Title: Florida clearing house news ..
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Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00086639/00096
 Material Information
Title: Florida clearing house news ..
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 31 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Florida Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association
Publisher: s.n.
Place of Publication: Winter Haven Fla
Publication Date: September 15, 1932
Frequency: semimonthly (irregular)
 Subjects
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: v. 1- Sept. 1928-
General Note: "Official publication of the Florida citrus growers clearing house association."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00086639
Volume ID: VID00096
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 01306261
lccn - 30006589

Full Text


,.k


U. S. Dept. 1fgr" -4 A LIRAR
Library Period E1 i D t
Washington, D. C. 27 1932 P



CLEARING ..HGY1 E


NEWS


Official
FLORIDA
CLEARING


Publicat
CITR U
HOUSE


\n


$2.00 a Year Published Semi-monthly by the Florida Cit- Entered as second-class matter August 31, Volume IV
10 Cents a Copy rus Growers Clearing House Association, EPTEMBER 15, 1932 1928. at the postoffice at Winter Haven, umb
DeWitt Taylor Bldg., Winter Haven, Fla. Florida, under the Act of March 3, 1879. Number 24


Advertising Needed To Meet Citrus Competition

Tomato Juice Canners Say "They've Just Begun!"
Details of Joint Program Are Being Worked Out


When the Clearing House was organized five
years ago the campaign cry of the Committee
of Fifty members was: "Every member get a
member!" Today with the Clearing House and
the Exchange ready to pool resources in a joint
advertising campaign for Florida citrus the cry
should be for every grower who is a member of
either organization to urge his fellow grower
outside of the Clearing House and Exchange to
throw in his support for a united advertising
effort.
SUPPORT OF ALL IS NEEDED
Plans for the coming campaign are not yet
complete in detail but are expected to be work-
ed out within the next week or two. In the
meantime members and officials of both or-
ganizations are in hopes that every grower and
shipper not affiliated with the Clearing House
or the Exchange will agree to participate in
the advertising program. The necessity for an
adequate campaign behind Florida citrus has
Been pointed out repeatedly not only by lead-
ers in the industry but by Florida's own mar-
Sketing experiences. Competition for a share
of the consumer's dollar is increasing by leaps
and bounds everywhere. Tomato juice has won
hundreds of thousands of friends, and the man-
ufacturers of this beverage have let it be
known that they feel they have scarcely
scratched the surface in the marketing possi-
bilities for their product.
Florida has an up-hill battle to fight against
California in the profitable marketing of her
oranges and equally serious competition in the
marketing of her grapefruit. Texas unques-
Stionably will endeavor to take the big eastern
markets away from us-they have laid down a
barrage in the middle west which has cost us
dearly during the past three years-and it is im-
perative that Florida do something to main-
tain her advantage in these same markets.
WORLD MUST BE TOLD
Florida may now grow and continue to grow
the best citrus fruit produced, but the crop
will not be sold if Florida keeps that fact a
family secret. The public soon forgets. It must
be told and then told again of the superior
quality of Florida fruit. Repetition is reputa-
tion whether it be tomato juice, oranges or
grapefruit.
SIf no more citrus were grown next season or
in 1935 than was produced last year, Florida


still would have to fight, and keep on fighting,
for her place in the marketing sun. Fourteen
years ago-season of 1917-1918-the combin-
ed crops of Florida and California were slight-
ly less than 16,000,000 boxes. That was a small
crop year for California, but the greatest vol-
ume raised by the two states prior to that sea-
son was between 30,000,000 and 31,000,000
boxes. In the last ten years, both states have
steadily increased their production, and in the
1928-1929 season California alone marketed
more than 32,000,000 boxes. The combined or-
ange crops of the two states that season (1928-
1929) was approximately 46,000,000 boxes, or
three times the volume ten years earlier. With
new citrus areas coming rapidly into the mar-
kets and the gradual upward production curve
in the two chief citrus growing states, a crop
of 60,000,000 to 70,000,000 boxes may reason-
ably be expected within the next few years.
The public may be counted on to keep buying
citrus fruit, but it will buy from producers who
continue to tell the world about certain quali-
ties of oranges and grapefruit.
The Bureau of Railway Economics recently


Brown Rot Rule on


pointed out that fruit and vegetable shipments
have doubled in the last ten years. It is a clear
realization of this situation by Clearing House
and Exchange officials that spurs them on to
impress the citrus growers with the importance
of the advertising program.
TO SEEK MORE CONSUMERS
The Clearing House and the Exchange will
promote a strenuous advertising campaign this
season. It is realized that supply and demand
will be even greater factors than ever before
unless the uncultivated trade fields are de-
veloped or new customers won. By opening
new markets and increasing the number of con-
sumers in those already established, it is pos-
sible to lift the curve of consumption propor-
tionately with that of increased supply. If the
two can be held parallel, the price level of
profitable years can be maintained, but if there
is a constant increase in volume without com-
mensurate gain of additional markets and con-
sumers, lean profit years will be the natural
consequence.
In years past Florida has marketed approxi-
(Continued on Page Three) ,r


California Citrius


Fails, Committee of 5o Tells Newell


Discovery at Miami several weeks ago of Cal-
ifornia oranges and lemons infected with brown
rot which had been distributed to retail outlets,
has brought a declaration from the Commit-
tee of Fifty calling upon the Florida State
Plant Board to replace the quarantine on Cali-
fornia citrus. The Committee's action was
taken at its meeting in Orlando Sept. 14.
Basis for the action was taken upon copies
of correspondence between Commissioner Wil-
mon Newell, of the State Plant Board, and
Hamilton Michaelson, grower and shipper at
Miami. This correspondence revealed that the
State Plant Board not only was aware of the
fact that California fruit infected with brown
rot had been discovered in Miami late in July,
and its distribution permitted, but that the
Plant Board at a meeting held in Jacksonville
Aug. 15 decided to require "that in the future
no car of California lemons or oranges will be


permitted delivery in Florida until it has been
inspected and passed by inspectors of the Flor-
ida State Plant Board." The Plant Board fur-
ther decided that "cars containing suspicious
material may be detained while laboratory ex-
aminations of the material are made and final-
ly when and if brown rot infected fruit is found
in any car, that carload of fruit will not be per-
mitted delivery within the State of Florida."
Committee of Fifty members in discussing
the entry of California citrus into Florida de-
clared that discovery of infected fruit is con-
clusive proof that the precautionary measures
set up by the Florida State Plant Board under
which California might ship fruit into this state
were either ineffective or that the California
shippers were negligent in observing the pre-
cautionary measures. Either cause, it was felt,
is sufficient reason for the Florida State Plant
(Continued on Page Four)


RTrT


Representing more than 10,000
Growers of Oranges and Grapefruit
Headquarters: WINTER HAVEN, FLORIDA


r Have','l1.a.







ion of the
S GROWERS
ASSOCIATION






Page 2 FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS


Committee of Fifty Department
(Articles under this heading are prepared and published in the News by the thousands of other grower-members of the Clearing House and to report their
Educational Committee of the Committee of Fifty. Through this department efforts and activities to them. The Clearing House Directors and Manage-
members of the Committee of Fifty hope to maintain closer relations with the ment accept no responsibility for what appears in this department)

Significance of the Clearing House Charter


This issue of the Clearing House News is of special in-
terest to all citrus growers because it contains copy of the
Charter and By-Laws of the Clearing House. You should
place this on file, convenient for ready reference. Every
member of the Clearing House should become familiar
with its contents and fully understand the purposes of his
organization and the machinery created for carrying out
those purposes. The Clearing House plan really is unique
in agricultural organizations, having been developed under
the direction and with the cooperation of the United States
Department of Agriculture. This plan, developed for the
Florida citrus industry, has since been used as an exemplar
or pattern in the creation of clearing houses adapted to the
special needs of other agricultural groups.
The Clearing House plan was adopted because all en-
deavors to unite the industry in a cooperative marketing
agency had failed, and because of increasing production
in all citrus areas and the complexity of modern marketing
competition, it became necessary to unite the industry, both
independent and cooperative, in an organization for mu-
tual betterment and protection. For this reason the Clear-
ing House was brought into being, fathered by both co-
operative and independent growers.
We are not asking you to read this Charter and By-
Laws through but wish to call your attention to some of
the outstanding features of it, in order that your mind may
be refreshed regarding the purposes and functions of the
Clearing House.
First, there is the introduction, which is largely histori-
cal and which has no value except to record the efforts
which led to the formation of this organization and to pro-
vide fitting testimony to the energy and service of the men
who gave so freely of their time and talents in its develop-
ment.
We call your attention especially to the preamble to
the Charter, because it states very briefly and concisely
the purposes for which the Clearing House was created:
"IN ORDER THAT WE MAY BETTER PROMOTE
THE GENERAL INTEREST OF FLORIDA CITRUS
GROWERS."
No organization in the citrus industry could have a
more laudable purpose than that. This ideal is steadily and
earnestly the goal of Clearing House endeavor and because
this is so, the Clearing House is worthy of the support of
every citrus grower in the state.
The means by which "THE PROMOTION OF THE
GENERAL INTEREST OF CITRUS GROWERS" is to be
achieved is tersely stated in the three articles of this
preamble.
First, "BY IMPROVING THE QUALITY, GRADE,
AND PACK."
That the Clearing House has succeeded in a large
measure in the accomplishment of this must be admitted.
Today the grade and pack of fruit leaving the state is
greatly improved over that of previous years because of
the inspection and educational work that has been done by
the Clearing House. This improvement and uniformity of
grade and pack has promoted a more ready acceptance
for Florida fruit in the markets.
Second, "BY PROMOTING A WIDER DISTRIBU-
TION OF FLORIDA CITRUS FRUIT THROUGH AD-
VERTISING, THROUGH MORE EQUITABLE FREIGHT
RATES, AND THROUGH ECONOMIC REFRIGERA-
TION."
One of the chief endeavors of the Clearing House, in
which it has had considerable success, has been in securing


wider distribution of Florida fruit through advertising,
and, although circumstances compelled cessation of adver-
tising (excepting the $40,000 emergency grapefruit cam-
paign). for one year, we are very happy that again the
industry is to have an advertising program in which the
major portion of the industry will participate.
This program, which is being supported by the Clear-
ing House, Florida Citrus Exchange, and some shippers
and growers outside of either of these organizations, is for
joint advertising of Florida oranges, Florida grapefruit,
and Florida tangerines, and will carry out the purpose and
advertising plans initiated and effectively used by the
Clearing House during the first three years of its existence.
Such an extended advertising program is made possible
because the Clearing House exists as an agency, and the
only agency, in which the whole industry may unite to do
those things of mutual benefit.
The Clearing House, too, has been continuously active
in the securing of more equitable freight rates. It has, in
several instances, succeeded in getting temporary reduc-
tions in freight schedules for citrus fruit, with large sav-
ings to the grower, and is continuously and persistently
working for reduced freight charges that will enable us to
have wider distribution at lower cost. In the field of eco-
nomical refrigeration, the work necessarily has been slow,
being largely dependent upon the development of success-
ful methods of holding fruit in cold storage. A great deal of
experimental work is being done along this line by both
state and federal government and the Clearing House
keeps closely in touch with this, ready at all times to make
such use of refrigerated storage as may seem practical and
profitable.
Third, the Clearing House seeks to "promote the gen-
eral interest of the citrus grower" by "SECURING AND
STABILIZING A SYSTEMATIC FLOW OF FLORIDA
CITRUS FRUIT FROM PRODUCERS TO CONSUMERS
AS EFFICIENTLY AND DIRECTLY AS POSSIBLE."
The Clearing House accomplishments in this would be
a long story, but close observers of the work that has been
done have been pleased and gratified at the measure of
control that has been successfully exercised so that an even
and steady flow of fruit consistent with the size of the crop
and consumer demand has been effectively directed dur-
ing the past four years. While there still is much work to
be done and much room for improvement remains, the
Clearing House can point with considerable pride to its
accomplishments in this field.
Article I of the Charter is perhaps the greatest blot
on the fair name of the Committee of Fifty. Why in the
world we selected such a huge mouthful as "Florida Citrus
Growers Clearing House Association" for a name for this
organization we have no means of knowing. This name
could have been greatly abbreviated and have accomplish-
ed just as much. However, there it is. But in ordinary cir-
cles, you may call it the "Clearing House" and get by. To
be still more definite, call it the "Citrus Clearing House."
And outside the bounds of the state call it the "Florida Cit-
rus Clearing House" and you will find yourself understood.
Article X is especially interesting in that it says that
this corporation shall not be conducted for profit. It is dis-
tinctly cooperative and no profits accrue to anyone except
such as are gained by the citrus growers of the state
through the better industry -conditions made possible by
the work of the Clearing House.
We courteously call the attention of every shipper and
grower in the state to the fact that these purposes of the


September 15, 1932





FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS


Clearing House, as mentioned in the Charter,
are absolutely necessary for the continued suc-
cess and prosperity of the citrus growers of the
state, and that their accomplishment is possible
only through the Clearing House, and that the
Clearing House can do those necessary things
most successfully if it receives the loyal support
and cooperation of all interests. No individual
grower, no marketing organization, no smaller
group of growers or marketing organizations,
can successfully cope with the many prob-
lems that confront the citrus industry of this
state. Their solution is only possible by the
united effort of the industry in the Clearing
House.
Now, as in the beginning, the Committee of
Fifty earnestly urges every grower and shipper
in the state to give serious and thoughtful con-
sideration to the Clearing House, in the hope
that the Florida citrus industry may be so
united that it can successfully cope with the
ever-increasing competition it receives from
other citrus producing sections and from com-
peting fruits and vegetables and their much-
advertised juices.
"United we stand and divided we fall" is
true so far as the citrus industry of Florida is
concerned. Hence, our plea for unity, in order
that we may stand and prosper. You should
be a member of the "Clearing House."

Advertising Needed To
Meet Citrus Competition
(Continued from Page One)
mately two-thirds of her crop in the states
along or in close proximity to the Atlantic sea-
board. Comparatively light shipments were
made west of the Mississippi River. In that tier
of states comprising the area between the Blue
Ridge Mountains and the Mississippi River,
there was somewhat general distribution, but
not in proportion to the population of the ter-
ritory.
IN CALIFORNIA'S TERRITORY
One reason, possibly the principal one, for
the light shipments in this middle area is its
easy access to California in its direct line from
the Pacific Coast to eastern trade centers. This
western fruit is distributed in heavy volume
from Chicago, St. Louis, Detroit, Indianapolis,
Cincinnati, and other intermediate points from
which railroads radiate to the smaller cities or
less populous areas.
The whole state of Iowa, for instance, in


which California conducted its first newspaper
advertising campaign in 1907, consumes very
little fruit from Florida. Canada is a fertile
field to be cultivated by Florida citrus advertis-
ing.
A few marketing agencies have invad'edthe
European field and have built up encouraging
trade in the larger cities of England, Scotland,
Germany, Belgium, Sweden, Norway, Holland,
Denmark, France, and Finland. The use of
grapefruit there as a food for persons afflicted
with influenza gave the demand for this fruit
tremendous impetus.


Ji SWEETENING

YOUR SOIL
/~~~~~~~ ~ .- -aaBs:i "'1 *


PACKED IN MOISTURE
PROOF BAGS TO IN-
SURE PROTECTION AND
TO AVOID WASTE


0ITE

UM MIXTURE


FOR CITRUS TREES
USE
COPPER KAL-CITE
Especially designed
for application to cit-
rus trees. It is KAL-
CITE with the addition
of Copper Sulphate,
the acknowledged
splendid citrus tonic,
and a slight rearrange-
ment of the potash-
bearing materials.


H ERE is a product for sweetening your
soil- a soil amendment and for soil
acid correction. KAL-CITE is inexpensive.
In applying it you use only half the quan-
tity that would be required of hardwood
ashes used for the same purpose. KAL-
CITE produces sanitary and healthful condi-
tions in the soil. Deliveries can be made
promptly from stocks carried by our local
dealer. KAL-CITE is a product made and
sold exclusively by the manufacturers of



I D EAL



For detailed information and prices write Wilson & Toomer Far-
tililer Company, Jacksonville, Florida, or call our local dealer.
0@


CIHMIDT LITHOGRAPH COMPANY
LOS ANUELES FRESNO OAKLAND SACRAMENTO PORTLAND
SEATWLE HARUNGN.TKX. ORLANDO FLA. HONOLULU
SAN FRANCISCO


Ideal Fertilizers are made up months in advance in order to become
thoroughly seasoned and cured. Our tremendous facilities permit
this extra margin of precaution, and successful growers know the
advantages to be secured from aged and cured fertilizers over
"fresh", "green" mixtures.


IRRIGATION
Ames Lockseam Slip Joint Pipe
Universal (bolted joint) Cast
Iron Pipe
67 Years of Service.

The Cameron & Barkley Co.
TAMPA, FLA.


Page 3


September 15, 1932





Page 4 FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS


FLORIDA

CLEARING HOUSE

NEWS

CLEARING HOUSE PURPOSES
Co-ordinating members' activities for orderely control
of distribution.
Controlling supplies at key markets.
Disseminating marketing information.
Standardizing grade and pack through impartial in-
spection service.
Increasing consumer demand by advertising and pub-
licity.
Securing best freight rates and transportation
services.
Developing mutual interests of, and better under-
standing among growers and shippers.
Maintaining representation of industry in all matters
of common welfare.

DIRECTORS
E. C. AURIN Ft. Ogden
J. C. CHASE Winter Park
JOHN D. CLARK Waverly
L P. KIRKLAND Auburndale
3. H. LETTON Valrico
JAMES C. MORTON Auburndale
M. 0. OVERSTREET Orlando
E. W. VICKERS Sebastian
GEORGE F. WESTBROOK. Clermont
E. H. WILLIAMS Crescent City
R. B. WOOLFOLK Orlando
OFFICERS
E. C. AURIN President
JAMES C MORTON Vice-President
M. O. OVERSTREET Treasurer
L. P. KIRKLAND Secretary
A. M. PRATT Manager

We Know It Even Though

We Can't Prove It
Most of us, being ordinary humans,
are normally inclined to look upon the
brighter (if not bright) side of things
and at least to express optimistic views
even when we aren't quite as optimistic
as we sound. There aren't many of us
who, upon being asked by the butcher,
the baker or the electric light maker
for our opinions as to the prospects of
the coming season's crop, haven't re-
plied stoutly that, "it ought to be a pret-
ty good year in spite of the depression."
That's our normal bump of optimism
oozing out, plus possibly, a little bit of
pride.
When you hear someone else voice
such happy sentiments, it again is nor-
mal to believe them to be true. How-
ever, recent hopeful sentiments appear
to be decidedly wide-spread through-
out the country and indications are that
there are concrete evidences for optim-
ism appearing here and there which
give the lie to the pessimists' charge
that "they're just blowing bubbles."
Editor and Publisher, a publication
devoted to the interests of newspapers
and newspapermen, took occasion
recently to pin down some of these
pessimists, declaring that while some
of the figures, quoted by the down-
in-the-mouthers to the effect that the
country still is in a mess, might be true,
that business generally is guided by
"feel" rather than economic experts'
graphs, charts and diagrams. "Close
inspection of what economic experts
like to call basic indices," says Editor
and Publisher, "as yet reveal small
foundation for the optimistic tone that
has buoyed Wall Street for six weeks


and relaxed a little the thongs binding
business in general. According to these
'basic indices' we are still submerged
with no prospect of coming up for air-
and according to these same indices,
the economic prophets in 1929 declared
that the present condition of the world
could never happen. Our trouble is
that business is not guided so much by
indices as by emotion, the 'feel in the
air.'
"Reliance on these guides can blind
the observer to entirely new structures
that are rising to support recovery. A
new level of values has been created,
related to 1914, 1920, and 1929, but
different in some essentials from any
previous standards. Development to
date has not progressed sufficiently to
permit their description and evalua-
tion, but their presence is sensed if not
seen. Our economic history repeats
again and again that with the destruc-
tion of fictitious boom values, genuine
worth is also destroyed and must be re-
placed and enlarged in the process of
recovery. Every depression, with its
immense devastation of wealth, has
been quickly followed by creation of
new real wealth that in a decade over-
topped the creature of inflation.
"Something like that is now happen-
ing. Unseen by the indices, new wealth
is beginning to flow into investment.
Bank failures are at this writing negli-
gible. There are indications that credit
will be available for business which can
use it advantageously. Increased em-
ployment will come gradually as the
new life works into the capillaries of
trade and non-existent or frozen buy-
ing power comes into play. At this stage
of the cycle, we seem still to be in the
grip of what we called six months ago
the vicious spiral, except that the spiral
is now turning upward.
"It's wholly illogical, we'll admit, but
who can find any logic in the business
course of 1923-1929, or that of 1930-
1932? We went up insanely, we came
down out of control, and now without
much direction or general knowledge
of what it's all about, we appear to be
seeking a new and higher ledge.
"The same instinctive process guided
newspapers and advertisers who early
this summer struck the first blows at
the descending spiral by assuming pub-
lic buying power for proven values. The
idea of going after hoarded sums and
bringing them to light by vigorous
newspaper merchandise advertising
has gone from coast to coast, with gen-
erally helpful effect. It has radically
altered public psychology from that of
last March, when there seemed no end
of trouble. It has routed defeatism on
the lower and middle trade levels-the
first step toward restoring normal com-
merce. It can do more."

Californians shipping oranges into Florida
during this month will, at least, have to con-
tribute 2 % c per box as the maturity inspection
fee charged by this state.


Brown Rot Rule Fails,

Committee Tells Newell
(Continued from Page One)
Board to again quarantine against California
oranges and lemons.
When the State Plant Board last spring an-
nounced its decision to remove the quarantine
against California citrus the announcement
met with various opinions by Florida growers
and others interested in the Florida citrus in-
dustry. Although there was some objection
raised in the state to the Plant Board's action,
the announcement was such that it appeared to
many that the Board's action was justifiable
and probably safe as far as the welfare of the
Florida citrus industry was concerned. The
point was brought out by the Plant Board that
adequate precautionary measures would be
taken in California to prepare the fruit for safe
shipment into Florida. A factor entering into
the Plant Board's decision also was that it was
deemed better to admit California oranges and
lemons which were known to be sterilized than
to run the risk of brown rot infestation of Cali-
fornia lemons which had not been sterilized and
which were bootlegged into the state by itiner-
ant peddlers.
California has shipped comparatively few
cars of oranges into Florida during the sum-
mer, but has moved a large volume of her
lemons into this state. These lemons are of
course competing in Florida with the Sicilian
product. Opposition to the Plant Board's ac-
tion, however, has increased during the sum-
mer, more mature consideration on the part of
Florida interests causing many Floridians to
feel that the risk this state is taking in ad-
mitting the Pacific Coast product is entirely too
great, despite the sterilization precautions
which were outlined by the State Plant Board
before lifting the quarantine. The finding of
brown rot infected fruit in Miami which the
State Plant Board had admitted was distributed
into retail outlets while tests were being made
of samples of the shipment has been sufficient
to arouse general opposition to the entry of
California fruit.
In spite of the State Plant Board's decision
of Aug. 15 to hold suspicious fruit until passed
by inspectors, Committee of Fifty members
felt that the risk is too great to warrant further
willingness on Florida's part to permit Califor-
nia fruit to come into this state. Infected fruit,
it was pointed out, has already been discover-
ed. This in itself is proof positive that either
the sterilization precautions are ineffective or
California shippers are unwilling to adopt the
precautions specified before shipping the fruit
into this state.

CORRECTION
The News regrets a typographical error
which occurred in the advertisement of the
Cameron & Barkley Co. of Tampa in the Sep-
tember First issue. The advertisement men-
tioned Universal (bolted joint) Cast Iron Pipe,
the error making the word "cast" read "case."

Citrus growers should be constantly on the
lookout for foot-rot, gummosis, 'and psorosis. "
The quicker infections are located and checked
the better it is for the affected tree and less -
chance there is of the trouble spreading.


September 15, 1932





FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS


Mulching Increases Number

Of Leaves, Adds Color
Mulching citrus trees increases the leaves
and tends to give them a more vigorous looking
color, and now is a fine time to do the job, ac-
cording to E. F. DeBusk, citriculturist with the
Florida Agricultural Extension Service. When
the cover crop is being mowed is a fine time to
rake the material around the trees, mulching
them and at the same time giving the cover
crop a better chance to put out a second growth
and not be smothered out. Almost any type of
bulky material that can be economically hauled
into the grove is fine for mulching.
He told of an experiment recently conducted
in California to show the relation the amount
of foliage and fruit have to each other. Five
branches were selected on each of four typical
citrus trees. One branch on each tree was al-
lowed to have 50 leaves per fruit, one 40, one
30, one 20, and the other 10. When the fruit
rwas harvested and the four trees averaged it
was clearly seen that the more foliage the
larger the fruit. Where there were 50 leaves
per fruit the average size was 216 per box. The
other branches averaged size 252 where there
were 40 leaves per fruit, 288 where there were
30 leaves, 324 where there were 20 leaves and
1360 for the 10 leaf per fruit branches.


Hot Orange Soup

S A Tip From China
The possibility of introducing hot orange
soup into the American menu is suggested by
Commercial Attache Julean Arnold of the
Shanghai office of the Commerce Department,
who says it is a delicacy widely used and uni-
versally liked in China.
Orange soup as used in China generally fol-
lows a rich dish, such as roast duck. There is
no reason, however, Arnold states why, from
the American culinary viewpoint, the dinner
should not start off with hot orange soup. There
are a number of ways of preparing this particu-
lar number on the menu. Generally speaking,
the Chinese cooks use the water in which rice
ihas been boiled as the basis for the orange
soup. The orange juice and meat are added,
Vthe strength depending on the views of the
chef. Sometimes pineapple juice is also added.
Most foreigners who indulge in Chinese food,
according to Arnold, are very fond of this hot
orange soup.
i The Chinese people, the American trade en-
voy points out, are great consumers of oranges.
The fruit is indigenous to the country and may
even have had its origin there. Although China
imports substantial quantities of oranges from
the United States, due mainly to the fact that
the American orange lends itself better to
,packing and shipping than the Chinese variety,
yet enormous quantities of oranges are pro-
educed within the country.

Many Florida citrus growers are wondering
these days, with all the current talk one hears
about repeal of the dry law, just how return of
Sthe wet era would affect consumption of Flor-
ida citrus fruit and juices. There's room for
(thought in it, regardless of what any of us, as
individuals, may think of Mr. Volstead.


CITRUS GROWERS
Order Your Supply of

Harvey No. 20

Orange Clippers

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No Bruised Fruit
No Ragged Stems
Will out wear
any other Clippers
Faster Work
Better Clipping
Larger Profits
Beware of cheap
Foreign immitations


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ange Clipper is the last word inNo Guaranteed against defective
Clipping Tools for Oranges and N. Guaranteed against defective
Grapefruit. Developed by the Pio- 20 material or workmanship.
never Toolmakers to the Citrus In- Designed. Manufactured and
dustry. ( Pat. Pending Guaranteed by

HARVEY MACHINE COMPANY, LOS ANGELES, CALIF.
Sold by all suppliers of packing house requisites, exchanges or direct from maker.





AFTER THREE WEEKS


Vl


- A


Here are two piles of oranges, each treated to control decay and
shrinkage. The pile at the left was treated with a competitive treat-
ment claimed to be "just as good" as Brogdex. The pile at the right
was treated with the genuine Brogdex treatment. These oranges
were originally the same size, picked and packed the same day and
came from the same district. Fruit was kept at room temperature
and checked for decay at various intervals. The record shows:
In 7 days Brogdex decay 1J of 1% Competitive 34 %
14 days Brogdex decay 2'14 % 62 %%
21 days Brogdex decay 5 % 771 4%
Market buyers know that Brogdexed fruit will keep and that fruit
given substitute treatments will not. They have learned this from
experience. That is why they watch for Brogdexed brands and pay
more for them.
When you go into a store and ask for a standard article and the
clerk offers you something else which he claims is "just as good"
you are at once suspicious, and rightly so, in most cases. No one
bothers to imitate something that is no good-it is the article with
a reputation that is copied. The substitute is rarely as good as the
original.
There are many substitutes being used for Brogdex and all are
claimed to be "just as good" but when tested side by side with the
genuine Brogdex treatment the best of them are found to be of little
value.
There is a Brogdex house near you. Brogdex invites an impartial
investigation.

FLORIDA BROGDEX DISTRIBUTORS, Inc.
B. C. Skinner, President DUNEDIN, FLORIDA


September 15, 1932


Page 5










Charter and By.Laws of the Clearing House


HOW ORGANIZED
On January 28, 1928, a meeting of citrus
growers was held in Winter Haven, Florida,
during the Orange Festival to discuss the mar-
keting situation and consider the feasibility of
a state-wide growers' organization. It was the
sense of this meeting that the time was ripe for
action on the part of the growers and that a
meeting should be held with wider representa-
tion. A later meeting was called to be held in
Winter Haven on February 14 to which grow-
ers from all sections of the state were invited.
The meeting of February 14, held in Win-
ter Haven, went on record to the effect that
marketing was the major problem confronting
Florida citrus growers. On motion, the chair-
man appointed a committee of five from the
floor to select a committee of twenty citrus
growers, which in turn was to enlarge itself to
a committee of fifty growers. The original com-
mittee of 'five growers consisted of two who
shipped through the Florida Citrus Exchange,
two through Independent shippers and one who
sold his fruit on the tree. All subsequent elec-
tions have perpetuated the same even balance.
The Committee of Fifty when formed, was to
effect a state-wide growers organization pur-
suant to a resolution which was unanimously
approved, reading as follows:
"That the growers here assembled proceed to
the formation of a state-wide growers' associa-
tion looking towards the solution of the mar-
keting problem on some plan that will have the
full approval of the United States Department
of Agriculture."
The Committee of Twenty divided the state
into six other districts in which the growers
were to elect their own committeemen and ap-
pointed sub-committees to visit the various dis-
tricts to secure the election of the additional
thirty members.
The first meeting of the Committee of Fifty
as a whole was held in Orlando, February 27.
Allen E. Walker was elected chairman of the
committee and F. M. O'Byrne was elected sec-
retary-treasurer.
The second meeting of the Committee of
Fifty was held in Winter Haven, March 20. Mr.
Chris L. Christensen and L. S. Hulbert of the
United States Department of Agriculture con-
ferred with the Committees on Constitution
and By-Laws, Clearing House and Membership
and the foundation for the organization was
laid. A tentative constitution was read and
discussed. Then a general meeting was held
with all members of the Committee of Fifty
who were present. After meetings with other
prominent people interested in the citrus indus-
try, Messrs. Christensen and Hulbert returned
to Washington to consider the plans formu-
lated and prepare the contracts to be entered
into by the proposed Growers' Association with
the affiliated shippers and growers.
On April 3, the third meeting of the Com-
mittee of Fifty was held in Eustis. The pro-
posed constitution and by-laws and contracts
were read and approved; the original directors
were elected and an application was made for
a charter for the "Florida Citrus Growers'
Clearing House Association." It was provided
that the memberships were to be solicited on a
contingency basis so that those signing up with
the organization would not be bound unless 60
percent or more of the previous season's crop
was signed up by July 10, 1928.


The members of the Committee of Fifty and
Alternates are as follows:
A. E. Walker, Winter Haven; C. L. Bundy,
Winter Haven; J. G. Arbuthnot, Lake Alfred;
C. D. Gunn, Haines City; E. C. Mason, Lake
Wales; F. C. Gardner, Lake Alfred; W. R. Hill,
Florence Villa; H. E. Fairchild, Babson Park;
Tom S. Carpenter, Jr., Crescent City; George
C. Shepard, DeLand; A. R. Sandlin, Leesburg;
R. J. Trimble, Lake Jem; Ed. Scharfschwerdt,
Ft. Pierce; R. E. Mudge, Fellsmere; J. G. Gros-
senbacher, Apopka; J. L. Dillard, Winter Gar-
den; A. G. Smith, Wauchula; Dr. E. C. Aurin,
Ft. Ogden; R. M. Clewis, Tampa; A. T. Mann,
Bartow; Frank Crisp, Davenport; T. R. Thomp-
son, Dade City; Joe Knight, Elfers; R. K.
Thompson, Sarasota; J. C. Morton, Auburn-
dale; Norman A. Street, Winter Haven; James
Thompson, Winter Haven; John D. Clark, Wav-
erly; F. M. O'Byrne, Lake Wales; Theron
Thompson, Lake Hamilton; Dr. Jas. Harris,
Lakeland; Samuel Schutzman, Eagle Lake; F.
G. Moorhead, DeLand; J. B. Shiver, Crescent
City; Z. C. Herlong, Micanopy; R. P. Burton,
Emeralda; Rev. G. E. Albright, Leesburg; E. G.
Gustafson, Ft. Pierce; A. C. Brown, Vero
Beach; Charles O. Andrews, Orlando; C. A.
Garrett, Kissimmee; W. M. Reck, Avon Park;
D. H. Huckeby, Cleveland; J. T. Daniel, Brooks-
ville; Sam Ward, Haines City; W. H. Barker,
Wildwood; B. D. Barber, Clearwater; W. I.
Kirkhuff, Bradenton; L. A. Morgan, Ft. Meade.
Alternates-H. H. Constantine, Clearwater;
S. S. Coachman, Clearwater; A. J. Grant, Dun-
edin; B. L. Baker, Leesburg; W. J. Howey,
Howey-in-the-Hills; Phil C. Peters, Winter Gar-
den; S. H. Allen, Plymouth; H. S. Lyons, Win-
ter Park; W. M. Igou, Eustis; C. E. Jackson,
Clearwater; L. B. Skinner, Dunedin; J. M.
Douglass, Weirsdale; Sam Harris, Leesburg;
W. L. Schuck, Vineland; F. A. Rundle, Lock-
hart; F. W. Ames, Loughman; Homer Needles,
Ft. Pierce; C. W. Carlton, Ft. Myers; E. H.
Kellerman, Vero Beach.
Articles of Incorporation of the Florida Citrus
Growers' Clearing House Association, Win-
ter Haven
We, the undersigned citrus fruit growers of
the State of Florida, hereby voluntarily asso-
ciate ourselves together for the purpose of
forming a corporation under Chapter 9300 of
the laws of the State of Florida, in order that
we may better promote the general interest of
Florida citrus growers:
1st. By improving the quality, grade, and
pack;
2nd. By promoting a wider distribution of
the volume of Florida citrus fruit through ad-
vertising, through more equitable freight rates,
and through economic refrigeration;
3rd. By securing and stabilizing a systematic
flow of Florida citrus fruit from producers to
consumers as efficiently and directly as possi-
ble.
And we hereby adopt the following Articles,
which shall become the charter of this corpora-
tion, under the laws of the State of Florida:
ARTICLE I
The name of this corporation shall be Florida
Citrus Growers' Clearing House Association.
ARTICLE II
The purposes for which this corporation is
formed are as follows:
(a) To provide the facilities and agencies
through which Florida citrus fruits produced
by its own member growers and the by-products
thereof may be marketed advantageously
throughout the United States and other coun-
tries through establishing a stable and sys-
tematic flow and distribution of such fruit.
(b) To encourage, through collective action
of growers, a better and more economic method
of production of Florida citrus fruits.
(c) To promote and secure a better texture,
grade and pack of citrus fruits.
(d) To promote, engage in and secure a uni-
form and effective method of advertising Flor-
ida citrus fruits.
(e) To promote and secure a more adequate
method of regulating and stabilizing the citrus


fruit industry to meet the consumptive demands
thereof.
(f) To enlarge and extend the domestic and
foreign markets for Florida citrus fruit.
(g) To cultivate and develop a more thor-
ough understanding of mutual interests among
growers and producers of Florida citrus fruits.
(h) To rent, buy, build, or own such real or
personal property as may be needed in the con-
duct of its operations.
(i) To borrow money or to issue bonds, or
other obligations from time to time, for any of
the objects or purposes of the corporation, and
to secure the same by mortgage, pledge, deeds
of trust, or by any other lawful means, and to
take and receive notes, bonds, mortgages, deeds
of trust, or any evidence of indebtedness, for
the use and benefit of this corporation.
(j) To apply for, acquire, own and use any
trade-mark, copyright and patents necessary
for furthering any of the purposes for which
this association is formed, and to make rules
and regulations with reference to the use
thereof.
(k) To carry on operations with reference
to the propagating, planting, spraying, and cul-
tivating of citrus fruit trees; and to exercise all
the powers conferred under said Chapter 9300
of the laws of the State of Florida under which
this association is incorporated and to do any
or all of the things herein enumerated, to the
same extent as natural persons might or could
do.
ARTICLE III
The main office and principal place of busi-
ness of this corporation shall be at Winter
Haven, Florida, with power and authority to
establish branch offices in any other county or
city of the State of Florida, or of the United
States and foreign countries, by complying
with the law incident thereto.
ARTICLE IV
The term for which this corporation is to
exist shall be for a period not exceeding fifty
years.
ARTICLE V
(Amended July 20, 1928)
The number of directors of this corporation
shall be not less than seven nor more than
thirteen.
The first directors shall consist of eleven,
and the term of office of each director shall be
until July 1, 1929.
If a vacancy occurs in the office of any dis-
trict director, it shall be filled by an election
held in the district affected.
If a vacancy occurs in the office of any direc-
tor at large, same shall be filled by appointment
from the state at large by the Board of Direc-
tors for the unexpired term.
The directors shall divide the territory of the
state in which the corporation has members
into districts and provide in the by-laws the
method and manner of election of all directors.
ARTICLE VI
The names and residences of the directors
for the first year, or until their successors shall
have been duly elected or chosen and shall have
accepted office, shall be as follows:
Name Residence
Allen E. Walker...........Winter Haven, Florida
T. S. Carpenter, Jr.........Crescent City, Florida
W. M. Igou..................................Eustis, Florida
Dr. E. C. Aurin............-.....Fort Ogden, Florida
C. O. Andrews.........................Orlando, Florida
R. E. Mudge..........................Fellsmere, Florida
James T. Swann........................Tampa, Florida
ARTICLE VII
(a) There shall be constituted an advisory
board in each of the citrus districts provided
for in the by-laws, which number of members
shall not exceed fifty for the entire state, and
they shall be apportioned among the districts
according to the number of memberships in
this association in each district. They shall be
elected or chosen by the members of this asso-
ciation who reside in the respective districts, s
and their powers and duties shall be provided
in the by-laws of this association.


FLORIDA CLEARING OUE EW


Page 6


September 15. 1932





FLORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS


(b) (Amended) There shall be constituted
an operating committee consisting of not less
than seven nor more than thirteen, each of
whom must be a representative of a marketing
agency and/or shipper who has entered into a
shipper's contract with the association.
ARTICLE VIII
This association shall admit as members only
persons engaged in the growing or producing
of citrus fruit to be handled by or through the
association, including the lessee, tenant, agent
or trustee of groves and lessors and landlords
who receive as rent part of the crop produced
on their land. If a member be other than a
natural person such member may be represent-
ed by an individual, associate, officer or mem-
ber thereof when duly authorized in writing.
The entrance and annual fee, if any, and
the manner of election of each member shall
be prescribed by the by-laws.
ARTICLE IX
Each member of this association is entitled
to one vote at any meeting of its members.
(Amended) The voting power of each mem-
ber of this association shall be equal, and the
property rights and interests of each member
shall be adjusted by the Board of Directors on
an equitable basis and in accordance with
assessments paid in.
The private property of the members, ex-
cept for debts to the association, shall not be
subject to the payment of corporate debts.
The provisions of this Article shall not be
altered, amended or repealed except by the
written consent or the vote of three-fourths of
the members of the association.
ARTICLE X
This corporation or association shall have
no capital stock and shall not be conducted for
profit.
ARTICLE XI
In addition to the duties that may be- pre-
scribed by the by-laws of this association, for
the directors, the following powers are ex-
pressly authorized:
(a) To recommend amendments to the by-
laws of this corporation.
(b) To make and alter rules and regula-
tions relating to and governing the business of
the association not specifically covered by the
by-laws.
(c) To designate three or more of its mem-
bers to constitute an executive committee which
committee shall, for the time being or as may
be provided in a resolution of the directors or
in the by-laws, have and exercise any or all of
the powers of the board of directors in the
management of the business, and the affairs of
this corporation or association.
(d) This association upon resolution duly
adopted by a majority of all the directors pres-
entat any meeting may enter into all necessary
and proper contracts and agreements and make
all necessary and proper stipulations, agree-
ments, contracts, and arrangements with any
other cooperative corporation or association
for the purpose of carrying on its business.
This corporation or association may unite in
employing and using or may separately employ
and use the same methods, means and agencies
for carrying on and conducting their respec-
tive businesses.
(e) This corporation may, in its by-laws,
confer powers consistent with law upon its
directors, in addition to the foregoing and in
addition to the powers and authority expressly
conferred upon them.
ARTICLE XII
These Articles of Incorporation of this asso-
ciation shall be subscribed to by at least ten of
the original members, and acknowledged by
one of them, before an officer authorized by
the laws of this state to take and certify
'acknowledgments of deeds of conveyance, and
shall be filed in accordance with the provisions
of law.
The names and post office addresses of these
members who have qualified and signed the
above and foregoing Articles of Incorporation
are as follows:
Name Address
SAllen E. Walker............Winter Haven, Florida
T. S. Carpenter, Jr.........Crescent City, Florida
W. M. Igou..................................Eustis, Florida


Dr. E. C. Aurin..................Fort Ogden, Florida
C. O. Andrews-....-. .------.....- Orlando, Florida
R. E. Mudge..........................Fellsmere, Florida
James T. Swann.......................-Tampa, Florida
James Harris ..........................Lakeland, Florida
Norman A. Street-.........Winter Haven, Florida
James C. Morton................Auburndale, Florida
By-Laws of the Florida Citrus Growers' Clear-
ing HouseAssociation, an Association Formed
Under Chapter 9300 of the Laws of the State
of Florida and Having Its Principal Place of
Business at Winter Haven, Florida.
ARTICLE I
(Amended July 20, 1928)
Section 1. Purposes and Powers-The pur-
poses and powers of this association shall be
those set forth in its articles of incorporation
and those conferred by the law under which it
is formed, which shall be carried out and exer-
cised in a manner consistent with the contracts
and agreements entered into by it and with the
authority under which it shall operate. This
association shall regulate the marketing and
distribution of Florida citrus fruit among the
various markets and over the marketing period;
and,
Shall determine the conditions under which
such fruit may be marketed;
Shall provide for the official grading, inspec-
tion and certification of such fruit with respect
to grade and condition in accordance with the
United States standards for said fruit, or an
inspection service operated by the Operating
Committee;
Shall provide for the advertising thereof so
as to stimulate the demand therefore; and,
Shall also act for the purpose of safe-guard-
ing, furthering and protecting the interest of
growers of Florida citrus fruit by the promo-
tion of higher standards in the production,
handling, packing and marketing thereof, and
by working for such things of common concern
as should be advantageous to growers of Flor-
ida citrus fruit generally.
ARTICLE II
Section 1. Membership Any bona fide
grower or producer, found acceptable by the
board of directors of this association, of Florida
citrus fruit to be handled by or through the
association, including the lessee, tenant, agent
or trustee of groves, and lessors and landlords
who receive as rent part of the crop produced
on their land may be admitted to membership
herein. If a member be other than a natural
person, such member may be represented by an
individual, associate officer or member thereof
when duly authorized in writing. Every person
becoming a member of the association shall pay
or have paid for him a membership fee of $2.00
and shall meet such other conditions as may
be prescribed by the board of directors of the
association.
Section 2. Upon being admitted to member-
ship, the association shall issue a certificate of
membership to the member, which certificate
shall not be transferable.
ARTICLE III
Section 1. Fiscal Year-The fiscal year of
the association shall begin on July 1 and end
on the thirtieth of the following June.
Section 2. Annual Meetings-The annual
meeting of the association shall be held at
eleven A. M., on the second Tuesday in July,
in the City of Winter Haven, Florida, or in
such other place as may be designated by the
board of directors or the executive committee.
Section 3. Special Meetings-Special meet-
ings of the association shall be called by the
president wherever directed so to do by the
board of directors, or whenever 300 members
shall so request in writing.
Section 4. Notice of Annual Meetings-No-
tice of each annual meeting of the association
shall be given. Such notice must state the time
and place of the meeting. A copy thereof shall
be mailed to each member of the association,
as his address shall appear upon the books of
the association, at least twenty days prior to
the time for holding such meeting, unless no-
tice thereof is given in the official publication
of the association or in newspapers circulating
in the Florida Citrus Fruit Belt, thirty days
prior to the time for the holding of such meet-
ing.


Section 5. Notice of Special Meetings-No-
tice of each special meeting of the association
shall be given by mailing to each member a
copy of the call for such meeting, as his address
shall appear upon the books of the association,
at least ten days prior to the time fixed for hold-
ing such meeting, which notice shall state the
time and place of holding such meeting, and
the business to be transacted, unless notice
thereof is given in the official publication of
the association or in newspapers circulating in
the Florida Citrus Fruit.Belt twenty days prior
to the time fixed for the holding of such meet-
ing.
Section 6. Quorum-The members of the as-
sociation present at any regular or special
meeting of the association shall constitute a
quorum for the transaction of business.
Section 7. Votes-Each member shall be en-
titled to one vote only. This shall not be exer-
cised unless the member has met all of his obli-
gations to the association. Proxy voting is pro-
hibited, except as provided in the next section.
Section 8. (Amended). Voting by Mail-
Prior to any annual or special meeting of the
association and/or any election of officers of
the association, the Board of Directors may
authorize and direct an officer of the associa-
tion to prepare ballots upon the principal ques-
tions to be voted upon at such meeting and/or
ballots showing the nominees for the various
offices to be filled at such election. The officer
shall thereupon mail to each member, not less
than ten days prior to the date of such meeting
and/or such election, with a notice of the meet-
ing and/or the election, one ballot and a voting
envelope. Any member who does not expect to
be personally present at said meeting and/or
said election may cast his ballot by mail by seal-
ing his vote or ballot in an envelope with a
request over his signature to the Secretary
that his envelope be dropped into the ballot
box along with the votes cast by members pres-
ent in person. The Secretary shall read the
signed request and shall then place the voting
envelope, unopened, in the ballot box. Any
vote so cast shall be counted as if the member
were present and voting in person.
ARTICLE IV
Section 1. (Amended). Number, Term of
Office-The corporate powers of the associa-
tion shall be exercised by and the business and
property of the association shall be controlled
by a Board of Directors of not less than seven
nor more than thirteen. A director shall be a
grower of citrus fruit. The term of office of
each director shall be one year. Unless and
until the Board of Directors shall increase the
number, the association shall have eleven elect-
ed directors. Each district shall elect one
director and four additional directors shall be
elected from the state at large comprising the
whole territory of the seven districts. Compen-
sation of the directors shall be limited to their
actual expenses while engaged in the business
of the association. The directors shall fix the
compensation of all officers and employees of
the association, including the President, Secre-
tary and Treasurer and of the directors while
acting on the Executive Committee, also actual
traveling expenses of the directors while on
business of the association.
Section 2. (Amended). Districts-The in-
corporating Board of Directors shall divide the
territory in which the association operates into
seven districts and shall make known the terri-
tory in each district. On the first Tuesday in
April, 1929, at an hour and place to be desig-
nated by the Board of Directors, the members
of the association residing in each district shall
elect a director therefrom and vote for four
directors-at-large. The combined vote of the
seven districts shall be tabulated and counted
to determine the election of the four directors-
at-large. The seven incorporating directors and
the four directors-at-large, as provided for
herein, shall serve until July 1, 1929. There-
after the directors herein provided for, as well
as the members of the Directors Advisory Com-
mittee, shall assume the duties of their respec-
tive offices on the first day of June following
their election. The election for directors shall
be held on the first Tuesday of April of each
year. Following the election provided for here-
in on the first Tuesday in April, 1929, and after
all subsequent elections, a president and one or


September 15, 1932


Page 7





Page 8' FL

more vice presidents shall be elected from
among the Board of Directors. The president
of the association, as elected by the seven In-
corporating Directors, shall serve until July 1,
1929.
The members of the Directors Advisory Com-
mittee of Growers in each district shall place in
nomination three growers residing in said dis-
trict, to be voted upon as a director of said asso-
ciation; and all the members of the Directors
Advisory Committee of Growers from all the
districts combined shall place in nomination
eight men to be voted on for the election of
four directors-at-large of the association. All
such names for nomination by the Directors
Advisory Committee shall be filed with the Sec-
retary of the association at least twenty days
before the date of any election. The Secretary
of the association shall notify members of the
Directors Advisory Committee at least thirty
days before the date of any election to place
in nomination the names of the growers for
election to said board. In addition to the above
method of nominating, seventy-five growers in
any district may nominate any grower or grow-
ers by filing a petition with the Board of Direc-
tors at least twelve days prior to the date of any
annual election; and, likewise, three hundred
growers may place in nomination the name of
any grower or growers to be voted upon for
directors-at-large by filing a petition therefore
twelve days before the date of any election.
Section 3. Quorum for Electing Directors-
The members of the association present at any
district meeting shall constitute a quorum for
the election of a director or directors as the
case may be.
Section 4. Apportioning Territory-The
Board of Directors shall apportion from time
to time the territory in which the association
has members if need therefore exists so that the
number of members in each district will ap-
proximate the number in every other district.
Section 5. (Amended). Vacancies in Board
-If a vacancy occurs in the Board of Directors,
from any district, it shall be filled by an elec-
tion called for that purpose, from among the
grower members of the association in said dis-
trict.
If a vacancy occurs from among the direc-
tors at large, the vacancy shall be filled by ap-
pointment by the Board of Directors for the
unexpired term.
Section 6. Meetings-The Board of Direc-
tors shall meet at such times and places as they
may determine, provided that at least four
meetings shall be held during each fiscal year.
Section 7. Notice of Meetings-Notice of the
meetings of the Board of Directors shall be
mailed to each director, as his address shall ap-
pear on the books of the association, at least
five days prior to the time of holding such meet-
ing, or in lieu thereof notice may be given by
telegraph or telephone one day prior to the
holding of any meeting.
Section 8. Quorum-A majority of the direc-
tors shall constitute a quorum of the Board of
Directors for the transaction of business at all
meetings.
Section 9. (Amended). Executive Committee
-The Board of Directors may appoint from
among their own number an executive commit-
tee of five, which committee shall for the time
being, or as may be provided in a resolution of
the Board of Directors, have and exercise any
and all of the powers of the Board of Directors
in the management of the business and affairs
of the association. Copy of the minutes of the
meetings of the Executive Committee, and re-
ports thereof, shall be promptly mailed by the
Secretary to each director.
Section 10. (Amended). Advertising Com-
mittee-There shall be constituted an Advertis-
ing Committee to determine and direct the ad-
vertising program of the association, the said
Advertising Committee shall be composed of
three members of the Board of Directors ap-
pointed by the President and three members
designated by the Operating Committee, all of
whom shall be subject to confirmation by the
Board of Directors. The Operating Committee
shall have the authority to designate its three
members. This Advertising Committee shall
have authority to determine and direct the ad-
vertising campaign of the organization in such
manner as they deem best for the association.


ORIDA CLEARING HOUSE NEWS
ARTICLE V
Section 1. Board of Directors-Powers-The
Board of Directors shall have power to conduct,
manage and control the affairs and business of
the association and to make rules and regula-
tions for the guidance of its officers and em-
ployees in the management of its affairs; to ap-
point and remove at pleasure all agents and
employees of the association, prescribe their
duties, fix their compensation, and require
from all of them charged with responsibility
for the custody of any of the funds or property
of the association a bond with sufficient surety
for the faithful performance of their official
duties; to select one or more banks in which the
funds of the association shall be deposited, and
to determine the manner of receiving, deposit-
ing and disbursing the funds of the associa-
tion, the form of checks, and the person or per-
sons by whom the same shall be signed, with
the power to change such banks and person or
persons signing said checks and form thereof
at will.
Section 2. Board of Directors-Duties-It
shall be the duty of the Board of Directors: (a)
to have a complete record of all its acts and all
the proceedings of its meetings kept and to
present a full statement at the regular annual
meeting of the members, showing in detail the
condition of the affairs of the association; (b)
to supervise all officers, agents and employees
and see that their duties are properly perform-
ed; (c) to cause to be issued appropriate cer-
tificates of membership; (d) to have installed
such a system of accounting that each member
may know and be advised from time to time
fully concerning the receipts and disburse-
ments of the association.
ARTICLE VI
Section 1. Officers-The Board of Directors
shall elect from their number a president and
one or more vice-presidents; also a secretary
and treasurer, neither of the latter two need
be directors; or the Board of Directors may com-
bine the offices of the secretary and treasurer
and elect a secretary-treasurer who need not
be a director, or the Board of Directors may
provide that a bank shall act as treasurer, in
which event the secretary shall perform the
usual accounting duties of a treasurer.
Section 2. President-If at any time the
president shall be unable to act, a vice-presi-
dent shall take his place and perform his duties;
and if a vice-president shall be unable to act,
the board shall appoint a director to do so. The
president or such vice-president or director
shall (a) preside over the meetings of members
and directors; (b) subject to the control of the
directors, direct the affairs of the association;
(c) call the directors together whenever neces-
sary; (d) sign as president all papers pertain-
ing to the association that he is authorized to
sign by the Board of Directors; (e) discharge
such other duties as may be required of him by
these by-laws or by the Board of Directors.
Section 3. Secretary-It shall be the duty of
the secretary: (a) to keep a record of the pro-
ceedings of the meetings of the Board of Direc-
tors and of the members; (b) to keep the cor-
porate seal and the book of blank membership
certificates, execute all membership certificates
issued, and affix the corporate seal to all pa-
pers requiring the seal; (c) to keep a proper
membership book and a record of the contracts
and agreements and other obligations entered
into by the association; (d) to execute and
sign, as authorized by the Board of Directors,
contracts, notes, papers, and documents for the
association; (e) to act as secretary of the
Executive Committee; (f) to perform such
other duties as may be prescribed by the Board
of Directors.
Section 4. Treasurer-If the Board of Direc-
tors should see fit to elect a treasurer, the treas-
urer shall: (a) receive and deposit all funds of
the clearing house and account for all re-
ceipts, disbursements and balances on hand
and; (b) perform such other duties as may be
prescribed by the Board of Directors.
Section 5. (Amended). Manager-The Oper-
ating Committee by unanimous vote may nomi-
nate a suitable man for manager of the assodia-
tion. The manager so nominated by unanimous
vote by the Operating Committee shall be ap-
proved and appointed by the Board of Directors
of the association. If the Operating Committee
should fail to agree on a man for manager by


September 15, 1932

unanimous vote the appointment shall then be
made by the Board of Directors of the associa-
tion.
ARTICLE VII
Section 1. Directors Advisory Committee-'
In each of the districts provided for herein for
the election of directors, the members of each
district at the time of electing the director
therefrom shall elect a specified number of
members to act as advisors to the director. The
Board of Directors shall determine the number
of members in each district and shall apportion
the total number of advisors to be elected in all
the districts, namely fifty, among the various
districts on the basis of membership in the,
association according to each district. Until
such election the incorporating director in each a
district shall appoint the advisors in his dis-
trict. In addition to advising with the director
elected in each district, the advisors elected
therein may perform such other functions as
may be prescribed by the Board of Directors. A
Section 2. (Amended). Operating Commit-
tee-There shall be constituted an Operating i
Committee of not less than seven nor more
than thirteen, each of whom must be a repre- I
sentative of a marketing agency and/or shipper
who has entered into a Shippers Contract with
the association. The Operating Committee shall '
be nominated by Marketing Agencies and/or
shippers who have entered into Shippers Con- t
tracts with the association, but shall be ap-
proved and appointed by the Board of Direc-
tors of the Association. The Operating Com-
mittee shall have authority to determine and
direct the marketing plans and policies of the
association, provided such plans and policies 4
are in keeping with the purposes of the associa-
tion, and that such plans and policies are with-
in and conform to all of the provisions of the
Charter and By-Laws of the association. The
Operating Committee shall have authority to
nominate members of a smaller committee of
not less than three from within its own body
for the purpose of handling details and said
sub-committee may have the authority of the '
full committee when a majority of the full
committee is not present and acting. Such sub- r
committee shall be approved and appointed by'
the Board of Directors of the association. Such
Operating Committee and sub-committee there- '
of shall be nominated annually between the
election of directors on the first Tuesday in
April of each year, and the first of June fol-
lowing, and shall be approved and appointed
by the incoming Board of Directors as soon as /
possible after said June 1st. J
ARTICLE VIII
Section 1. Expulsion of Members-No mem-
ber shall be suspended or expelled from the
association or be deprived of the benefits there-
of except for cause, and before any such ac-
tion is taken, he shall have charges preferred <
against him and an opportunity to be fully
heard before the Board of Directors, who may
suspend or expel him if they deem that the :
facts justify such action. No member may
withdraw from the association except in ac-.
cordance with his marketing agreement. In
case of the withdrawal or expulsion of a mem-
ber, the Board of Directors shall equitably and
conclusively appraise his property interests in
the association and shall fix the amount there-
of, in money, which shall be paid to him within .
one year after such expulsion or withdrawal.
ARTICLE IX
Section 1. Amending By-Laws-These By- '
Laws may be amended at any time by the writ-
ten assent of a majority of the members.
In witness whereof, we being the incorpora-
tors and all of the members of the Florida Cit-
rus Growers Clearing House Association, at the
time of the execution hereof, do hereby adopt r
the foregoing as the By-Laws thereof. Done as
of the third day of April, 1928.
Name Address
Allen E. Walker............Winter Haven, Florida
T. S. Carpenter, Jr.........Crescent City, Florida
W M. Igou.................................Eustis, Florida
Dr. E. C. Aurin..................Fort Ogden, Florida
C. O. Andrews-...................... Orlando, Florida
R. E. Mudge.........--------.........Fellsmere, Florida &i
James T. Swann....................... Tampa, Florida
James Harris-........................ Lakeland, Florida ,
Norman A. Street..........Winter Haven, Florida
James C. Morton-...............Auburndale, Florida




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