Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00108
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: March 15, 1933
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00108
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text
I 0 ~9


eA s. 00 fR I D A


Official Publication of the

$2.00 a Year Published Semi-monthly by theFloridaCit- Entered as second-class matter August 81, Volume V
10 Cent. a Cop rus Growers Clearing House Association. MARCH 15, 1933 1928, at the postoffce at Winter Haven, Nu 1
Sents a opy DeWitt Taylor Bldg., Winter Haven, Fla. Florida, under the Act of March 8, 1879. umber 12

Nominees for New Board Are Selected

Committee of Fifty Completes Annual Task of Choosing
Growers Eligible to Serve as Clearing House Directors

5 Once a year it falls to the lot
of Committee of Fifty members
to cast about them and draw
forth growers who, like them-
selves, are willing and able to
serve Florida's citrus industry
just for the mere love of serv-
ing. Growers who are so select-
ed, if their selection meets the approval of
other growers generally, then have the privi-
lege handed them of forsaking a large portion
of their home life, of their business life, and of
entering upon a twelve months job in the capac-
ity of a director of the Clearing House-salary:
nothing a year!
A week ago the Committee of Fifty met in
Winter Haven, having concluded a quest of sev-
eral weeks for board of director "material,"
and proceeded to the important duty of select-
Sing nominees from among whom grower mem-
bers of the Clearing House will select their
directors for the season of 1933-'34. The selec-
tions of the Committee members are printed
on this same page, the names shown in the tall
square or "box" to appear upon the ballots
which will be mailed to the growers the latter
part of this month.
In that the charter and by-laws of the Clear-
ing House make it necessary for the Commit-
tee of Fifty to provide a wide selection of can-
didates for the voting grower, three nominees
for the post of each district director and eight
nominees for the four seats from the state-at-
large were named by the Committee of Fifty at.
its meeting. Thus the board is made up of
eleven members-one from each of the seven
Clearing House districts and four from the
The charter and by-laws, however, do not
stop at this point. Grower members, if not
satisfied with the nominations made by the
Committee of Fifty, are privileged to add the
names of other nominees which names will be
included on the ballot. In the event growers of
a certain district desire to see the name of some
other grower added to the ballot, whom the
Committee of Fifty has not nominated, they
may do so by presenting a petition signed
by seventy-five grower members, to the Clear-
ing House board now serving. A petition sign-

ed by three hundred growers will add one or
more nominees to those selected by the Com-
mittee from the state-at-large. Such petitions,
however, must be presented to the Clearing
House (this year) on or before March 23rd. If
additional growers are nominated by means of
the petition, the nominations shown in the box
on Page One will be supplemented on the bal-
lots by the additional name or names.

Nominees for Directors
(One Nominee from Each District
to be Elected)
District One-John D. Clark,
Waverly; F. T. Henderson, Win-
ter Haven; W. L. Pedersen, Win-
ter Haven.
District Two H. M. Carson,
Lutz; J. H. Letton, Valrico; Ira W.
Watt, Valrico.
District Three Douglas Igou,
Eustis; S. 0. Ware, Clermont;
George F. Westbrook, Clermont.
District Four G. Long, Chu-
luota; B. L. Maltbie, Altamonte
Springs; E. H. Williams, Crescent
District Five-Dr. A. A. Kent,
Winter Park; L. L. Payne, Orlan-
do; M. 0. Overstreet, Orlando.
District Six-G. A. Draa, Mims;
R. R. Gladwin, Ft. Pierce; E. W.
Vickers, Sebastian.
District Seven-Dr. E. C. Aurin,
Ft. Ogden; S. L. Griffin, Wauchu-
la; B. F. Welles, Arcadia.
(From State at Large-Four to be
C. O. Andrews .----------Orlando
J. C. Chase ----- Winter Park
E. B. Collins ---.----.. San Mateo
L. P. Kirkland -------- Auburndale
James C. Morton .--- Auburndale
H. G. Murphy ---- Zolfo Springs
N. H. Vissering ..---- Babson Park
R. B. Woolfolk -------Orlando

Selection by the Committee of Fifty of the
nominees does not complete the business of re-
building the Clearing House Board, as A. F.
Pickard, chairman of the Committee of Fifty,
points out: the grower members of the Clear-
ing House must do their part by casting the
ballot which will be mailed to them, indicating
their appreciation of the Committee's work and
indicating too that they are actively interested
in the affairs of their organization.
Election day is officially set at the second
Tuesday in April, which this year falls upon the
4th, but in reality the voting will be done prior
to this date in that the election is carried on by
mail. Ballots will be mailed out to the growers
March 25th, each ballot accompanied by a re-
turn envelope which requires no postage. The
charter and by-laws of the Clearing House
make it compulsory, however, for the grower
to SIGN the return envelope. This provision
was inserted in the by-laws in order to prevent
voting by any one other than a Clearing House
member. The signed envelope, on the day the
ballots are counted (which will be after 5 p.m.
on April 4th) is divorced from the ballot it -
contains so as to keep every grower'gvote ab-
solutely secret.
Elsewhere in this issue of the.News is shown-.
a sample ballot. The ballot to be used by
the non-resident grower-members differs from
the ballot used by the resident grower-member
in that the names of all nominees are printed
on the non-resident ballot. This difference in
ballots is necessary for the reason that the ex-
act location of the grove property belonging to
some of the non-resident grower-members is
not known. For the benefit of the non-resident
growers a map of Florida showing the seven
Clearing House districts is printed on the back
of the ballot. By referring to this map the non-
resident grower will know the district in which
his grove property is located and thus will be
able to vote for the director from his particular
district. All growers, whether resident or non-
resident members of the Clearing House vote
for four of the nominees selected from the
In the case of the ballot used in Florida, it
will be noted on the sample that the names of
the nominees for the seven district directors
(Continued on Page Four)

Representing more than 10,000
Growers o' Oranges and Grapefruit

U. S. Postage

inter Han,
Permit No. -



Committee of Fifty Department

(Articles under this heading are prepared and published in the News by the
Educational Committee of the Committee of Fifty. Through this department
members of the Committee of Fifty hope to maintain closer relations with the

A New Agreement,
"A New Deal"
By mail within the next few days you will be receiv-
ing a copy of the new grower's membership agree-
ment, which is to be substituted for the grower's con-
tract which you now have with the Clearing House.
The Committee of Fifty has very heartily endorsed
this new agreement, believing that it will meet the
needs and wishes of the growers of the state. It dif-
fers considerably from the old Clearing House con-
tract, in that it has no penalties attached, because
loyalty to any organization is not real when it has to
be legally enforced. That organization is strongest
whose membership is retained, not by force of con-
tract, but by a recognition of value and service.
The cost of every function of the Clearing House
has been cut to the minimum, and the Board of Direc-
tors explicitly guarantees in this agreement with you
that the operating cost shall not be in excess of Ic per
box. This Ic per box not only covers the cost of Clear-
ing House operation but also pays your contribution to
the Growers and Shippers League, which has charge
of all transportation matters in the industry, and aids
the industry as far as is possible in reducing transpor-
tation costs.
Article 6 is a very important part of this grower's
membership agreement and the Committee of Fifty
calls it especially to your attention. It reads as follows:
"6. In the event that it becomes necessary for
me, in my own judgment, to market or sell my
fruit other than through a contracted Clearing
House shipper, I will so notify the Clearing House
and will personally pay direct to the Clearing
House the uniform per box operating charge as
above mentioned on all fruit so sold or mar-
The Committee of Fifty believes, as always, that
those shippers and marketing agencies who are united
in the Clearing House in the endeavor to improve con-
ditions for all growers of citrus fruit, should have
loyal support from every grower. However, if you
should feel that in your judgment you can more profit-
ably market the crop which you have produced,
through someone who is not a Clearing House shipper
member, this agreement will permit you to do so; with
the understanding, however, that you will meet your
obligation in support of the Clearing House work by
personally making your contribution of Ic per box
direct to the Clearing House. This clause makes it
possible for every citrus grower in the State of Florida
to profitably be a Clearing House member. This
agreement, as does the contract for which it is being
substituted, grants you the privilege of withdrawal
during June of any year.
Perhaps at no time since the '95 freeze has the cit-
rus industry of Florida experienced more difficult
times than now. Never has the need for united action
been greater; and the Clearing House is the only or-
ganization through which all growers-independent
or cooperative-irrespective of their marketing meth-
ods, may unite for the promotion and protection of
their individual and collective welfare.

thousands of other grower-members of the Clearing House and to report their (
efforts and activities to them. The Clearing House Directors and Manage-
ment accept no responsibility for what appears in this department)

The Committee of Fifty, therefore, urges you to
sign this new agreement and return it promptly to the
Clearing House. Give this matter your immediate at-
tention because your delay will simply occasion fur-
ther expenditures in postage and printing. It has been
said that that which is done promptly has double
value, and that is true in this particular instance. So
when the new agreement reaches you, read it, sign it,
and mail it promptly.
Yours very truly,
All of whom have already signed the new grower's

Your Responsibility
In a few days you will receive your annual Clearing
House ballot, through which you will express your
choice, from among the men nominated, to serve as
Directors of the Clearing House for next year. You
are one of the owners of the Clearing House and, with
the other grower owners, are responsible for its suc-
cessful operation and management.
It is impossible, and would be impractical, for every
grower to devote the necessary time and thought to
all the details of the Clearing House, and so each year
you delegate this work to a group which you, by your
individual vote, select from among your own number
and which is known as the Board of Directors. Dele-
gating your responsibility as a member of this organi-
zation to a Board of Directors is a very important
duty, and every care should be exercised by you to
see that the men to whom you transfer this power are
worthy to represent you. No man should be elected
to the Board of Directors who is not willing to take
the time and make the effort to inform himself intel-
ligently regarding the problems of the industry and
the various means and methods proposed for their
The Board of Directors has the duty and responsi-
bility of deciding the policies of the Association,
selecting the Manager to carry out these policies, in-
vestigating the results and determining such changes
and readjustments as may be necessary. No one,
therefore, should be elected to the Board of Directors
unless he can and will devote sufficient time to famili-
arize himself with the work,-Directors should not
delegate the duty of determining policies and meas-
uring the results to the Manager. Naturally they must
look to the Manager for guidance and information,
but no organization can be under one-man control,
and no manager, however honest and efficient he may
be, should be asked to carry single handed the duties
of the Directors in addition to his own; and no mem-
ber of any Board of Directors should be permitted to
shirk his moral responsibility to those who elected him
to office. The Manager is responsible to the Board
of Directors, and the Board of Directors is responsi-
ble to the grower-owners; and it is the responsibility
of the grower-owners to see that tRey use their vote
intelligently to the end that only those men who are
best fitted and qualified to serve are elected. Care-7
fully and thoughtfully mark your ballot, and mail it
promptly. It must reach Winter Haven by five o'clock
Tuesday, April 4th, to be counted.

Page 2

March 15, 1933

March 15, 1933

Weekly Citrus Summary

(By A. M. Pratt, Manager, Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association)
(Week Ending March 11, 1933)

Week Week Week
Ending Ending Ending
Mar. 11 '33 Mar.4, '33 Mar. 12,'32

Fla. Org's Shpd...... 597
Fla. Gft. Shpd......... 489
Total...................... 8831
Fla. Tang Shpd....... 97
Total..................... 288
Fla. Mixed Shpd. ... 192
TotaL................ 5930
Texas Gft. Shpd..... -
Total..................... 2675
Cal. Org's Shpd...... 606

Fla. Org's Auc....... 319
Average.................. $2.45
Fla. Gft. Auc.......... 229
Average............... $1.90
Fla. Tang Auc ....... 66
Average.............. $2.65
Texas Gft. Auc.--... 11
Average............. $2.40
Cal. Org's Auc......... 243
Average ................ $2.50





(Commencing Sunday)
M.S. ORGS. No. 1 M.S. ORGS No. 2
Week Ending Shpd Sold Avg. Shpd Sold Avg.
Mar. 4.... 68 12 $1.98 111 13 $1.48
Mar. 11
(5 days).. 31 6 $1.85 71 16 $1.38
Mar. 12
last year.. 105 36 $2.95 78 19 $2.56

VAL. ORGS. No. 1
Week Ending Shpd Sold Avg.
Mar. 4.... - -
Mar. 11
(5 days).. 5 6 $2.14
Mar. 12
last year.. 56 19 $3.04
REG. GRFT. No. 1
Week Ending Shpd Sold Avg.
Mar. 4.... 28 8 $1.25
Mar. 11
(5 days).. 14 7 $1.20
Mar. 12
last year.. 63 28 $1.35
M. S. GRFT. No. 1
SWeek Ending Shpd Sold Avg.
Mar. 4.... 10 11 $1.95
Mar. 11
(5 days.. 10 7 $1.82
SMar. 12
last year.. 11 6 $1.52

VAL. ORGS. No. 2
Shpd Sold Avg.

5 4 $1.93

37 16 $2.66
Shpd Sold Avg.
80 5 $1.03

33 6 .84

94 27 $1.14
M. S. GFT. No. 2
Shpd Sold Avg.
15 10 $1.67

17 14 $1.53

14 5 $1.35

SFlorida Oranges
Week This Last 1930- 1929- 1928-
Ending Year Year 31 30 29
Mar. 4...... 756 720 976 732 1002
Mar. 11...... 597 723 1014 641 1064
SMar. 18......*650 621 1113 541 1040


California Oranges
Week This Last
Ending Year Year 1930 1929 1928 1927
Mar. 4...... 942 1183 1610 1107 1394 959
Mar. 11...... 606 1454 1694 1355 1412 1158
(Mar. 18....*1000 1292 1665 997 1362 1243

SFlorida Grapefruit
Week This Last 1930- 1929-
Ending Year Year 31 30
Mar 4 .....584 735 878 489
Mar. 11...... 489 533 1156 638
Mar. 18......*600 485 973 658



1928- 1927-
29 28
275 207


Florida Tangerines
Week Ending This Year Last Year 1930-31 1929-30
Mar. 4........ 107 38 74
Mar. 11........ 97 6 46 -
Mar. 18........ *100 9 33 -
Texas Grapefruit
Week Ending This Year Last Year 1930-31 1929-30
Mar. 4........ 43 356 37 -
Mar. 11........ 356 1 -
Mar. 18....... 395 -


Because of the financial situation New York
and Chicago held no sale on Monday, March 6,
and Pittsburgh held no sale on Tuesday and
Friday. Only 319 cars of oranges were offered
this week at all auctions as compared to 540
cars last week. The general auction average
materially advanced to $2.45 on oranges this
week as compared to $2.25 last week when 70
percent heavier offerings were made. On grape-
fruit the average remained the same, namely,
$1.90, on 229 cars this week as compared with
319 cars last week.
New York sold only 157 cars of oranges this
week compared with 271 cars the week pre-
vious. Two hundred and eight cars of oranges
arrived by boat alone in time for sale at auc-
tion. Passings from Potomac Yards indicate
58 cars of oranges moved to New York in time
for this week's sale, making a total of 266 cars
available, of which only 157 cars were sold,
leaving 109 cars carry-over on this week's fresh
arrivals. In grapefruit 189 cars arrived by
boat, rail passing indicated 15 more cars, mak-
ing 204 cars available. With only 108 cars hav-
ing sold in New York, this leaves 96 cars carry-
over on the fresh arrivals. The T. U. T. cargo
was not offered at auction and the boat that
was due to leave Tuesday of this week did not
leave until Wednesday. For next week 129
cars of oranges will be arriving from cargoes
already shipped this week. With today's boat
carrying 46 cars and adding the carry-over of
109 cars from this week, makes 284 cars al-
ready known as available to New York in the
way of oranges. Similarly, adding in the carry-
over of 96 cars grapefruit, 98 already known
available by boat and 11 on today's boat would
make 205 cars of grapefruit as known avail-
able supplies for New York. For the week end-
ing March 18 last year New York sold 238 cars
of oranges, as compared with the known avail-
able supplies for next week of 284. New York
sold 134 cars of grapefruit as compared with
the already known supplies for next week of
208 cars. Boston for some peculiar reason sold
only 18 cars of Florida oranges this week as
compared to 64 last week and showed a gain of
only 10c in its $2.65 average. It also had light
offerings in grapefruit, totaling 17 cars this
week against 28 the week prior and showing a
drop of 10c in its $2.00 average for this week.

Unless the financial situation clears up con-
siderably, shipments this coming week will
probably be about the same as this week, name-
ly, 597 oranges, 489 grapefruit, 192 mixed and
97 tangerines. But if the financial situation is
considerably relieved next week, as is now indi-
cated, we are estimating 650 oranges, 600


Mar. 11...... 192 205 422 289 266 157
Mar. 18-.....*200 211 362 325 272 146

grapefruit, 200 mixed, 100 tangerines. The
Operating Committee Friday night recom-
mended that all shippers should be cautioned
about increasing their shipments unless finan-
cial conditions materially change for the bet-
ter. California estimates 1000 cars for next
We have received from reliable sources in
California estimates as to what is left as of
March 1. These figures indicate 15,000 cars of
navels and 44,000 cars of valencias. This 15,-
000 cars of navels is about 25 percent more
(Continued on Page Five)

Brogdex Pays

The New York auction prices for Feb-
ruary show market buyers prefer Brog-
dexed brands and pay premiums for them.
The following figures give the daily sales
prices for the month as reported by the
New York Daily Fruit Reporter, official
organ for that market:





$ .28



*Represent only sales in which Brogdex brands
did not get a premium.
These better prices, important as they are, con-
stitute only a part of the benefits from Brogdex.
By reason of the better shine obtained under the
Brogdex System of washing and polishing more
fruit will grade out No. Is than would otherwise
be possible. Refrigeration is not necessary to
make sound delivery with the straps still tight.
Opening up a standard vent car of Brogdexed
fruit finds the wraps dry and the original shine
still there. That means better appearance on the
sales floor. But perhaps the most important serv-
ice Brogdex renders is that it holds the fruit
sound and fresh in the hands of the dealer.
If the returns you are getting are not satisfac-
tory pack the balance of your fruit through a
Brogdex house--there is one near you.

Florida Brogdex

Distributors, Inc.
B. C. SKINNER, Pres.
Dunedin, Florida.

Week This
i. Ending Year
Mar. 4...... 242

lorida Mixed
Last 1930- 1929-
Year 31 30
247 456 249

Page 3

Pav~e 3

Pare 4




T. G. HALLINAN . . . . Editor
Co-ordinating members' activities for orderly control
of distribution.
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information.
Standardizing grade and pack through impartial in-
spection service.
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and pub-
Securing best freight rates and transportation
Developing mutual interests of, and better under-
standing among growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters
of common welfare.
E. C. AURIN .... Ft. Ogden
J. C. CHASE Winter Park
L. P. KIRKLAND Auburndale
J. H. LETTON Valrico
JAMES C. MORTON Auburndale
M. 0. OVERSTREET Orlando
E. W. VICKERS Sebastian
E. H. WILLIAMS Crescent City
R. B. WOOLFOLK Orlando
E. C. AURIN ... President
JAMES C. MORTON Vice-President
M. O. OVERSTREET Treasurer
L. P. KIRKLAND Secretary
A. M. PRATT. Manager

"No Place To Go

But Up!"
To the universal query of, "Is we is,
or is we ain't?" the answer in this mor-
atorium-laden land appears to be that
sooner or later we will be "is" rather
than "ain't." We have been "ain't" for
so long now that even a microscopic ad-
vance in our welfare would appear to
many of us as a move to practically the
height of opulence. Will prices for
our oranges and grapefruit advance?
Many economists say, among other
things, that commodity prices are like-
ly to rise. Here's hoping they know
what they are talking about!
These and kindred thoughts have
been racing around in the Florida cit-
rus belt during the past two weeks
while we all have been trying to recover
from our astonishment that the world
didn't explode from the center outward
or that the sky failed to fall when our
banks drew in their shingles. The past
two weeks have been sent to us, as one
grower recently remarked, simply to
give the I-told-you-so's a chance to go
to work. And have they been happy!
One of them was a little disappointed
when he learned that the banks would
re-open but when he overheard a care-
less observation to the effect that,
"Thank God we've reached the bot-
tom !" he (that same I-told-you-so) got
right back to work to disprove the
statement. Yes, the past two weeks
have been eventful and, when you get
right down to it, they have been fruit-
ful. They have been fruitful weeks be-
cause they have given us all time to
look around us, to catch our breath,
and to learn with amazed satisfaction
that we have been fighting a shadow
these past three years.


The above attitude, cheerful though
it is, is forcefully presented by many
thoughtful individuals throughout the
country who have seen more clearly
than most of us some of the causes be-
hind the depression. The Business
Week, a magazine devoted to business
news and its interpretation, declares
flatly that, "This is bottom-there is no
place to go but up. . For three years
the bankers and the government have
labored like men upon the levee that
holds back a rising river. . It was all
futile. Disaster came. Now it is a job
for engineers, planning permanent
works, not for emergency squads."
This same publication points out that
a correction of some of the causes is
guaranteed. "Beyond providing a
breathing-spell," says The Business
Week, "and giving the American peo-
ple a reminder of the extent of their
own resources, the banking holiday
sets the seal upon new guarantees for
the future. Taken together with the
bold and straightforward phrases of
the inaugural address, it provides a
new reminder that banking is a func-
tion deeply touched with the public in-
terest. Henceforth we shall not be con-
tent to wait for periods of extraordi-
nary stress to divide financial institu-
tions into the sheep and the goats, the
'strong' banks which survive and the
'weak' ones which collapse and take
their depositors with them. It should
be obvious that the banking system of
the United States can never be the same
again. Unless there are new and sound
foundations, there will be no confidence
rebuilt, and without confidence, as we
have so tragically seen, there can be
no banks.
"On March 5, we turned a corner.
The last nail had been driven into the
coffin of the 'natural' process of defla-
tion. The development of plans for
keeping depositors supplied with a me-
dium of exchange while avoiding liqui-
dation, evidences the national determi-
nation that the immobilization of pur-
chasing power has gone quite far
enough. It shows a resolve that where
credit is frozen we shall find something
else to take its place. There are, no
doubt, a few bitter-enders who were
quite prepared to see the creeping pa-
ralysis extend until we should have
achieved the goal happily described by
Mr. Keynes as 'a budget balanced at
zero on both sides.' They have been
"Out of the disaster, the country be-
lieves it will get a really sound banking
system, upon which foundation recov-
ery can be built. Above all, it has felt
confident the President would take vig-
orous and prompt action. Any consid-
erable delay in restoring banking facil-
ities would change the calm public tem-
per swiftly into blazing wrath."

Cannibal Princess-"Mother, I am bringing
a young man home for dinner."
Cannibal Mother-"Well, don't bring a tough

March 15, 1933

Nominees for New Board

(Continued from Page One)
are not shown as is the case with the nominees
from the state-at-large. Ballots used by the
growers in one district are of course different
from those used by the growers in other dis-
tricts in that the names of the nominees for any
certain district appear only on the ballot sent
to the growers of that same district. For ex-
ample, the ballot to be used by members in the
first district contains the names of the nomi-
nees from the state-at-large, as shown on the
sample ballot, and the names of the nominees
from the first district only. On the ballot to
be used by members in the second district the
names of the nominees from the state-at-large
appear with the nominees for district director
from the second district only. The same method
is carried out on the ballot for each district.
Thus the grower votes for his one district
choice and four of the nominees from the state-
at-large-five candidates in all.
All ballots to be counted must be received
at the headquarters office of the Clearing
House, in Winter Haven, not later than 5 p.m.
Tuesday, April 4. A canvassing committee
made up of growers and supervised by the Com-
mittee of Fifty has the task of counting the
ballots. Every precaution is taken to insure
absolute secrecy so that the vote of every
grower-member is disassociated completely
from his name. One tally clerk is selected to
open the envelopes containing the ballots; a
second tally clerk removes the folded ballot
from the envelope passed to him by the first
clerk; the second clerk in turn passes the folded
ballot to a third clerk who in turn unfolds the
ballot and calls out the results indicated by the
marking on the ballot. A fourth clerk sits be-
side the third clerk to check the calling of the
names. Several other tally clerks, working in
pairs, check the names of the nominees as call-
ed out by the third tally clerk.

Senator Shortridge of California: "Why, '
away out yonder where the sun sets reluctant-
ly as it bids goodnight to California-in that :
State which is attracting the best citizens
from every State in the Union who are going
there to make their homes and be happy ever
Senator Robinson of Arkansas: "Mr. Presi- I
dent, I wish to point out that neither of the
senators from Florida is present."-Congres- *
sional Record.


Ames Lockseam Slip Joint Pipe
Universal Cast Iron Pipe


The Cameron & Barkley Co.
67 Years of Service

March 15 1933


Weekly Citrus Summary
(Continued from Page Three)
than California had left on March 1 last year.
We are advised that there is no intention on the
part of shippers generally to attempt to move
all these navels by May 1 and probably about
3000 cars of navels will be shipped from May 1
on, which will naturally hold back the valencia
movement with the likelihood of 2000 or 3000
cars of valencias being shipped after November
1 this fall, providing the fruit holds as it is
hoped it may.
California's auction average to date on
navels is $2.62 delivered. California's produc-
tion costs have been openly recognized as far
greater than Florida's. The California Citrus
League, in presenting its claim for lower
freight rates, argued that production costs, in-
cluding interest and depreciation, averaged
$1.78 a box. But let's assume a minimum pro-
duction cost on well-cared-for groves, produc-
ing a big quantity, as $1.00. Roughly speaking
it would show up as follows:
Production . . . ... $1.00
Tree to car . . . . . .75
Freight ............. 1.25

In other words, it would seem fair to esti-
mate that the most optimistic figure that a very
efficient grower could figure on would be $3.00
delivered price as coming out even. The aver-
age to date would, therefore, mean a loss to
such a grower of about 40c. Such facts and
many others are confronting California grow-
ers with even a more serious problem than we
have here in Florida, with the result that there
has been much work going on towards some
kind of better organized control. Commenting
on the general situation, the California Fruit
Growers Exchange in a bulletin March 2 said in
"The Citrus Stabilization Committee of the
Farm Bureau, the Associated Citrus Growers
and other grower groups have been earnestly
striving for a widespread understanding and
appreciation of the imperative need of market
stabilization in the citrus industry and are seek-
ing an acceptable basis of operation to accom-
plish this result. The Farm Bureau Committee
have expressed their conclusion as to the fun-
damentals of such a plan and the other groups
are said to be in accord with their conclusions
which are:
"1. Elimination of 'low grade' fruits as such
from all channels of trade.
"2. Adequate regulation of the distribution
of the total crop.
"3. Full recognition of the vital importance
of increasing the demand for citrus
fruits through every recognized agency
and method.
"4. Maintenance of full confidence in the
product marketed on the part of the con-
"The California Fruit Growers Exchange is
in complete agreement with these expressed
fundamentals and will give its full support and
active assistance to any sound industry pro-
gram designed to realize these objectives."
We have made a wonderful start in collec-
tive action on the part of competitive groups
through the Clearing House during the first
three years. Conditions are again getting so

serious that we cannot but believe Florida will
again get together stronger than ever.
Not only must Florida meet the new incen-
tive for better control in California, but Texas

Page 5
is coming strong. A recent letter received from
the Texas Citrus Fruit Growers Exchange esti-
mates 15,000 cars of citrus from Texas next

Robert R. Strawn

- tells*: '

"Continuous Use of Your Quality Fertilizer

is Largely Responsible for Our Success"

-,4 -& .

Here, in this letter, is real enthusiastic
praise. It comes to us from a regular user
of Armour's BIG CROP Fertilizer. It is one
of the hundreds of such letters received by
us each year. But we are particularly proud
of this letter because we. know what Mr.
Strawn means when he refers to quality.
His idea of quality is represented by the
famous "Bob White" Brand and we are
delighted to have him give part of the

credit for his success to Armour's BIG
CROP Fertilizer.
Successful citrus growing calls for real skill,
but a good portion of the battle is won
when you select the right Fertilizer. For that
reason we call your particular attention to
what Mr. Strawn has to say about results
obtained with Armour's BIG CROP Fer-
tilizer. The fact that his company has been
a consistent user of Armour's BIG CROP
Fertilizer for twenty years and still depends
upon it is what we consider the nest en-
dorsement we could secure. As an adver-
tisement we feel his letter speaks for itself.
Read what Mr. Strawn has to say:

Our feld representatives will gladly make recommendations


March 15 1933


Lower Cost in Control

of Melanose Is Sought
By DR. W. B. TISDALE, Pathologist
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Melanose is recognized as the most important
fungous disease of citrus in Florida. It occurs
throughout the citrus-growing sections of the
state but is consistently more important in cer-
tain of the older citrus sections than in the
newer ones. Together with the Phomopsis type
of stem-end rot, which is caused by the same
organism, it lowers the market value of more
citrus fruit than all other parasitic diseases
combined. The amount of damage caused by
melanose may vary from year to year, and the
mere fact that a heavy infection occurs one
year does not necessarily mean that a similar
epidemic of the disease will occur the following
Young groves in new localities may remain
relatively free from melanose for several years,
but, as a rule, the disease increases progres-
sively as the trees grow older. Conditions
which cause the death of terminal twigs,
branches or other above-ground parts of the
tree favor the development of melanose on the
new growth and fruit. Some of the factors
which are responsible for the accumulation of
this dead wood are frosts, droughts, faulty nu-
trition, insect infestations, other disease organ-
isms and shading of the branches in the interior
of the tree.
The fungus causing melanose attacks the
weakened twigs and recently-killed wood and
produces enormous numbers of spores on them.
Although recently-killed wood produces a
greater number of spores, experiment station
workers have recently found that spores were
still being produced on wood that had been
dead for more than a year. Since a twig only
an inch long may permit the production of mil-
lions of spores, attempts to control the disease
only through removal of the dead wood appear
highly impractical. However, the removal of
as much of the dead wood as is consistent with
good grove practice is a great aid in keeping
the disease under control. Spores of the fungus
are never produced in melanose blemishes on
the leaves, twigs or fruits, and are rarely found
on fruits decayed with stem-end rot.
Citrus foliage and shoots are very suscepti-
ble to melanose infection for a period of two
or three weeks after they emerge from the bud
in periods of good growing weather. Each flush
of growth occurring during the year is subject
to infection (see photograph of infected twig
and leaves) but infection of the leaves and
shoots alone is usually not of sufficient im-
portance to justify control measures. The
fruits likewise are very susceptible to infection
when first formed but become progressively
resistant with increasing age and are practical-
ly immune by the time they attain one-third to
one-half normal size. Therefore, any control
measures which are employed to prevent the
occurrence of melanose blemishes on the fruit
must be applied sufficiently early to protect
the fruit during their susceptible period.
In most sections of the state the melanose
fungus produces spores in greatest numbers
from April until about the middle of June and

Past Four Seasons*


0 254
S Cars

1928- 1929- 1930- 1931-
1929 1930 1931 1932


This Season
(To March 11th)

Sept. and









Dec. Jan. Feb. To
March 11

* During seasons shown above, prior to 1931-'32, figures are slightly under actual tonnage handled by boats but
are close enough for purposes of comparison.

smaller numbers during other seasons of the
year. Although the spores may be present in
great numbers at the time the fruits and leaves
are susceptible, infection will not occur unless
rains or heavy dews occur at that time. The
spores are embedded in a gelatinous substance
which swells when moist and forces the spores
out of the spore cases and they are then dis-
tributed over the tree by drops of water (see
photograph of infected fruit). Thus, the
amount and distribution of meteoric water dur-
ing the susceptible period of the fruit and
leaves account for the variation in the amount
of melanose blemishes on the fruit and leaves
and of stem-end rot from year to year.
It has been found (Fla. Exp. Sta. Bulletin
229) that a single application of 3-3-50 bor-
deaux mixture plus one percent of oil as emul-
sion, applied between April 15 and May 5 usual-
ly gives an excellent control of melanose in
many localities. However, in localities where
growth starts early or late so that the fruits are
not in the susceptible stage during this period,
full benefit of the spraying may not be obtain-
ed, as bordeaux mixture is a preventive and not
a cure. Some growers have reported satisfac-
tory control of melanose by spraying before
the blossoms open. Where melanose has been
severe and where there is a large amount of
dead wood in the trees, better control can be
obtained by applying both the dormant and
petal-fall spray. The spray solution applied
during the dormant season probably does not
prevent the formation of spores, but kills them
as they emerge from the spore cases on the
dead wood.
Bordeaux mixture also kills spores of the

friendly fungi as well as those of the fungus
causing melanose and, in localities where citrus
scales and whitefly are a menace, it is usually
necessary to apply a "follow-up" spray of oil
emulsion in May or June and perhaps again in
the autumn to assist in the control of these
insects. The need for this can be determined
only by inspection of the grove to ascertain
whether scale is present. This, of course, in-
creases the cost of production and growers in
certain localities have considered the use of
bordeaux mixture impractical because of the
increased cost incidental to its use. Spraying
experiments with lime sulphur solution, con-
ducted under conditions similar to those with
bordeaux have been less effective in the control
of melanose and are apparently less destruc-
tive of the friendly fungi. However, sulphur
sprays possess insecticidal as well as fungicidal
properties and to this extent take the place of
bordeaux and oil. Inasmuch as both diseases
and insect pests occur in practically all citrus-
growing sections of Florida, any spraying pro-
gram designed to combat diseases must take
into account the effect of the fungicide upon
the scale insects and fungi which attack them.
Since neither bordeaux-oil nor lime-sulphur
seems to be satisfactory for the control of
melanose and scale insects under all conditions
when applied on a basis of previous knowledge
of the disease, the Experiment Station began
in 1931 a study of the life history of the organ-
ism in different sections of the state. On a basis
of these studies, spraying experiments were
begun in 1932 to test the effectiveness of the
newer forms of sulphur and other materials
(Continued on Page Seven)

Boat Shipments

March 15, 1933

-- c --c- -- --- -c -- -- -- ---


Committee of 50 Members

to Be Chosen at Meetings
A series of eight Regional Meetings, for the
purpose of electing Committee of Fifty mem-
bers to serve during the 1933-34 season, will
be held this month throughout the citrus belt.
Two of these Regional Meetings will be held
in the first district, at Lake Wales and at Lake-
land, with one meeting in each of the six other
Although these meetings are to be held pri-
marily for the benefit of Clearing House
grower-members so that they may elect their
representatives on the Committee of Fifty, it
is planned to include on the program discus-
sions on some of the problems confronting all
citrus growers. For this reason citrus growers
generally will be welcomed at the meeting, al-
though unless they are members of the Clear-
ing House they will not participate in the busi-
ness session. The meetings will be held under
the auspices of the Committee of Fifty.
The number of representatives on the Com-
Smittee of Fifty from each district is based upon
each district's representative membership in
the Clearing House. Selection of the Commit-
tee of Fifty representatives is equal to election
in that only the exact number of representa-
tives in each district, who will represent that
district on the Committee of Fifty, will be
selected at the Regional Meetings. The newly-
selected representatives will be confirmed on
election day.
The schedule for the meetings follows:
Eustis-City Hall, Monday, March 20, 3 p.m.
Lake Wales-City Hall, Tuesday, March 21,
3 p. m.
Lutz-Home Demonstration Club, Tuesday,
March 21, 8 p. m.
Arcadia-Court House, Thursday, March 23,
3 p. m.

DeLand-Chamber of Commerce, Friday,
March 24, 3 p. m.
Orlando-Chamber of Commerce, Saturday,
March 25, 2:30 p. m.
Vero Beach-Vero DelMar Hotel, Tuesday,
March 28, 8 p. m.
Lakeland-City Hall, Thursday, March 30,
7:30 p. m. .

Lower Cost in Control

of Melanose Is Sought
(Continued from Page Six)
for the control of diseases and insects. These
experiments are also planned to determine the
minimum number of applications and the
proper time for making them in different sec-
tions. However, the results obtained from one
year's tests do not justify making new recom-
In some sections of the state "friendly fungi"
play a great part in control of scale insects and
whitefly. On hammock lands and in other lo-
calities where the humidity is high, these
friendly fungi live throughout the year and
keep the insects under commercial control un-
less they are destroyed by fungicides or some
other factor. The whitefly fungus (Ascher-
sonia) may be successfully introduced into
groves in higher locations during the rainy sea-
son, although the process may have to be re-
peated each year. The scale fungi have been
known to occur in the state for years but com-
paratively little is known about the possibilities
for culturing them artificially and of methods
for distributing them in the groves. Studies are
being made of the scale fungi at present to de-
termine whether they may be reintroduced into
groves after spraying with a fungicide instead
of applying a "follow-up" spray of oil emulsion
and thereby reduce the cost of spraying. From
these investigations and the spraying experi-

Sample District Ballot for Clearing House Election
Sign the Return Envelope
rFlorida Citrus Growers Clearing House Association Annual Election for Board
of Directors, April 4, 1933
(District Number)
Place an X before the names of the men of your choice and mail the ballot in
the enclosed envelope so that it will reach the Winter Haven office not later than
5:00 P. M. Tuesday, April 4th.
Vote for only one (1) of the following names for your district director:

SName of Your District Director Nominee Shown Here
Name of Your District Director Nominee Shown Here
O Name of Your District Director Nominee Shown Here

Vote for four (4) of the following names for directors at large:

SC. O. ANDREWS, Orlando
J. C. CHASE, Winter Park
FOR E. B. COLLINS, San Mateo
NOT L. P. KIRKLAND, Auburndale
THAN H. G. MURPHY, Zolfo Springs
R. B. WOOLFOLK, Orlando

ments now in progress, it is hoped that informa-
tion will be obtained which will enable the
grower to control citrus diseases and insects at
a greatly reduced cost.

What Melanose Does


Young grapefruit twig heavily infected with
melanose, showing distortion of leaves. Such
severe melanose infection sometimes causes
shedding of leaves.
_. : -. "

ji;: ^ *
., .; .

",. .....

Melanose "streaks and loops" on grapefruit,
resulting from the spores being carried in drops
of water. Infection occurs before the fruit at-
tains one-half normal size.

Detailed Soil Analysis


Special Introductory Offer $2.50
Definite determinations of soil conditions
and methods of fertilization necessary to
correct unhealthy conditions and produce
large crops of quality fruit.
and instructions for taking soil samples.
Frostproof, Fla.

March 15, 1933


Page 7

'" '~la,





SORE than ever before-during a year of keen competition-grow-
ers must make sure their fertilizer selection promises maximum
returns for their time, money and effort. That's why it's so important
at this time to give your crops a "WINNING DEAL." Without ques-
tion it's the time to face facts . it's the time to shuffle the deck . .
and is the time to deal every crop a hand-of winning cards.
In using Ideal Fertilizers you are dealing your crops such a hand . .
you are using the best fertilizer you can obtain, but you must use
enough of it to give you the quality crop
your work entitles you to. The harmful
results of skimping and using so-called
"cheap" materials and combinations have
been thoroughly proved. Today most
growers realize the folly of such practice
and are getting a head start on their com-
petitors by giving their crops plenty of
the abundant energy that is readily-avail-
able in Ideal Fertilizers. That's why there

are more Ideal Fertilizers used in Florida than any other brand.
Unless your crops are good enough in quality to pay their own picking,
packing, shipping and marketing cost and earn a profit, too, you have
not taken advantage of the times . you have not adjusted your-
self to the new tempo of things. That's why it's so important right
now to deal your crops a winning hand by using Ideal Fertilizers . .
the brands that have earned and held the confidence of growers
throughout Florida for forty years by helping them produce money-
making crops for season after season.
These growers have learned from experi-4
ence that there's citrus and vegetable
profits in every sack of Ideal Fertilizer.
Take these profits for yourself this year.,
Use Ideal Fertilizers and deal your crops
a winning hand. Get in touch with our
field representative or write us direct.
Wilson & Toomer Fertilizer Company,'
Jacksonville, Florida.

In Ideal Fertilizers you can be assured of a liberal use of Genuine Peruvian Bird
Guano. When you want Bird Guano demand Genuine Peruvian. Do not accept
substitutes. An ample supply of Genuine Peruvian Bird Guano is now available
and at a price which is lower than at any time during the past twenty years.




March 15, 1933

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