen: Citrus Culture,
McClellan, Dade City, Otis Lipsey and S. 0.
Slough, Dade City; Credentials, Presidents
of various units; Crop Insurance, J. W.
Sanders, Lutz, B. E. Smith, Zephyr-
hills; Legislative, Barthle, Slough and
Futch; Marketing Agreement, Barthle,
Swartsel, and Smith; Membership, Presi-
dents of various units; Research, Slough,
Williams, and Lipsey; Selling by Weight,
Slough, Futch, and Lipsey; Traffic, Wil-
liams, Sanders, and Futch; Uniform Con-
tract, Futch, Slough, Lipsey, and Swartsel.
---------------
HARDEE GROWERS FAVOR CONTROL
About 125 citrus growers met at the
Courthouse at Wauchula on Tuesday night,
November 22, and after hearing the pro-
posed Citrus Marketing Agreement read and
discussed, voted unanimously that this con-
trol measure to be put into effect.


C. C. COMMANDER
General Manager, Florida Citrus Exchange


Page 15








This is THE CITRUS GROWER for December 15, 1938


Activity Along Educational Lines--



To Promote County Unit Program


AT A RECENT meeting of the Citrus
Cultural Committee of the Florida Cit-
rus Growers, Inc., held in Orlando, for
the purpose of preparing a program of activ-
ity along educational lines for the benefit of
each county unit, many valuable suggestions
were offered by committeemen present and
the chairman of each county committee was
asked to call his committee together and to
prepare suggestions as to the greatest needs
in their county, these suggestions to be pre-
sented at a called meeting of the State Com-
mittee. From the suggestions offered, the
State Committee will form a suggested out-
line of activities in an effort to fit its pro-
gram with each county unit and make it ap-
plicable for each county.
A special committee was appointed, con-
sisting of Stephen Chase of Dunedin, E. J.
Parker of Killarney, and C. R. Hiatt, Chair-
man of the State Committee, from Lake
County, to investigate the possibilities of
getting all experiments that had been com-
pleted, published in some form, and also to
investigate the possibilities of having ex-
perimental work now under way published
in the form of progressive reports. It was
brought out that such information published
from time to time would be of great value to
the growers.
One of the main objectives of the Citrus
Cultural Committee of the Florida Citrus
Growers, Inc., in its program, will be to pro-
mote educational programs in all meetings


RESOLUTION
Florida Citrus Growers Inc., ex-
pressed their appreciation of all as-
sistance given them in work toward
success of the marketing agreement,
in a resolution passed unanimously at
the directors' meeting held in Foun-
tain Inn, Eustis, Thursday, December
8.
The resolution follows:
WHEREAS: Florida Citrus Grow-
ers, Inc., has been working for many
weeks to perfect a workable market-
ing agreement, and
WHEREAS, in order to secure an
agreement and order based thereon the
cooperation of the handlers of citrus
fruit is necessary, and
WHEREAS, the growers believe
they should have the right to deter-
mine the kind and extent of a market-
ing agreement, and
WHEREAS, many handlers of cit-
rus fruits have recognized the fore-
going principles and have signified
their willingness that the work of the
Growers Committee be recognized and
tle proposed agreement be made ef-
fective even tho said agreement does
not in all cases fully represent the thot
of the said handlers
NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RE-
SOLVED that Florida Citrus Grow-
ers, Inc., hereby expresses its appre-
ciation of the cooperation of all hand-
lers who have cooperated as aforesaid
and we urge our members to do what-
ever is within their power to show
their appreciation to the said cooper-
ating handlers by word and deed.
A---------------------o -


held by each county unit. Each county unit
will find it to their advantage and of a great
deal of interest to the grower members of
their associations if they prepare a construc-
tive educational program to be presented
at each meeting.
Because of low fruit prices it is going to
be necessary for growers to give more at-
tention as to ways and means of lowering
production cost, and it is believed that the
Citrus Cultural Committee in each county
organization can play an important part in
pointing the way in lowering production
cost and yet maintain quality. TI 're are
many factors that influence yield, production
and quality and the writer is submitting
them below for growers to consider.
1. Factors influencing yield:
(a) Climatic conditions
(b) Irrigation
(c) Efficient well-balanced plant
food fertilizer program
(d) Spraying trees with the neces-
sary minor elements
2. Factors influencing cost of produc-
tion:
(a) Yield per acre or per tree
(b) Irrigation
(c) Effective fertilizer program to
maintain good tree condition
as well as take care of fruit
crop
(d) Cover crop program
(e) Grove cultural practice
(f) Efficient insect and disease con-
trol
(g) Pruning methods
3. Factors influencing quality:
(a) Cultural program and rough
organic supplied in the form
of cover crops
(b) Irrigation
(c) Fertilization program
(d) Soil amendments
(e) Insect and disease control.


NEED UNDERSTANDING
Growers need to have a better under-
standing of their tree requirements and soil
amendments. They need to know more about
fertilizers, their actions and efficiency under
various moisture and tree conditions. Any
program or group of suggestions to be pre-
sented to growers in any county should be
so tied in, one with another, in order that
the growers can get the most out of such
meetings.
It will be the plan of the Citrus Cultural
Committee to have articles in this magazine
from time to time pertaining to its activities
as well as helpful information along pro-
duction lines.


COUNTY UNIT MEETS

President E. G. Todd, of the Highlands
County Citrus Growers, Inc., issued notice
of a meeting of the organization in the
main court room at the courthouse in Se-
bring at 7:30 p. m., Friday, December 2.
This was considered the most important
meeting since the organization of Highlands
county growers.
J. J. Banks. Jr., chairman of the Mar-
keting Committee of Florida Citrus Grow-
ers, Inc., were present to discuss with the
growers of Highlands county the proposed
Marketing Agreement.
Non-members of the organization are in.
vited to attend the meetings also.

GREETINGS
To the
FLORIDA CITRUS GROWERS
0
Florida Pipe 8 Supply Co.
630 W. Church St. Orlando, Fla.


GET QUALITY FRUIT

AT LOWEST COST

use

THE WALKER SYSTEM

Contact this company before making arrangements for the
year's grove care.
Let us give you a budget free of charge, for complete care
of your citrus properties.
This company maintains the largest and most complete
staff of Technical and Practical Citrus Experts. We
operate our own chemical and Biological Laboratories.

PLEASE WRITE OR PHONE US FOR AN INTERVIEW


Walker Fertilizer Company
ORLANDO -FLORIDA
PHONE 6771


Page 16







This is THE CITRUS GROWER for December 15. 1938


Opposition To Licensing Tractors


(Editor's Note: Growers throughout
the citrus belt will be glad to know that
court action has been filed to clear up
the law on the expensive and annoying
matter discussed in the following arti-
cle. It does not seem possible that the
court can decide in any other way than
in favor of the grower who often finds
it necessary to move pieces of equip-
ment from one grove to another. In the
matter of licenses and fuel taxes legis-
latures have always shown a strong
tendency to exempt farm operations
from these burdens.)
HALL FARM tractors which are used
incidentally on the highways of the
State in going from grove to grove or
from garage to grove, be required to have a
license tag and be registered as a motor ve-
hicle under the Florida Motor Vehicle Li-
cense Law?
The Motor Vehicle Commissioner of
Florida ruled "yes" on that question, citing
as his authority the ruling of Florida's new
Attorney General to the effect that the farm
tractor is a "motor vehicle propelled by
power other than muscular power" and that
when it is used over the public streets or
highways of this State, it should be regis-
tered and a license tag purchased.
Immediately after this ruling was made
known persons operating unlicensed and un-
registered farm tractors were given a sum-
mons by the proper tag inspector in which
summons they were ordered to purchase a
license tag. In some instances the tractors
were taken away from the driver and stored
by the tag inspector until a license was pur-
chased.
MUCH OPPOSITION
Considerable public opinion against this
ruling was voiced by the citrus growers of
this state. There were also complaints against
the manner in which the ruling was enforced.
Shortly thereafter the press of the State
carried a story to the effect that the Motor
Vehicle Commissioner had ruled that such
farm tractors could operate on the highways
for a distance of one mile, but no further.
Such a ruling was and is obviously arbitrary
and discriminatory.
Still later the Motor Vehicle Department
advised that it was not interested in requir-
ing farm tractors to purchase license tags
EXCEPT where pulling trailers on the high-
way. The trailers in question are the type
designed and built solely for the purpose of
carrying harrows, plows and other farm im-
plements. This ruling, while more lenient
than the prior ruling, still works a great
hardship on the citrus grower.
The law, in defining the word "truck"
says that it . shall include . any unit
consisting of a tractor and trailer so con-
structed as to haul merchandise or loads
other than persons." This section of the law
was given as the basis for the above ruling.

COURT TEST
The entire matter has been recently tested
by means of a habeas corpus action brought
in the Supreme Court of Florida and at the
time this is written no decision has been
rendered by the Court. The matter has been
discussed with several persons who were
members of the legislature at the time the
law was passed. Their reaction is that it
definitely was NOT the intention of the
legislature to tax farm tractors as motor ve-
hicles; that it was freely discussed in the
committee and on the floor of the House and
proposed amendments specifically exempting


sary because the law specifically exempts
"traction engines" from registration and tax
and because in the section where the tax is
levied a license tax is levied against almost
every conceivable type of motor vehicle, but
there is not any tax levied against a farm
trac:or.
REGULATES WHEELS
The fact that the legislature intended
tractors to use the highways is shown in
another section of the law where it regulates
the type of wheels that can be used on trac-
tors operating over the "graded roads" of the
state. This law makes it a misdemeanor to
operate a tractor with lugs on its wheels over
the graded roads of the state and provides
that tractors with smooth or flat surfaced
wheels may operate over such roads without
penalty.
This is a brief history of the tractor-
license tag situation. If the tag is required on
all farm tractors or farm trailers it will be
another tax on the already over-burdened cit-
rus grower and that coming at a time when
it will virtually amount to the straw that
breaks the camel's back.

----------------

Discusses Citrus Ills

HE ILLS BESETTING the citrus mar-
ket situation were discussed at the meet-
ing of the DeSoto City unit of the
Highlands County Citrus Growers, Inc.,
Friday night, November 25.
Colonel F. N. K. Bailey and C. F. Rust
who have recently returned from trips in
which they contacted northern markets, re-
ported of the invariable reception given much
of the Florida fruit by the retailers in north-
ern markets. The fruit was reported as re-
ceiving much unfavorable window card ad-
vertising in many stores in Illinois and Ohio.
These two and other speakers commented
upon the fact that the consumers were not
given the benefit of the present low prices
being paid citrus growers. The need for
changing the market situation was strongly
stressed and a motion embodying the above


Woman First Member

A woman was the first member of Flor-
ida Citrus Growers, Inc.
She is Mrs. Robert Fitch, grower and poet
of note. Her eigh-
teen a n d one-half
Sacred grove, contain-
ing 1200 mature
fruit trees, is on the
east side of historic
Lake Gatlin, within
a stone's throw of
'old Fort Gatlin, one
of the first white
-settlements of Cen-
tral Florida.
Mrs. Fitch is en-
thusiastic over the
formation of Florida
Citrus Growers, Inc.,
and expressed her
enthusiasm by her
Clearly membership;
she says she believes
the organization will correct evils so appar-
ent in the production and sale of fruit.
As a poet, Mrs. Fitch writes under her
maiden name, Mary Marquis. Her poems
have appeared in the New York Times,
Christian Century, Beautiful Florida and
several poetry anthologies including Michael
Everett's recently published Poetry House.

was adopted.
A motion commending the stand of Chas.
H. Walker of Bartow, and A. M. Tilden
of Winter Haven, and R. W. Clark of Pi-
nellas County on the Citrus Commission ap-
pointment was adopted by vote of members.
County Agent Louis H. Alsmeyer ex-
plained the set-up for the Frost Warning
Service for this winter. He also had a num-
ber of applications for payment in the 1938
Agricultural Conservation Program which
were to be signed by members of the organi-
zation.


ST. LUCIE COUNTY
January 6, St. Lucie County Citrus
Growers' Inc., meet, Courthouse, Ft. Pierce.


ROPER BROTHERS, INC.


One of the oldest packing houses in Winter Garden.

Experience gained through 25 years of packing makes it possible for
us to render the grower the highest type service obtainable.

Volume increase from the start to the past season shows a gain of
over 500,000 boxes.

These brands: Roper, Boss and Diamond R, are known through
all the markets.







Roper Bros., Incorporated

WINTER GARDEN, FLORIDA PHONE 65


Page 17







This is THE CITRUS GROWER for December 15, 1938


WITH THE EDITOR


HEARINGS STILL IN PROGRESS
By the time this issue of THE CITRUS GROWER
reaches its readers something definite may have come
from the hearings now in progress at Lakeland con-
cerning the proposed marketing agreement. As we go
to press (Thursday) it appears that about half the
testimony has been taken. No testimony has yet
been taken, however, on the really controversial issue
of volume prorate now under control basis, as is set
up in the text of the agreement now under considera-
tion. As has often been stated in these pages, the draft
of this agreement was made by the growers' representa-
tives at the request of the representatives of all the other
branches of the industry.
Of course it will be understood that the present hear-
ings are being held for the purpose of determining
whether or not the citrus industry is ready for a mar-
keting agreement. Based on evidence taken at this
time that question will be determined. The man to
make this final decision is" Hon. Henry E. Wallace,
United States Secretary of Agriculture, and his determi-
nation will be made upon the report his assistants
give him of their findings in the Lakeland hearings.
If a marketing agreement is found advisable by Mr.
Wallace, then an agreement will be submitted to a
vote of the industry. Fifty percent of the shippers
and 67 percent of the growers must vote in favor of
the agreement before it is put into effect. If the secre-
tary decides upon such an election, it will probably
follow the close of the Lakeland hearings by about two
weeks. That is the time when growers and shippers
will have their actual opportunity to vote "Yes" or
"No" on an agreement.
The Lakeland hearings will also influence the sec-
retary in deciding just what provisions the proposed
agreement shall carry when submitted for a vote. That
is, if it is to provide for grade and size prorate, and
volume control, and other important features.
Consequently we do not know at this writing
whether or not a marketing agreement is to be sub-
mitted, and, if submitted, what regulations it will
embrace.
Through its magazine and by bulletins, if found
necessary, Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., will keep its
members posted on all important developments.
We do not assume any gifts of prophesy. It is pre-
sumed, however, the Secretary of Agriculture, through
the Agricultural Adjustment Administration, will fol-
low the wishes of the industry in this matter. So,
it is worth while to see how that sentiment is shaping
up as we go to press.
As nearly as can be estimated, Florida Citrus Grow-
ers, Inc., have received favorable votes for the agree-
ment, as now drawn, from 62 of the growers by vol-


ume. This estimate is reached by tabulation of re-
turns upon applications and comparing the total
with the total estimated crop. Of course this favor-
able grower percentage is increasing day by day as
more growers are heard from.
On similar estimates shippers who handle 64 per-
cent of the crop have signed statements stating that
they favor the adoption of the marketing agreement,
as now considered.
There are numerous other shippers, and some grow-
ers who have written the grower organization letters
advising that they favored the agreement, as now
drawn, but with inconsequential exceptions. These
exceptions do not touch the major objectives of the
agreement. They arise from individual or local con-
ditions. They are of such minor importance that the
writers of the letters tell us they will not oppose the
adoption of the agreement.
(In referring to the agreement as now drawn, we
intend to say a marketing agreement providing for a
grade and size prorate on all oranges, and a volume
prorate on Valencias; the agreement to be administered
by a committee of growers, who will be assisted and
advised by a shippers' advisory committee.)

MUCH GOOD WILL RESULT
To one deeply interested in the future of the Florida
citrus belt, it is inspiring to observe the kind of talent
that is standing by at the Lakeland marketing agree-
ment hearings and also that is ably representing the
best interests of the industry with testimony.
These men represent themselves, and do it well.
But we do not believe they would be half so much on
the alert, half so keyed up and ready with the answers,
if they represented only themselves. They are kindled,
strengthened and sustained by the knowledge that they
also represent their fellow growers and the economic
betterment of the whole citrus belt.
They are experts. Their technical knowledge of the
questions is of the broadest. Their experience is long
They serve without charge, and seem anxious to do it.
They want this agreement.
We hope a real marketing agreement, including vol-
ume prorate, will come out of the Lakeland hearings
and a subsequent election. It may happily so result.
But, if it doesn't, we have seen at the hearings that
spirit that must eventually win. We have seen that
spirit and will-to-cooperate that must eventually solve
all the growers' problems, of which the marketing
agreement is only one.
Those who so ably testified, and those who only
stood by and gave the event the quality and weight of
their presence deserve and will receive the praise and
thanks of the industry.


Page 18







-------- ---------------------------------------..------------------------------------


Growers! This is YOUR Organization!

Join It Now! .

Membership Application Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.

OBJECTIVES OF THE FLORIDA CITRUS GROWERS, INC.
1. To give the CITRUS GROWERS OF FLORIDA identity in the Citrus Industry.
2. To bring about a better understanding of all phases of the Citrus Industry, and to create con-
fidence and good will between those responsible for the various activities throughout the Industry, to
the end that better cultural methods may be employed to improve the quality of citrus fruits, and that
marketing methods may be improved, markets stabilized and new markets developed.
3. Tq represent the CITRUS GROWERS in legislative matters; to cooperate collectively with
Federal and State Agencies in the improvement of the Citrus Industry and to assist such agencies in car-
rying out the mandates of laws and regulations affecting the Citrus Industry.
4. To foster, encourage and promote research beneficial to the Growers and to cooperate with all
existing research agencies.
5. To compile and analyze data relative to Citrus Culture and Citrus Markets and to furnish from
time to time such information to the Grower so that he may be kept better informed as to actual ex-
isting conditions in the Industry.
6. To foster and encourage the formation of local and county units of Citrus Growers for the pur-
pose of affording the Growers opportunities to meet, discuss and collectively act upon their problems.

QUALIFICATIONS FOR MEMBERSHIP
Membership in the --- - County Citrus Growers is limited to bona-fide growers
who do not buy or sell citrus fruit of others as a business for profit, and who do not derive a salary or
commission from any marketing organization, and who have no interest in any non-cooperative mar-
keting agency.
Under the above qualifications, I,
hereby apply for membership in the.- --
(Name of County)
County Unit of the Florida Citrus Growers, Inc., Orlando, Florida, and inclose $ --- as my
annual membership dues, 50 cents of which is for a year's subscription to "The Citrus Grower."

Signature.
Date ------- 193
Membership Committeeman
Name------------------------
Mail Address --------------------------- ------------- Phone.- ----
Grove Location ------------ ------------
County, near-------------------- -----
Section -- Township ------ ... Range
Total Acreage (all groves) ----------------
Marketing Method: Independent --------------
Cooperative - -- ---- ------
PRODUCTION
1937-38 1938-39
Boxes No. Groves Acres Boxes No. Groves Acres
Oranges
Grapefruit
Tangerines
Mail your Application to the President of your County's Unit, or to the Florida Citrus
Growers, Inc., Orlando, Florida.
----------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------










Voice of an Industry - -



Citrus is Florida's Future.
Upon the Peninsula State's broad acres depend not only the economic welfare
of thousands, but also the health of the nation.
Each year thousands of railroad cars, thousands of trucks, move north carry-
ing this state's golden product to millions of homes throughout the United
States.
Into each truckload, into each carload, into each box of juicy, tasty fruit have
gone the combined efforts of producer, picker, packer, shipper and a score
of men whose contribution to Florida's rich fruit output is no less impor-
tant, merely less direct . .. inspectors, fertilizer men, marketing experts . .
Behind all of their efforts, however, is the producer himself: the man whose
capital, large or small, is responsible for the tilling and planting of Florida's
far-flung citrus groves-THE GROWER.


*

THIS MAGAZINE IS HIS VOICE IN THE INDUSTRY

*


Annually, that grower-bulwark of the industry as he is-spends money for
fertilizers, for agricultural equipment, for tractors, for irrigation equip-
ment-for materials and supplies indispensable to the production of citrus
fruit.

THIS MAGAZINE IS THE MEDIUM THROUGH WHICH THAT
GROWER AND HIS ORGANIZATION-FLORIDA CITRUS GROW-
ERS, INC., ARE MAINTAINING THE CONTACT WHICH MAY BE
THE SALVATION OF THIS ENTIRE VITAL FLORIDA IN-
DUSTRY.


Mr. Advertiser .

In what better way can you reach this rich market for your products than
through

The Citrus Grower

Official Publication of the Florida Citrus Growers, Inc.


ORLANDO


P. O. BOX 2077


FLORIDA




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