Title: Florida clearing house news ..
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00106
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: February 15, 1933
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
 Subjects
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00106
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text


;e;.. F l"O R I DA

SLibrary-Per AR&G

I L HEARING H


'Representing more than 10,000
Growers of Oranges and Grapefruit
Headquarters: WINTER HAVEN, FLORIDA


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$2.00 a Year
10 Cents a Copy


Published Semi-monthly by the Florida Cit-
rus Growers Clearing House Association,
DeWitt Taylor Bld.. Winter Hanven. Tia.


FEBRUARY, 15, 1933


Entered as second-class matter August 81,
1928, at the postoffice at Winter Haven,
lntrida. nndrer the Art nf Mnarnch 1 9iQ


Volume V
Number 10


:Picking Holiday Halts Price Decline

Functions of Clearing House Helpful When Shippers

Of State Work Together in an Industry Emergency


What are the Florida shippers
Sand marketing agents going to
do about working out plans for
the balance of the season? That
they recognize the need of some
organized effort was evident
from the attendance at the gen-
eral shippers' meeting, held in
SWinter Haven Feb. 6. In the history of citrus
SFlorida probably there never was a meeting
held where all its various competitive represen-
titatives came so near to one hundred percent
attendance.
f The picking holiday declared until Sunday
tonight, Feb. 12, was agreed to by almost every
one present and it proved to be effective in
keeping the market from sliding to still more
disastrously low price levels.
The special committee appointed at the meet-
ing to offer further recommendations, com-
posed of W. H. Mouser, C. C. Commander, R.
B. Woolfolk, R. D. Keene and William G. Roe,
have important responsibilities to work out.
SWhen they met on Friday, Feb. 10, it was
bought impractical to attempt-to extend the
picking holiday, but a most emphatic wire was
sent to every shipper in the state calling atten-
tirn .to the extremely cold weather that was
prevalent in all the larger markets and the
resulting accumulation of supplies, and earn-
Sestly urging the necessity of holding down ship-
ments to a minimum.
Attention also was called by the committee
'to the fact that the action taken by the general
'shippers' meeting in deciding to wire leading
officials connected with the various railroad
lines interested in delivering Florida citrus,
particularly to the Atlantic Seaboard markets,
indicated that finally some relief was coming
from the railroads in lower freight rates. Wires
,had been received from the carriers advising
that a special meeting of these railroads was to
i be held in New York on Wednesday, Feb. 15.
This fact also was called to the attention of all
SFlorida shippers in the wire that was sent.
The difficulties in the way of mandatory pro-
rating were recognized as the industry is not
sufficiently organized as to make it possible to
execute such orders. On the other hand, it was
felt that it would be helpful if all shippers had
in mind some program as to shipping schedules


that could be recommended and approximated
as close as possible as the season advances.
What the industry can do, unorganized as it
is, is quite different from what it could do if
actually organized. There probably is not a
shipper in Florida but what would agree that
every box of third grade fruit should be taken
off the market and some of the less valuable
sizes in the second grade. The question to be
solved is how such a policy can be enforced.
Probably everyone recognizes that it would be
a most desirable thing if practical means could
be determined upon to control in some way the
volume from week to week to the various auc-
tion markets.
In this connection the receivers in New York
have a committee that is doing some good work
for Florida's industry in prorating the supplies
over the week the best they can. The industry,
however, needs to go further than this if a way
can be found. What we need in Florida is
greater self-confidence, resulting from com-
bined self control that would be exercised, not


only in distribution to such important markets
as the large auction centers, but also in con-
trolling the total shipments from week to week
throughout the season. Were such a control
possible, the buying trade in the private sale
markets, as well as the bidders at the various
auctions, would have a confidence and enthus-
iasm that does not exist today.
Such control would inevitably result in a
certain amount of friction, but the question
arises whether that friction would be nearly.
as hard to accept as the strain that is on the
individual marketing agents and shippers to-
day, working as they are with so little co-ordi-
nation. Most certainly there is a better way of
doing than we have at present and the respon-
sibility for finding that better way devolves on
every shipper in Florida. The marketing prob-
lem has reached that point where it would
seem, the desperate conditions existing would
force a recognition of the necessity of again
finding common ground on which all competi-
tors can work together again.


Florida Is SeekingWater and Rail Rate


Via Pensacola, to Mid-Western Markets


Unusual though it is Florida finds herself in
the -position of fighting shoulder to shoulder
with a railroad for a reduction in citrus freight
rates. This situation prevails in the effort now
being made to regain some of our middlewest-
ern markets lost to us during the fruit fly cam-
paign of three years ago. The railroad which is
co-operating with Florida in appealing to the
Interstate Commerce Commission for a re-
duced rate is the Frisco Line, which operates
in Missouri, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Arkan-
sas, Tennessee, Mississippi and Alabama.
The plea to the I. C. C. is not exactly one for
a reduction in rates, but is a request for inaug-
uration or publication of a combination water
and rail rate to points in the states mentioned
above from Tampa via Pensacola. On Feb. 6,
7 and 8 a hearing was held before the Inter-
state Commerce Commission, at Washington,
attended by representatives of the Frisco Line
and a group from Florida. Those representing


the Florida citrus industry, in addition to J.
Curtis Robinson, secretary of the Growers and
Shippers League, were Messrs. A. M. Pratt,
manager of the Clearing House; E. D. Dow,
traffic manager, and George Scott, northern
sales supervisor of the Exchange.
SAVING OF NEARLY 20 CENTS
If the I. C. C. grants the request of the Flor-
ida interests and the Frisco, the saving over the
all-rail rates to the middlewestern points will
approximate close to 20c a box. The Commis-
sioners lent an attentive ear to the Florida
petitioners for the request was an important
one in that opposition to the move had already
developed from the originating lines here in
Florida and several other railroads catering to
the same middlewestern territory.
Manager Pratt, of the Clearing House, tak-
ing the stand first for the Florida petitioners,
went into considerable detail to show the Com-
(Continued on Page Nine)


S i Official Publication of the
&NEW S Bptt %rUS CITRUS GROWERS
CLEARING HOUSE ASSOCIATION


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FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS


Committee of Fi
(Articles under this heading are prepared and published in the News by the
Educational Committee of the Committee of Fifty. Through this department
members of the Committee of Fifty hope to maintain closer relations with the


Getting Out As Much
As We Put In
A noted city preacher went to fill the pulpit in a small
rural church one Sunday and took his small boy of nine
summers with him. The collection basket was passed
among the group of worshippers and the boy noticed that
his dad put in a crisp new dollar bill. After the service one
of the elders brought the basket to the visiting divine, tell-
ing him that it was customary to give the visiting preacher
the collection. The boy interestedly watched his father
count out the scanty sum of sixty cents in addition to what
he himself had given and, smiling, said: "Dad, if you had
put more in you would have gotten more out."
This boy, consciously or unconsciously, stated a truism
that is applicable to almost every circle in life. We get out
of life in proportion to what we put into it, both in quan-
tity and in quality. This truism of the boy's is particu-
larly fitted to the citrus industry at this time of the year
when a new crop is blossoming on the trees, and its quan-
tity and quality so largely depends upon what has been
and what will be put into it.
Citrus trees may be fed a sustaining ration or a produc-
ing ration. In other words, the grower who fertilizes his
trees only enough to permit them to maintain themselves
in good health but fails to add those additional pounds of
feeding which are needed to enable the tree to produce a
crop is wasting time and money. He needs to put more in
in order to get more out. The monies received for the ma-
tured crop will be in proportion to the quality of the crop.
It would be an object lesson for every grower during the
balance of this marketing period to watch the difference
in price in the various markets between No. 1 and No. 2
grade of the different varieties marketed; then he will
readily realize the importance to him of producing quality
fruit. Of course, it costs money to properly care for fruit,
to dust and spray and supply the proper food elements at
the proper time, but it pays in the end. You have got to
put it in if you expect to get it out.
These are days in all fields of human endeavor that call
for the best that is in a man, of thought, knowledge, ability
and endeavor, and the same applies to the citrus industry.
Many of the costs incidental to producing a crop are equal-
ly great whether the crop be large or small, of good or
poor quality, and just the extra dollar or two, the extra
thought, the added knowledge, and the additional ounce
of endeavor, spell the difference between success or failure
in the citrus industry. In other words, at the end of the
season, if success has not been yours, it will be up to you
to remember the boy's statement: "If you had put more in
you would have gotten more out."


A Chemist Speaks
On Arsenic
The following excerpts are from an interesting address
on "Factors Affecting the Maturity of Citrus Fruits." This
address was made by Mr. Gray Singleton to the Florida
State Horticultural Society at its annual meeting held in
Clearwater, April 9 to 11, 1929. Mr. Singleton has-spent


fty Department
thousands of other grower-members of the Clearing House and to report their
efforts and activities to them. The Clearing House Directors and Manage-
ment accept no responsibility for what appears in this department)

a large part of his life in research work in applied chemis-
try in the citrus field, and is engaged in this work with the
State Department of Agriculture.
"There has been unlimited criticism of the use of arsenic
yet the fact remains that the best oranges and grapefruit
ever shipped out of Florida were sprayed with arsenic.
And they were not sprayed to hasten maturity or to evade
the green fruit law. They were Valencias, seedlings, and
Marsh Seedless that were sprayed to make them mature
later than they normally would and stay on the tree until
the middle of the summer. Arsenic reacts on a tree ex-
actly as it does in the human body. A small dose is a tonic.
A large dose causes serious illness and an overdose causes
death."
"Arsenic will also prevent Valencias, tangerines, and
temples from drying out. I have tangerines now that were
sprayed with one-half pound of arsenic to two hundred
gallons of water. They are just as juicy as they were be-
fore Christmas and there is no noticeable effect on the *
acidity or flavor."
"I do not believe that arsenic will ever be dangerous
to those eating the fruit for the reason that even with a
moderately large dose a person would have to eat thirty
boxes of oranges per day for the entire season to get enough
to be harmful."


Regulation of Trucks
A grower in DeLand has sent this department a letter
criticizing the Committee of Fifty for its article in the last
issue of the Clearing House News entitled, "D-n Your
Advertising." This grower seems to have gained the im-
pression that the Committee of Fifty is opposed to the
movement of citrus fruits by truck. This is not so. The
Committee of Fifty realizes the value of the truck where
it is used to convey fruit to market cheaper than can be
done by other modes of transportation, but we believe that
if this grower could be at the other end of the truck line
and see some of the bulk fruit that is presented for sale to
the consumer he would blush with shame for the Florida
citrus industry.
We are not opposed to the use of trucks, but are con-
vinced that the indiscriminate movement of exceptionally
low quality fruit, handled in many cases like brickbats,
with resultant damage to the eating quality, is in a large
measure the cause of the low prices that are being received 4
for quality fruit marketed through regular trade channels.
It must not be forgotten by any grower that Florida's cit-
rus crop can never be sold in bulk from the back end of
motor vehicles, but must be marketed, as are all other
products, through regular channels of distribution; and
the present uncontrolled movement of low grade bulk fruit
by truck, while it may afford a temporary relief, is and q
will continue to be a destructive agency in the industry.
Are we in favor of the movement of properly prepared,
quality fruit by truck and through regular distributive .
channels? Positively yes. Are we in favor of the move-
ment of unprepared, ungraded, in many cases unwashed,
and in some cases, even drop fruit in bulk by truck, to be
sold when, where and at whatever price may be offered
for it, in destructive competition with fruit of better grades
and higher quality? Positively no!


Page 2


February 15, 1933





FLORIDA CLEARING ( HOUSE NEWS


Weekly Citrus Summary

(By A. M. Pratt, Manager, Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association)
(Week Ending February 11, 1933)

WEEKLY CARLOT INDEX ANALYSIS
Week Week Week
Ending Ending Ending
Feb.11,'33 Feb.4,'33 Feb. 13,'33
Fla. Org's Shpd....... 646 808 827
Total...................10478 9832 10034
Fla. Gft. Shpd......... 297 439 439
Total................ 6521 6224 9126
Fla. Tang Shpd....... 177 197 163
Total.................. 2227 2079 2368
Fla. Mixed Shpd..... 238 311 344
Total................... 4337 4599 5706
Texas Gft. Shpd..... 109 101 314
Total.................... 2454 2345 3037
Cal. Org's Shpd....... 944 927 946


Fla. Org's Auc......... 456
Average............... $2.35
Fla. Gft. Auc.......... 235
Average.................. $2.00
Fla. Tang. Auc....... 133
Average.................. $2.30
Texas Gft. Auc....... 14
Average....----......... $2.20
Cal. Org's Auc......... 214
Average.................. $2.70


598
$2.25
283
$1.90
152
$2.50
35
$2.35
269
$2.65


523
$3.35
270
$2.05
132
$3.10
35
$2.17
246
$3.40


FIRST SIX DAYS' SHIPMENTS & SALES
(Commencing Sunday)
ORANGES No. 1 ORANGES No. 2
Week Ending Shpd Sold Avg. Shpd Sold Avg.
Feb. 4.... 75 19 $1.84 96 15 $1.48
Feb. 11
(5 days).. 57 11 $1.97 56 11 $1.58
Feb. 13
last year.. 169 38 $2.56 153 43 $2.25
GRFT. No. 1 GFT. No. 2
Week Ending Shpd Sold Avg. Shpd Sold Avg.
Feb. 4.... 21 4 $1.79 61 13 $1.23
Feb. 11
(5 days).. 11 6 $1.60 26 4 $1.25
Feb. 13
last year.. 91 23 $1.39 74 19 $1.26


NEXT WEEK'S RECOMMENDATIONS
Although the special shippers' committee,
appointed by the shippers when they met Fri-
day did not think it wise to attempt to con-
tinue the picking holiday, they did feel that
every shipper should be cautioned on account
of the cold weather and the accumulation in
all markets and urged to reduce picking to the
lowest possible minimum. Wires were sent out
accordingly and attention was called also to
the fact that reduced freight rates to the East
were indicated as the railroads were holding a
meeting in New York on Wednesday, the 15th,
to consider such reductions.
WHAT CAUSED ORANGE PRICE DROP
Auction averages on oranges this week were
$2.35 delivered, the week previous $2.25, and
the week before that $2.50; whereas, for the
three weeks prior to our last three weeks they
were running $2.80, $2.95 and $2.75, ending
January 7. The principal thing that caused the
drop in orange prices was the continued heavy
shipments for the three weeks ending January
28. During that period 3438 cars of oranges
went forward, including proper proportion of
mixed, as compared with 2635 cars that left
Florida for the same three weeks a year ago.
The average movement per week during that
period this year was 1146 cars, compared with
a year ago of 878 cars. The lighter shipments
of 964 cars for Feb. 4 and 765 cars for this
week are not enough to let the markets get
caught up with their supplies. The average
realized at auction this week is just $1.00 a
box less than a year ago when 523 cars of or-
anges sold at $3.35 delivered. Next week a
year ago the average was $3.20 and the week
following $3.35, with Florida oranges averag-
ing $3.48 for the week ending March 3.


The season's auction average to date this
year is only 30c below last season's auction
average to same date, namely, $2.72 for this
year as against $3.02 for last season through
this week, but Florida will not be pulling up her
average on oranges unless we give the trade a
chance to dispose of her excess accumulations.
The situation is critical. The special commit-
tee did not think it practical to extend the pick-
ing holiday or to attempt prorating. They all
recognized and hoped that the shippers in Flor-
ida would recognize the foolish mistake that
Florida would make if they felt that the slight
reduction of shipments of this week provided
any special opportunity for shipping next week.
The only thing that the picking holiday did
was to avert disaster where the market would
have tumbled another 25c at least from our
already very low price levels.
ORANGE GRADE ANALYSIS
It was thought by the Operating Committee
last night that a comparison between grade
analyses on oranges for this year, as compared
with last, would indicate decidedly more No. 2s
this season. There has been some increase inNo.
2s. For the week ending Feb. 4, 47% went out
No. 2s, as against 42% last year in February;
44% No. Is against last year's 42% No. Is,
3% No. 3s as against 4% last year and 6%
bulk as compared to 10% bulk in February
last season. During January our No. 2s ranged
from 40% to 46%, an average of 43%, as
against 40% last year during January, 2%
No. 3s as against 5% and 10% bulk as against
7 % last year during January.
This grading analysis, therefore, does not
explain, except in a small way, the lower auc-
tion prices we are getting this year on oranges.
(Continued on Page Five)


COMPARATIVE SHIPMENTS
Florida Oranges
Week This Last 1930- 1929- 1928- 1927-
Ending Year Year 31 30 29 28
Feb. 4...... 808 873 1234 641 1092 489
Feb. 11...... 646 827 1106 796 1196 372
Feb. 18......*775 883 1199 966 1226 433
California Oranges
Week This Last
Ending Year Year 1930 1929 1928 1927
Feb. 4...... 927 983 918 959 871 956
Feb. 11...... 944 946 782 1026 1438 1123
Feb. 18....*1000 1199 1155 913 1196 1001
Florida Grapefruit
Week This Last 1930- 1929- 1928- 1927-
Ending Year Year 31 30 29 28
Feb. 4...... 439 477 855 415 685 394
Feb. 11...... 297 439 837 544 750 391
Feb. 18......*400 610 949 578 742 541
Florida Mixed
Week This Last 1930- 1929- 1928- 1927-
Ending Year Year 31 30 29 28
Feb. 4...... 311 341 785 337 393 213
Feb. 11...... 238 344 750 351 354 205
Feb. 18.....*300 370 633 354 351 198
Florida Tangerines
Week Ending This Year Last Year 1930-31 1929-30
Feb. 4........ *7 173 187 11
Feb. 11........ 177 163 163 4
Feb. 18...... *175 108 92 -


Texas Grapefruit
Week Ending This Year Last Year 1930-31
Feb. 4........ 101 313 84
Feb. 11........ 109 314 115
Feb. 18........ 80 266 102
Estimated


TOP


USE IDEAL
TOP DRESSER
OR FLORIDEAL
TOP DRESSER


1929-30
94
47
45


DRESSERS


IF conditions in your grove or field demand an appli-
cation of quick-acting, immediately available nitro-
gen, with possibly a little extra Potash also, we recom-
mend the use of

IDEAL TOP DRESSER
19% Ammonia

FLORIDEAL TOP DRESSER
18% Ammonia, 12% Potash
They are economical and dependable mixtures, but
are not suggested as a substitute for a regular appli-
cation of complete fertilizer. They provide a variety
of sources of Nitrogen, all water soluble, which makes
possible better feeding of trees and plants than can be
obtained with straight applications of Nitrate of Soda,
Sulphate of Ammonia or Nitrate of Potash. Consult
our Field Representative or write us for detailed in-
formation and prices.

WILSON & TOOMER

FERTILIZER COMPANY

JACKSONVILLE, FLORIDA


February 15, 1933


Page 3


P





AISN111b


FLORIDA

CLEARING HOUSE

NEWS

CLEARING HOUSE PURPOSES
Co-ordinatini members' activities for orderely control
of distribution.
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information.
Standardizing grade and pack through impartial in-
spection service.
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and pub-
licity.
Securing best freight rates and transportation
services.
Developing mutual interests of, and better under-
standing among growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters
of common welfare.

DIRECTORS
E. C. AURIN Ft. Ogden
J. C. CHASE Winter Park
JOHN D. CLARK. Waverly
SP. KIRKLAND Auburndale
J. H. LETTON Valrico
JAMES C. MORTON Auburndale
M. O. OVERSTREET Orlando
E. W. VICKERS Sebastian
GEORGE F. WESTBROOK. Clermont
E. H. WILLIAMS Crescent City
R. B. WOOLFOLK Orlando
OFFICERS
E. C. AURIN President
JAMES C MORTON Vice-President
M. OVERSTREET Treasurer
L. P. KIRKLAND Secretary
A. M. PRATT Manager

Orange Juice, Or

Soda and__
Florida citrus growers, at least many
of them, probably are feeling that it is
just about time to give a thought-and
a few words-to this prohibition ques-
tion. Florida citrus growers, and the
rest of the state more or less indirectly,
may find themselves more than a little
concerned if America returns to its for-
mer wet habits and in so returning sub-
stitutes beer, wine, and liquor for or-
ange juice.
Available figures show there has
been a terrific increase in the consump-
tion of citrus fruit and citrus fruit juices
in this country since the Volstead Act
became a law. There is every reason
to believe that modification of the dry
law -will vitally affect citrus consump-
tion. It is evident that Californians also
are aware of this situation, the follow-
ing editorial from the Los Angeles
(California) Times pointing out the
truth of the above in forceful fashion.
"Californians 'who beg for beer have
something to think about. There has
been a decided rise in the soft drink
trade since the advent of prohibition.
Grape juice and citrus drinks have shot
up miraculously.
"Citrus drinks have increased 68.2
percent the past five years.
"The wine industry would gain by
repeal; but what about the orange and
lemon growers?
"Uncle Sam drank the juice of 1,231,-
692,000 oranges at soda fountains last
year. It took 13,330 cars to haul them
to him and 6,158,460 boxes to contain
them. The soda fountains of the coun-
try used 13.7 percent of the country's
total crop. This ought to be drink, if


not food, for thought to those crying
for beer to produce two or three hun-
dred millions in taxes. The lemonade
drinkers accounted for 283,431,000
lemons being squeezed at soda foun-
tains during the year. These filled 2714
cars for distribution. Lemonade ab-
sorbed 15.5 percent of the total crop...
"So far as this State is concerned
beer as a prosperity restorer has much
less value than orange juice and lem-
onade."

Recognizing Our
Advantages
There are two significant trends
which farmers may observe as they go
along trying to make the best of these
times. One is that a defeatist attitude
is quite as demoralizing to the individ-
ual who slumps into this way of think-
ing as would be an even worse turn of
affairs than we actually have. It took
a poet to say "give to the world the best
you have and the best will come back
to you"-but a little more thinking
along this line will make many an oth-
erwise gloomy day turn out to be well
worth living after all.
Out of every "sinking spell" that civ-
ilization encounters come new develop-
ments that far surpass the ones we once
prayed would return when depression
overtook us. It will be so this time as
sure as history repeats itself. There will
be improved farms, better ways to farm
and finer homes some day when all this
aggravation of today is but a memory.
But waiting for this silver lining will
not bring it.
The second observation common
these days is the number of people who
are wishing that they had "just a little
piece of land and a home in the coun-
try" where they could raise their own
fruit and vegetables, cut their own fuel,
write only one or two "rent" checks a
year and raise their own roosters for
Sunday dinners. In theory at least,
there are smartly-dressed city people
who would be glad of a chance to wear
pants with patches for a chance to be
producers of their o)wn food, masters
of their own destiny, lords of content-
ment at their own firesides.
Perhaps the other side of the pasture
does appear the greener, but there is
something to think about in these wist-
ful wishes of a tired commercial life. If
such luxuries as baskets of ripe fruit
from one's own trees, a fried chicken, a
pitcher of rich, cool milk, a rambler
rose on a garden trellis, or the sight of
tall corn growing are to be envied by
those who have none of them-then
certainly these things are worthy of the
utmost pride and enjoyment for the
farmer who has them and many of
their kind. So it is a privilege we think
ought not to be taken lightly to use and
enjoy to the fullest all the good things
that life on the farm can give . be
the world's affairs what they may.--
Eastern States Cooperator.


Telegraph Operators Stick

to Posts to Warn of Cold,
If there are any among us who think that no
one in this state, other than growers and ship-
pers, are interested in the welfare of the citrus
industry, then let these doubting persons doff
their hats in apology to the telegraph operators o
of Florida.
Wednesday afternoon, Feb. 8, the Clearing'
House received word from the U. S. Weather
Bureau in Jacksonville that a disastrous freeze
was threatening the citrus belt. What to do
about it was a problem for, it will be remem-
bered, the state-wide picking holiday on or--
anges and grapefruit was then in operation.
If a freeze was coming, as it was scheduled to
do on Thursday night, Feb. 9, it was felt that
as much fruit as could be picked on Wednes-
day should be picked simply to save from dam-
age as much as possible. To get word to every
shipper in the state, arrangements were made.
with Mr. Lewis F.' Overstreet, manager of the
Western Union office at Winter Haven, to hold
open all other offices in the fruit belt until
midnight in order that warnings could be wired
to all shippers, whether members or not of the
Clearing House, in time for them to make ar-
rangements for picking on Thursday if they 4
desired.
When word came from the Weather Bureau <
at Jacksonville at 10:30 Wednesday night that
the freeze was imminent, temperature reports
from several Central Florida points indicated <
a few more hours of grace could be expected
so it decided to wait until Thursday morning r
for still later advices before breaking up the
picking holiday by notifying all shippers of the s
coming danger. Hence it was that a score of,
loyal Western Union operators stuck to their
posts, some of them for four hours after their
regular closing time, so that they could do their
part to help the Florida citrus industry in what
appeared to be a crisis. The fact that their
vigil was in vain and that no telegrams went
out from the Clearing House that night mat-
tered not one bit to these loyal men and
women. They were on the job to help the grow- v
ers of the state and the story deserves telling.
Here is a list of the managers of the Western
Union offices who stayed on the job until mid-
night-and not all of them are men it will be-h
noted:
J. T. Wilson, Plant City; J. M. Peacock, Bra-
denton; J. W. Walling, Lake Wales; J. W. King,
Lakeland; H. C. Lashley, Palmetto; Mrs. R. P.
Scott, Umatilla; E. Baisden, Frostproof; J.
Johnson, Titusville; G. E. Combs, Arcadia;
Miss Virgie Harris, Winter Park; C. A. Harris,
Clearwater; C. J. Dean, Leesburg; M. H. Bul-
lard, Ft. Pierce; Tom Derington, Ft. Myers; F.
F. Wheeler, DeLand; Casey Jones, Sebring; W.
W. Koons, Winter Garden; Miss Ruby Berry,
Eustis; W. T. Chance, Oviedo, and L. Tharp,
Sanford.

A Spanking Suglstion
A small boy was making a nuisance of him-
self in the sleeping car. The irate gentleman
across the aisle leaned over and said to the '
mother: "That boy needs a good spanking."
"Yes, but I do not believe in spanking a child
on a full stomach."
"You are right, Madam, turn him over by all
means."


Page 4


February 15, 1933




February 15. 1933


Weekly Citrus Summary
(Continued from Page Three)
It is true, however, that a bigger proportion of
No. 2s are going to auction markets than has
been customary, and No. 2s are selling at a
greater discount at auction than a year ago.
GRAPEFRUIT ANALYSIS
In connection with this discussion on or-
anges, it was pointed out that grapefruit,
which everyone recognized as comparatively
far inferior this year to last season and more
inferior than our oranges, was, nevertheless,
holding its own pretty well in the auction mar-
kets compared to last season. Why is it grape-
fruit apparently is doing so well and oranges
so poorly? The season's grapefruit auction
average to date this year at all auctions is $2.50
delivered as compared to $2.34 delivered to
same date last season. The chief explanation
lies in the number of cars auctioned. Only 3826
cars of grapefruit have been auctioned as com-
pared to 5244 cars last year to date. Since
January 1st 1484 cars of grapefruit have been
sold at auction as compared to 1963 cars last
season. Total shipments to date, including
proper proportion of mixed, are only 7691
cars, as compared to 11,167 last year. Ship-
ments last year to date were 45% heavier
than this year. This explains why we have a
little more than held our own to date in grape-
fruit prices.
WHAT'S LEFT IN GRAPEFRUIT
Although shipments last year to date were
45% heavier than we have shipped so far, if
our estimates are correct, Florida will be ship-
ping a little over 10,000 cars of grapefruit
from now on, which was also about the same
amount that was shipped last season. Fortu-
nately we hope to have a longer marketing
period on account of the late bloom grapefruit.
Last year Texas during February shipped 1170
cars and during March 1437 cars. No one is
estimating over 600 cars in Texas from Feb. 1
on. If this is correct there will be a shortage
of Texas grapefruit this year of 2000 cars from
now on. This means that from now on last year
there was 20% more grapefruit from the two
states combined put on the market than the
estimated movement this year.
To date last year 45% more grapefruit from
-Florida had been shipped than this year. We
have a little more than held our own com-
pared with last year's prices on the 45% less
mentioned. The question then arises whether
we can hold our own on the 201% advantage
for the balance of the period ahead of us. The
average on all grapefruit sold at auction last
year was $2.49. In estimating the amount that
will be shipped from this time on it is generally
conceded that there is actually more grape-
fruit on the trees than last year but on account
of the proportion of No. 3s and culls the esti-
mate has been cut down, as stated.
GRAPEFRUIT GRADE ANALYSIS
The grade analysis on grapefruit this season
shows very much more No. 2 grapefruit than
last season. During January last year 53% of
the grapefruit was No. Is, 32% No. 2s, 3%
No. 3s, 9% commercial and 3 % bulk. This year
January shows 35% No. Is, 54% No. 2s, 3%
commercial and 7 % bulk. On manifests receiv-
ed during the first week in February the con-
trast is even greater, as this season it shows


date last season:
Est'd. Crop
Cars
Oranges ...... 26,500
Grapefruit .. 18,000
Tangerines .. 4,000
Total.......... 48,500


Shpd. Through
Feb. 11
13,163
7,691
3,255


ESTIMATED REMAINING
This
Season
Mid-season Oranges.............. 5237
Valencias ............................ 8100
Regular Grapefruit ............. 6109
Marsh Seedless---.......--.--. 4200
Tangerines ............................-------- 745


Left
13,337
10,309
745


Last
Season
4716
7500
5438
4800
808


Naconite is made up in 15
different analyses ... we
recommend NACONITE
14-3-8


ORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS
only 31% No. Is, 54% No. 2s as compared to
50% No. Is and 38% No. 2s last season for
February.
SHIPMENT ANALYSIS AS OF FEB. 11
In the following tabulated figures are given
our estimated crop figures, what has been ship-
ped so far and what is estimated left, compared
this season with last season by varieties. 4n
arriving at these figures it is estimated that
about 600 cars of Marsh Seedless have been
shipped to date as compared with 200 cars to


long lasting organic nitrogen from

Genuine Humboldt Guano. 4 Rela-


NACONITE for the



SPRING and EARLY



SUMMER APPLICATION



ESPECIALLY on those groves

that are beginning to show the ill

effects of a mineral program. 4 This

high analysis mixture combines the

advantages of Nitrate Nitrogen and

Guano . plenty of quick acting

ammonia and liberal quantities of


tively high in Potash . you may

have your choice of either Muriate or

Sulphate of Potash.


NITRATE AGENCIES COMPANY
1401 1 407 L Y N C H B U I L D I N G
JACKSONVILLE - FLORIDA


Page 5


Paze


Our Operating Committee in discussing these
figures last night, expressed somedoubt as to
whether we actually had 500 more cars of mid-
season oranges that would be shipped than we
had at this time last season. In the above table
last season's carlot figures have been increased
to correspond with the 365-box load so far this
season.
DAMAGE BY COLD
With the exception of Imperial Valley, Cali-
fornia had no damage to her citrus crop in the
recent cold weather. Imperial Valley ships only
a very small amount of grapefruit and some
oranges. The regular citrus belt in Southern
California, according to weather reports, ex-
perienced in the lowest point 26 degrees. Most
other points were around 29 or higher. Harlin-
gen, Texas, in the Rio Grande Valley, was re-
ported at 29 minimum on Wednesday and 28
on Thursday. We understand that consider-
able damage has been done to the grapefruit
bloom. Louisiana was hit hard enough with
cold to put strawberries back for about two
months. Otherwise, Louisiana would have
(Continued on Page Nine)


o-




Page 6 FL

Adding Ammonia to Peat

Produces New Fertilizer
Ammoliated peat, a new fertilizer material,
has been developed in the laboratories of the
U. S. Department of Agriculture. It seems to
combine many of the good features of the two
familiar types of nitrogen-carrying fertilizers.
It has not been developed commercially yet,
but chemists of the department say that the
manufacturing process is simple and relatively
inexpensive and that the commercial produc-
tion of ammoniated peat offers opportunity for
material saving in freight on fertilizers. Small
scale experiments with plants have given prom-
ising results.
By heating ammonia and peat under pres-
sure, about two-thirds of the reacting ammonia
is changed to chemical combinations that are
not soluble in water. These forms are general-
ly similar to the nitrogenous fertilizer ma-
terials in cottonseed meal and animal tankage.
Roughly a third of the ammonia remains in
water-soluble forms. Depending on tempera-
ture, the peat may be ammoniated to contain
up to 20 percent of nitrogen.
NITROGEN EQUIVALENT
A 20% product would thus contain in each
hundred pounds nearly half as much quick-act-
ing nitrogen as 100 lbs. of sodium nitrate and
would at the same time contain about twice as
much slower-acting nitrogen as 100 pounds
of cottonseed meal. In other words, 100 pounds
of 20 percent ammoniated peat would be rough-
ly equivalent to 200 pounds of cottonseed meal
plus 50 pounds of sodium nitrate. The product
could be shipped with notable savings in freight
and with notable advantage in combining the
good features of both the slow-acting and the
quick-acting nitrogen carriers. Raw peat is of
relatively little value as a nutritive ingredient
in fertilizer, but is recognized as a highly de-
sirable element in mixed fertilizers because of
its value as a conditioner and because it sup-
plies to the soil a desirable form of organic
matter.
Anhydrous ammonia (liquified ammonia
gas) is manufactured by the Haber process of
nitrogen fixation. The nitrogen is derived from
the air, and ammonia is at present the cheap-
est and most concentrated source of nitrogen
for fertilizer manufacture.- It may be shipped
by tank cars from the nitrogen fixation plants
to the fertilizer factories. The utilization of
peat for the preparation of ammoniated peat
offers commercial possibilities, the chemists
say, because peat is widely distributed and oc-
curs within short distances.of the principal fer-
tilizer consuming centers. The preparation of
air dried peat is an inexpensive operation and
the addition of ammonia demands merely pro-
vision for heat and pressure. Preliminary ex-
periments indicate that peat is not the only
possible carrier, but that similar results may
be obtained with various carbonaceous ma-
terials ranging from lignite to plant residues
of various sorts.
MOISTURE CAUSES WASTE
A familiar drawback to the quick-acting fer-
tilizers such as sodium nitrate is that they are
readily soluble in water. Heavy applications
may burn the plants and the surplus which the
plant can not use immediately is likely to be
lost in rainwater run off from the field and


ORIDA CLEARING ( ) HOUSE NEWS
by leaching. The slower acting organic fer-
tilizers-cottonseed and linseed meals, tank-
age, etc.-have been used increasingly for feed
stuffs and in industry, thus limiting the supply
and raising the price for fertilizer use. These
have been recognized as desirable because they
release the nitrogen gradually, feed the plants
over a longer period, and may be applied in
greater quantity with less waste by leaching
and drainage.
Ammoniated peat, says the Bureau of Chem-
istry and Soils, "offers not only the possibility
of a cheap nitrogen carrier, but other advant-
ages for use in mixed fertilizers. Its physical
characteristics are such as to make it a splendid
conditioner in mixed fertilizers, preventing the


February 15, 1933
caking of the product, and keeping the mixture
in condition for easy distribution. The advant- ,
ages offered by the ammoniated peat as a fer-
tilizer material are numerous and apparently
convincing, but its utilization in the manufac-
ture of mixed fertilizers is yet to be devel-
oped."
The bureau has been developing the am-
monition of peat by different methods. Work- .J
ers at the Fixed Nitrogen Research Laboratory
heated peat and anhydrous ammonia in a closed I
bomb, producing a product containing up to
20 percent nitrogen. The Soils Unit of the
bureau seeking to decompose peat got some-
what similar results by heating the peat under
pressure with aqua ammonia.


SPECIAL SALE


Citrus Nursery Trees

Our Entire Stock of High Grade Trees
Offered at
Sensational Price Reductions

ORANGE AND GRAPEFRUIT TREES-Standard varieties
on rough lemon and sour orange stocks, one-year buds
on four-year roots-

As low as 20C each

GRAPEFRUIT TREES-One Inch and Larger-Early, late
and Pinks, vigorous, husky two and three-year buds on
five and six-year roots, fine for either resets or new
plantings-
On rough lemon 35c each

On sour orange 25C each

TEMPLE ORANGE TREES-On sour orange and Cleopatra
Mandarin stocks, the finest Temples we have ever
grown-

at new low price of 75c each

TAHITI LIME, LEMON, KUMQUAT and TANGELO
TREES at special reduced prices..
The above prices apply only on orders covering a total of 100
trees. On smaller orders, please add 10c per tree.

All trees included in this sale are of our own growing. They are
healthy, vigorous stock of the usual fine Glen Saint Mary quality,
and are not to be confused with shoddy, old and poorly grown
stock sometimes offered elsewhere at so-called bargain prices.

Write for folder showing in detail the prices, varieties,
conditions of sale, etc.

Glen Saint Mary Nurseries Company
Winter Haven, Florida





February 15, 1933 FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS


Florida Again Escapes a Wintery Blast;

Weather Man Explains the Reason


Florida has plenty of "climate"-as the say-
ing goes-but not very much weather. This
reputation came near having a black mark
scratched on it a week ago when a blast of cold
weather encircled the west and southwest and
went scudding up into the northeastern states
with merely a dash of cold air fanned at Flor-
ida as the frigid rascal hurried toward the At-
lantic. Monday and Tuesday, Feb. 6 and 7,
were almost balmy days. Wednesday, Feb. 8,
was if anything hot, at least throughout the
citrus belt. Wednesday afternoon, however,
things began to happen. Word was received
from the Weather Bureau office in Jacksonville
that Florida was due for a freeze-and a bad
one at that! Meteorologist Walter J. Bennett,
at the Jacksonville Bureau, advised the Clear-
ing House that he would be able to obtain fur-
ther information at 10:30 o'clock Wednesday
night.
When the later report from the Weather
Bureau reached the Clearing House there seem-
ed to be no chance of Florida escaping a freeze;
reports showed from northern parts of the
state that the cold wave was taking in at least
part of the state, Pensacola reporting a mini-
mum of 16, Jacksonville a minimum of 24,
Gainesville a minimum of 29, Ocala a minimum
of 30, and so on. And then the remarkable
thing happened-the cold wave, which had
been rushing toward Florida from Central
Texas, turned its face more to the north and
zoomed past us on up into New England.
At the request of the Clearing House News
Mr. Bennett kindly consented to explain just
how that freaky cold wave acted and to explain
at the same time just what it is that happens
when Florida feels the chill of a freeze or a
frost. The weather map of Wednesday night,
Feb. 8, which is referred to by Mr. Bennett, is
reproduced below. If readers will refer to this
map they can visualize just what Mr. Bennett
had to visualize when he was issuing his warn-
ings. -Mr. Bennett's explanation of the cold
that he managed to side-track for us follows:
"Freezing and damaging frosts in Central
Florida result from an area of very high pres-
sure or High, moving east-southeastward from
the Plains States or middle Mississippi valley,
or eastward from Texas, while an area of low
pressure or Low of considerable depth is mov-
ing eastward or northeastward on or near the
Atlantic coast. The High gives the push, the
Low gives the pull, that brings down the cold
air. The degree of cold depends largely on the
temperatures in the High. The rate of fall
depends chiefly upon the difference in barome-
ter readings between the High and the Low.
To bring freezing temperatures to Central


Citrus Grove
Accountants and Income
Tax Specialists
Certified Public Accountant

A. Gilbert Lester & Co.
Taylor Building
WINTER HAVEN, FLA.


Florida, the High must be above 30.40 and the
Low below 29.70.
"The morning map of Wednesday, Felbruary
8th, showed a High with barometer readings
above 30.60 over Texas, freezing temperatures
throughout the state, and 4 below zero at Abi-
lene in north central Texas. The Low was over
the north Atlantic states with pressure below
29.50 over New England.
EXPECTED PRESSURE TO MOVE EAST
"Experience of the past 20 years led the
writer to calculate that both High and Low
would move eastward, that freezing tempera-
ture would overspread northern Florida by
Thursday morning, and probably Central Flor-
ida by Friday morning, and notices were issued
accordingly. No definite temperature forecast
can be made for more than 24 hours in advance,
but it was felt that the growers of the state
must have notification of the probability of
heavy to killing frosts as far ahead as possible.
"The night map of Wednesday was one of
the most threatening p.m. maps I have ever
seen. The High had moved slowly eastward
and temperature was 30 at Pensacola. Thurs-
day morning's map showed that the high was
moving more rapidly and more toward the
northeast. It was somewhat colder in north
Florida than had been expected: Jacksonville
24, Pensacola 16, and Ocala 30. It was evident
that there would be no general freeze, but tem-
peratures of 28 to 32 might be expected in Cen-
tral Florida if the weather cleared. Warnings
were issued to that effect.
PRESSURE CHANGES DIRECTION
"The weather continued cloudy and wind
shifted definitely to northeast. Thursday
night's map explained the situation. The High


Page 7

had moved northeastward to Tennessee, and
the crisis for Florida had passed during the
day. Rain had set in at Miami and extended
northward during the night. The cold did not
reach Central Florida because the High moved
too fast and moved northeastward instead of
eastward.
"With many unknown and uncertain factors
the forecaster cannot be successful every time,
especially if he tries to go too far ahead. When
the growers have so much at stake, he dare not
delay. It seems better to warn with possibility
of failure, than to let a freeze come in with
warnings issued too late to be of real value.
"This statement is made that growers may
better understand how the Highs and Lows
control our weather, and some of the difficul-
ties in calculating their movement.
"The latest (seasonal) date of a real freeze
in the past 40 years is Feb. 14 (1899) when
temperatures reached 22 at Tampa. Local oc-
currences of freezing temperatures have oc-
curred in Central Florida as late as April 7,
(but this was back in 1891)."

HAYMAN IS APPOINTED
COUNTY AGENT IN POLK
W. Paul Hayman began work as County
Agent in Polk County Feb. 11, succeeding
Frank L. Holland, resigned, according to an
announcement by the Agricultural Extension
Service. Mr. Hayman is a native of Lee Coun-
ty and a graduate of the Florida College of Ag-
riculture. Formerly he served as County Agent
in Lee County.
Mr. Holland has resigned to become director
of the Florida agricultural research group re-
cently organized by the fertilizer companies.

Old Lady (to Tommy): "Surely your moth-
er could find pieces of material more like your
trousers when she patches them."
Tommy: "That ain't a patch; that's me."


Explanatory Notes-Observations taken at 8 a. m. 75th meridian time. Air pressure reduced
to sea level. Isobars (or continuous lines) pass through points of equal air pressure. Isotherms
(dotted lines) pass through points of equal temperatures drawn for every 10 degrees.






Pa__e FLORIDA CLEARING


Scale-Insects Have Many Natural Foes

Which Are Helpful in Control Methods


By E. W. BERGER, Entomologist
(Broadcast Over WRUF, Gainesville)
There are several principal groups of scale-
insects found infesting citrus in Florida; name-
ly, the Armored Scales, the Soft Scales, Mealy-
bugs and the Wax Scales.
ARMORED SCALES AND THEIR NATURAL
ENEMIES
Friendly Fungi
The principal armored scales, those with the
thin, firm, waxy, scale-like covering, are the
Purple Scale, Long Scale, Florida Red Scale
and Chaff Scale. These are all at one time or
another effectively controlled by one or another
of several of the so-called friendly scale-fungi,
better named, the entomogenous fungi.
We generally list five of these: Red-Headed
Scale-Fungus, Pink Scale-Fungus, White-Head-
ed Scale-Fungus, Black Scale-Fungus, and Cin-
namon Fungus..
The Red-Headed Scale-Fungus appears as
minute red or reddish heads growing out from
the sides of infected scales. These little heads
are rarely 1/16 of an inch high and less than
1/32 of an inch in diameter. They bear the
minute spores that reproduce the fungus.
These spores, like seeds of higher plants, propa-
gate their respective kinds.
Since satisfactory methods for growing this
fungus have not been developed, it is, of course,
at present not possible to supply it in pure cul-
tures like we supply the Red Aschersonia. This
applies to most of the friendly fungi that
destroy the armored scales. Growers are there-
fore dependent upon local supplies of these
fungi for use in distributing or planting them
into their scale-infested trees. This is readily
done by mixing available fungus material in
water and applying the resulting mixture of
spores and water to the infested trees, or in-
fested parts of trees.
PREPARING FUNGUS SPRAY
The amount of fungus material available
should be mixed with an amount of water neces-
sary for spraying the number of infested trees
at hand. The fungus material should be thor-
oughly agitated and rubbed as effectively as
possible in the water and this mixture strained
through coarse cheesecloth or a fine wire
screen or sieve, such as is used for straining
milk. For applying such a mixture with a
whisk-broom or for dipping infested twigs, less
water is necessary. If a spray pump is used,
this should be thoroughly cleaned before em-
ploying it for spraying fungus, especially if the
sprayer has been previously used for spraying
with Bordeaux or lime-sulphur. A new spray
pump, kept for applying fungus only, is recom-
mended. As already indicated, the methods for
applying fungus just described also apply to
the other scale-fungi listed below and will not
be repeated under their respective topics. Sev-
eral kinds of fungus may be mixed together in
the same water.
Other methods for transplanting a friendly
fungus to other trees infested with the same
scale-insect or others, of which it is known to
be a parasite, consist in fastening fungus ma-
terial on twigs, leaves, or even fruit into the
infested trees.


The Red-Headed Scale-Fungus frequently is
effective in destroying the Purple Scale, Long
Scale, Chaff Scale, and some others on citrus
and non-citrus plants.
PINK SCALE-FUNGUS
The Pink Scale-Fungus appears to be pri-
marily a parasite of the Florida Red Scale and
the Purple Scale but occurs also on others, such
as the Obscure Scale frequently found infest-
ing water oaks, and the Gloomy Scale, of the
red or swamp maple, from which trees it may
frequently be collected for use on citrus trees.
As already indicated, the methods for trans-
planting the Red-Headed Scale-Fungus, previ-
ously described apply also to this and other
fungus parasites of scale-insects.
WHITE-HEADED SCALE-FUNGUS
This friendly fungus, as its name implies,
produces whitish or grayish-white heads, not
unlike in size and appearance to those of the
Red-Headed Scale-Fungus and the Pink Scale-
Fungus, except in color. This fungus is fre-
quently an effective parasite of the Long Scale,
Purple Scale and Chaff Scale.
BLACK SCALE-FUNGUS
This fungus parasite of scale-insects is also
widely distributed and like the others listed in
this paper probably occurs everywhere in Flor-
ida, and has been received on San Jose Scale
from as far north as Virginia. (Incidentally,
San Jose Scale is not known to infest sweet or
sour oranges, lemons, limes, citrons, grape-
fruit, or any other form of citrus, except the
so-called trifoliate orange which is now placed
in the genus Poncirus, as distinguished from
the genus Citrus). This fungus has the appear-
ance of black spatter forming small splotches
on leaves, bark and fruit, varying from less
than 1/16 inch to 1/8 and larger. It is fre-
quently found on citrus destroying the Purple
Scale, Long Scale and Chaff Scale.
CINNAMON FUNGUS
This is the only fungus that occasionally in-
fects both scale-insects and whiteflies and has
been mentioned as one of the natural agencies
that control whiteflies. This fungus has never
been found so effective that it could be deemed
worthwhile to culture it.
PARASITES AND PREDATORS
Parasites are minute, wasp-like insects, one
species of which is very effective in destroying
the Woolly Whitefly, and are ordinarily of lit-
tle importance in the control of the armored
scales of citrus.
There are a number of predators, especially
among ladybeetles. The Twice-Stabbed Lady-
Beetle is generally the most common and feeds
both upon the young and mature scales. While
the Ladybeetles destroy large numbers of scale-
insects, found infesting citrus, nevertheless, by
themselves they are apparently never quite
able to effect a satisfactory control, but appear
to be a considerable factor in lessening injury
by scale-insects.
Other predators are the Downy Darkling
Beetle, aphis-lions (the larvae of lace-wing
flies) and trash bugs. The first of these is a
grayish, oval-oblong beetle about 5/16 of an
inch long. While not a ladybeetle, it, neverthe-


less, feeds upon large numbers of scale-insects.
Aphis-lions are particularly fond of aphids,
but also destroy large numbers of scale crawl-
ers. Trash bugs belong to the family of aphis-
lions and covering themselves with the skins
of their victims or other debris, they resemble
minute animated rubbish heaps.
SOFT SCALES, MEALYBUGS, WAX SCALES
AND THEIR NATURAL ENEMIES
Friendly Fungi
Soft scales, mealybugs and wax scales do not
have the firm scale-like covering of the armor-.
ed scales, although some of them, such as the
Florida Wax Scale, the Barnacle Scale and
others, are covered and protected by plates of
rather soft wax. The Soft Brown Scale and its
kin produce little or no wax while others, such
as the Pyriform Scale, the Green Shield Scale
and mealybugs have more or less waxy ma-
terial on or about them. The majority of these
are frequently most effectively controlled by
one or several entomogenous fungi: The Cuban
Aschersonia destroys several species of soft
scales and the Pyriform Scale. The Turbinate
Aschersonia destroys the Florida Wax Scale.
The Cephalosporium Fungus frequently de-
stroys the Pyriform Scale and several soft
scales. The Cottony-Cushion Scale-Fungus de-
stroys Cottony-Cushion Scale. The Mealybug
Fungus destroys several species of mealybugs.
PARASITES AND PREDATORS
Some of the soft scales are also effectively
destroyed by the little internal wasp-like para-
sites. The Soft Brown Scale is a striking ex-
ample of this. Infestations of this scale sooner
or later become parasitized by these minute .
wasp-like insects and are generally effectively
controlled by them.
The Black Scale and the Florida Wax Scale
are widely distributed in Florida, but, like the
Soft Brown Scale, are effectively controlled by
one or several species of minute wasp-like para-
sites. Other members of the Soft Scale group
and the Wax Scale group appear to be less fre-
quently, or not at all, attacked by parasites.
Of predaceous insects, predators, we may as-
sume that the various ladybeetles, and possibly
the maggots of a small fly on the Green Shield
Scale, are doing their bit in lessening the in-
jury produced by the soft scale, mealybugs,
and wax scales.

An Iowa farmer purchased a purebred pig
from a raiser of fancy hogs. The pig and bill
arrived the same day. Next day the dissatis-
fied farmer wrote to the hog raiser as follows:
"Dear Sir: Both pig and bill arrived safely.
Judging from their comparative size, you made
an error in shipping. You should have sent the
bill by express and the pig by mail."



IRRIGATION

Ames Lockseam Slip Joint Pipe
Universal Cast Iron Pipe

MYERS SPRAY PUMPS

The Cameron & Barkley Co.
67 Years of Service
TAMPA, FLA.


February 15, 1933


Pace 8


FLORIDA CLEARING


HOUSE NEWS





February 15, 1933


SFlorida Seeking Water

) and Rail Reductions
.- (Continued from Page One)
missioners how imperative it is that Florida
Again be given a chance to develop legitimate
business in the middlewest. The Clearing
House manager prefaced his plea with a brief
Outline of the organization and operation of
the Clearing House together with its relation-
; ship to the Florida citrus industry as a whole.
He brought out the point that the Clearing
House has frequently been the mouthpiece for
the industry, citing the work this organization
Sdid during the Mediterranean fruit fly cam-
Spaign in helping to bring about removal of the
quarantines which worked such a hardship on
I Florida growers and shippers.
Mr. Pratt then made a general statement as
to the effect of transportation costs in relation
to the general marketing problem, explaining
Show the item of freight rates are, of necessity,
figured in the sale of every box of Florida fruit.
He admitted that the customer invariably paid
I the freight on citrus fruit, but declared that
"it is equally plain that the grower's net return
is directly affected by freight or other trans-
portation charges." He pointed out that ma-
r' trial reductions in transportation charges al-
ways result in an increased volume of fruit
sold in the territory affected by the freight re-
I duction, explaining that Florida operators are
always seeking to widen distribution of their
products, although transportation costs invari-
ably are the limiting factor.
STouching on the increase of boat and truck
shipments from Florida, Manager Pratt showed
how the citrus industry is availing itself of
Every means possible to cut to the minimum
costs of transporting the fruit from grove to
consumer. Actual figures which he produced,
revealed an ever-increasing growth in the vol-
ume of citrus being moved by boat. In 1929-
'30, only 254 cars were shipped by water, but
the following season this total leaped to 1,696
cars and this in turn was succeeded by a boat
/ movement which reached the 4,239-car mark!
SThis season, through January 28, 3,194 cars
have moved by water, Pratt showed, and there
are five months of the season yet remaining.
The Commissioners were then given evidence
showing how Florida has been losing her mid-
dlewestern markets since the Government clap-
ped quarantine regulations on the fruit move-
ment during the fly campaign of three years
ago. Terrific decreases in unloads in middle-
western markets were cited as evidence that
the Mississippi territory is being gradually
taken away from Florida. To the question
raised that lower transportation costs into
the middlewest would be harmful to California
and Texas, Manager Pratt brought out the
point that this would not necessarily be the
case in that the varieties of fruit from the coun-
try's three citrus areas are different and thus
would not be competing.
It was brought out that in the case of Texas,
where Marsh Seedless grapefruit is predomi-
nant, this state is through shipping usually by
the first of March, with Florida holding her
Marsh Seedless for shipment after Texas is
through. California's year-'round marketing
season was pointed out as a distinct advantage
to California as was also the fact that Califor-
nia is shipping navel oranges at the time when


Florida, which does not produce commercial
navels, is moving other varieties. California's
blanket freight rate privilege likewise was men-
tioned as an advantage which Florida does not
have. The petition was concluded with the
pointed observation that Florida growers and
shippers have cut their costs both in production
and in handling, but that a reciprocal saving
has not as yet been granted by the railroads.
The opportunity for further hearings, both
supporting the request and opposing it, is being
held open by the Commission until March 10.


Weekly Citrus Summary
(Continued from Page Five)
started shipping her strawberries about two
weeks hence.
BOAT SHIPMENTS
Boat shipments this week total 282 oranges,
159 grapefruit and 62 tangerines, including 37
oranges, 10 grapefruit and 11 tangerines esti-
mated to leave Jacksonville today for New
York. This makes a total of 503 cars via boat
as compared to 678 cars last week, 621 the


week before and 480 the week before that. We
can figure that New York by boat alone will
be receiving for next week's auction 212 or-
anges, 95 grapefruit and 53 tangerines.
In addition must be added whatever leaves
on the Sunday boat from Jacksonville. We un-
derstand the boat from Tampa Union Terminal
will be going out with full cargo on Tuesday,
and there is nothing at present that indicates
any let-up in the total supplies by boat. New
York has sold to date 5815 carloads; 3040 car-
loads of Florida citrus have been shipped to
New York by boat, or about 52% of New
York's total sales.
Hoping there may be some regard paid to
the serious situation existing and the, wires
sent to all operators, we are estimating next
week's shipments at 775 cars of oranges, 400
cars grapefruit, 175 tangerines and 300 mixed.
California wires estimating 1000 cars for next
week. Our estimates last week for this week
came pretty close, being 600 cars against 646
shipped in oranges, 350 against 297 grapefruit
shipped, 250 against 238 mixed and 175 against
177 tangerines shipped. California estimated
for this week 1100 cars and shipped 944.


NEW BROGDEX HOUSES

Mount Dora Citrus Growers Assn.
Mount Dora
Sunshine State Packing Co.
Auburndale

THESE two houses began shipping Brogdexed fruit a few weeks ago
and for the balance of the season every box of fruit they pack will
be protected against excessive decay and wilt by the control treatment
of Brogdex.
Officers and directors of the Mount Dora Association have been
watching and checking Brogdexed fruit from other houses for some
time and came to the conclusion that its use on their fruit wouild result
in better delivery, more attractive appearance, longer keeping time
and higher prices, advantages that would show the Association a sub-
stantial profit on the investment.
The Sunshine State Packing Co. is a new company under old heads.
The management will be in the hands of Clyde Hunter, formerly man-
ager of the Umatilla Citrus Growers' Association, and Earl Hunter,
formerly manager of the Winter Garden Citrus Growers' Association.
Associated with the Hunter brothers will be Mr. H. K. Skivington, for-
merly traveling representative of the Brogdex Co. of California.
The Hunters used Brogdex at Umatilla and Winter Garden and
know its advantages, while Mr. Skivington has seen the market prefer-
ence everywhere for Brogdexed fruit. It is natural that this house
would not be without Brogdex.
More money for the same fruit means Brogdex every time. From
November 11th to January 27th, inclusive, the New York auction mar-
ket reports show Brogdexed grapefruit brought 68c a box and Brog-
dexed oranges 38c a box above the market average for non-Brogdexed
fruit.
What is true of New York is likewise true in other markets. It
will pay you well-to put your fruit through a Brogdex house-there is
one near you.


Florida Brogdex Distributors, Inc.
B. C. Skinner, President DUNEDIN, FLORIDA


FLORIDA CLEARING a HOUSE NEWS


Page 9







AT ECONOMIC CROSS-ROADS

IT'S TIME TO

PLAN AHEAD


THE value of the past lies in the lessons it has taught. The greater few years tell a sad tale and definitely prove that it takes high-quality
value of the present lies in the opportunities it affords to cope with plant food to do a satisfactory growing job.
present problems at first hand and to lay plans for future progress. As we stand at the economic cross-roads of a new era it is the time to
Now is the time to clear the way for down-to-earth action-the time buy stability-it's the time for growers to plan ahead and to demand
to formulate sound policies to meet competition on an equal footing. "MOST VALUE PER DOLLAR" for their fertilizer investment. To
Today most growers realize that they are, after all, manufacturers, be sure that your trees and plants get every particle of nourishment
faced with many similar production problems. To withstand general that properly-balanced, readily available plant food can supply use
economic trends they also realize that __ Ideal Fertilizers this year. The quality
they must produce more quality in v- of Ideal Fertilizers never varies. Year
their crops and still keep their cost of in and year out for forty years they
production down. They can no longer have produced uniformly good results
in every part of Florida and there is an
operate on guess work, nor can they
Ideal Brand of fertilizer to suit your
afford to experiment with low-quality,
particular soil and crop. Consult our
unbalanced fertilizers. The false econ- representative regarding your ferti.
omy of this practice has been thorough- . lizer requirements or write us direct.
ly proved. Tests made with cheap, syn- Wilson & Toomer Fertilizer Company,
thetic combinations within the past -. Jacksonville, Florida.

Genuine Peruvian Bird Guano is liberally used in the manufacture of Ideal Fer-
tilizers. Ample supplies are now available and at prices which are lower than
at any time during the past twenty years. When you want Bird Guano demand
Genuine Peruvian. Accept no substitutes.


MOST VALUE PER DOLLAR


IDEAL


FERTILIZERS


FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS8


February 15, 1933


Page 10




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