Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00107
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: March 1, 1933
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00107
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text


rDept. of Agri*
Ij3i;ffgolD F L30 R I D A
ary Period Di Fv.9r 6 R D
einingpton, D_ C*



rentingg more than 10,000 Publication of
s oFOranges and Grapefruit FLORI A CITRUS GRON

Year Published Semi-monthly by theFlorida Cit- Entered as second-class matter August 81, Volu
to a opy rus Growers Clearing House Association, MARCH 1, 1933 1928, at the postoffice at Winter Haven,
DeWitt Taylor Bldg., Winter Haven, Fla. U. F nde, dr the 8, 1879.
1Uj Uepm.t1i,;P t u te ... ...

Freight Rates Cut to Eastern Markets

Railroads Agree to Reduction for Remainder of Season
in Effort to Meet Competition Boats Are Giving Them

Call it caution or call it strat-
egy-although it is difficult for
the layman to see anything strat-
egic in the move-but the rail-
roads handling that portion of
Florida's citrus crop distributed
to eastern seaboard points have
agreed to a reduction in their
freight rates of about ten cents per box. Ap-
proval of this reduction must of course be
granted by the Interstate Commerce Commis-
sion before it can become effective, but rumor
has it that the new rate will be inaugurated
about March 15.
When the new rates are granted as antici-
pated, the freight on citrus from Lake Wales
to New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore by
all rail will be 94c per one hundred pounds and

to Boston $1.04 per one hundred pounds with
the minimum carload fixed at 384 boxes instead
of the present 360 box requirement. Such pro-
posed rates would mean a saving of about 11c
per box to Boston, 1Oc per box to New York,
7c per box to Philadelphia, and 3c per box to
Baltimore. It is understood that these rates
will be observed also at directly intermediate
destinations and will expire June 30, 1933.
When the carriers late last month made pub-
lic their decision to lower rates, provided the
I. C. C. approved, they announced that their
action was based on a desire to meet water
competition. Unload figures show that the
eastern seaboard points receive about 50 per-
cent of Florida's citrus tonnage. Unload figures
also reveal that during the current season from
25 percent to 30 percent of this fruit has been

.Nominations for New Board of Directors

to Be Made March 8 by Committee of 50

Once a year grower-members of the Clear-
ing House take things into their own hands and
select from among their own ranks growers
',who are to serve them as directors during the
following year. Paving the way for this annual
election of directors is the task shouldered by
members of the Committee of Fifty-them-
selves grower-elected-who place in nomina-
Stion growers to be voted upon to serve as direc-
tors from the districts and from the state-at-
'large. The election is always held on the first
Tuesday in April, but the Committee of Fifty
has to meet a month earlier than this to select
the nominees for the directorate.
SThis year's meeting of the Committee of
Fifty, at which growers will be nominated for
the Board of Directors, will be held in Winter
'Haven, Wednesday, March 8. Every member
of the Committee of Fifty is expected to be at
this meeting, for in some respects it is the most
important meeting of the year for this group
of volunteer workers. The charter and by-laws
Sof the Clearing House provide for the nomina-
tions in this manner, and members of the Com-
mittee of Fifty have for some time been giving
thought to the question of who will best serve
"the growers of the state during the season of

The method of nominating is simple. Mem-
bers of the Committee of Fifty in each of the
seven districts nominate three growers from
their respective district, one of whom will be
elected by the growers residing in that district.
The Committee of Fifty then meeting as a
whole nominates eight other growers, four of
whom will be elected by the growers generally
to serve on the Board from the state-at-large.
Thus the Board is made up of seven district
directors, one from each of the seven districts
that is, and four from the state-at-large-a
total of eleven members.
The by-laws of the Clearing House also pro-
vide that the grower-members of the Clearing
House, if not wholly satisfied with the nomina-
tions made by the Committee of Fifty, may
themselves place in nomination the names of
other growers either as district representatives
or as directors from the state-at-large. Seventy-
five growers in any district may place in nomi-
nation any grower or growers-in addition to
those nominated for the district by the Com-
mittee of Fifty-by filing a petition to this
effect with the Clearing House Board of Direc-
tors at least twelve days before the date of
election. In the same manner three hundred
(Continued on Page Four)

moved from Florida by water. During the past
four weeks, or up until Feb. 18, an equivalent
of 2,288 carloads of citrus left Florida by boat.
This is 32.4 percent of the total commercial
shipments by rail and boat of 7,069 cars, or
nearly half of the all rail movement of 4,781
cars. Taking the New York market alone ship-
ment figures for the month of February show
that the equivalent of 1709 cars of citrus was
moved from Florida to New York by boat.
During the month of February 1962 cars of
citrus were sold on the New York auction.
The proposed reduction is not, however, en-
tirely a voluntary action by the railroads. A
special committee appointed early this season
to represent the Clearing House, the Exchange,
and the industry as a whole, has been dogging
the footsteps of the railroad magnates with the
frequently-repeated warning: "you railroads
must do your part toward helping our Florida
citrus growers obtain some sort of a profit from
their crop!" The committee had insisted that
the railroads could not afford, literally, to bite
the hand that's feeding them because if they
continued to maintain high freight rates the
growers in self-defense would be forced to turn
to other means of transporting their fruit to
the markets.
This is exactly what the growers have done.
Today finds the motor trucks and the boats
swooping and churning into the eastern mar-
kets with citrus tonnage that the railroads in
the past have regarded as their exclusive busi-
ness-viewed possibly as some sort of a divine
dispensation. Hence, because of the persistent
petitionings by the transportation committee
and the rude seizure of tonnage by trucks and
boats, the railroads have taken a first cautious
or strategic step to meet this competition and,
peradventure, help the Florida grower wring a
profit from the depression-saddled markets.
The industry, naturally pleased at the pros-
pects of a lowered rate, is somewhat doubtful
that the reduction will be sufficient to detract
from the exceedingly low rate offered by the
beats. The freight rate by water will still be
from 25c to 40c a box less than the proposed
new rail iates, and if refrigeration by rail is
added to the freight rate the saving by refrige-
rated boat will become still greater.


$2.00 a
10 Cen


ne V
er 11


Committee of 1
(Articles under this heading are prepared and published in the News by the
Educational Committee of the Committee of Fifty. Through this department
members of the Committee of Fifty hope to maintain closer relations with the

Don't Pick Up
the Drops!
A few days ago we had a rather discouraging ex-
perience when we saw dropped fruit being picked up
in a grove, hauled to the packing house where they
were washed, and sold to trucks for transportation
into northern markets, where they would compete
with first quality fruit.
It is rather difficult to conceive of any more asinine
procedure than for the growers of Florida citrus fruit
to pick up drops and send them to market. What a
contrast that is to the care that was exercised a few
years ago in the handling of citrus fruit from the tree
to the consumer! Then every individual fruit was
carefully and jealously guarded to insure its carrying
to the buyer all its tree-ripened goodness and flavor.
In those days when a picker dropped a fruit to the
ground he was not permitted to pick it up and put it
into his sack because of the possible injury the fruit
might have sustained in the fall.
In the packing house the same care was exercised.
In handling the field boxes, if fruit fell from the top
of the second box to the floor it was immediately con-
signed to the cull bin, the thought being that its qual-
ity was doubtful because it may have been injured
in falling that short distance. But today many pick-
ers, dropping fruit from tall ladders to the ground,
are permitted to pick them up and place them in the
field boxes.
The grower who goes through his grove, picking up
dropped fruit from the ground, not knowing how long
the fruit has been there or what injury has been done
to it by falling from the tree, or what defect existed
that caused it to drop in the first place, is following
a very shortsighted and injurious practice when he
sends such fruit into the markets to compete with the
quality fruit that leaves his and other groves.
The present lowered purchasing power in the coun-
Stry makes it extremely difficult to market quality fruit
at a profit, and when we add to the economic problem
in marketing the shipment of cull and low grade fruit,
the possibilities for success are greatly reduced. Some
day the growers of Florida will learn that the best
fruit that we can produce is none too good to use in
competition for a profitable place in the market
basket of America.

Giving Thought to Those
Who Will Serve
The members of the Committee of Fifty in.your dis-
trict.will, at the Committee of Fifty meeting in Winter
SHaven on March 8, name three growers from your

Fifty Department
thousands of other grower-members of the Clearing House and to report their
efforts and activities to them. The Clearing House Directors and Manage-
ment accept no responsibility for what appears in this department)

district, from which number you will by your ballot
on April 4 select your District Director.
In addition to this, with the other members of the
Committee of Fifty, they will name eight growers,
from which number you will by vote on April 4 select
four Directors-at-Large for the Clearing House.
The members of the Committee of Fifty naturally
feel the responsibility thus placed upon them by the
Charter and By-laws in making nominations for the
men who are to serve as Directors throughout the next
year, and would be pleased to talk with any of the
growers in their district who would care to suggest
the names of growers who possess those qualifications
needed in a good Director. Perhaps you have been
well pleased with the work of your present Director
and would like to see him returned to office; however,
it is imperative that three be nominated for each Dis-
trict in order that the growers of the District may
exercise their privilege of choice, and it is imperative
that each one of the three nominees be a man of out-
standing character and ability in order that he may
creditably serve the industry if elected a Director.
Give this subject your earnest thought and consid-
eration, and talk it over with your local member of the
Committee of Fifty within the next week.

Change While Prices
Are Low
Quite a large number of Silver Cluster Grapefruit
trees are being top-worked into other varieties, par-
ticularly early oranges and Marsh Seedless Grape-
fruit. One doesn't have to be very old to remember
the time when growers were cutting orange trees
back and rebudding them to grapefruit. Now the
trend seems to be in the other direction, many grow-
ers becoming rather fearful of the possibility of a
large grapefruit crop in Florida meeting a large
grapefruit crop from Texas.
The trend of the times seems to be toward the seed-
less varieties of both oranges and grapefruit, and it
may be that those growers who, during this low price
period, are changing those varieties that carry a large
volume of seeds into the seedless varieties are doing
something that will pay them in the years that lie
ahead. The seedless varieties of both oranges and
grapefruit are much more convenient to prepare and
eat, and have a larger edible bulk because no space is
occupied by seeds.
Growers who have in mind eliminating undesirable
varieties of citrus fruit or top-working the drones
among their trees should take advantage of the pres-
ent low price period to do so and be fully prepared for
the better years that lie ahead.


March 1, 1933


Weekly Citrus Summary

(By A. M. Pratt, Manager, Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association)
(Week Ending February 25, 1933)

Week Week Week
Ending Ending Ending
Feb.25,'33 Feb.18,'33 Feb. 27,'32

Fla. Org's Shpd....... 1071
Fla. Gft. Shpd......... 646
Total...................... 7665
Fla. Tang Shpd....... 141
Total...................... 2563
Fla. Mixed Shpd..... 308
Total...................... 5491
Texas Gft. Shpd..... 86
Total...................... 2642
Cal. Org's Shpd....... 863

Fla. Org's Auc......... 565
Average-----................. $2.30
Fla. Gft. Auc........... 287
Average------................. $2.00
Fla. Tang. Auc. ...... 127
Average.................. $2.10
Texas Gft. Auc...... 21
Average----................ $2.50
Cal. Org's Auc......... 331
Average............--------- $2.55





(Commencing Sunday)
Veek Ending Shpd Sold Avg. Shpd Sold Avg.
ieb. 18.... 99 27 $1.83 143 33 $1.52

Feb. 25
(5 days).. 79 19 $1.88
Feb. 27
last year.. 113 32 $2.68
REG. GRFT. No. 1
Week Ending Shpd Sold Avg.
Feb. 18.... 28 9 $1.57
Feb. 25
(5 days).. 22 8 $1.41
Feb. 27
last year.. 124 35 $1.34

M. S. GRFT. No. 1
Week Ending Shpd Sold Avg.
Feb. 25

129 29 $1.46

122 45 $2.24
REG. GRFT. No. 2
Shpd Sold Avg.
55 8 $1.31

79 16 $1.10

117 11 $1.17
M. S. GFT. No. 2
Shpd Sold Avg.

(5 days).. 13 11 $1.98 10 7 $1.73

Florida Oranges
Week This Last 1930- 1929- 1928- 1927-
Ending Year Year 31 30 29 28
Feb. 18...... 994 883 1199 966 1226 433
Feb. 25-....1071 643 1225 1031 954 485
Mar. 4-....*1100 720 976 732 1002 499
California Oranges
Week This Last
Ending Year Year 1930 1929 1928 1927
SFeb. 18..... 827 1199 1155 913 1196 1001
Feb. 25...... 863 1527 1625 834 1413 1137
Mar. 4......*1100 1183 1610 1107 1394 959
Florida Grapefruit
Week This Last 1930- 1929- 1928- 1927-
Ending Year Year 31 30 29 28
Feb. 18...... 463 610 949 578 742 541
Feb. 25..... 646 689 859 589 638 497
SMar. 4........*700 735 878 489 601 486
Florida Mixed
Week This Last 1930- 1929- 1928- 1927-
Ending Year Year 31 30 29 28
Feb. 18...... 349 370 633 354 351 198
Feb. 25...... 308 314 525 412 280 198
Mar. 4........*350 247 456 249 275 207
Florida Tangerines
Week Ending This Year Last Year 1930-31 1929-30
Feb. 18........ 153 108 92 -
Feb. 25........ 141 81 75 -
Mar. 4 .......... *125 38 74 -
Texas Grapefruit
Week Ending This Year Last Year 1930-31 1929-30
Feb. 18........ 84 266 102 45

Feb. 25........ 86
Mar. 4.......... *60


On Feb. 6 every one
citrus market was to th
mass meeting of shippe
than probably has ever
was encouraging. A
some. It established t

276 84 52 sold in New York, giving New York 3.9% more
356 37 of the total crop than a'year ago. Our excess
to all auctions, as stated, was 3 %. The per-
centage of the volume that has moved into the
SICK PATIENT other auctions has been about normal, as will
Realized how sick the be noticed in the following figures:
e extent of attending a PERCENT OF ORANGE SHIPMENTS
rs in a greater number SOLD AT AUCTIONS TO DATE
been done before. That N.Y. Phil. Bost. Pitt. Clev.
picking holiday helped This Year_ 25.0% 9.0% 4.0% 2.0% 1.4%
Last Year--. 21.1% 8.7% 4.4% 2.2% 1.7%
he only period where Price Decline 50c 38e 26e 30c 23c

shipments have been less than normal. Advice
given since this meeting by the special ship-
pers' committee, urging the necessity of hold-
ing down shipments to a minimum, has been
ineffective. This mass meeting of shippers fol-
lowed a week wherein the auction average on
oranges was $2.25, on grapefruit $1.90, and
on tangerines $2.50. This week just closing
(ending Feb. 25) the average at auction was
$2.30 on oranges, $2.00 on grapefruit and
$2.10 on tangerines. Not much of a change
for the better.
That there was a desire to better things if
possible was indicated by the interest at the
shippers' meeting. It wasn't all idle curiosity.
We have talked with many shippers, not only
in the Clearing House, but outside, who have
indicated they are willing to do anything that
seems practical-that would help the situation.
They are worried and anxious to do something.
It devolves upon the Clearing House shippers,
the Exchange and every other shipper in Flor-
ida to work something out in an organized
manner for the balance of the year. The effort
should be made. Granting for the sake of ar-
gument to the most pessimistic that nothing
much can be done, there is 'always the satis-
faction to anyone of knowing that they did
what they could.
Some of the things that I believe will be
generally recognized that cannot be done for
the balance of the season are as follows:
Cure the general business depression.
Sell everything f.o.b. or don't ship.
Discontinue all auction sales.
Pass laws that will correct this season's
There is no use protesting about things that
can't be helped. If we diagnose the whole sit-
uation and find any ray of hope in some remedy
that might be applied, that is sensible. There
has been much talk about unwise distribution
to the auction markets. We have made a com-
plete analysis to date. There is a ray of hope
in this analysis as it showed that some things
can be corrected that are within our own power
if we will as an industry do it. To date 47.4%
of the orange shipments have been sold at the
various auctions, as compared with 43.9% to
this time last year; 3 % of the total ship-
ments have gone into auction distribution in
excess of last year's volume.
Now let's look at the individual markets.
New York naturally comes first. Twenty-five
percent of the entire crop movement, or 3607
cars of oranges, have been sold in New York.
Florida last year shipped 1000 cars more to
date than this year, yet New York has sold 359
more cars of oranges than last year. New York,
in fact, has more than taken up the excess per-
centage that has been sold at auction, as last
year to date 21.1% of the oranges had been


Page 3

Chi. St.L. Cint. Det. All
This Year__- 2.5% .8% 2.0% .7% 47.4%
Last Year__ 2.7% .7% 1.7% .7% 48.9%
Price Decline- 24c 1Oc 83e 24c 40c
You will notice from the above analysis that
we have noted the price decline on oranges in
each of the above markets this year as com-
pared to same period last season. New York
again is the leader in the price decline, show-
ing a drop of 50c as compared with New York's
average to date last season, namely $2.70 this
year as against $3.20 last season. The general
auction average to date is $2.66 as against
$3.02 last season. New York, like many ads to-
day say, "established a new low price" of $2.25
delivered for this week's 317 cars of oranges.
All the other auction markets were ahead of
her on an average except St. Louis, which tied.
We know that St. Louis gets poor oranges. We
know that New York gets the big proportion of
Indian River oranges and the best from most
of the rest of Florida. It isn't New York's
fault. Three hundred seventeen cars were sold
there as compared to 222 cars this week a year
ago. That comes pretty close to being 50%
A prorating committee in New York is doing
its best to prorate over the week, but Florida
as a whole is simply pouring more fruit in
there than it can take at normal prices, com-
pared with other markets. Philadelphia aver-
aged 10c more than New York with practically
no Indian River and generally a lower grade
of fruit, but Philadelphia had 84 cars at auc-
tion as compared with :93 a year ago. New
York's average this week of $2.25 is $1.23 less
than the same week last year. Philadelphia's
average of $2.35 is 92c less than her average
last year, and Boston's 90c less. Boat ship-
ments to New York account for much of this
surplus, 251 cars having been shipped by boat
to New York last week. It looks like still higher
shipments to New York this week as per the
following figures:
Orgs. Gft. Tangs.
This Week.............. 268 119 49
Last Week.............. 251 104 42
From these figures it looks as if grapefruit
(Continued on Page Five)


Ames Lockseam Slip Joint Pipe
Universal Cast Iron Pipe


The Cameron & Barkley Co.
67 Years of Service

Page 4 FL




T. G. HALLINAN . . . . .. Editor
Co-ordinating members' activities for orderly control
of distribution.
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information.
Standardizing grade and pack through impartial in-
spection service.
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and pub-
Securing best freight rates and transportation
Developing mutual interests of, and better under-
standing among growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters
of common welfare.


Ft. Ogden
. Winter Park
S Auburndale
. Crescent City

Doing Something With

Our Monopoly
Monopolies ordinarily are frowned
upon in the business world, but fear of
reproach certainly can't be Florida's
reason for not taking advantage of the
monopoly which she enjoys with her
grapefruit. Today, March 1, 1933, may
never again be repeated as far as mo-
nopolistic opportunities are concerned.
Florida today finds herself in control of
the country's grapefruit supply; Texas
is through for the season with the pos-
sible exception of a few cars in storage,
and Porto Rico likewise is through. The
grapefruit of California and Arizona
may be dismissed in that there is not
enough of it to pretend to be a factor.
Florida has the grapefruit crop for all
of United States! What are we going
to do-with it? And how are we going
to do it?
The explanation of the low prices
which grapefruit is returning is the
most baffling feature of this season's
marketing experiences. The sugges-
tion that reduced buying power in the
North is the cause of the low prices ap-
pears to be the only one that figures
don't belie. Some have declared that
the low prices are due to excessive ship-
ments to New York which have beaten
down the price level in that market.
New York, being a barometer market
for the rest of the country, prices have
dropped sympathetically in all other
auctions. This obviously is not the ex-
planation, for shipment figures reveal
that New York has taken even less
grapefruit during the past few weeks
than was the case a year ago. A lower
grade of fruit, advanced as another ex-
planation, probably has more bearing
upon the situation than the volume of


shipments. An analysis of grapefruit
grades shows that there has been a
material increase this year in the vol-
ume of No. 2 grapefruit. During Jan-
uary a year ago, for instance, 53% of
the grapefruit graded No. 1 and 32%
graded No. 2. This year, during Jan-
uary, the No. Is ran 35% and the No. 2s
54%. Hence it is reasonable to suppose
that the quality of the fruit, lower than
that of last season, has had some effect
upon the price levels.
What to do about the situation then,
is-as the saying goes, "something else
again,"-but do, we must! Next year,
in all probability, will see our competi-
tors, Texas and Porto Rico, adding
their grapefruit tonnage to that of
ours. It is too early to predict of course
what next year's tonnage will be, but
it is not too early to predict that we cer-
tainly will not have a monopoly next
season as we now have. If we can
squeeze out a few cents profit from the
remainder of our grapefruit crop we
will at least be in a fair position to fight
our competitors next year. Historians
tell us that an army can't fight on an
empty stomach, and it is coming to
many of us that a citrus grower can't
fight for long on an unprofitable grove.
The investments of many Florida citrus
growers are at stake this season. If they
can get back production costs some of
them can go on for at least another
year. If they get back a small profit
some of them can continue longer than
another year. If they get back very
much red ink this season some of them
will be through raising fruit!
There are two courses open to Flor-
ida grapefruit growers: The easy
course of just letting things rock along
can be pursued, or we can take ad-
vantage of the monopoly which we
have in our grapefruit and do some-
thing about the present situation. This
"do something" may mean that we will
have to leave part of our grapefruit
crop on the trees or the ground and let
the remainder bring a fair price. The
idea of getting a dollar for one box of
grapefruit is certainly more attractive
than getting seventy-five cents for
three boxes of grapefruit!
Leaving a part of our crop in the
state, if this course seems the wisest to
pursue, is no simple matter. In view of
existing conditions such a remedy
could be achieved only through the
Clearing House and this would take the
hearty cooperation of a very large pro-
portion of the state's tonnage. From a
practical marketing standpoint, leav-
ing a part of our crop here at home,
probably would entail a program some-
thing as follows:
By virtue of a practically universal
agreement the No. 2 grade of grape-
fruit could be "tightened." In other
words, if all were willing to do so, the
tolerance allowed for the No. 2 grade
could be decreased and the fruit thus
graded out thrown to the cull pile along
with the other third grade fruit. A

March 1, 1933

more careful selection of desirable sizes in both
No. 1 and No. 2 fruit also would be of help in
raising the price level for each of these grades.
Lastly, assuming of course that an appreciable
percentage of the state's tonnage was working
together, adoption of a carefully thought-out
schedule of shipments by weeks would be of
tremendous help.
This is a suggested program, which is not
startlingly new but is one that may very well
serve as a starting point for determined action
this season.

Board Nominations

to Be Made March 8
(Continued from Page One)
growers may nominate a grower or growers
from the state-at-large if the nominations by
the Committee of Fifty are not satisfactory.
As provided for in the by-laws, the election is
held by mail, ballots carrying the names of the
three district nominees and the eight nomi-
nees from the state-at-large being mailed to
every grower-member in each of the seven dis-
tricts at least ten days prior to the date of
Election of the members of the Committee
of Fifty, who like the new Directors will as-
sume office on the first of the coming June, will
be held at regional meetings in each of the
seven Clearing House districts. In order to
keep down the cost of the election the Com-
mittee probably will hold only one regional
meeting in each of the seven districts. This
was done last year but prior to last season sev-
eral regional meetings were held in each dis-
trict for the convenience of the growers.
Although the principal business transacted
at the March 8 meeting of the Committee of
Fifty will be that of selecting nominees for the
election, growers generally will be welcomed
at the meeting to participate in any general
discussion of other problems confronting the

Salary Reductions Help to

Trim Clearing House Costs
The Board of Directors of the Clearing
House at a meeting late last month trimmed
operating costs for the current year by reduc-
ing salaries of the Clearing House personnel
20 percent, the reduction applying to all em-
ployees receiving more than $20 per week.
Salaries had been cut earlier in the season to
an extremely moderate basis but it was felt
that further drastic economies would have to
be effected.
A report made to the Board earlier in the
month by the Budget Committee showed that
the management of the Clearing House has
kept expenses down to rock bottom during the
season, and that operations for the year will
cost 25 percent less than had been originally
estimated by the Budget Committee. The direc-
tors complimented Manager A. M. Pratt and
the personnel in the organization on the effici-
ency in handling the work of the Clearing
House at as economical figure as has been the
case. Appreciation was expressed also for the
voluntary salary reduction taken by some of
the officials.


Weekly Citrus Summary
(Continued from Page Three)
shipments-by boat are taking a mighty big
jump to New York. At any rate, coming back
to our first subject as to what could be done,
Florida could be working together correcting
the over-shipment of supplies to New York.
Six hundred eighty-three cars of citrus to all
ports moved by boat this week, compared with
601 last week, 509 the week before and 678,
621 and 480 ending on the week of January
21. These six weeks have been our heavy boat
movement period. Three thousand five hundred
seventy-two cars have moved by boat.
This is still a mooted question. Comparing
brand for brand and size for size on oranges
that sold the same day in New York this week,
one finds conflicting evidence. Some boat ship-
ments consistently outsold rail. In other cases
rail consistently outsold boat. The surest way
of settling this question is by actual test where-
in the same packing house on identical fruit
would be shipping one car by boat and one by
rail and then have them both offered the same
day. This repeated by various houses would
soon settle whether or not boat shipments are
penalized either on account of prejudice or
condition as compared with rail. The auction
bidders generally are more ready to accept
boat shipments than previously, according to
reports received; and with the railroads having
declined to make a sufficient reduction to the
Atlantic Coast markets to materially affect
boat shipments, it looks as if boat transporta-
tion on a big proportion of supplies, to New
York particularly, is here to stay.
This week the first valencias were sold in
New York, at least as far as catalogued. The
valencias indicated generally a reluctance on
the part of the trade to pay as much money for
the same brand and size as they would for pine-
apples, though the average on some cars was
higher because of valencias running to larger
-In attempting to analyze what may be hold-
ing prices down that would be within the power
of Florida operators to correct, we cannot ig-
nore bulk shipments either by rail or truck.
Truck shipments are the worst of the two be-
cause of being entirely uncontrolled in the way
of prices or destination. The trade in any mar-
ket does not know what may be coming by
truck or how low prices may be. Bulk ship-
ments by rail certainly compete in an unhealthy
manner with standard packages. There is no
way of eliminating these unhealthy conditions
unless the operators get together or possibly
laws are passed that may affect our business
after this season.
Texas under the quarantine restrictions ex-
isting will be required to have all of her grape-
fruit picked and packed prior to March 1. Some
of this may go into cold storage and shipments
be dribbled out later. Florida, however, has a
monopoly on the grapefruit left. Shipments
could be controlled from week to week as well
as to the auction markets if the shippers of

Research Group Has Begun

Its Grove Problem Studies
The Florida Agricultural Research Institute,
organized the first of the year by a number of
Florida fertilizer manufacturers, has started
active work in its program of developing infor-
mation on-plant foods, fertilizers, cultural prac-
tices, and other phases of citrus production.
Frank Holland, of Bartow, for many years

Florida would agree to a program of this kind.
The third grade and the poorer quality in the
second grade also could be eliminated. Work-
ing together along these lines would certainly
mean not only new confidence and enthusiasm
in the minds of every citrus salesman in Flor-
ida, but this same attitude would be reflected
in the minds of the trade. There is a vast
amount of off-grade grapefruit that should not
go to the markets, but much of it will go unless
there is concerted action.
Some of the shippers outside the Clearing
House, as well as in, have talked regarding pro-
rating. The Clearing House and the Exchange
together could not do any good by prorating if
they were not joined by other large operators.
If the Clearing House and the Exchange would
take the initiative, subject to getting enough
of the rest of the operators to join in a decisive
prorating of shipments where the business
would be sufficiently organized to be enforc-
able and shippers unquestionably penalized if
not carrying out the allotments issued, we
could get somewhere. The serious situation
confronting us for the balance of the season
demands stern rather than any mild measures
and cannot otherwise be corrected enough to
do much good.
A letter from Porto Rico advises that they
are not having the early bloom they hoped for
and may not have their main bloom until March
or possibly April, depending, of course, upon
the weather.
We are estimating shipments next week
(ending March 4) of 1100 cars of oranges from
Florida. The Exchange estimate the same
amount from California. We are estimating
700 cars of grapefruit, 350 mixed, 125 tange-
rines and 60 cars of grapefruit from Texas.


county agent of Polk County, who has been
elected a director of the Institute, has assumed
his duties at his headquarters in Winter Haven.
Associated with him will be R. P. Thornton,
president of the Thornton Laboratories of
Tampa, who will serve as consulting chemist
for the Institute.
Director Holland, in setting forth the aims
and objectives of the Institute stated that the
members of the organization "feel very keenly
their individual and collective responsibility to
their customers. They know from long years
of experience that a great share of this respon-
sibility lies in protecting the agricultural pub-
lic from unsound and dangerous recommenda-
tions made from time to time by 'over-night'
experts; persons who are inclined to have 'hob-
by' ideas; and individuals or concerns whose
sole thought is to 'sell' something, regardless
of need or merit.
"The Institute proposes to collect, and in
turn disseminate to the public, information on
plant foods, practical commercial mixtures of
same, their application and general use under
Florida conditions; to cooperate with and as-
sist other institutions and agencies working for
the good of the agricultural public; and to
shield the growers from theories and untried
recommendations that might be dangerous or
destructive to producers' income and property.
"All data possible will be accumulated on
practices that have been followed for long
periods of time both profitably and success-
fully; with the hope of standardizing as nearly
as possible many of the practices. The Insti-
tute has complete laboratory facilities avail-
able and will do such work with its own staff
from time to time as it deems best.
"It is particularly the purpose of the Insti-
tute to refrain from sponsoring any movement
or practices which are not forward-looking and
which are not economical to the grower in the
fullest sense of the word."

Citrus Grove
Accountants and Income
Tax Specialists
Certified Public Accountant

A. Gilbert Lester & Co.
Taylor Building

Frostproof, Fla.

Detailed SoilAnalysis-Interpretations

Special Introductory Offer $2.50

Definite determinations of soil conditions and methods of
fertilization necessary to correct unhealthy conditions and
produce large crops of quality fruit.

and instructions for taking soil samples.

March 1. 1933



Page 5

Page 6 FL

Grove Depreciation Should

Be Considered on U. S. Tax
There'll be much midnight electricity (which
also is taxable!) consumed between now and
March 15, the occasion being the eleventh hour
computations on income tax returns for the
calendar year of 1932. It isn't exactly a pleas-
ant occupation, this figuring up and paying of
a tax upon our income, but a lack of income ap-
pears to be the only avenue of escape.
The new revenue act contains a number of
provisions and changes, and it is quite import-
ant that every citrus grower in Florida, who
faces the necessity of paying a tax on last
year's income, give this subject immediate at-
tention; the return must be mailed to the gov-
ernment not later than March 15.
The most unpleasant feature of the law gov-
erning the computing of last year's income tax
is the reduction in exemptions.
The new law allows a married man an exemp-
tion of only $2500, and for a single person
only $1000. The same exemption of $400 is
allowed for each child under eighteen years of
age, but this exemption is prorated if a child
is born during the calendar year. The normal
rates of taxation have been increased more
than 150 percent and in view of this it is highly
essential that the citrus grower claim every
deduction to which he is properly entitled.
There probably are a great many growers
who do not claim depreciation on their citrus
trees or grove equipment, and if such is the
case they are losing the benefit of a deduction
recognized by the government as a proper al-
lowable expense. Some detailed information
concerning these deductions was obtained by
the News from A. Gilbert Lester, certified pub-
lic accountant and auditor for the Clearing
House. Lester declared that it is often difficult
for a citrus grower to know just how to segre-
gate his grove costs, as land is not a depreciable
asset but citrus trees, buildings, equipment,
and live stock are depreciable and are subject
to varying rates of depreciation. In view of the
difficulties involved in properly determining
asset values and rates of depreciation that will
be acceptable to the income tax collector, a
brief summary of some of the more important
points which a grower must consider in making
up his tax return are set forth below in ques-
tion and answer form:
Q.-How is the depreciation rate on grove
assets computed for income tax return pur-
A.-It is necessary to estimate the life of
the different assets and thus establish the de-
preciation rate.
Q.-When is a citrus grove subject to depre-
A.-Not until the end of the seventh year-
the accepted age of maturity-for a new grove,
but in the case of a grove consisting of trees
twenty years old, for instance, depreciation
may be deducted during the first year of own-
Q.-What is the rate used for depreciation
A.-This rate varies with the age of the
trees; ordinarily the life of a citrus tree is esti-
mated to be thirty-three years after having
reached the age of maturity. -


Q.-Is a deduction permitted for loss of
fruit by dropping or by red ink sales?
A.-No deduction is allowable for loss in-
curred by fruit dropping, but loss through red
ink sales is deductible only as the loss de-
creases the grower's revenue.
Q.-Is a deduction permitted if fire, hurri-
cane, or freeze causes loss of trees?
A.-If these losses are not covered by in-
surance a deduction is permitted to the full
extent of the loss less depreciation. If partly
insured a deduction is allowed to the extent of
the difference between the amount of the loss
and the insurance paid thereon.
Q.-Does the government accept the state-
ment of the tax payer as to the extent of the
loss described above?
A.-The loss should be appraised by a disin-
terested party qualified to determine the ex-
tent of the damage and a copy of this appraisal
should be retained in case an examining reve-
nue agent calls for it.
These and many other questions arise in in-
dividual cases and it probably would be well for
citrus growers, who may be in doubt as to
whether or not they are entitled to deductions

March 1, 1933

they may not have taken in the past, to seek
out their resident tax collector agent or an
expert accountant as a matter of self-protec-
tion. The Clearing House is not in a position
to perform such services but will be glad to
pass on inquiries to its auditor for his atten-
tion, who charges only a nominal fee for such

To borrow the slogan of a certain motor oil:
"If oranges could talk,. we wouldn't have to

Try Nitrose For Gummosis
Prepare affected area same as for usual treatment.
Brush on NITROSE and note results. NITROSE
is also excellent for treating pruning wounds and
for tree surgery. Price: single gallon $3.00, 5-
gallon drums $2.75 per gal. F.O.B. Winter Haven.
Southeastern Distributor
Winter Haven, Fla.


SMount Dora Citrus Growers Assn.
Mount Dora
Sunshine State Packing Co.

THESE two houses began shipping Brogdexed fruit a few weeks ago
and for the balance of the season every box of fruit they pack will
be protected against excessive decay and wilt by the control treatment
of Brogdex.
Officers and directors of the Mount Dora Association have been
watching and checking Brogdexed fruit from other houses for some
time and came to the conclusion that its use on their fruit would result
in better delivery, more attractive appearance, longer keeping time
and higher prices, advantages that would show the Association a sub-
stantial profit on the investment.
The Sunshine State Packing Co. is a new company under old heads.
The management will be in the hands of Clyde Hunter, formerly man-
ager of the Umatilla Citrus Growers' Association, and Earl Hunter,
formerly manager of the Winter Garden Citrus Growers' Association.
Associated with the Hunter brothers will be Mr. H. K. Skivington, for-
merly traveling representative of the Brogdex Co. of California.
The Hunters used Brogdex at Umatilla and Winter Garden and
know its advantages, while Mr. Skivington has seen the market prefer-
ence everywhere for Brogdexed fruit. It is natural that this house
would not be without Brogdex.
More money for the same fruit means Brogdex every time. From
November 11th to January 27th, inclusive, the New York auction mar-
ket reports show Brogdexed grapefruit brought 68c a box and Brog-
dexed oranges 38c a box above the market average for non-Brogdexed
What is true of New York is likewise true in other markets. It
will pay you well to put your fruit through a Brogdex house-there is
one near you.

Florida Brogdex Distributors, Inc.
B. C. Skinner, President DUNEDIN, FLORIDA

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