Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00102
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: December 15, 1932
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00102
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text

U. S. DNpt. of Agri. |
:F L O'R I DA "
Library-Period. Div.,. I
Washington, D.C. FL CY K

Representing more than 10,000
Growers o'f Oranges and Grapefruit



Official Publication of the

$2.00 a Year
S10 Cents a Copy

Published Semi-monthly by the Florida Cit-
rus Growers Clearing House Association,
T1_'HJ':A*xr~r ^ T-- ^ U 17;,. ,. T .t~w TT1

DECEMBER 15, 1932

Entered as second-class matter August 81,
1928, at the postoffice at Winter Haven,
Plorida. nnder the Act of March 3. 1879.


YOU can't beat delicious thin-skinned
Florida grapefruit naturally ripened
on the tree for juiciness and zestful
appetizing flavor. And you can't beat
Grapefruit for fortifying your system
Against catching colds.
Any doctor will tell you that eating
grapefruit with every meal builds up an
alkaline reserve that makes it mighty
tough going for cold germs. In fact,
grapefruit juice is prescribed by many
physicians for "flu" and severe colds.
So start protecting yourself today.
Have this healthful fruit for breakfast,
in salads and luncheon desserts. The
juice is a grand appetizer too. To make

sure of juicy-ripe, thin-skinned fruit,
P.S. Get more orange juice for your money
by buying Florida oranges the thin-skinnett,
tree-ripened, extra-juicy kind.
The finest Florida oranges, tree-
ripened and packed with health-
ful goodness, can now be had at
your dealer's. Famous for their
extra juice and superior flavor-
for oranges, say "Florida!"



EVERBODY knows that Florida
grows the juiciest oranges. Florida
oranges never run to skin and pulp;
they are fairly bursting with juice.
More juice means more vitamins,
more health-more for your
money in every orange.
You can always tell Florida
oranges by their thin skin. It is
smooth and tight-never thick
and rough.

So be sure you get thin-skinned
Florida oranges -they're so much
juicier, so much more economical!

The finest Florida grapefruit,
tree-ripened and packed with
healthful goodness, can now be
had. Famous for their extra juice
and superior flavor for grape-
fruit say "Floridal"





Volume V
Number 6

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DeW- R, IttIv or 9.1 n er aven, a. I
1 1 lFid ne h c o ac 89


Committee of Fifty Department
(Articles under this heading are prepared and published in the News by the thousands of other grower-members of the Clearing House and to report their
Educational Committee of the Committee of Fifty. Through this department efforts and activities to them. The Clearing House Directors and Manage-
members of the Committee of Fifty hope to maintain closer relations with the ment accept no responsibility for what appears in this department)

No Tangerine
A mass meeting of citrus growers and shippers
was held in Winter Haven November 25. Mr. Mayo,
Commissioner of Agriculture, had called the meeting
to discuss the extension of maturity inspection beyond
the regular inspection period. Three men, prominent
in the industry, voiced objections that induced the
meeting to vote against renewed inspection on tan-
gerines. That the meeting was led to a wrong decision
is made very clear in tests made by the inspection
The maturity standard on tangerines, 7 to 1, is
perhaps too low and certainly low enough, and tan-
gerines testing between 5.30 to 1 and 7 to 1 have been
permitted to leave the state.
It was unlawful after December first to ship tan-
gerines that failed to meet the requirements of the
law, and the shippers and growers who knowingly
and wilfully sent such immature fruit to market vio-
lated the law and most certainly should have been
subjected to the penalties provided therein.
Mr. Mayo's inspectors reported the imniaturity of
these tangerines. The responsibility of enforcing the
citrus fruit law is his and only his. He failed. By
knowingly permitting tangerines of low maturity to
go forward without hindrance, Mr. Mayo gave coun-
tenance and sanction to the outrage and insult offered
every tangerine consumer who gave his money for
fruit unfit to eat.
The loophole that the law leaves in tangerine in-
spection from Nov. 15 to Nov. 30 should be closed at
the next session of the Legislature. That such a loop-
hole inadvertently exists is regrettable, but it pro-
vides no excuse for the failure of the Department to
inforce the law on tangerines as was done on oranges
and grapefruit from Dec. 1 to Dec. 20.

Decay! Discount!
"Car reported arriving 15 percent decay."
"Oranges show heavy decay, buyer refuses to ac-
cept, divert to auction."
"Heavy decay oranges, 20 to 25 percent, buyer
will accept subject to repack and dollar discount."
When excessive decay occurs in Florida fruit there
is a reason for it and while a dozen stock excuses exist
and are used in defense, the fact remains that decay
is generally caused by ignorance, indifference or care-
lessness, or a combination of these, somewhere be-
tween the tree and the car. Carelessness and indif-
ference in packing and handling and, all too frequent-
ly lack of the know-how in coloring, ,with its prob-
lems of time, temperature, gas, and humidity, are
common but avoidable causes of decay.
Decay would not be quite so bad if it meant loss
only to the grower and shipper immediately involved.
Like low grade fruit, like immature fruit, like inferior
standards of grade and pack, like fruit of poor color,
excessive decay in a few cars creates general doubt

and suspicion, and damages Florida's citrus reputa-
tion. There never has been and never will be any
valid excuse for avoidable decay. Let us vigorously
combat it.

That California

H. C. Case, of Ft. Myers; A. F. Pickard, of Lake-
land, and T. B. Gautier, of Eustis, were a committee
from the Committee of Fifty who appeared before
the State Plant Board at its monthly meeting in
Gainesville, Nov. 19, asking the Board its reasons for
lifting the embargo on California citrus fruits and
presenting what in the judgment of the Committee of
Fifty were good reasons for replacing the embargo.
In brief, the committee's argument in favor of re-
placement of the embargo was based entirely on the
danger of a possible widespread distribution of brown
rot through the citrus sections of Florida. Brown rot
is very prevalent in California and has been discov-
ered in some of the cars of oranges that came from
that state to Florida this year. It is claimed by the
Plant Board that a few isolated outbreaks of brown
rot existed in Florida prior to this year. Dr. Newell,
speaking for the Board, contends that brown rot ap-
parently does not thrive under the weather conditions
that prevail in Florida.
Your committee stated that brown rot has been
worse in California than ever before because of the
unusual amount of rainfall in that state this summer,
and in view of the much greater rainfall in Florida,
especially during the summer months when both Cali-
fornia oranges and lemons are now being admitted,
the growers of this state are fearful of a possible rapid
spread of this disease in Florida as a result of the lift-
ing of the embargo.
That the sterilization demanded on California
fruit sent to Florida is not one hundred percent effec-
tive has been demonstrated by the fact that brown rot
has been found in cars distributed in Florida this sum-
mer. And while Dr. Newell states that he does not
regard brown rot as a menace in Florida, we believe
that unbiased plant pathologists will agree that upon
introduction of the disease into new territory it may
undergo a period of acclimation whereby it may
adapt itself to the new climatic conditions following
which it may spread rapidly. We believe that this is
entirely possible in the case of brown rot in Florida,
and consequently are anxious that the embargo be
replaced in the interest of protection to Florida citrus
The Plant Board informed your committee that its
action had been petitioned by a group of representa-
tive Florida growers making a plea that the embargo
be lifted. In order that this important subject may
have further consideration and discussion the Plant
Board has invited representatives of a number of the
leading organizations in the state to appear before
them on Friday, Dec. 16, for further study of this im-
portant subject.

December 15, 1932


Weekly Citrus Summary

(By A. M. Pratt, Manager, Florida Citrus Growers
Clearing House Association)
(Week Ending December 10, 1932)


Fla. Org's Shpd....... 1440
Total.................... 3140
Fla. Gft. Shpd......... 357
Total...................... 2883
Fla. Tang. Shpd....... 166
Total...................... 517
Fla. Mixed Shpd..... 458
S Total...................... 1578
Texas Gft. Shpd. .... 134
Total---....................--- 1355
Cal. Org's Shpd....... 1315

SFla. Org's Auc......... 376
Average.....-----.. $3.50
Fla. Gft. Auc...--. .. 285
Average.................. $2.45
* Fla. Tang. Auc....... 157
Average.................. $2.70
Texas Gft. Auc...-... 30
Average.................. $2.60
Caf. Org's Auc......... 377
Average.................. $2.95

Week Week
Ending Ending
'32 Dec.3,'32 Dec.12,'31
394 1166
1700 4009
381 388
2526 5067
200 153
351 684
306 652
1120 2402
142 126
1221 1493
1098 1462



(Commencing Sunday)

Week Ending Shpd Sold
Dec. 3.... 63 22
Dec. 10.... 192 55
Dec. 12
last year.. 281 64


Shpd Sold
41 12
146 40


$2.34 170 51 $1.93

GRFT. No. 1 GFT. No. 2
Week Ending Shpd Sold Avg. Shpd Sold Avg.
Dec. 3.... 39 5 $1.97 70 19 $1.80
Dec. 10.... 29 15 $1.84 56 10 $1.61
Dec. 12
last year.. 73 15 $1.51 42 17 $1.37

Week Ending Saturday-9 A.M.
360 Boxes to Car
Week Ending Oranges Grapefruit Tang. Total
Dec. 3........ 39,325 29,674 69,019
Dec. 10........ 56,249 32,408 88,657
Totaltodate 227,382 143,162 1441 371,985
Total to date
last year......288,300 133,545 22626 444,471
(Does not include truck movement to boat)
Not available

Florida Oranges
Week Last 1930- 1929- 1928- 1927-
Ending Year 31 30 29 28
Dec. 3........ 552 1101 837 1154 1162
Dec. 10........1166 1360 1339 1969 1396
Dec. 17........1312 750 862 903 575

California Oranges
Week Last
Ending Year 1930 1929
Dec. 3........1317 1874 1689 1
Dec. 10........1462 1450 1126 1
Dec. 17........ 596 558 653
Florida Grapefruit
Week Last 1930- 1929-
Ending Year 31 30
Dec. 3 ....... 538 713 413
SDec. 10........ 388 567 474
Dec. 17........ 372 262 269
Florida Mixed
Week Last 1930- 1929-
Ending Year 31 30
Dec. 3........ 494 775 433
Dec. 10........ 652 1018 735
Dec. 17........ 765 870 607
Florida Tangerines
Week Ending Last Year 1930-31
Dec. 3.............. 154 239
Dec. 10.............. 153 252

1928 1927
697 1804
.066 1383
712 1060



1928- 1927-
29 28
453 393
580 544
241 220


Dec. 17.............. 255 139 67
Texas Grapefruit
Week Ending Last Year 1930-31 1929-30
Dec. 3........... 99 177 232
Dec. 10.............. 126 123 304
Dec. 17............. 144 93 235

With prices as good as they have been, it
was natural that everyone should be shipping
all the oranges they could this week. So far
as we know, no one figured that shipments
would be so heavy. The general thought seem-
ed to be that the straight cars of oranges
would run between 700 to 800 cars. Actually,
shipments exceeded 1400 cars. This is nearly
as many oranges as Florida has shipped this
whole season prior to this week. One thousand
seven hundred cars through last Saturday,
Dec. 3, had left Florida. This brings total
shipments on oranges to 3100 cars to date as
compared with 4009 a year ago.
Because of the very light shipments prior to
this week there cannot be much accumulation
of oranges with the trade. Nevertheless, the
f.o.b. demand seems to be quite limited and
the buying trade extremely cautious. There is
an absence of the usual bookings of orders for
the Christmas trade and every evidence that
supplies will be especially heavy at auction,
particularly in New York, this coming week.
Thirty-one thousand boxes of oranges, 6500
boxes of grapefruit and 4000 boxes tange-
rines left Tampa by boat today, Dec. 10, for
New York. This shipment will be arriving in
time for sale on Thursday, the 15th. It is
hoped, however, that certainly the entire car-
go will not be sold immediately upon arrival
and that possibly some of the fruit may be
sent to Philadelphia and Boston. At best,
however, it presents a crisis with which our
members should be familiar and for that rea-
son we wired advising of this heavy boat

T HERE'S a world of
satisfaction in knowing
you've done everything hu-
manly possible to insure success. That comfortable
feeling is yours if you cultivate properly and use
Gulf Fertilizers adequately. The consistent -profits
of hundreds of users prove that Gulf Brands are
cheaper in the long run.

Stocks at Convenient Points Throughout the State

movement. The boat will carry in oranges
alone what amounts to 87 cars. For the week
ending Dec. 18 last season, New York sold a
total of 304 cars (110,000 boxes) at auction
at a general average of $2.94, 97 cars selling
on Monday, 61 Tuesday, 51 Wednesday, 53
Thursday, and 42 Friday. The 87 cars of
oranges on this boat, therefore, would be
enough for almost the heaviest day that New
York had in the week ahead of us a year ago.
Compared with this week a year ago, Flor-
ida shipped 250 cars more and our heavier
shipments have not yet been felt in the auc-
tion markets. In the figures below are shown
the shipments day by day for the week end-
ing Dec. 19 last season which corresponds to
the immediate week ahead of us.

Sunday. .
Tuesday .

This Week
This Year Last Year
.62 42
183 140
S. 170 154
S. 172 128
S. 227 174
S. 264 217
. 362 311

1440 1166

Next Week
Last Year

We are estimating the coming week's
movement of oranges at 1400 cars. This is
much heavier than usual with the exception of
last season when 1312 cars went forward.
After consulting with several members of the
Operating Committee it was felt that a wire
was warranted cautioning members against
shipping oranges as heavily as they antici-
pated. It is going to be difficult to slow up
shipments on account of the amount of fruit
already in the houses and the fact that grow-
ers and shippers realize that what is shipped
in time for Christmas must leave by Friday,
the 16th. Everything should be done toward
selling the greatest number of cars possible in
the f.o.b. territory. California estimates 900
cars for next week, which is about 300 cars
heavier than the last two seasons.
(Continued on Page Four)




~-~^en Profits

anthe healance

December 15, 1932


Page 3

Page 4 FL




Co-ordinating members' activities for orderely control
of distribution.
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information.
Standardizing grade and pack through impartial in-
spection service.
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and pub-
Securing best freight rates and transportation
Developing mutual interests of, and better under-
standing among growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters
of common welfare.

E. C. AURIN Ft. Ogden
J. C. CHASE Winter Park
L. P. KIRKLAND Auburndale
J. H. LETTON Valrico
JAMES C. MORTON Auburndale
M. 0. OVERSTREET Orlando
E. W. VICKERS Sebastian
E. H. WILLIAMS Crescent City
R. B. WOOLFOLK Orlando
E. C. AURIN President
JAMES C MORTON Vice-President
M. O. OVERSTREET Treasurer
L. P. KIRKLAND Secretary
A. M. PRATT Manager

California Looks

at Florida
California, long held up to Florida as
a glorified group of citrus marketing
experts, has finally had to turn her aris-
tocratic (?) eye toward Florida and en-
deavor to model herself after a pattern
designed by the growers and shippers
of the Peninsula State. In words of
fewer syllables, California for the sec-
ond time, is endeavoring to reshape its
marketing methods along the clearing
house line, a method which has been in
effect in Florida for more than four
years, and which is daily giving in-
creasing evidence that we Florida folk
are on the right track.
There has been considerable unrest
in California's citrus industry for near-
ly a year. Last spring conditions finally
resulted in an attempt to form a sort of
clearing house in order to prorate the
orange shipments among the various
marketing organizations. The attempt
was short-lived and was maintained
for only a few weeks. This season-so
chaotic has the situation out there been
-one of the California Bankers' Asso-
ciations held a meeting of the asso-
ciate members and passed a rather
blunt resolution calling upon the mar-
keting agencies to get together in the
handling of their fruit so that the in-
dustry could be stabilized and fair
prices received. The bankers further
pointed out that should disorganiza-
tion of the industry result the credit of
citrus growers would be impaired and
borrowing power of the industry re-
duced. The bankers' resolution reads
in full as follows:
"Whereas, the citrus industry of Cal-
ifornia is of such commanding size and
economic importance as to affect the


prosperity and well-being of many
thousands of persons in this state; and
"Whereas, only through shipper co-
operation and well regulated move-
ment of the citrus crops to meet con-
sumer demands can an equitable price
scale be maintained, and the grower be
assured of profit for his labors and a re-
turn on his investment; now, therefore,
be it
"Resolved, by Group Four Califor-
nia Bankers' Association, comprising
the bankers in the counties of Orange,
San Bernardino, Riverside, San Diego
and Imperial, meeting in Calexico, Cal-
ifornia, December 3, 1932, that all
agencies handling citrus fruit be urged
to give the fullest cooperation in the
shipment of their product to the end
that the industry be stabilized and fair
prices received; and be it further
"Resolved, that such agencies be ad-
vised it is the opinion of this group that,
should disorganization of the industry
result it is obvious the credit of citrus
growers will be impaired and the bor-
rowing power of the industry re-
Three days after the bankers met, a
meeting was held by California grow-
ers, both cooperative and independent,
and representatives of the State Mar-
keting Bureau. Discussion at this meet-
ing was frank and thorough, and con-
siderable comment was given to the re-
port of the "Associated Citrus Grow-
ers," a proposed non-partisan organi-
zation of growers formed to work
closely with and to coordinate the ac-
tivities of the various marketing agen-
cies. The Associated Citrus Growers,
it was brought out, has practically the
same purpose as our own Florida
Clearing House and hopes to bring
about proper restriction of shipments
and to eliminate culls so that the fruit
marketed will be of only high quality.
Plans were worked out for building the
membership of the Associated Citrus
Growers and an initial bit of work was
taken with the passage of the follow-
ing resolution:
"That this organization requests our
representatives on the Farm Bureau
Committee to present our recommen-
dation that all inferior and cull fruit
that cannot be sold at a price that will
yield at least 30c per field box at the
packing house shall be eliminated and
We wouldn't be quite human if the
above news didn't make us at least a
little jubilant. Man ordinarily likes to
have others admit that he is right, and
the fact that the California growers
have come to the point where they real-
ize that the clearing house idea, which
has been advanced in Florida, is prob-
ably the only practicable means possi-
ble of stabilizing the marketing of the
country's citrus fruit, proves conclu-
sively that the founders of the Florida
Clearing House built wisely. It indi-
cates also that we in Florida, having
taken the lead in this clearing house

December 15, 1932

Weekly Citrus Summary
(Continued from Page Three)
Florida and California each sold almost the
identical amount of oranges at auction this
week, Florida selling 376 cars at $3.50, Cali-
fornia 377 cars at $2.95. This difference of
55c in our favor is certainly encouraging *
comparatively, but the lower prices realized
on California fruit make just that much more
serious competition and a tendency to pull
down our price than if we were closer to-
gether. In all fairness we must also realize
that Florida probably has put on the market
a much larger proportion of her best early
and mid-season varieties of oranges than is
usually the case. Pineapples have moved
heavily as well as other budded varieties. The
proportion of seedlings shipped, we under-
stand, has been light compared with other
Grapefruit has shown another decline, this
week's auction price of $2.45 dropping a quar-
ter under last week's average. We are still
ahead of a year ago for this week when Flor-
ida sold at auction 336 cars at $2.10 deliv-
ered. We are estimating the coming week's
shipments from the state at 375 cars, which "
is in round figures the average movement;
that Florida has sent forward in grapefruit.
during the last four weeks. This even move-
ment of grapefruit also reflects somewhat the
general attitude as to the future. Unlike or-
anges, there is no dangerous temptation that.
grapefruit prices are so much higher than the.
probable season's average as to tend toward.
excessive shipments.
There is not much enthusiasm about tange-
rines. One hundred fifty-seven cars sold at.
auction this week at $2.70, a quarter drop.
under last week, but practically the same as a:
year ago when 139 cars sold at $2.75. Pos--
sibly our estimate is too high but we are mak-
ing an estimate of 200 cars of tangerines for
next week as compared with 160 this week:
and 200 last week. What tangerines are ship-
ped should be selected severely for good color,,
reasonably good sizes and maturity.
The New York receivers are to be compli-
mented in having acted Saturday upon a seri-
ous situation that was confronting the New
York auctions for Monday's sale. New York
had available for sale 151 cars oranges, 73
grapefruit, 25 tangerines and 15 mixed. The
committee agreed that prorating was absolute-
ly necessary with the result that New York
sold (Dec. 12) 104 oranges, 35 grapefruit and
18 tangerines, which was practically what was
agreed upon in their prorating figures of Sat-

None of Her Business
A little boy was saying his go-to-bed prayers
in a very low voice.
"I can't hear you, dear," his mother whis-
"Wasn't talking to you," said the small one

idea, must continue its administration
and make our Clearing House "bigger
and better than ever before!"

December 15, 1932

Advertising Our Citrus

"Avoid Colds--Eat More Grapefruit."
"Juciest Oranges Come From Florida."
These and other pieces of advice are being
poured forth at America's housewives today in
the big advertising campaign for Florida citrus
fruit sponsored jointly by Clearing House
Growers and shippers, the Exchange and sev-
eral marketing organizations outside either
The two advertisements shown on page one
in reduced size, are examples of the news-
paper "copy" which is being used to tell Flor-
ida's story. The superior juice content and
palatability of Florida oranges and the health-
maintaining qualities of Florida grapefruit,
Share the two points being stressed in the adver-
tising. The grapefruit advertisement shown
herewith, it will be noted, also calls attention
to Florida oranges and tangerines. The orange
advertisement calls attention also to Florida
grapefruit and tangerines, and the tangerine
advertisements follow suit by mentioning like-
wise the oranges and grapefruit. In this way,
all three varieties are tied together and the
Housewife given the impression that she must
think first of "Florida" citrus.
The advertising campaign has already start-
ed, the advertisements shown herewith and
others similar in character, having been run
several times in the largest papers of the big
eastern and mid-western cities. Short an-
nouncements, some of about one hundred
words and others running for five minutes, are
'being broadcast over a score of big broadcast-
ing stations that cover practically the entire
area east of the Mississippi River and extend
even west of the big stream. The newspaper
advertisements appear on the "market" pages
on the days when the retail grocers, fruit deal-
ers and meat markets display their special ap-
peals to the housewives. The radio broadcasts
are given during the morning hours at times
when the average "boss" of the household is
making up her grocery lists preparatory for
her shopping trip.
Support of the advertising campaign has
been encouraging to those who have been ad-
vocating such a campaign, and it is hoped that
even more marketing organizations and grow-
ers will add their financial help before the cam-
paign is many weeks older.
The following marketing agencies are sup-
porting the advertising campaign:
Adams Packing Company, Auburndale;
American Fruit Growers, Inc., Orlando; Bab-
son Park C. G. A., Babson Park; Sam A Banks,
inc., Frostproof; Chase Citrus Sub-Exchange,
Sanford; Chester C. Fosgate Company, Orlan-
do; A. S. Herlong & Company, Leesburg; Holly
Hill Fruit Products, Inc., Davenport; J. W.
* Keen & Son, Frostproof; R. D. Keene & Com-
pany, Eustis; Lake Charm Fruit Company,
Oviedo; Lee County Packing Company, Fort
Myers; Mammoth Grove, Inc., Lake Wales; E.
C. McLean, Palmetto; Gregg Maxcy, Sebring;
L. Maxcy, Inc., Frostproof; Moss Packing Com-
pany, Tampa; W. H. Mouser & Company, Or-
lando; Nevins Fruit Company, Titusville; Rich-
ardson Fruit Corporation, Orlando; Terra Ceia
Citrus Growers Assn., Terra Ceia; Waverly
Citrus Growers Assn., Waverly; Waverly
Growers Co-operative, Waverly; Welles Fruit
& Live Stock Company, Arcadia; Winter Haven
Imperial Fruit Co., Winter Haven; Winter
Park Land Company, Winter Park.
Atwood Grapefruit Co., Manavista; P. H.
Varn, Plant City.

"It is a curious thing," A. B. Genung of the
U. S. D. A. commented recently in a radio
broadcast, "that we were growing all this
amount of crops back there twenty years ago
and getting fairly good prices for them; yet
Snow, with twenty-five million more people in
the United States to feed and clothe, we are
growing about the same sized crops and they
seem to be a drug on the market!"

1,000,000 boxes more for


LAT MAXCY of Frostproof, and Gregg Maxcy of
Sebring, between them operating six modern packing
houses and packing more than a million boxes of
fruit, have signed 3-year contracts for Brogdex.
The Maxcy brothers have been pioneers in the devel-
opment of our citrus industry and have contributed
much to the prestige of Florida fruit in the markets
of the country.
They have long recognized the weakness of Florida
fruit in the market and in various ways have tried to
overcome this fault by using treatments designed to
improve the appearance of the fruit as well as to
make it keep better.
We know of no better endorsement of Brogdex than
that the Maxcys finally turn to it as the most effective
means yet discovered that will insure sound delivery,
better appearance, and longer keeping time.
This action of the Maxcys is significant and should
give food for the thoughtful consideration of anyone
concerned in better prices for our fruit.

B. C. Skinner, President DUNEDIN, FLORIDA


Poor Grading and Packing

Cause Growers Big Losses
Florida fruit and vegetable growers annual-
ly lose millions of dollars due to indifferent
grading, careless packing and stowing of prod-
ucts that are shipped out of the state, M. R.
Ensign, truck horticulturist with the Florija
Experiment Station, explained in a recent
radio address.
In the face of keen competition from within
the state, from other states, and from foreign
shipments, he urged that it is no longer profit-
able to offer inferior grades. Uniformity is a
cardinal principle of successful marketing to-
day, he said.
Growers who grade for high quality products
and then use ill-adapted containers also invite
disaster. The container in which produce is
shipped must provide ventilation, it must be
strong yet easy to handle, and must show the
product to good advantage. One of the chief
causes of breakage and heavy loss to the grow-
ers is the bulge pack, he explained, giving fig-
ures showing that 40 percent of the packages

Page 5
carrying over 20 percent more produce than
the billing weight calls for arrive at market in
a broken condition. The grower does not re-
ceive pay for the extra produce in the bulge
pack, yet it is the cause of many broken crates
and thus a heavy loss.
There are three types of crates that come up
to the requirements of a good crate, Mr. En-
sign said. These are sturdy, wire-bound crates
that are easily assembled without the use of
nails. They are made in bushel, 1% bushel and
2% bushel sizes.
He also pointed to the loose load in the car
causing much loss to fruit and vegetable grow-
ers. The strongest of crates cannot resist the
jolting they will get in a fast moving loosely
packed car, while cars of eggs packed in fra-
gile crates, properly loaded on the same trains
sustain very little breakage.

Bobby, at the Zoo: "Oh, mamma, that mon-
key looks exactly like Uncle Ned."
Mother: "Why, Bobby, the idea! You
shouldn't say such things."
Bobby: "Aw, mamma, the monkey can't un-


Single Source of Nitrogen

May Be Aid in Fertilzing
(By DR. O. C. BRYAN, Prof. of Soils and Agronomy,
University of Florida, Gainesville)
Although nitrogen is the most expensive
fertilizer ingredient, it produces the greatest
crop response. This nutrient becomes a limit-
ing factor in the production of citrus quicker
than any other fertilizer material. At the
same time reliable information concerning its
most profitable usage is limited. For years
there has been a common opinion among cit-
rus growers that soluble nitrogen was dan-
gerous and should never be used in large
amounts, because of its supposed tendency to
produce ammoniation and other undesirable
effects. The traditional practice of using sev-
eral forms of nitrogen fertilizer for citrus,
derived from both organic and inorganic
sources, is based largely on this supposition.
There has not been any reliable informa-
tion indicating that three applications of ni-.
trogen per year are more efficient than one
or two, or perhaps four applications. Neither
has the amount nor the time of applying ni-
trogen for the most profitable production
been experimentally shown. The practice of
applying about one-third of the nitrogen
during the fall when there is no growth, and
one-third prior to the rainy season may or
may not be economically sound.
With the hope of contributing more definite
knowledge concerning the above questions,the
College of Agriculture, under a grant of
funds from the Chilean Nitrate of Soda Edu-
cational Bureau, began a series of nitrogen
fertilizer studies with grapefruit in the spring
of 1928. This report is an outline of the study
and progress of results to date.
The study is conducted in cooperation with
the care-takers of two separate grapefruit
groves-one at Sorrento (now thirteen years
old) and one at Lake Alfred (now eighteen
years old). All of the trees consist of mid-
season grapefruit on lemon stock, growing on
the common ridge soil, Norfolk sand. All
grove operations except fertilizer treatments
are uniform and conducted by the grove care-
takers. Since the study was concerned pri-
marily with nitrogen fertilizer, all other fac-
tors were kept constant. The phosphorus and
potash (derived from superphosphate and sul-
fate of potash) were supplied at the usual
rate and time,-spring, summer and fall. The
source, rate and time of applying the nitrogen
for each treatment are as follows:
Treatment No 1. Received all nitrogen from
nitrate of soda, in three applications, Feb-
ruary, June and November.
Treatment No 2. Same amount of nitrogen
as No. 1, but from a mixed source of organic
and inorganic materials, three times per year.
Treatment No. 3. The same yearly amount
of nitrogen from nitrate of soda as Treatment
1, but all applied in February.
Treatment No. 4. Same amount of nitrogen
from nitrate of soda as Treatment No. 1, but
in two applications, February and June.
Treatment No. 5. Same amount of nitrogen
as No. 1 from nitrate of soda, but applied in
four applications, February, June, August and
Treatment No. 6. Three-fourths of the

Last season's successful trials by a few ship-
ping organizations of containers for bulk fruit
probably will result in further experiments this
season in this method of shipment. The indus-
try as a whole is somewhat divided in its opin-
ion on the question of containers for bulk ship-
ments, some advocating that the industry
would fair better if it confines all of its ship-
ments to the standard packed container. Others
point out that this is true only in part in that
there are certain markets where a cheaper
crate of fruit is the only fruit that will be ac-
cepted. Shipping the fruit in bulk, loose in
freight cars, is apparently growing less in
favor and a container for unwrapped fruit ap-
pears to be the logical solution to the bulk fruit
problem. There is reason to believe that fruit
in one of the bulk containers, even though it
be unwrapped and merely placed comparative-
ly loose in the box, will carry much better than
the fruit shipped loose in a freight car. Bruis-
ing, which of course leads to decay, cannot be
avoided when fruit is shipped loose in a freight
car. A container reduces this damage to a
Sales also prove a factor in the use of the
bulk container in that use of a box eliminates
all arguments with receivers as to the number
of boxes of fruit in the car. Handling at the
other end is made much easier if the fruit is
shipped in some sort of a container, and advo-
cates of the bulk containers maintain that sized
boxed fruit invariably will bring a premium
over the loose bulk.
The accompanying picture shows how one of
the bulk containers most generally used is filled
with fruit. The box is placed on a small stand
alongside the size bin from which the fruit is
taken, a small trap door in the front of the bin
is opened and the fruit rolls into the box. The
box is tipped at an angle and the packer breaks
the fall of the fruit with his hand, thus reduc-
ing danger of bruising.
"So your daughter is at a finishing school.
What is she finishing?"
"She's finishing up my bank account for one

Clearing House Ships Car

of Fruit to Sick Children
Clearing House growers and shippers are
helping to play Santa Claus to some of the na-
tion's starving children, and like all good deeds
the action is redounding to the credit of the
In brief, the gift from the Clearing House
members is a full car of oranges which are to
be distributed the day before Christmas to
thousands of sick and poor children in and
around New York City. Only a week or so ago
a telegram was received by the Clearing House
from Mr. George R. Hilty, publicity director
for the Florida Power and Light Company, in
Miami, asking if the Clearing House would care
to send a car of fruit to New York for free
Christmas distribution among the sick and des-
titute. One Dr. M. Sayle Taylor, of New York
City, is the man who has interested himself in
this particular bit of charitable work. An ex-
change of correspondence with Dr. Taylor later
developed the fact that Dr. Taylor daily broad-
casts talks on health and kindred subjects from
Station WOR, in Newark, N. J. Dr. Taylor,
through his broadcasts, has built up a tremen-
dous following, and what he has to say about
Florida oranges, grapefruit, and tangerines
generally, and this particular car of Christmas
oranges, will be heard by millions of radio lis-
And so it is that the Clearing House, in con-
tributing this fruit will obtain advertising for
Florida that couldn't be bought in that Dr. Tay-
lor in his daily broadcasts from now until
Christmas will tell his listeners of the Florida
oranges that the Clearing House has sent to the
sick and poor children.
The task of obtaining the fruit was an easy
one-the Clearing House members who were
first asked to contribute immediately declared
their willingness to do so. It was not necessary
even to solicit the majority of the members.
The fruit, which was shipped from Florida Dec.
14, was placed in "James" crates instead of be-
ing packed, the crates being donated by the
Rathborne, Hair & Ridgway Company through
their Florida representative, Mr. R. D. Pope.
The freight charges on the car were advanced
by Dr. Taylor himself, it being Dr. Taylor's
plan to ask his radio listeners in the New York
area for contributions which would take care
of the transportation item.
Radio listeners in Florida who have sets that
can get northern stations in the daytime may
be able to hear Dr. Taylor broadcast daily from
WOR, Newark, at twelve o'clock noon.


Ames Lockseam Slip Joint Pipe
Universal (bolted joint) Cast
Iron Pipe

67 Years of Service.

The Cameron & Barkley Co.

December 15, 1932

Page 6


Amount of nitrogen from nitrate of soda as
Treatment No. 1, applied in February, June
and November.
Treatment No. 7. One-quarter more nitro-
gen from nitrate of soda than Treatment No.
1, applied in February, June and November.
If the most soluble form of nitrogen (ni-
Strate of soda) is used, one may expect the
greatest amount of leaching as well as the
greatest injury from ammoniation, if soluble
nitrogen in involved. Furthermore, any re-
sults on deep sandy soils probably would be
applicable on other soil types.
Each fertilizer treatment is duplicated in
both groves, making a total of four plots of
twelve trees each, receiving identical ferti-
lizer treatments. This was done in order to
make the results as reliable as possible. The
Fertilizers were applied at the usual rate per
tree. The grove at Sorrento received 18
pounds of a complete fertilizer (4 percent am-
monia average per year) and the grove at
Lake Alfred 28 pounds per tree, per applica-
tion. These amounts were gradually increased
from year to year. They are now receiving 22
and 35 pounds per tree, per application, of
fertilizer, respectively.
The study is now in its fifth year and so
far as external appearances and yield rec-
ords are concerned, the varied fertilizer
treatments have produced, with four crops,
no consistent differences.
This is rather remarkable in view of the
fact that there are four plots of twelve trees
each, receiving only one application of nitro-
gen per year, and that from nitrate of soda.
Inasmuch as this study has been conducted in
Stwo separate groves, and duplicated in each
grove, the results are more significant than
casual observation of one treatment per year.
These results are somewhat contrary to com-
mon opinion. They seem to disprove the
theory that nitrate of soda will produce am-
maniation or injure trees, even with abnor-
Smally heavy applications.
The results indicate that the grapefruit tree
has considerable capacity to store nitrogen.
Soil studies show that very little soluble ni-
trogen remains in the upper four feet of soil
after the summer rains begin. This means that
regardless of the time of application the soil
4 has little soluble nitrogen after the first week
in July (normal season)..
Since grapefruit trees bear more or less
irregularly it is almost impossible to arrive
at the efficiency of a fertilizer with yield
records alone, especially after a short period.
On the other hand, the growth of the trees
Appears to be a fair index regarding the utili-
zation of the fertilizer. With this in mind, the
trunk circumferences of all the trees under
study were measured, each year, at the same
location. The percentage increase in growth
of the trees receiving the different fertilizer
treatments was calculated from the initial size.
The average results for each treatment over
the period of four and a half years, show that
Treatments No. 4 and No. 5 have consistently
made the greatest growth, and No. 3 the least
total grain. It will be recalled that Treat-
ment No. 4 received the highest amount of
nitrogen during the summer, and No. 5 the
next highest amount; while Treatment No. 4
Produced highest yields as well as growth in
the Sorrento grove, this was nAt true with the

The above picture shows one of the sum-
mer-bearing orange trees that have been dug
up on the Flamingo groves, at Hollywood, for
transporting to the Century of Progress Ex-
position, in Chicago. More than one acre of
ground has been set aside at the Exposition
for a small Florida citrus grove, which in all
probability will be one of the main attrac-
Transferring the orange trees is a rather
laborious as well as complicated process. After
the tree is selected, the feeder and tap roots
are carefully cut in a manner to give the
least possible shock, and boxes four by five
feet square and three feet deep are carefully
built around and under the root mass. When
the boxing is complete chains leading from
the box to the arm of a derrick or drag line
are attached and the tree, roots and box, is

Lake Alfred grove. Here the yields were
somewhat low on Treatment No. 4. Appar-
ently the trees here produced growth at the
expense of yield.
These results tend to show that the sum-
mer application of nitrogen is more efficient
than is commonly assumed. Although the
treatments were rather varied it is interesting
to note again that the trees show remarkable
evidence of stability, even with treatment re-
ceiving one yearly application of nitrogen.
Contrary to common opinion, the most solu-
ble form of nitrogen, nitrate of soda, has pro-
duced the greatest tree growth on the thin
and rather poor sands growing citrus. Fur-
thermore, the application of soluble nitrogen
has produced as good, if not better, tree
growth than the mixed sources of nitrogen.
This is also contrary to common practice and
It appears that if soluble nitrogen on sandy
soils produces satisfactory yields with one and
two applications per year phosphorus and pot-
ash would do equally well, if not better. More-
over, if a single source of nitrogen is as ef-
ficient as a combination of sources,-as the
results thus far indicate-then the citrus fer-
tilizer practice can be materially simplified,
with a considerable saving to the grower.

taken from its bed and placed upon a truck to
be carried to a sheltered place to recover from
the effects of its handling preparatory to be-
ing shipped to the Exposition grounds next
Each tree, which will be approximately ten
feet high from the ground surface to the top
of the bole together with its "root ball" and
container, will weigh between 4,500 and 5,000
pounds. To transport the total number of or-
ange, grapefruit, lemon, kumquat, calomon-
din, and other citrus trees which will be shown
in the Exposition's grove, together with the
plants, shrubs and vines with which to em-
bellish the exotic and Everglades garden and
the papaya or tree melon grove, will require
a solid train of approximately thirty long flat
cars if the trees are to be taken all the way
by rail.

A fat woman elbowed her way through the
crowd, jabbing, first one person and then an-
other. Finally she gave one nearby man an un-
usually hard thump, and asked: "I say, does it
make any difference which car I take to Mount
Royal Cemetery?"
"Not to me, madam," was the reply.

& Citrus Heatae
.t Kills Frost at little Cost

c lre in Use....
Write for
Descriptive Matter


D. V. WEBB, Sales Agent
61 W. Jefferson St., Orlando, Florida
Stock of Heaters Now on Hand at Orlando

December 15, 1932

Y. .:!

Page 7



THERE must be a REASON!

OVER a period of years Ideal Fertilizers have won for the name
a position of Leadership. Some people dislike the forthright-
ness of that title-they may be right. But as applied to Ideal
Fertilizers the word has its origin not from arrogant claims, but
from an accurate tabulation. It was true forty years ago and is
true today that more Ideal Fertilizers are used in Florida than
any other brand.
The consistent record of Ideal Fertilizers, plus their unprece-
dented quality, explains this brand's result-producing power as a
plant-food for Florida crops. That is why Ideal Fertilizers are a
recognized leader in the field of fertilizer. Back of this Leader-
ship lies the serene confidence of growers in every part of the
State. It is an unwritten assurance that all users of Ideal Ferti-
lizers buy with the brand. Confidently growers apply Ideal
Fertilizers to their groves and fields. Confidently they await the

rich and healthy crops their experience with Ideal Fertilizers has
taught them to expect.
Year after year the Wilson & Toomer Fertilizer Company has
enjoyed this unchallenged position of Leadership. Forty years
ago the company was founded on the twin ideals of integrity and
service. Today these ideals are accepted with confidence. Grow-
ers whose fertilizer problems are increasingly important because
of existing economic conditions realize the value of our knowl-
edge and service. They want the "most value per dollar" invest-
ed in fertilizer and get it. That is our reason for Leadership. To
growers who want that before-hand confidence that Ideal Fer-
tilizers bring we offer a thoroughly tested brand to meet their
exacting requirements. Our field representatives are at your
command, or we will be glad to have you communicate with us
direct. Wilson & Toomer Fertilizer Company, Jacksonville,

Make Christmas last throughout the year. Start the New Year with the right kind
of fertilizer in your soil. Insist upon the extra value that Genuine Peruvian Guano
offers in all brands of Ideal Fertilizer.




Pare 8

December 15, 1932

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